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कठ उपनिषद्
Kaṭha Upaniṣad
with शङ्कर-भाष्यम्

English translation by A.K. Aruna
Translation of Bhāṣyam by Swami Gambhirananda

Bhāṣya Intro Vallī 1.1 (1) Vallī 1.2 (2) Vallī 1.3 (3) Vallī 2.1 (4) Vallī 2.2 (5) Vallī 2.3 (6)

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Kaṭha-Upaniṣad (also called Kāṭhaka-Upaniṣad), from the Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda, presents a story dialogue between Lord Death and the young student Naciketas. What is important to know before one dies is taught as Brahma Vidyā, with Nacikata showing the necessity of the student choosing this teaching over any distracting temptation.

by A.K. Aruna
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(Guru Vandanam)

🔗  ओं, स॒ ह ना॑व् अवतु। स॒ ह नौ॑ भुनक्तु। स॒ह वी॒र्यं॑ करवावहै। ते॒ज॒स्विना॒व् अधी॑तम् अस्तु॒ मा वि॑द्विषा॒वहै᳚। ओं शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॑॥
Om; tad, ha, asmad, √av. Tad, ha, asmad, √bhuj. Saha, vīrya, √kṛ. Tejasvin, adhīta, √as, mā, vi-√dviṣ. Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.
सः ह नौ अवतु। सः ह नौ भुनक्तु। सह वीर्यं करवावहै। तेजस्विनौ [=तेजस्विनोः आवयोः] अधीतं अस्तु (अथवा, नौ अधीतं तेजस्वि अस्तु)। मा विद्विषावहै। ओम् शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥

(Bhāṣyam Prayer)
ओम् नमो भगवते वैवस्वताय मृत्यवे ब्रह्म-विद्याचार्याय नचिकेतसे च॥
Salutation to Bhagavān
[•One who has knowledge of creation and dissolution (of the worlds), of birth and death of creatures, and of ignorance and knowledge.•]
Yama (Death), son of the Sun and the imparter of the knowledge of Brahman, and salutation to Naciketas.

अथ काठकोपनिषद्-वल्लीनां सुखार्थ-प्रबोधनार्थम् अल्प-ग्रन्था वृत्तिर् आरभ्यते। सदेर् धातोर् विशरण-गत्य्-अवसादनार्थस्य उप-नि-पूर्वस्य क्विप्-प्रत्ययान्तस्य रूपम् उपनिषद् इति। उपनिषच्-छब्देन च व्याचिख्यासित-ग्रन्थ-प्रतिपाद्य-वेद्य-वस्तु-विषया विद्योच्यते।
Now then, a brief exposition of the cantos of the Kaṭha Upaniṣad is begun for the sake of making their import easily comprehensible. The word upaniṣad is derived by adding upa- (near) and ni- (with certainly) as prefixes and kvip as a suffix
[•Which expresses a certain sense to the meaning of the word, but adds no letter of its own to it.•]
to the root ṣad, meaning to split up (destroy), go (reach, attain), or loosen. And by the word upa-ni-ṣad is denoted the knowledge of the knowable entity presented in the book that is going to be explained.

केन पुनर् अर्थ-योगेन उपनिषच्-छब्देन विद्योच्यते इत्य् उच्यते। ये मुमुक्षवो दृष्टानुश्रविक-विषय-वितृष्णाः सन्त उपनिषच्-छब्द-वाच्यां वक्ष्यमाण-लक्षणां विद्याम् उपसद्योपगम्य तन्-निष्ठतया निश्चयेन शीलयन्ति तेषाम् अ-विद्यादेः संसार-बीजस्य विशरणाद् धिंसनाद् विनाशनाद् इत्य् अनेनार्थ-योगेन विद्या उपनिषद् इति उच्यते। तथा च वक्ष्यति निचाय्य तं मृत्यु-मुखात् प्रमुच्यते (KathU.1.3.15)।
By virtue or what relation with (any particular) significance (of the word upaniṣad), again, is knowledge denoted by the word upaniṣad? This is being stated. Knowledge is called upaniṣad by virtue of its association with this significance: It (viz knowledge) splits up, injures, or destroys the seeds of worldly existence such as ignorance etc., in the case of those seekers of emancipation who, after becoming detached from the desire for the seen and unseen
[•Anuśravika (unseen objects) ‘revealed in the scriptures (Vedas), such as enjoyment in heaven etc.’-A.G.•]
objects, approach (upa ṣad) the knowledge that is called upaniṣad and that bears the characteristics to be presented hereafter, and who then deliberate on it with steadiness and certainly (ni)
[•‘Approaching means receiving through the instruction of the teacher, and deliberate means eliminate the idea of impossibility etc. with regard to such things as the unity of the individual self and the transcendental Self.’-A.G.•]
Thus it will be said later on, ‘knowing That, one becomes freed from the jaws of Death’ (KathU.1.3.15).

पूर्वोक्त-विशेषणान् मुमुक्षून् वा परं ब्रह्म गमयतीति ब्रह्म-गमयितृत्वेन योगाद् ब्रह्म-विद्योपनिषत्। तथा च वक्ष्यति ब्रह्म-प्राप्तो विरजोऽभूद् वि-मृत्युः (KathU.2.3.18) इति।
Or the knowledge of Brahman is called upaniṣad because of its connection with the idea of leading to Brahman, inasmuch it makes the seekers after emancipation, who are possessed of the qualities already mentioned, attain the supreme Brahman. Thus it will be said later on, ‘Having become free from virtue and vice, as also desire and ignorance, (he) attained Brahman’ (KathU.2.3.18).

लोकादिर् ब्रह्म-ज-ज्ञो योऽग्निस् तद्-विषयाया विद्याया द्वितीयेन वरेण प्रार्थ्यमानायाः स्वर्ग-लोक-फल-प्राप्ति-हेतुत्वेन गर्भ-वास-जन्म-जराद्य्-उपद्रव-वृन्दस्य लोकान्तरे पौनः-पुन्येन प्रवृत्तस्य अवसादयितृत्वेन शैथिल्या-पादनेन धात्व्-अर्थ-योगाद् अग्नि-विद्याप्य् उपनिषद् इत्य् उच्यते। तथा च वक्ष्यति ‘स्वर्ग-लोका अ-मृतत्वं भजन्ते’ (KathU.1.1.13) इत्यादि।
And even the knowledge about Fire, who preceded all the worlds, who was born of Brahmā and is possessed of enlightenment, and whose knowledge is prayed for (by Naciketas) through the second boon (KathU.1.1.13), is also called upaniṣad by virtue of its bearing the meaning (to loosen) of the root (ṣad, inasmuch as by leading to the result, achievement of heaven, it weakens or loosens such multitude of miseries as living in the womb, birth, old age, etc., continually recurring in lives hereafter. Thus it will be spoken, 'The dwellers of heaven get immortality’, etc. (ibid).

ननु च उपनिषच्-छब्देन अध्येतारः ग्रन्थम् अप्य् अभिलपन्ति, ‘उपनिषदम् अधीमहे, अध्यापयामः’ इति च।
Objection: Is it not a fact that by the word upaniṣad the readers refer to the book as well in such sentences as: ‘We read the upaniṣad’, and ‘We teach the upaniṣad’?

एवं नैष दोषः। अ-विद्यादि-संसार-हेतु-विशरणादेः सदि-धात्व्-अर्थस्य ग्रन्थ-मात्रे अ-सम्भवाद् विद्यायां च सम्भवात्। ग्रन्थस्यापि ताद्-अर्थ्येन तच्-छब्दत्वोपपत्तेः। “आयुर् वै घृतम्” (TaitSam.2.3.11) इत्य्-आदिवत्। तस्माद् विद्यायां मुख्यया वृत्त्या उपनिषच्-छब्दो वर्त्तते, ग्रन्थे तु भक्त्या इति।
Answer: Though, from this point of view, the meanings of the root ṣad – such as loosening, the causes of the world, viz ignorance etc. – are inapplicable with regard to a mere book, and applicable to knowledge, still this is no fault, since the book, too, being meant for that purpose, can justifiably be denoted by that word, as for instance (in the sentence) ‘Clarified butter is indeed life.’ Therefore, with regard to knowledge, the word upaniṣad is used in its primary sense, while with regard to a book it is used in a secondary sense.

एवम् उपनिषच्-छब्द-निर्वचनेनैव विशिष्टोऽधिकारी विद्यायाम् उक्तः। विषयश् च विशिष्ट उक्तः विद्यायाः परं ब्रह्म प्रत्यग्-आत्म-भूतम्। प्रयोजनं च अस्या उपनिषदः आत्यन्तिकी संसार-निवृत्तिर् ब्रह्म-प्राप्ति-लक्षणा। सम्बन्धश् च एवं-भूत-प्रयोजनेन उक्तः।
Thus, through the very derivation of the word upaniṣad, the person particularly qualified (adhikārī) for knowledge has been pointed out. And the subject matter (viṣaya) of the knowledge is also shown to be a unique thing, viz the supreme Brahman that is the indwelling Self. And the purpose (prayojana) of this upaniṣad is the absolute cessation of the transmigratory state, which consists in the attainment of Brahman.
[•Total cessation of the world (i.e. rotation of birth and death) follows the eradication of ignorance. And since the non-existence of a superimposed thing is identical with the thing on which the superimposition occurs, the cessation of the world is the same as the attainment of Brahman. Or brahma-prāpti-lakṣaṇā in the commentary may mean that the cessation (of the world) is indicative of the realization of the supreme Bliss that is Brahman.•]
And the connection (sambandha between knowledge and its purpose) has been mentioned ipso facto through the enunciation of such a purpose.
[•‘Knowledge is needed for the removal of ignorance which cannot be eradicated through work. So the goal of knowledge is connected with itself, as an end is with its means.’-A.G.•]

अतो यथोक्ताधिकारि-विषय-प्रयोजन-सम्बन्धाया विद्यायाः कर-तल-न्यस्तामलकवत् प्रकाशकत्वेन विशिष्टाधिकारि-विषय-प्रयोजन-सम्बन्धा एता वल्ल्यो भवन्ति इत्य् अतस् ता यथा-प्रतिभानं व्याचक्ष्महे॥

Thus these cantos themselves are (meant) for special persons (competent for their study), and have a special subject matter, a special purpose, and a special connection, inasmuch as they reveal, like an apple (lit. emblic myrobalan) placed in the hand, the knowledge that is (meant) for a man of special competence, and has a special subject matter, a special purpose, and a special connection as already explained. Hence we shall explain these cantos to the best of our understanding.

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Approaching the teaching beyond death

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तत्र आख्यायिका विद्या-स्तुत्यर्था –
The story there is by way of eulogizing the knowledge:
uśat, ha, vai, vāja-śravasa, sarva-vedas, √dā. tad, ha, naciketas, nāma, putra, √as.
[स्वर्-गं] उशन् ह वै, वाज-श्रवसः [नाम] सर्व-वेदसं ददै। तस्य ह नचिकेताः नाम पुर्त्रः आस॥
(The Upaniṣad says)
Once upon a time, desiring (heavenly results), Vāja-śravasa gave away all his (earthly) wealth (in the Viśva-jit sacrifice). He had a son named Naciketas.
उशन् कामयमानः ह वा इति वृत्तार्थ-स्मरणार्थौ निपातौ। वाजम् अन्नं तद्-दानादि-निमित्तं श्रवो यशो यस्य स वाज-श्रवा, रूढितो वा। तस्यापत्यं वाज-श्रवसः किल विश्वजिता सर्व-मेधेन ईजे तत्-फलं कामयमानः। स तस्मिन् क्रतौ सर्व-वेदसं सर्व-स्वं धनं ददौ दत्तवान्। तस्य यजमानस्य ह नचिकेता नाम पुत्रः किल आस बभूव॥
Uśan, being desirous of ; ha and vai (equivalent to – once upon a time) are two indeclinable particles, recalling to mind what happened before. Vāja-śravas in he whose śravas, fame, is consequent on the giving of vājam, food. Or it is a proper name. His son, Vāja-śravasa, being desirous of the fruit of the sacrifice, performed the Viśva-jit sacrifice in which all is given away. In that sacrifice, he dadau, gave away; sarva-vedasam, all (his) wealth. Tasya, of him, of that performer of sacrifice; āsa, there was; ha, as the story goes; naciketā nāma putraḥ, a son named Naciketas.

tad, ha, kumāra, sat, dakṣiṇā, nīyamānā, śrad-dhā, ā-√viś, tad, √man.
तं कुमारं सन्तं दक्षिणासु नीयमानासु श्रद्-धा आविवेश। सः [नचिकेताः] अमन्यत॥
When the dakṣiṇās (gifts to sacrifice participants) were being taken away, faith overpowered the son (Naciketas), who was just a boy (kumāra, between 5 to 10 years old). He thought (thus).
तं ह नचिकेतसं कुमारं प्रथम-वयसं सन्तम् अ-प्राप्त-प्रजनन-शक्तिं बालम् एव श्रद्धा आस्तिक्य-बुद्धिः, पितुर् हित-काम-प्रयुक्ता आविवेश प्रविष्टवती। कस्मिन् काले इत्य् आह – ऋत्विग्भ्यः सदस्येभ्यश् च दक्षिणासु नीयमानासु विभागेन उपनीयमानासु दक्षिणार्थासु गोषु। आविष्ट-श्रद्धो नचिकेता अमन्यत
Tam, into him, into Naciketas; kumāram santam, while still in the prime of life, still not adolescent, still a mere boy; śraddhā, faith (in the verity of the scriptures), induced by a desire for his father’s good; āviveśa, entered. At what time? This is being stated: dakṣiṇāsu nīyamānāsu, when gifts were being carried, when cows meant for presents were being led separately (according to each recipient’s due), to the priests and the assembled Brāhmaṇas; saḥ, he, that Naciketas who had an influx of faith; amanyata, thought.

कथम् इत्य् उच्यते? –
How he thought is being stated:
pīta-udakā, jagdha-tṛṇā, dugdha-dohā, nis-indriyā;
a-nanda, nāma, tad, loka, tad, tad, √gam, tad, √dā.

[यः] ताः पीत-उदकाः जग्ध-तृणाः दुग्ध-दोहाः निर्-इन्द्रियाः ददत्, सः तान् गच्छति [ये] ते लोकाः अ-नन्दाः नाम॥
(Naciketas thought)
One goes to joyless heavens if one gives such (dakṣiṇās) as these cows which for the last time have drunk water, eaten grass and given milk, and are powerless to calve.
(Naciketas thought)
Which (cows for the last time) have drunk water (पीत-उदकाः), eaten grass (जग्ध-तृणाः)
(and) given milk (दुग्ध-दोहाः), (and) are powerless (to calve) (निर्-इन्द्रियाः),
joyless indeed (अ-नन्दाः नाम) are those worlds (ते लोकाः)
one goes to who is giving such (dakṣiṇās) (तान् सः गच्छति ताः ददत्).
“पीतोदका” इत्य्-आदिना दक्षिणार्था गावो विशेष्यन्ते। पीतोदकाः पीतम् उदकं याभिस् ताः पीतोदकाः। जग्ध-तृणा जग्धं भक्षितं तृणं याभिस् ता जग्ध-तृणाः। दुग्ध-दोहा दुग्धो दोहः क्षीराख्यो यासां ता दुग्ध-दोहाः। निर्-इन्द्रिया अ-प्रजनन-समर्था जीर्णा निष्-फला गाव इत्य् अर्थः। यास् ता एवं-भूता गा ऋत्विग्भ्यो दक्षिणा-बुद्ध्या ददत् प्रयच्छन्न् अ-नन्दा अन्-आनन्दा अ-सुखा नाम इत्य् एतत्। ये ते लोकास् तान् स यजमानो गच्छति
The cows meant for offering to the Brāhmaṇas are being described: Those by which udakam, water, has been pītam, drunk, are pīta-udakāḥ;
[•‘Water has been drunk earlier only; but later on, even the power to drink water is absent. Similarly, there is no power to eat grass or give milk.’-A.G.•]
those by which tṛṇam, grass, has been jagdham, eaten, are jagdha-tṛṇāḥ; those whose dohaḥ, milk, has been dugdhaḥ, milked, are dugdha-dohāḥ, milk, nir-indriyāḥ, those that are devoid of the power of their organs, incapable of bearing calves; that is to say, the cows that are decrepit and barren. Dadat, giving; tāḥ, those, the cows that are of this kind; to the priests as rewards for their service; saḥ, he, the performer of sacrifice; gacchati, goes; tān, to those (worlds); a-nandāḥ nāma te lokāḥ, which worlds are known as devoid of happiness, joyless.

tad, ha, √vac, pitṛ, tata, kim, asmad, √dā, iti;
dvitīyam, tṛtīyam, tad, pitṛ, ha, √vac. mṛtyu, yuṣmad, √dā, iti.

सः ह पितरं उवाच ‘तत कस्मै मां दास्यसि’ इति द्वितीयं तृतीयम्। [पिता] तं ह उवाच ‘मृत्यवे त्वा ददामि’ इति॥
The boy said to his father, “O father, to whom will you give me (as dakṣiṇā)?” (When the father did not bother to answer, the boy asked) twice, thrice. (Annoyed, the father impulsively) said to him, “I give you to Lord Death.”
The boy said to his father (सः ह उवाच पितरम्)
“O father, to whom will you give me (as dakṣiṇā) (‘तत, कस्मै मां दास्यसि’ इति)?
(When the father did not bother to answer, the boy asked) twice, thrice (द्वितीयं तृतीयम्). (Annoyed, the father impulsively) said to him (तं ह उवाच(,
“I give you to Lord Death” (‘मृत्यवे त्वा ददामि’ इति).
तद् एवं क्रत्व्-अ-सम्पत्ति-निमित्तं पितुर् अन्-इष्टं फलं मया पुत्रेण सता निवारणीयम् आत्म-प्रदानेनापि क्रतु-सम्पत्तिं कृत्वा इत्य् एवं मत्वा पितरम् उपगम्य स होवाच पितरम्। हे तत तात, कस्मै ऋत्विग्-विशेषाय दक्षिणार्थं मां दास्यसि प्रयच्छसि इति एतत्।
‘The evil result thus accruing to my father as a consequence of the imperfection of the sacrifice should be warded off by me, who am a good son, by perfecting the sacrifice even through an offering of myself’, thinking thus, saḥ, he – approached his father; and uvāca ha, said; pitaram, to the father; ‘Tata (same as tāta), O father; kasmai, to whom, to which of the priests; mām dāsyasi, will you offer me, that is to say, offer me as a present?’ iti.

एवम् उक्तेन पित्रा उपेक्ष्यमाणोऽपि द्वितीयं तृतीयम् अपि उवाच ‘कस्मै मां दास्यसि, कस्मै मां दास्यसि’ इति। ‘नायं कुमार-स्व-भाव’ इति क्रुद्धः सन् पिता तं ह पुत्रं किल उवाचमृत्यवे वैवस्वताय त्वा त्वां ददामिइति

Though ignored by his father who was addressed thus, dvitīyam tṛtīyam uvāca, he spoke even a second time and a third time, thus: ‘To whom will you offer me?’ ‘To whom will you offer me?’ Incensed at the thought, ‘This one is not behaving like a boy’, the father uvāca ha, said; tam, to him, to his son; ‘Mṛtyave, to Death, to the son of the Sun; dadāmi, I give away; tvā (which is same as tvam), you'; iti, (this much).

स [नचिकेताः] एवम् उक्तः पुत्र एकान्ते परिदेवयाञ्चकार – कथम्? इत्य् उच्यते –
That son, having been spoken to thus, sorrowfully cogitated in a solitary place. How? That is being said:
bahu, √i, prathama, bahu, √i, madhyama;
kim-svid, yama, kartavya, yad, asmad, adya, √kṛ.

बहूनां प्रथमः एमि, बहूनां मध्यमः एमि, किं-स्विद् यमस्य कर्तव्यं यद् [पिता] मया [दत्तेन] अद्य करिष्यति?
(Naciketas thought)
Among many (students), I am first. Among many others, I am middling. What could I do for Lord Death, which father will accomplish by giving me now?
(Naciketas thought)
Among many (students), I am first (बहूनां प्रथमः एमि).
Among many (others), I am middling (बहूनां मध्यमः एमि).
What could (I) do for Lord Death (किं-स्विद् यमस्य कर्तव्यम्)
which (father) will accomplish by (giving) me now (यद् मया अद्य करिष्यति)?
बहूनां शिष्याणां पुत्राणां वा एमि गच्छामि प्रथमः सन् मुख्यया शिष्यादि-वृत्त्या इत्य् अर्थः। मध्यमानां च बहूनां मध्यमः मध्यमयैव वृत्त्या एमि। न_अधमया कदाचिद् अपि।
Bahūnām, among many – of many sons or disciples; emi, I go (rank); prathamaḥ, as first owing to the best conduct of a disciple etc. This is the idea. And bahūnām, among many – many middling ones; madhyamaḥ emi, I move (count) as a middling one, I behave in a middling manner. But never do I behave as the worst.
[•‘The best conduct consists in engaging in the service of the teacher by ascertaining his wishes at the proper time. Acting on command is middling conduct. And disobedience to such orders in the worst.’ A.G.•]

तम् एवं विशिष्ट-गुणम् अपि पुत्रं मां ‘मृत्यवे त्वा ददामि’ इत्य् उक्तवान् पिता। स किंस्विद् यमस्य कर्तव्यं प्रयोजनं मया प्रत्तेन करिष्यति यत् कर्तव्यम् अद्य। नूनं प्रयोजनम् अन्-अपेक्ष्यैव क्रोध-वशाद् उक्तवान् पिता॥

Though I am a son possessed of such quality, still to me my father has said, ‘To Death I offer you.’ Kim-svit, what; karttavyam [•Same as kartavyam, SG.2.63.•], purpose; yamasya, of Death – can there be; which purpose he (my father) adya, today; kariṣyati, which achieve; mayā, through me, by sending me?

तथापि तत् पितुः वचो मृषा मा भूद् इत्य् एवं मत्वा परिदेवना-पूर्वकम् आह पितरं शोकाविष्टं किं मयोक्तम् इति –
‘My father must have certainly spoken so out of anger, without any consideration of purpose. Still, that utterance of the father must not be falsified’, thinking thus, he said sorrowfully to his father, remorseful as the latter was because of the thought ‘What a thing I have uttered!’:
anu-√dṛś, yathā, pūrva, prati-√dṛś, tathā, apara;
sasya, iva, martya, √pac, sasya, iva, ā-√jan, punar.

यथा पूर्वे [वृतान्] अनुपश्य, तथा अपरे [वर्तमानान्] प्रतिपश्य। सस्यम् इव मर्त्यः पच्यते, सस्यम् इव पुनः आजायते॥
(Naciketas implores his father to keep his word in gifting the boy as dakṣiṇā.)
See how the forefathers (kept to their sacred word). Look around at how the others (keep their word). Like a plant, a mortal perishes (but truth never dies), and like a plant one is born again (from the seed of one’s deeds and words).
(Naciketas implores his father to keep his word in gifting the boy as dakṣiṇā.)
See how the forefathers (kept to their sacred word) (अनुपश्य यथा पूर्वे),
Look around at how the others (keep their word) (प्रतिपश्य तथा अपरे).
Like a plant (सस्यम् इव) a mortal perishes (but truth never dies) (मर्त्यः पच्यते),
like a plant one is born again (from the seed of one’s deeds and words) (सस्यम् इव आजायते पुनः).
अनुपश्य आलोचय निभालय अनु क्रमेण यथा येन प्रकारेण वृत्ताः पूर्वे अतिक्रान्ताः पितृ-पिता-महादयस् तव। तान् दृष्ट्वा च तेषां वृत्तम् आस्थातुम् अर्हसि। वर्त्तमानाश् च अपरे साधवो यथा वर्त्तन्ते तांश् च प्रतिपश्य आलोचय तथा
Anupaśya: anu, successively; paśya, consider, have a look at; yathā, how; your, pūrve, forebears, dead father, grandfather and others behaved. And seeing them, it behoves you to tread in their footsteps. Tathā, similarly too; as apare, others – other holy men behave; them also you pratipaśya, consider.

न च तेषु मृषा-करणं वृत्तं वर्त्तमानं वा अस्ति। तद्-विपरीतम् अ-सतां च वृत्तं मृषा-करणम्। न च मृषा कृत्वा कश्चिद् अ-जरामरो भवति। यतः सस्यम् इव मर्त्यो मनुष्यः पच्यते जीर्णो म्रियते। मृत्वा च सस्यम् इव आजायते आविर्भवति पुनः
Not that in them there ever was, or is, any falsification. Opposed to that is the behaviour of bad people, which consists of paltering with truth. Besides, not by prevarication can anyone become free from death and decrepitude. For martyaḥ, man; sasyam iva, like corn; pacyate, decays and dies; and after dying, punaḥ, again; sasyam iva ājāyate, reappears (is born) like corn.

एवम् अ-नित्ये जीव-लोके किं मृषा-करणेन। पालय आत्मनः सत्यम्, प्रेषय मां यमाय इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

Thus what does one gain in this impermanent human world by breaking one’s own words? Protect your own truth, and send me to Death. This is the idea.

स एवम् उक्तः पिता आत्मनः सत्यतायै प्रेषयाम्-आस। स च यम-भवनं गत्वा तिस्रो रात्रीर् उवास यमे प्रोषिते। प्रोष्यागतं यमम् अमात्या भार्या वा ऊचुर् बोधयन्तः –
Having been addressed thus, the father sent (him) for the sake of his own veracity. And he, having gone to Death’s abode, lived for three nights (i.e. days), Death being out. When Death returned from his sojourn, his councillors or wives said to him by way of advice:
vaiśvā-nara, pra-√viś, a-tithi, brāhmaṇa, gṛha;
tad, etad, śānti, √kṛ, √hṛ, vaivasvata, udaka.

वैश्वा-नरः ब्राह्मणः अ-तिथिः गृहान् प्रविशति, तस्य एतां शान्तिं कुर्वन्ति, वैवस्वत उदकं हर॥
(The father by the power of his truth sends the boy to report to Lord Death at His palace. But Lord Death was out for three days. The boy waits only for Lord Death himself before accepting anything. The ministers and wife of Yama then implore Lord Death upon His return.)
The Lord of Fire enters as this brāhmaṇa guest. Hosts make a peace offering to such a guest. O Lord Death, fetch water.
(Story jumps to Lord Death returning to His palace and finding Naciketas waiting for Him.)
The Lord of Fire enters as a guest (वैश्वा-नरः प्रविशति अ-तिथिः),
this (thirsty) brāhmaṇa (boy) to the house (ब्राह्मणः गृहान्).
(Hosts) make this peace offering to that one (the guest) (तस्य एतां शान्तिं कुर्वन्ति).
O Lord Death (Vaiśvā-nara), fetch water (वैवस्वत उदकं हर).
वैश्वा-नरोऽग्निर् एव साक्षात् प्रविशति अ-तिथिः सन् ब्राह्मणो गृहान् दहन्न् इव। तस्य दाहं शमयन्त इव अग्नेर् एतां पाद्यासनादि-दान-लक्षणां शान्ति कुर्वन्ति सन्तोऽतिथेर् यतः, अतो हर आहर हे वैवस्वत उदकम् नचिकेतसे पाद्यार्थम्। यतश् च अ-करणे प्रत्यवायः श्रूयते॥
Brāhmaṇaḥ, a Brāhmaṇa; as a-tithiḥ, a guest; praviśati, enters; like vaiśvā-naraḥ, fire itself; as though burning gṛhān, the houses. Since tasya, for his sake – for the guest; the good people kurvanti, accomplish; etām, this kind of; śāntim, propitiation – consisting in offering water for washing feet, a seat, etc., just as people do for allaying the conflagration of fire – and since evil consequences are declared in case of not doing so (MunU.1.2.3); therefore vaivasvata, O Death; hara, carry; udakam, water – for Naciketas, for washing his feet.

āśā-pratīkṣa, saṅ-gata, sū-nṛtā, ca, iṣṭā-pūrta, putra-paśya, ca, sarva;
etad, √vṛj, puruṣa, alpa-medhas, yad, an-aśnat, √vas, brāhmaṇa, gṛha.

यस्य अल्प-मेधसः पुरुषस्य गृहे ब्राह्मणः अन्-अश्नन् वसति, सर्वान् आशा-प्रतीक्षे सङ्गतं सू-नृतां इष्टा-पूर्ते च पुत्र-पशून् च – एतद् वृङ्क्ते॥
Hopes and expectations, the good merit of ennobling company, noble speech, rituals, social service, children and cattle, all this he plucks away from the neglectful host in whose house a brāhmaṇa stays without eating.
Hopes and expectations (आशा-प्रतीक्षे), (the good merit of) ennobling company (सङ्गतं), noble speech (सू-नृताम्),
rituals, social service (च इष्टा-पूर्ते), children and cattle (wealth), all (पुत्र-पशून् च सर्वान्)
this he (indirectly) plucks away (to an extent) (एतद् वृङ्क्ते) from the neglectful person (the host, because of the negligence) (पुरुषस्य अल्प-मेधसः) (in) whose (यस्य)
house a brāhmaṇa (guest) stays without eating (अन्-अश्नन् वसति ब्राह्मणः गृहे).
आशा-प्रतीक्षे अ-निर्ज्ञात-प्राप्येष्टार्थ-प्रार्थना आशा, निर्ज्ञात-प्राप्यार्थ-प्रतीक्षणं प्रतीक्षा, ते आशा-प्रतीक्षे। सङ्गतं सत्-संयोग-जं फलम्। सू-नृतां च सू-नृता हि प्रिया-वाक्, तन्-निमित्तं च। इष्टा-पूर्त्ते* इष्टं याग-जं, पूर्त्तम् आरामादि-क्रिया-जं फलम्। पुत्र-पशूंश् च पुत्रांश् च पशूंश् च सर्वान् एतत् सर्वं यथोक्तं वृङ्क्ते आवर्जयति विनाशयति इत्य् एतत्। पुरुषस्य अल्प-मेधसोऽल्प-प्रज्ञस्य यस्य अन्-अश्नन्न् अ-भुञ्जानो ब्राह्मणो गृहे वसति। तस्माद् अन्-उपेक्षणीयः सर्वावस्थास्व् अप्य् अ-तिथिर् इत्य् अर्थः॥
Āśā-pratīkṣe: āśā is the wish for a desirable thing which is attainable though unknown; pratīkṣā is expectation for something that is attainable and known; these two, hope and expectation, are āśā-pratīkṣe; saṅgatam is the fruit derived from the association with the holy people
[•We read this portion of the commentary as ‘saṅgatam, sat-saṃyoga-jam’. But some read it as ‘saṅgatam, tat-saṃyoga-jam’, which means ‘the fruit resulting from association with that, viz the objects of hope and expectation’.•];
sū-nṛtām ca: sū-nṛta is sweet discourse – the fruit of that also; iṣṭā-pūrte*: iṣṭa is the fruit of sacrifice and pūrta is that of (charitable) work like construction of rest-houses etc.; putra-paśūn ca, sons and cattle; sarvān etat should be sarvam etat, all this, as described; (he) vṛṅkte, excludes (from), i.e. destroys; puruṣasya alpa-medhasaḥ, from (i.e. of) a man of little intelligence; yasya, in whose; gṛhe, house; brāhmaṇaḥ, a Brāhmaṇa; vasati, abides; an-aśnan, without food. Therefore, a guest should not be neglected under any condition. This is the idea.

*[वापी-कूप-तडागादि देवतायतनानि च।
अन्न-प्रदानम् आरामः पूर्तम् इत्य् अभिधीयते॥
अग्नि-होत्रं तपः सत्यं वेदानां चानुपालनम्।
आ-तिथ्यं वैश्व-देवं च इष्टम् इत्य् अभिधीयते॥]

एवम् उक्तो मृत्युर् उवाच नचिकेतसं समुपगम्य पूजा-पुरस्सरम् –
Having been told thus, Death approached Naciketas with adoration and said:
tisṛ, rātrī, yad, √vas, gṛha, asmad, an-aśnat, brahman, a-tithi, namasya;
namas, yuṣmad, √as, brahman, su-asti, asmad, √as, tad, prati, tri, vara, √vṛ.

ब्रह्मन्, यद् [=यस्मात्] नमस्यः अ-तिथिः अन्-अश्नन् मे गृहे तिस्रः रात्रीः अवात्सीः, नमस् ते अस्तु। ब्रह्मन्, तस्मात् [प्रत्यवाय-दोषात्] सु-अस्ति मे अस्तु। [तिस्रः रात्रीः] प्रति त्रीन् वरान् वृणीष्व॥
(Lord Death said)
O brahman, since you have stayed in my house for three nights as an honorable guest without eating, let my salutations be unto you. Let well-being be unto me also, O brahman. Therefore, for the three nights choose three boons.
(Lord Death said)
Since you have stayed three nights in the house (तिस्रः रात्रीः यद् अवात्सीः गृहे)
of mine without eating, O brahman (मे अन्-अश्नन्, ब्रह्मन्), as an honorable guest (अ-तिथिः नमस्यः),
let (my) salutations be unto you (नमस् ते अस्तु). O brahman (ब्रह्मन्), let well-being be unto me (सु-अस्ति मे अस्तु).
Therefore (तस्मात्), for (the three nights) choose three boons (प्रति त्रीन् वरान् वृणीष्व).
तिस्रो रात्रीः यद् यस्माद् अवात्सीर् उषितवान् असि गृहे मे मम अन्-अश्नन् हे ब्रह्मन्न् अ-तिथिः सन् नमस्यो नमस्कारार्हश् च। तस्माद् नमस् ते तुभ्यम् अस्तु भवतु।
Brahman, O Brāhmaṇa; yat, since; avātsīḥ, you have lived; gṛhe me, in my house; tisraḥ rātriḥ, for three nights; an-aśnan, without eating; a-tithiḥ, a guest; and namasyaḥ, worthy of being saluted (venerable) – as you are; therefore namas te astu, let salutations be to you.

हे ब्रह्मन् स्व्-अस्ति भद्रं मेऽस्तु। तस्माद् भवतोऽन्-अशनेन मद्-गृह-वास-निमित्ताद् दोषात् तत्-प्राप्त्य्-उपशमेन। यद्य्-अपि भवद् अनुग्रहेण सर्वं मम स्व्-अस्ति स्यात् तथापि त्वद्-अधिक-सम्प्रसादनार्थम् अन्-अशनेन उषिताम् एकैकां रात्रिं प्रति त्रीन् वरान् वृणीष्व अभिप्रेतार्थ-विशेषान् प्रार्थयस्व मत्तः॥

Brahman, O Brāhmaṇa; let there be sv-asti, good fortune; me, for me; through the aversion of the evil accruing tasmāt, therefrom, from the lapse caused by your abiding in my house without food. Although all good will befall me through your favour, still for your propitiation all the more, vṛṇīṣva, ask for; trīn varān, three boons – any particular three things you like; prati, one in respect of – each night you have spent without food.

नचिकेतास् त्व् आह, यदि दित्सुर् वरान् भगवन् –
As for Naciketas, he said – If you want to grant boons, then:
śānta-saṅkalpa, su-manas, yathā, √as, vīta-manyu, gautama, asmad, abhi, mṛtu;
tvad-prasṛṣṭa, asmad, abhi-√vad, pratīta, etad, traya, prathama, vara, √vṛ.

मृत्यो, [मम पिता] गौतमः मा अभि शान्त-सङ्कल्पः, सु-मनाः, वीत-मन्युः यथा स्यात्। प्रतीतः त्वद्-प्रसृष्टं मा अभिवदेत्। एतद् त्रयाणां प्रथमं वरं वृणे॥
(Naciketas said)
(While I'm away) may father be free from anxiety, pleased, and without anger towards me, O Lord Death. Having been sent back from You (once my duties are complete here), may he greet me having easily recognized me (not aged or as a ghost). Among the three boons, I choose this as the first boon (for my father).
(Naciketas said)
May father be in this way (while I'm away) free from anxiety (and) pleased (शान्त-सङ्कल्पः, सु-मनाः, यथा स्यात्),
(and) may (my father) Gautama (Vāja-śravasa) be without anger towards me (वीत-मन्युः गौतमः मा अभि), O Lord Death (Mṛtyu) (मृत्यो),
Having been sent back from You (once my duties are complete here) (त्वद्-प्रसृष्टं) may (father) greet me having (easily) recognized me (not aged or as a ghost) (मा अभिवदेत् प्रतीतः).
This is the first boon I choose among the three (for my father) (एतद् त्रयाणां प्रथमं वरं वृणे).
शान्त-सङ्कल्प उपशान्तः सङ्कल्पो यस्य मां प्रति यमं प्राप्य किं नु करिष्यति मम पुत्र इति स शान्त-सङ्कल्पः। सु-मनाः प्रसन्न-मनाश् च यथा स्याद् वीत-मन्युर् विगत-रोषश् च गौतमो मम पिता मा अभि मां प्रति हे मृत्यो। किञ्च त्वत्-प्रसृष्टं त्वया विनिर्मुक्तं प्रेषितं गृहं प्रति मा माम् अभिवदेत् प्रतीतो लब्ध-स्मृतिः स एवायं पुत्रो ममागत इत्य् एवं प्रत्यभिजानन्न् इत्य् अर्थः। एतत् प्रयोजनं त्रयाणां वराणां प्रथमम् आद्यं वरं वृणे प्रार्थये, यत् पितुः परितोषणम्॥
Mṛtyo, O Death; (I pray so) yathā, as my father gautamaḥ, Gautama; syāt, may become; śānta-saṅkalpaḥ – one whose mind is freed, with regard to me, from the anxiety, ‘How may my son behave after reaching Death’; su-manāḥ, calm of mind; and also vīta-manyuḥ, free from anger; mā abhi, towards me; moreover, he abhivadet, may talk to; , me; tvat-prasṛṣṭam, freed by you – sent towards home; pratītaḥ, getting his memory revived, i.e. recognizing (me) thus: ‘That very son of mine is come’
[•‘Favour me in such a way that my father may not avoid me under the idea, “This one has returned after becoming a ghost; he is not to be looked at.”’-A.G.•]
trayāṇām, of the three boons; vṛṇe, I ask for; prathamam, as the first boon; etat, this one – that has this purpose, viz the satisfaction of my father.

ततो मुत्युर् उवाच –
Death said:
yathā, purastāt, √bhū, pratīta, auddālaki āruṇi [vāja-śravas], mad-prasṛṣṭa;
sukham, rātrī, √śī, vīta-manyu, yuṣmad, dadṛśivas, mṛtu-mukha, pramukta.

यथा पुरस्तात् [तथा] भविता। त्वां मृत्यु-मुखात् प्रमुक्तं ददृशिवान्, प्रतीतः मद्-प्रसृष्टः [मयानुज्ञातः इत्य् अर्थः] वीत-मन्युः [च] औद्दालकिः आरुणिः रात्रीः सुखं शयिता॥
(Lord Death said)
He will be as before, having recognized you. Having seen you released from the jaws of death, relieved by Me, your father will sleep happily during the nights without anger.
(Lord Death said)
He will be as before (यथा पुरस्तात् भविता) having recognised (you) (प्रतीतः).
(your father) Auddālaki, the son of Aruna (औद्दालकिः आरुणिः) relieved by Me (मद्-प्रसृष्टः)
will sleep happily during the nights without anger (सुखं रात्रीः शयिता वीत-मन्युः),
having seen you released from the jaws of death (त्वां ददृशिवान् मृत्यु-मुखात् प्रमुक्तम्).
यथा बुद्धिस् त्वयि पुरस्तात् पूर्वम् आसीत् स्नेह-समन्विता पितुस् तव भविता प्रीति-समन्वितस् तव पिता तथैव प्रतीतः प्रतीतवान् सन्न् औद्दालकिर् उद्दालक एव औद्दालकिः। अरुणस्यापत्यम् आरुणिर्, द्व्य्-आमुष्यायणो वा।
Yathā, as – the kind of affectionate feeling that your father had towards you; purastāt, before; your father auddālakiḥ, Auddālaki; pratītaḥ, having recognized (you); bhavitā, will become – possessed of affection, in that very same way. Uddālaka and Auddālaki refer to the same (person). And he is āruṇiḥ, the son of Aruṇa; or he bears two family names.
[•The suffix in auddālaki may not add any meaning to the original word uddālaka, or it may signify the son of Uddālaka. In the latter case, he becomes a scion of the Uddālakas as also of the Aruṇas. This was possible when a brotherless girl was given in marriage with the stipulation that her son would be counted as belonging to either family, so that the offering of rice balls etc. to the departed of both the lines might be guaranteed.•]

मत्-प्रसृष्ठो मयानुज्ञातः सन्न् इतरा अपि रात्रीः सुखं प्रसन्न-मनाः शयिता स्वप्ता। वीत-मन्युर् विगत-मन्युश् च भविता स्यात्, त्वां पुत्रं ददृशिवान् दृष्टवान् सन् मृत्यु-मुखाद् मृत्यु-गोचरात् प्रमुक्तं सन्तम्॥

Mat-prasṛṣṭhaḥ, being permitted by me; (your father) śayitā, will sleep; during rātrīḥ, nights – other (future nights, too; sukham, happily – with a composed mind; and he will become vīta-manyuḥ free from anger – as well; tvām dadṛśivān, having see you – his son; mṛtyu-mukhāt pramuktam, as having been freed from the jaws – from the grasp – of Death.

नचिकेता उवाच –
Naciketas said:
svar-ga, loka, na, bhaya, kim-cana, √as, na, tatra, yuṣmad, na, jarā, √bhī;
ubha, tīrtvā, aśanāyā-pipāsā, śoka-atiga, √mud, svar-ga-loka.

न किञ्चन भयं स्वर्गे लोके अस्ति। न त्वं तत्र, जरया [विना] न [त्वतस्] बिभेति। उभे अशनाया-पिपासे तीर्त्वा शोक-अतिगः स्वर्ग-लोके मोदते॥
(Next, Naciketas starts the request for the second boon.)
In heaven there is not the least fear. You (Death) are not there, nor fear from ageing. Transcending both hunger and thirst and gone beyond sorrow, one rejoices in the heaven.
(Next Naciketas said)
In heaven there is not the least fear (स्वर्गे लोके न भयं किञ्चन अस्ति).
You (Death) are not there (न तत्र त्वं), nor fear from ageing न जरया बिभेति.
Transcending both hunger and thirst (उभे तीर्त्वा अशनाया-पिपासे),
(and) gone beyond sorrow (शोक-अतिगः), one rejoices in heaven (मोदते स्वर्ग-लोके).
स्वर्गे लोके रोगादि-निमित्तं भयं किञ्चन किञ्चिद् अपि न अस्तितत्र त्वं मृत्यो सहसा प्रभवसि, अतो जरया युक्त इह-लोकवत् त्वत्तो न बिभेति कुतश्चित् तत्र।
Svarge loke, in the heavenly world; bhayam kiñcana na asti, there is no fear whatsoever – fear arising from disease etc.; and tvam, you, O Death; na tatra, are not there – you do not exert your might there all of a sudden; so, unlike what happens in this world, there jarayā, because of old age; na bibheti, nobody shudders – at you.

किञ्च उभे अशनाया-पिपासे तीर्त्वा अतिक्रम्य शोकम् अतीत्य गच्छति इति शोकातिगः सन् मानसेन दुःखेन च वर्जितो मोदते हृष्यति स्वर्ग-लोके दिव्ये॥

Moreover, ubhe aśanāyā-pipāse tīrtvā, having transcended both hunger and thirst; and śoka-atigaḥ, having crossed over sorrow – being free from mental unhappiness; (one) modate, rejoices; svarga-loke, in the divine heavenly world.

tad, yuṣmad, agni, svar-gya, adhi-√i, mṛtyu, pra-√brū, yuṣmad, śrad-dadhāna, asmad;
svar-ga-loka, a-mṛtatva, √bhaj, etad, dvitīya, √vṛ, vara.

मृत्यो, सः त्वं स्वर्ग्यम् अग्निं अध्येषि। त्वं मह्यं श्रद्-दधानाय प्रब्रूहि। स्वर्ग-लोकाः अ-मृतत्वं भजन्ते। एतद् द्वितीयेन वरेण वृणे॥
You have studied and know the Veda Fire ritual which is a means to heaven (by which you have attained this high post here), O Lord Death. Please teach what You know to me who has faith in You. The people in heaven enjoy (a degree of) immortality. I choose this as the second boon (for the people).
The (Veda) Fire (ritual) as a means to heaven you (have studied and) know (by which you have attained a high post here) (सः त्वं स्वर्ग्यम् अग्निं अध्येषि), O Lord Death (मृत्यो).
Please teach (what You know) to me who has faith (in You and the scriptures) (प्रब्रूहि त्वं श्रद्-दधानाय मह्यं).
The people in heaven enjoy (a relative high degree of) immortality (स्वर्ग-लोकाः अ-मृतत्वं भजन्ते).
I choose this as the second boon (for the people) (एतद् द्वितीयेन वृणे वरेण).
एवं-गुण-विशिष्टस्य स्वर्ग-लोकस्य प्राप्ति-साधन-भूतम् अग्निं स्वर्ग्यं स त्वं मृत्युर् अध्येषि स्मरसि जानासि इत्य् अर्थः, हे मृत्यो, यतस् त्वं प्रब्रूहि कथय श्रद्-दधानाय श्रद्-धावते मह्यम् स्वर्गार्थिने। येनाग्निना चितेन स्वर्ग-लोकाः स्वर्गो लोको येषां ते स्वर्ग-लोका यजमाना अ-मृतत्वम् अ-मरणतां देवत्वं भजन्ते प्राप्नुवन्ति। तद् एतद् अग्नि-विज्ञानं द्वितीयेन वरेण वृणे
Mṛtyo, O Death, since saḥ tvam, you, such as you are; adhyeṣi, remember, i.e. know; svargyam agnim, the Fire that is the means for the attainment of heaven – heaven that is possessed of the qualities aforesaid; (therefore) tvam, you; prabrūhi, speak; mahyam śrad-dadhānāya, to me who am full of faith
[•The word śrad-dadhāna or śrad-dhā ‘faith’ may be broken down to ‘(-dhā) placing (śrad-) with heart or intellect {hṛd} or with credence (viśvāsam, pratyayam, pramāṇam)’.•],
and who pray for heaven – (tell me of that Fire) by worshipping which; svarga-lokāh, the dwellers of heaven, those who have got heaven as their place of attainment, the sacrificers; bhajante, get; a-mṛtatvam, immortality, divinity. That fact which is etat, this knowledge of Fire; vṛṇe, I seek for; dvitīyena vareṇa, through the second boon.

मृत्योः प्रतिज्ञेयम् –
This is the promise of Death:
pra, yuṣmad, √brū, tad, u, asmad, ni-√budh, svar-gya, agni, naciketas, prajānat;
an-anta-loka-āpti, atha-u, pratiṣṭhā, √vid, yuṣmad, etad, nihita, guḥā.

नचिकेतस्, स्वर्गम् अग्निं प्रजानन् ते प्र ब्रवीमि। तद् उ मे निबोध। अन्-अन्त-लोक-आप्तिम् अथो प्रतिष्ठां, एतं त्वं गुहायां निहितं विद्धि॥
(Lord Death said)
I am going to teach you this Fire ritual right now. Please learn from Me, O Naciketas, as I am knowing this Fire for gaining an infinite heaven, and also its basis (the meditation deity Virāṭ [Virāj], for gaining the highest heaven brahma-loka). You please know well this meditation (added to the ritual) that is established in the hearts (of upāsaka meditators).
(Lord Death said)
I am going to teach you this (Fire) right now (प्र ते ब्रवीमि तद् उ). Please learn from Me (मे निबोध),
O Naciketas ( नचिकेतस्), (as I) am knowing this Fire for gaining heaven (स्वर्गम् अग्निं प्रजानन्),
which (by doing) is a means to the attainment of that infinite world (अन्-अन्त-लोक-आप्तिम्), but also its basis (the meditation deity, Virāṭ, for the highest heaven, brahma-loka) (अथो प्रतिष्ठाम्).
You please know well this (which is the meditation added to the ritual performance) (विद्धि त्वम् एतं) that is established in the hearts (the minds of upāsakas, meditators) (निहितं गुहायाम्).
ते तुभ्यं प्रब्रवीमि यत् त्वया प्रार्थितं तद् उ मे मम वचसो निबोध बुध्यस्व एकाग्र-मनाः सन्, स्वर्ग्यं स्वर्गाय हितं स्वर्ग-साधनम् अग्निं हे नचिकेतः प्रजानन् विज्ञातवान् सन्न् अहम् इत्य् अर्थः। ‘प्रब्रवीमि’ ‘तन् निबोध’ इति च शिष्य-बुद्धि-समाधानार्थं वचनम्।
Naciketaḥ, O Naciketas; te, to you; prabravīmi, I shall say – what was prayed for by you. Me, from me, from my words; nibodha, understand with attention; tat u, that very thing; viz svargyam agnim, the Fire that is conducive to heaven – that is the means for the attainment of heaven; which I shall tell you, prajānan, being well aware of (it) – this is the idea. The expressions, ‘I shall tell you’ and ‘understand with attention’ are meant for fixing the attention of the disciple (on the subject).

अधुनाग्निं स्तौति – अन्-अन्त-लोकाप्तिं स्वर्ग-लोक-फल-प्राप्ति-साधनम् इत्य् एतत्। अथो अपि प्रतिष्ठाम् आश्रयं जगतो विराड्-रूपेण, तम् एतम् अग्निं मयोच्यमानं विद्धि विजानीहि त्वं निहितं स्थितं गुहायां विदुषां बुद्धौ निविष्टम् इत्य् अर्थः॥

Now he praises the Fire: That (Fire) which is an-anta-loka-āptim, the attainment of infinite world – that is, the means for the attainment of the result, viz heaven, atha u, and also; pratiṣṭhām, the support – of the universe in the form of Virāṭ
[•‘In the Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad we read: “He (Virāṭ – the Cosmic person, embodied in the gross universe) differentiated himself in three ways’ (BrhUEng.1.2.2-3), from which Veda text it follows that it is the cosmic Virāṭ who exists as fire, air and the sun. Fire as constituting that aspect of Virāṭ, is the support of the universe.’-A.G.•]
(Cosmic Person). Etam, this, this Fire which is being spoken of by me; viddhi, you know; (as) nihitam guhāyām, located in the hidden place – i.e. placed in the intellect of men of knowledge.

इदं श्रुतेर् वचनम् –
These are words of the Upaniṣad itself:
loka-ādi, agni, tad, √vac, tad, yad, iṣṭakā, yāvatī, vā, yathā, vā;
tad, ca, api, tad, prati-√vad, yathā-ukta, atha, idam, mṛtyu, punar, eva, √ah, tuṣṭa.

तस्मै तम् अग्निं लोक-आदिं, याः इष्टकाः यावतीः वा, यथा वा उवाच। सः [नचिकेताः] च अपि तद् यथा-उक्तं प्रत्यवदत्। अथ अस्य तुष्टः मृत्युः पुनर् एव आह॥
(The Upaniṣad says)
Lord Death taught him the Fire (as the deity Virāṭ), the first born in the manifest universe. (For the Fire ritual altar itself, He also taught) the type of bricks, how many, and in which arrangement. Naciketas then repeated the same back to Lord Death, as it was taught. Lord Death being pleased then told more.
(The Upaniṣad says)
(Lord Death) taught him the Fire (as Virāṭ), the first (born) in the (manifest) universe (लोक-आदिं अग्निं तम् उवाच तस्मै).
(For the Fire ritual itself, He also taught) the type of bricks (याः इष्टकाः), how many (यावतीः वा), and in which arrangement (यथा वा).
(Naciketas) then repeated the same (back to Lord Death) (सः च अपि तद् प्रत्यवदत्) as it was taught (यथा-उक्तम्).
Lord Death being pleased then told more (अथ अस्य मृत्युः पुनर् एव आह तुष्टः).
लोकादिं लोकानाम् आदिं प्रथम-शरीरित्वाद् अग्निं तं प्रकृतं नचिकेतसा प्रार्थितम् उवाच उक्तवान् मृत्युस् तस्मै नचिकेतसे। किञ्च, या इष्टकाश् चेतव्याः स्व-रूपेण, यावतीर् वा सङ्ख्यया, यथा वा चीयते अग्निर् येन प्रकारेण, सर्वम् एतद् उक्तवान् इत्य् अर्थः।
Tasmai, to him, to Naciketas; Death uvāca, spoke of; tam loka-ādim agnim, that Fire – that is being dealt with, and that was prayed for by Naciketas – the Fire which (as Virāṭ) preceded the world - since it was the first embodied being. Moreover, yāḥ iṣṭakāḥ, the class of bricks, that are to be collected (for the sacrificial altar); yāvatīḥ vā, how many (the bricks are to be) in number; yathā vā, or how – how the fire is to be arranged
[•How the sacrificial wood is to be piled up, how the fire is to be procured, and how it is to be lit up.•]
all these he said, this is the significance.

स चापि नचिकेताः तद् मृत्युना उक्तं यथा-वत् प्रत्य्-अयेन_अवदत् प्रत्युच्चारितवान्। अथास्य प्रत्युच्चारणेन तुष्टः सन् मृत्युः पुनर् एवाह वर-त्रय-व्यतिरेकेणान्यं वरं दित्सुः॥

Saḥ ca api, and he, Naciketas, too; pratyavadat, repeated verbatim, with understanding; tat, all that; yathā-uktam, just as Death had spoken. Atha, then; tuṣṭaḥ, being satisfied, asya by his repetition; mṛtyuḥ, Death; punaḥ eva āha, said over again – desiring to offer another boon besides the three.

कथम्? –
How did he say?
tad, √brū, prīyamāna, mahā-ātman,
vara, yuṣmad, iha, adya, √dā, bhūya;
yuṣmad, eva, nāman, √bhū, idam, agni, sṛṅkā, ca, idam, an-eka-rūpa, √grah.

महा-आत्मा प्रीयमाणः तम् अब्रवीत् – तव इह अद्य भूयः वरं ददामि। अयं अग्निः तव एव नाम्ना भविता, इमां च अन्-एक-रूपां सृङ्कां गृहाण॥
Being pleased, the wise Lord Death said to him, “I give you one more gift right here and now. By your name only this Fire will be known from now on. Take this multifarious gemmed necklace also.”
Being pleased, the wise one (Lord Death) said to him (तम् अब्रवीत् प्रीयमाणः महा-आत्मा),
I give you one more gift right here and now (वरं तव इह अद्य ददामि भूयः).
By your name only this Fire will be (known from now on) (तव एव नाम्ना भविता अयम् अग्निः).
Take this multifarious (gemmed) necklace also (सृङ्कां च इमाम् अन्-एक-रूपां गृहाण).
तं नचिकेतसम् अब्रवीत् प्रीयमाणः शिष्य-योग्यतां पश्यन् प्रीयमाणः प्रीतिम् अनुभवन् महात्मा अ-क्षुद्र-बुद्धिः। वरं तव चतुर्थम् इह प्रीति-निमित्तम् अद्य इदानीं ददामि भूयः पुनः प्रयच्छामि।
Prīyamāṇaḥ, being delighted – feeling highly pleased at the fitness of the disciple; mahā-ātmā, the high-souled one, one who was not narrow-minded; tam, to him, to Naciketas; abravīt, said: ‘Iha, here, out of favour; tava, towards you; a fourth boon,
[•The other three being, his father’s composure, knowledge about Fire, and (yet-to-be-told) knowledge of the Self.•] adya, now; dadāmi, I offer; bhūyaḥ, again –

तवैव नचिकेतसो नाम्ना अभिधानेन प्रसिद्धो भविता मयोच्यमानोऽयम् अग्निः
Ayam agniḥ, this fire – the fire that is being spoken of by me; bhavitā, will become – famous; tava eva nāmnā, by your name indeed.

किञ्-, सृङ्कां शब्दवतीं रत्नमयीं मालाम् इमाम् अन्-एक-रूपां विचित्रां गृहाण स्वी-कुरु। यद्-वा, सृङ्काम् अ-कुत्सितां गतिं कर्ममयीं गृहाण। अन्यद् अपि कर्म-विज्ञानम् अन्-एक-फल-हेतुत्वात् स्वी-कुरु इत्य् अर्थः॥

Ca, moreover; gṛhāṇa, accept; imām, this; sṛṅkām, necklace; (which is) an-eka-rūpam, multi-formed and variegated – resounding, set with jewels, and of various hues. Or sṛṅkām (may mean) the course – that consists of rites and is not ignoble; gṛhāṇa, you accept.’ The idea is this: ‘You accept an additional knowledge about (variegated) karma – (multi-formed) because it leads to various results.’

पुनर्-अपि कर्म-स्तुतिम् एवाह –
He (Yama) praises the karma itself again:
tri-nāciketa, tri, etya, sandhi, tri-karma-krt, √tṝ, janma-mṛtyu;
brahma-ja-jña, deva, īḍya, viditvā, nicāyya, idam, śānti, ati-anta, √i.

त्रिभिः सन्धिं एत्य, त्रि-नाचिकेतः, त्रि-कर्म-कृत् जन्म-मृत्यू तरति। ब्रह्म-ज-ज्ञं ईड्यं देवं विदित्वा निचाय्य [च], इमां शान्तिम् अति-अन्तम् एति॥
Having done the Nācikata fire three times with the three-fold maturing association (mother-father-teacher), and having performed the three life-long duties (ritual for the Lord, scriptural studies for oneself, and charity for others), one transcends birth and death. Knowing this praiseworthy Lord Virāṭ who is all-knowing and born of Lord Brahmā (Hiraṇya-garbha, the universal subtle body) and meditating on this Virāṭ, one attains limitless peace which is this that I have here.
Having done Nācikata-fire three times (त्रि-नाचिकेतः), having the three-fold association (mother-father-teacher) (त्रिभिः एत्य सन्धिम्),
(and) having performed the three duties (ritual, scriptural studies, and charity) (त्रि-कर्म-कृत्), that one transcends birth and death (तरति जन्म-मृत्यू).
Knowing this praiseworthy Lord (Virāṭ) who is (all-)knowing and born of Lord Brahmā (Hiraṇya-garbha, the universal subtle body) (ब्रह्म-ज-ज्ञं देवम् ईड्यं विदित्वा),
(and) meditating (on this Virāṭ) (निचाय्य), that one attains limitless peace which is this (that I have) (इमां शान्तिम् अति-अन्तम् एति).
त्रि-णाचिकेतस् त्रिः कृत्वो नाचिकेतोऽग्निश् चितो येन स त्रि-णाचिकेतस्, तद्-विज्ञानस् तद्-अध्ययनस् तद्-अनुष्ठानवान् वा। त्रिभिर् मातृ-पित्राचार्यैर् एत्य प्राप्य सन्धिं सन्धानं सम्बन्धम्। मात्राद्य्-अनुशासनं यथावत् प्राप्य इत्य् एतत्। तद् धि प्रामाण्य-कारणं श्रुत्य्-अन्तराद् अवगम्यते ‘यथा मातृमान् पितृमान् आचर्यवान् ब्रूयाद्’ इत्य्-आदेः (BrhU.4.1.2)। वेद-स्मृति-शिष्टैर्वा, प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमैर् वा। तेभ्यो हि विशुद्धिः प्रत्यक्षा। त्रि-कर्म-कृद् इज्याध्ययन-दानानां कर्त्ता तरति अतिक्रामति जन्म-मृत्यू
Sandhim etya, getting connection; tribhiḥ, with the three – with mother, father, and teacher, i.e. getting his instruction from mother etc., properly – for that is known as a source of valid knowledge from another Veda text: ‘As one who has a mother, father, and teacher should say’ etc. (BrhUEng.4.1.2). Or (tribhiḥ may mean) through the Vedas, the Smṛtis, and the good people; or through direct perception, inference, and the scriptures; for it is matter of experience that charity [•‘Comprehension of duties etc.’-A.G.•] follows from them. Tri-ṇāciketaḥ, one who has piled up the Nāciketa fire (now immediately named after Naciketas) thrice; or one who is possessed of its knowledge, studies it, and performs it; and tri-karma-kṛt, one who undertakes three kinds of Karma – sacrifice, study (of the Vedas), and charity; tarati, crosses over; janma-mṛtyū, birth and death.

किञ्च, ब्रह्म-ज-ज्ञं ब्रह्मणो हिरण्य-गर्भाज् जातो ब्रह्म-जो, ब्रह्म-जश् चासौ ज्ञश् चेति ब्रह्म-ज-ज्ञः। सर्व-ज्ञो ह्य् असौ। तं देवं द्योतनाज् ज्ञानादि-गुणवन्तम्, ईड्यं स्तुत्यं विदित्वा शास्त्रतो, निचाय्य दृष्ट्वा च आत्म-भावेन इमां स्व-बुद्धि-प्रत्यक्षां शान्तिम् उपरतिम् अत्यन्तम् एति अतिशयेन एति। वैराजं पदं ज्ञान-कर्म-समुच्चयानुष्ठानेन प्राप्नोति इत्य् अर्थः॥

Moreover, viditvā, knowing – from scriptures; brahma-ja-jñam: one that is born from Brahmā, i.e. Hiraṇya-garbha, is brahma-ja (Virāṭ); and one who is brahma-ja and jña, illumined, is brahmaja-jña – for He (i.e. Virāṭ) is omniscient; (knowing) that devam, Deity, who is so called because of His effulgence (which is the derivative meaning), i.e. One who is possessed of such attributes as knowledge; and who is īḍyam, praiseworthy (adorable); (and) nicāyya, looking (meditating) on (that Virāṭ) – as one’s own Self;
[•‘“The number of bricks (in this sacrifice) is 720; the days and nights in a year (identified with Virāṭ Prajā-pati) have also the same number. Because of this similarly of number the Fire (Year – Prajā-pati) constituted by those days and nights, am I” – meditating on the Fire (Virāṭ) in this way as identified with oneself.’-A.G.•]
(one) atyantam, fully; eti, gets; imām, this (palpable), that is patent to one’s understanding; śāntim, peace, withdrawal (from objects). The idea is that through a combination of meditation and rites he attains the state of Virāṭ.
[•Bala-gopalendra’s interpretation: ‘Just as one who undertakes three kinds of work after getting connected with the three, crosses over death, so does he who performs the Nāciketa sacrifice three times. Moreover, getting knowledge of that omniscient One who is born of Brahmā and realizing that One (as his Self), he attains this peace fully.’•]

इदानीम् अग्नि-विज्ञान-चयन-फलम् उपसंहरति, प्रकरणं च –
Now he concludes the results of the knowledge about the Fire and of its piling up, as also the topic under discussion:
tri-nāciketa, traya, etad, viditvā, yad, evam, vidvas, √ci, nāciketa;
tad, mṛtyu-pāśa, puratas, praṇodya, śoka-atiga, √mud, svar-ga-loka.

यः एतद् त्रयं विदित्वा, एवं विद्वान्, नाचिकेतं चिनुते, सः त्रि-नाचिकेतः मृत्यु-पाशान् पुरतस् प्रणोद्य, शोक-अतिगः, स्वर्ग-लोके मोदते॥
The ritualist who performs the Nācikata fire three times, knowing those three (the kind, number, and arrangement of bricks, etc.), and who also meditates upon Virāṭ, this one transcends the noose of death, transcends sorrow, and rejoices in the highest heaven (brahma-loka).
The Tri-Nācikata who knows the three (kind, number, and arrangement of bricks, as mentioned, etc.) (त्रि-नाचिकेतः, त्रयम् एतद् विदित्वा),
meditating thus (upon Virāṭ as the total including oneself) (यः एवं विद्वान्) (and) performs the Nācikata-fire (three times) (चिनुते नाचिकेतम्),
that (worshiper and meditator) already transcending the noose of death (सः मृत्यु-पाशान् पुरतस् प्रणोद्य),
transcends sorrow (शोक-अतिगः), and rejoices in (the highest) heaven (brahma-loka) (मोदते स्वर्ग-लोके).
त्रि-णाचिकेतस् त्रयं यथोक्तम् या इष्टका, यावतीर् वा, यथा वा इति एतद् विदित्वा अवगम्य यश्एवम् आत्म-रूपेण अग्निं विद्वान् चिनुते निर्वर्त्तयति नाचिकेतम् अग्निं क्रतुम्,
Viditvā, after knowing; etat trayam, these three – described earlier, ‘the class and number of bricks, as also the manner of arranging for the fire’ (KathU.1.1.15); he who becomes tri-ṇāciketaḥ, a performer of the Nāciketa sacrifice thrice; and yaḥ, who; evam vidvān, having known the Fire (Virāṭ) thus – as identified with oneself; cinute, accomplishes; nāciketam, the Nāciketa fire – performs the sacrifice called Nāciketa
[•‘Undertakes meditation on the Nāciketa Fire (i.e. Virāṭ)’ accordingly to Bala-gopalendra, the word kratu in the commentary being taken in the sense of ‘meditation’.•];

स मृत्यु-पाशान् अ-धर्माज्ञान-राग-द्वेषादि-लक्षणान् पुरतोऽग्रतः, पूर्वम् एव शरीर-पाताद् इत्य् अर्थः। प्रणोद्य अपहाय, शोकातिगो मानसैर् दुःखैर् वर्जित इत्य् एतत्। मोदते स्वर्ग-लोके वैराजे विराडात्म-स्व-रूप-प्रतिपत्त्या॥

Saḥ he; praṇodya, casting off; mṛtyu-pāśān, the snares of Death – consisting in vice, ignorance, desire, hatred, etc.; purataḥ, even earlier – i.e. before death; śoka-atigaḥ, crossing over sorrow, i.e. freed from mental sorrow; modate, rejoices; svarga-loke, in heaven, in the world of Virāṭ, by becoming identified with Him.

etad, yuṣmad, agni, nacitatas, svar-gya, yad, √vṛ, dvitīya, vara;
etad, agni, yuṣmad, eva, pra-√vac, janas, tṛtīya, vara, naciketas, √vṛ.

नचिकेतस्, स्वर्ग्यः अग्निः ते, यं द्वितीयेन वरेण अवृणीथाः। जनासः एतम् अग्निं तव एव प्रवक्ष्यन्ति। नचिकेतस्, तृतीयं वरं वृणीष्व॥
This is the Fire taught to you for gaining heaven, O Naciketas, that you asked as the second boon. The people will speak of this Fire as your name. Ask for the third boon, O Naciketas.
This is the Fire (taught) to you for gaining heaven, O Naciketas (एषः ते अग्निः, नचिकेतस्, स्वर्ग्यः),
that you asked as the second boon (यं अवृणीथाः द्वितीयेन वरेण).
The people will speak of this Fire as your (name) (एतम् अग्निं तव एव प्रवक्ष्यन्ति जनासः).
Ask for the third boon, O Naciketas (तृतीयं वरं, नचिकेतस्, वृणीष्व).
एष ते तुभ्यम् अग्निर् वरो हे नचिकेतः स्वर्ग्यः स्वर्ग-साधनः। यम् अग्निं वरम् अवृणीथा वृतवान् प्रार्थितवान् असि द्वितीयेन वरेण, सोऽग्निर् वरो दत्त इत्य् उक्तोपसंहारः।
Naciketaḥ, O Naciketas; te, to you; eṣaḥ, this is; svargyaḥ agniḥ, the Fire – the boon about the Fire – that leads to heaven; yam, which – which Fire as a boon; avṛṇīthāḥ, you prayed for; dvitīyena vareṇa, through the second boon. That boon about the Fire is granted to you. This is only a conclusion of what was said earlier.

किञ्च, एतम् अग्निं तवैव नाम्ना प्रवक्ष्यन्ति जनासो जना इत्य् एतत्। एष वरो दत्तो मया चतुर्थस् तुष्टेन।
Moreover, janāsaḥ (is the same as janāḥ), people; pravakṣyanti, will speak of; etam agnim, this Fire; tava eva, as yours – by your name – indeed. This is the fourth boon that I have given out of my satisfaction.

तृतीयं वरं नचिकेतो वृणीष्व। तस्मिन् ह्य् अ-दत्ते ‘ऋणवान् अहम्’ इत्य् अभिप्रायः।
Naciketaḥ, O Naciketas; vṛṇīṣva, ask for; tṛtīyam varam, the third boon. The idea is this: ‘Unless that is given, I shall remain indebted.’

एतावद् धि अतिक्रान्तेन विधि-प्रतिषेधार्थेन मन्त्र-ब्राह्मणेन अवगन्तव्यं यद् वर-द्वय-सूचितं वस्तु, नात्म-तत्त्व-विषय-याथात्म्य-विज्ञानम्।
This much only, as indicated by the two boons, and not the true knowledge of the reality, called the Self, is attainable through the earlier mantras and brāhmaṇas (of the Vedas) which are concerned with injunction and prohibition.

अतो विधि-प्रतिषेधार्थ-विषयस्य आत्मनि क्रिया-कारक-फलाध्यारोपण-लक्षणस्य स्वा-भाविकस्य_अज्ञानस्य संसार-बीजस्य निवृत्त्य्-अर्थं तद्-विपरीत-ब्रह्मात्मैकत्व-विज्ञानं क्रिया-कारक-फलाध्यारोपण-लक्षण-शून्यम् आत्यन्तिक-निःश्रेयस-प्रयोजनं वक्तव्यम् इत्य् उत्तरो ग्रन्थ आरभ्यते।
Hence, for the elimination of the natural ignorance, which is the seed of mundane existence, which consists in superimposing activity, agentship, and enjoyment on the Self, and which has for its contents those objects of prohibition and injunction (the subject matter of the scriptures), it is necessary to speak of the knowledge of the unity of the Self and Brahman – which knowledge is opposed to this ignorance, is devoid of any tinge of superimposition (on the Self) of activity, agentship, and enjoyment, and has for its object absolute emancipation. Therefore the subsequent text is begun.

तम् एतम् अर्थं द्वितीय-वर-प्राप्त्या_अप्य् अ-कृतार्थत्वं तृतीय-वर-गोचरम् आत्म-ज्ञानम् अन्तरेण इत्य् आख्यायिकया प्रपञ्चयति।
Through the story is being elaborated the fact as to how in the absence of the knowledge of the Self, which is the subject matter of the third boon, there cannot be any contentment even after getting the second boon.

यतः पूर्वस्मात् कर्म-गोचरात् साध्य-साधन-लक्षणाद् अ-नित्याद् विरक्तस्य आत्म-ज्ञानेऽधिकार इति तन्-निन्दार्थं पुत्राद्य्-उपन्यासेन प्रलोभनं क्रियते॥

Since one who has desisted from the impermanent ends and means that are comprised in the above mentioned rites becomes qualified for the knowledge of the Self, therefore, with a view to decrying those ends and means, Naciketas is being tempted through the presentation of sons etc.

नचिकेता उवाच तृतीयं वरं नचिकेतो वृणीष्व इत्य् उक्तः सन् –
Having been told, ‘O Naciketas, you ask for the third boon’, Naciketas said:
yad, idam, preta, vicikitsā, manuṣya, √as, iti, eka, na, idam, √as, iti, ca, eka;
etad, √vid, anuśiṣṭa, yuṣmad, asmad, vara, etad, vara, tṛtīya.

या इयं विचिकित्सा – मनुष्ये प्रेते, ‘[कथंचित्-देह-आदि-व्यतिरिक्त-आत्मा] अस्ति’ इति एके, ‘अयं न अस्ति’ इति च एके। त्वया अनुशिष्टः अहं एतद् विद्याम्। एषः वराणां तृतीयः वरः॥
(Naciketas said)
There is this doubt that when a person dies, some say, “It survives (death),” while others say, “It does not survive.” I wish to know this (nature of the individual that can survive death), having been instructed by You. Among the boons, this is the third boon (for me).
(Naciketas said)
There is this doubt that when a person dies (या इयं प्रेते विचिकित्सा मनुष्ये),
some (say) “It survives” (‘अस्ति’ इति एके), others (say) “It does not survive” (‘न अयम् अस्ति’ इति च एके).
I wish to know this (nature of the individual that can survive death), having been instructed by You (एतद् विद्याम् अनुशिष्टः त्वया अहम्).
Among the (three) boons, this is the third boon (for me) (वराणाम् एषः वरः तृतीयः).
येयं विचिकित्सा संशयः प्रेते मृते मनुष्ये, अस्ति इत्य् एके अस्ति शरीरेन्द्रिय-मनो-बुद्धि-व्यतिरिक्तो देहान्तर-सम्बन्ध्य् आत्मा इत्य् एके मन्यन्ते। नायम् अस्ति इति चैके नायम् एवं-विधोऽस्ति इति चैके।
Yā iyam vicikitsā, this doubt, that arises; prete manuṣye, when a man dies; eke, some (say); asti iti, (It), the Self, which is distinct from the body, senses, mind, and intellect, and which gets connected with a fresh body (in the next life), exists; ca eke, and others (say); ayam, this one, a Self of this kind; na asti, does not exist.

अतश् चास्माकं न प्रत्यक्षेण नापि वा अनुमानेन निर्णय-विज्ञानम्। ‘एतद् विज्ञानाधीनो हि परः पुरुषार्थ’ इत्य् अत एतद् विद्यां विजानीयाम् अहम् अनुशिष्टो ज्ञापितस् त्वयावराणाम् एष वरस् तृतीयोऽवशिष्टः॥

Hence It is a thing whose knowledge can be acquired by us neither through direct perception nor through inference. And yet the supreme human goal is dependent on a clear knowledge of It. Therefore, tvayā anuśiṣṭaḥ, being instructed by you; aham, I; etat vidyām, would know this. Varāṇām, of all the boons; eṣaḥ, this one; varaḥ, boon; is tṛtīyaḥ, the third – the remaining one.

किम् अयम् एकान्ततो निःश्रेयस-साधनात्म-ज्ञानार्हो, न वा, इत्य् एतत् परीक्षणार्थम् आह –
With a view to testing whether this one (i.e. Naciketas) is a absolutely fit or not for the knowledge of the Self, which (knowledge) is the means for the highest consummation, Death says:
deva, atra, api, vicikitsita, purā, na, hi, su-vijñeya, aṇu, etad, dharma;
anya, vara, naciketas, √vṛ, mā, asmad, upa-√rudh, ati, asmad, √sṛj, enad.

अत्र देवैः अपि पुरा विचिकित्सितम्। एषः हि धर्मः अणुः। न सु-विज्ञेयम्। नचिकेतस्, अन्यं वरं वृणीष्व। मा मा उपरोत्सीः। मा [प्रति] एनं अति सृज॥
(Lord Death said)
Even the deities long ago entertained doubt regarding this. This subtle nature (dharma of the individual) cannot be easily known. O Naciketas, please choose another boon. Do not bind Me. Give up this demand to Me.
(Lord Death said)
Even the deities long ago entertained doubt regarding this (देवैः अत्र अपि विचिकित्सितं पुरा).
This subtle nature (dharma of the individual) cannot be easily known (न हि सु-विज्ञेयम् अणुः एषः धर्मः).
O Naciketas, please choose another boon (अन्यं वरं, नचिकेतस्, वृणीष्व).
Do not bind Me (मा मा उपरोत्सीः). Give up this (demand) to Me (अति मा सृज एनम्).
देवैर् अपि अत्र एतस्मिन् वस्तुनि विचिकित्सितं संशयितं पुरा पूर्वम्। न हि सु-विज्ञेयं सुष्ठु विज्ञेयं श्रुतम् अपि प्राकृतैर् जनैः। यतोऽणुः सूक्ष्म एष आत्माख्यो धर्मः
Purā, in days of yore; atra, with regard to this thing; vicikitsitam, doubt was entertained; devaiḥ api, even by gods; hi, since; eṣaḥ dharmaḥ, this principle – called the Self; na su-vijñeyam is not truly comprehensible
[•Su-vijñeyam is also translated as ‘easily comprehensible.’•]
– to common people, even though heard by them; It being aṇuḥ, subtle.

अतोऽन्यम् अ-सन्दिग्ध-फलं वरं नचिकेतो वृणीष्वमा मां मा उपरोत्सीर् उपरोधं मा कार्षीर् अधमर्णम् इव उत्तमर्णः [अधम-ऋणम् इव उत्तम-ऋणः]। अतिसृज विमुञ्च एनं वरं मा मां प्रति॥

Hence naciketaḥ, O Naciketas; vṛṇīṣva, you ask for; anyam varam, some other boon – whose result is not subject to doubt. Mā uparotsīḥ, do not press; , me – as a creditor does a debtor – , being the same as mām (me); atisṛja, give up; enam, this boon; that is directed towards , me (that is to say, demanded of me).

एवम् उक्तो नचिकेता उवाच –
Being spoken to thus, Naciketas said:
deva, atra, api, vicikitsita, kila, yuṣmad, ca, mṛtyu, yad, na, su-jñeya, √ah;
vaktṛ, ca, idam, tvā-dṛś, anya, na, labhya, na, anya, vara, tulya, etad, ka-cid.

देवैः अपि अत्र विचिकित्सितं किल। मृत्यो, यद् च त्वं न सु-ज्ञेयम् आत्थ, अस्य च अन्यः वक्ता त्वा-दृक् न लभ्यः, [तस्माद्] न कश्चिद् अन्यः वरः एतस्य तुल्यः॥
(Naciketas said)
Indeed, even the deities long ago entertained doubt regarding this. O Lord Death, You yourself said this is not easily known. Moreover, another teacher like You cannot be found. No other boon is equal to this.
(Naciketas said)
Indeed, even the deities long ago entertained doubt regarding this (देवैः अपि अत्र विचिकित्सितं किल).
O Lord Death, You yourself said this is not easily known (त्वं च, मृत्यो, यद् न सु-ज्ञेयम् आत्थ).
Moreover, another teacher like You cannot be found (वक्ता च अस्य त्वा-दृक् अन्यः न लभ्यः).
No other boon is equal to this (न अन्यः वरः तुल्यः एतस्य कश्चिद्).
“देवैर् अत्रापि एतस्मिन् वस्तुनि विचिकित्सितं किल” इति भवत एव नः श्रुतम्।
Atra, with regard to this thing; vicikitsitam kila, doubt was indeed entertained; devaiḥ api, even by the gods’ – this has been heard by us from yourself.

त्वं च मृत्यो यद् यस्मान् न सु-विज्ञेयम् आत्म-तत्त्वम् आत्थ कथयसि,
Ca, and; mṛtyo, O Death; yat, since; tvam, you; āttha, say; that the reality of the Self, na su-vijñeyam, is not truly comprehended;

अतः पण्डितैर् उपदेशनीयत्वाद् (अप्य् अ-वेदनीयत्वाद्) वक्ता च अस्य धर्मस्य त्वा-दृक् त्वत्-तुल्योऽन्यः पण्डितश् च न लभ्योऽन्विष्यमाणोऽपि। अयं तु वरो निःश्रेयस-प्राप्ति-हेतुः। अतो नान्यो वरस् तुल्यः स-दृशोऽस्ति एतस्य कश्चिद् अपि। अ-नित्य-फलत्वाद् अन्यस्य सर्वस्यैव इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

Therefore, this thing being unknowable even to the learned; vaktā ca asya, an instructor of this principle; anyaḥ, anyone else – who is a learned man; tvā-dṛk, like you; na labhyaḥ, is not to be had – even by searching. But this boon is the means for the attainment of the highest goal. Hence na anyaḥ varaḥ, there is no other boon; kaścit, whatsoever; which is etasya tulyaḥ, comparable to this one – since all the other bear impermanent fruits; this is the purport.

एवम् उक्तोऽपि पुनः प्रलोभयन्न् उवाच मृत्युः –
Although told thus, still Death says by way of tempting:
śata-āyus, putra-pautra, √vṛ, bahu, paśu, hasti-hiraṇya, aśva;
bhūmi, mahat, āyatana, √vṛ, svayam, ca, √jīv, śarad, yāvat, √iṣ.

शत-आयुषः पुत्र-पौत्रान्, बहून् पशून्, हस्ति-हिरण्यम्, अश्वान् [च] वृणीष्व। भूमेः महत् आयतनं वृणीष्व। यावत् च शरदः इच्छसि, [तावत् त्वं] स्वयं जीव॥
(Lord Death said)
Please choose children and grandchildren with hundred year lives, and plenty of cattle, elephants, gold, and horses. May you also choose a vast kingdom on earth. May you yourself live for as many years as you wish.
(Lord Death said)
Please choose children and grandchildren with hundred year lives (शत-आयुषः पुत्र-पौत्रान् वृणीष्व),
(and) plenty of cattle, elephants, gold, and horses (बहून् पशून्, हस्ति-हिरण्यम्, अश्वान्).
May you also choose a vast kingdom on earth (भूमेः महत् आयतनं वृणीष्व).
May you yourself live (स्वयं च जीव) for as many years as you wish (शरदः यावत् इच्छसि).
शतायुषः शतं वर्षाणि आयूंषि येषां ताञ् छतायुषः पुत्र-पौत्रान् वृणीष्व। किञ्च, गवादि-लक्षणान् बहून् पशून्हस्ति-हिरण्यं हस्ती च हिरण्यं च हस्ति-हिरण्यम्। अश्वांश् च।
Vṛṇīṣva, you ask for; putra-pautrān, sons and grandsons; who are śata-āyuṣaḥ, gifted with a hundred years of life. Moreover, bahūn, many; paśūn, animals, such as cows etc,; hasti-hiraṇyam, elephants and gold; and aśvān, horses.

किञ्च, भूमेः पृथिव्या महद् विस्तीर्णम् आयतनम् आश्रयं मण्डलं साम्राज्यं वृणीष्व
Besides, vṛṇīṣva, ask for; mahat āyatanam, a vast expanse, habitat, region, a kingdom; bhūmeḥ, of the earth.

किञ्च, सर्वम् अप्य् एतद् अन्-अर्थकं स्वयं चेद् अल्पायुर् इत्य् अत आह – स्वयं च त्वं जीव धारय शरीरं समग्रेन्द्रिय-कलापं शरदो वर्षाणि यावद् इच्छसि जीवितुम्॥

Furthermore, all this is useless if one is short-lived. Therefore he says: ca, and; svayam, you yourself; jīva, live, hold to your body with all the senses unimpaired; for as many śaradaḥ, years; yāvat icchasi, as you wish – to live.

etad-tulya, yadi, √man, vara, √vṛ, vitta, cira-jīvikā, ca;
mahā-bhūmi, naciketas, yuṣmad, √as, kāma, yuṣmad, kāma-bhāj, √kṛ.

यदि एतत्-तुल्यं वरं मन्यसे – वित्तं चिर-जीविकां च वृणीष्व। नचिकेतस्, त्वं महा-भूमौ एधि। त्वा कामानां काम-भाजं करोमि॥
If you think of another boon equal to this, please choose that as well as the wealth and long life. O Naciketas, may you be throughout the vast earth (as its emperor). I am going to make you an enjoyer of all enjoyments.
If you think of (another) boon equal to this (एतत्-तुल्यं यदि मन्यसे वरम्),
please choose (that) as well as the wealth and long life (वृणीष्व वित्तं चिर-जीविकां च).
O Naciketas, may you be throughout the vast earth (as its emperor) (महा-भूमौ, नचिकेतस्, त्वम् एधि).
I am going to make you an enjoyer of (all) enjoyments (कामानां त्वा काम-भाजं करोमि).
एतत्-तुल्यम् एतेन यथोपदिष्टेन स-दृशम् अन्यम् अपि यदि मन्यसे वरम्, तम् अपि वृणीष्व। किञ्च, वित्तं प्रभूतं हिरण्य-रत्नादि चिर-जीविकां च सह वित्तेन वृणीष्व इत्य् एतत्।
Yadi, if; manyase, you think; some other varam, boon; etat-tulyam, equal to this – as it has been presented; even that boon, vṛṇīṣva, you ask for. Moreover, (you ask for) vittam, wealth – plenty of gold, jewels, etc.; ca cira-jīvikām, and long life – i.e. you ask for a long life together with wealth.

किं बहुना महा-भूमौ महत्यां भूमौ राजा नचिकेतस् त्वम् एधि भव। किञ्चान्यत्। कामानां दिव्यानां मानुषाणां च त्वा त्वां काम-भाजं काम-भागिनं कामार्हं करोमि। सत्य-सङ्कल्पो ह्य् अहं देवः॥

In brief, tvam, you, Naciketas; edhi, become a king; mahā-bhūmau, over a vast region. Besides, karomi, I make; tvā, you; kāma-bhājam, partaker of the enjoyment – fit for enjoyment; kāmānām, of enjoyable things – divine as well as human; for I am a deity whose will never fails.

yad, yad, kāma, dus-labha, martya-loka, sarva, kāma, chandatas, pra-√arth;
idam, rāmā, sa-rathā, sa-tūryā, na, hi, ī-dṛśā, lambhanīyā, manuṣya;
idam, mad-prattā, pari-√car, naciketas, maraṇa, mā, anu-√prach.

ये ये कामाः मर्त्य-लोके दुस्-लभाः, सर्वान् कामान् छन्दतस् प्रार्थयस्व। इमाः रामाः स-रथाः स-तूर्याः। ईदृशाः मनुष्यैः न हि लम्भनीयाः। आभिः मद्-प्रत्ताभिः परिचारयस्व। नचिकेतस्, मरणं मा अनुप्राक्षीः॥
Whichever be the pleasures not attainable in the world of mortals, all those pleasures choose as you wish. Here are pleasurable partners with their chariots and musical instruments. Such pleasurables indeed cannot be attained by mortals. By these pleasurables gifted by Me, you are going to be served. O Naciketas, do not ask Me about death.
Whichever be the pleasures (ये ये कामाः) not attainable in the world of mortals (दुस्-लभाः मर्त्य-लोके),
all those pleasures (सर्वान् कामान्) choose as you wish (छन्दतस् प्रार्थयस्व).
Here are pleasurable partners (इमाः रामाः) with their chariots and musical instruments (स-रथाः स-तूर्याः).
Such (pleasurables) indeed cannot be attained by mortals (न हि ईदृशाः लम्भनीयाः मनुष्यैः).
By these (pleasurables) gifted by Me, you are going to be served (आभिः मद्-प्रत्ताभिः परिचारयस्व).
O Naciketas (नचिकेतस्), do not ask Me about death (मरणं मा अनुप्राक्षीः).
ये ये कामाः प्रार्थनीयाः दुर्-लभाःमर्त्य-लोके, सर्वान् तान् कामांश् छन्दत इच्छातः प्रार्थयस्व
Ye ye, all things; that are kāmāḥ, desirable; and dur-labhāḥ, difficult to get; martya-loke, in the human world; sarvān kāmān, all those desirable things; prārthayasva, ask for; chandataḥ, according to your choice.

किञ्च, इमा दिव्या अप्सरसो, रमयन्ति पुरुषान् इति रामाः, सह रथैर् वर्त्तन्त इति स-रथाः, स-तूर्याः स-वादित्राः। ताश् च न हि लम्भनीयाः प्रापणीया ई-दृशा एवं-विधा मनुष्यैर् मर्त्यैर् अस्मद्-आदि-प्रसादम् अन्तरेण। आभिर् मत्-प्रत्ताभिर् मया प्रदत्ताभिः परिचारिणीभिः परिचारयस्व आत्मानम्, पाद-प्रक्षालनादि-शुश्रूषां कारय आत्मन इत्य् अर्थः।
Moreover, imāḥ, here are; the celestial nymphs – the rāmāḥ (lit. women) who are so called because they delight (ramayanti) men; (and who are there) sa-rathāḥ, with chariots; and sa-tūryāḥ, with musical instruments. Ī-dṛśāḥ, such (women); na hi lambhanīyāḥ, are surely not to be had – without the favour of persons like us; manuṣyaiḥ, by mortals. Ābhiḥ, by these – by these female attendants; mat-prattābhiḥ, who are offered by me; paricārayasva, get yourself served – i.e. get your own service performed, such as washing of feet etc.

हे नचिकेतो मरणं मरण-सम्बद्धं प्रश्नं ‘प्रेते अस्ति नास्ति’ इति (KathU.1.1.20) काक-दन्त-परीक्षा-रूपं मा_अनुप्राक्षीर् मैवं प्रष्टुम् अर्हसि॥

O Naciketas, maraṇam, of death – as to the problem of death, as to whether anything exists after the fall of the body or not, which question is (useless) like the examination of the teeth of a crow; mā anuprākṣiḥ, do not inquire – it does not befit you to ask thus.

मृत्युना एवं प्रलोभ्यमानोऽपि नचिकेता महा-ह्रदवद् अ-क्षोभ्य आह –
Although tempted thus, Naciketas who, like a vast lake, was not to be perturbed, said:
śvas-bhāva, martya, yad, antaka, etad, sarva-indriya, √jṝ, tejas;
api, sarva, jīvita, alpa, eva, yuṣmad, eva, vāha, yuṣmad, nṛtya-gīta.

अन्तक, यद् मर्त्यस्य सर्व-इन्द्रियाणां तेजस्, श्वस्-भावाः [भोगाः] एतद् (तेजस्) जरयन्ति। सर्वम् अपि जीवितम् अल्पम् एव। वाहाः तव एव [तिष्टन्तु], नृत्य-गीते तव॥
(Naciketas said)
O Death, all this is so much ephemerals lasting only till tomorrow. They waste away the power of all the senses. All life is indeed a trifling. The vehicles are Yours alone. The dance and music are Yours.
(Naciketas said)
O Death of the mortal (martyasya antaka), (all) this is so much ephemerals (lasting only till tomorrow) (श्वस्-भावाः मर्त्यस्य यद् अन्तक एतद्).
They waste away the power of all the senses (सर्व-इन्द्रियाणां जरयन्ति तेजस्).
All life is indeed a trifling (अपि सर्वं जीवितम् अल्पम् एव).
The vehicles are Yours (तव एव वाहाः). The dance and music are Yours (तव नृत्य-गीते).
श्वो-भावाः ‘श्वो भविष्यन्ति, न भविष्यन्ति वा’ इति संदिह्यमानः एव येषां भावो भवनं त्वयोपन्यस्तानां भोगानां ते श्वो-भावाः। किञ्च, मर्त्यस्य मनुष्यस्य अन्तक, हे मृत्यो, यद् एतत् सर्वेन्द्रियाणां तेजस्, तद् जरयन्ति अपक्षपयन्ति। अप्सरः-प्रभृतयो भोगा अन्-अर्थायैव एते। धर्म-वीर्य-प्रज्ञा-तेजो-यशः-प्रभृतीनां क्षपयितृत्वात्।
Anataka, O Death; the enjoyable things enumerated by you are svo-bhāvāḥ, ephemeral – whose existence (bhāvaḥ) invariably is subject to the doubt as to whether they will exist or not tomorrow (śvaḥ); moreover, all those enjoyable things such as nymphs etc. jarayanti, waste away; etat tejas, the vigour; yat, that (that there is); sarva-indriyāṇām, of all the organs; martyasya, of a human being; so these enjoyable things are an evil since they wear away virtue, strength, intelligence, energy, fame, etc.

यां च अपि दीर्घ-जीविकां त्वं दित्ससि तत्रापि श्रृणु। सर्वं यद् ब्रह्मणोऽपि जीवितम् आयुर् अल्पम् एव, किम् उत अस्मद्-आदि-दीर्घ-जीविका।
As for long life which you wish to offer, about that too listen: Sarvam api jīvitam, all life – even that of Brahmā; is alpam eva, short indeed; what need be said of the longevity of those like us?

अतस् तवैव तिष्ठन्तु वाहा रथादयः, तथा तव नृत्य-गीते च॥

Therefore, let vāhāḥ, the vehicles etc; and so also nṛtya-gīte, the dances and songs; remain tava eva, yours alone.

na, vitta, tarpanīya, manuṣya, √labh, vitta, √dṛś, ced, yuṣmad;
√jīv, yāvat, √īś, yuṣmad, vara, tu, asmad, varaṇīya, tad, eva.

मनुष्यः न वित्तेन तर्पणीयः। त्वा अद्राक्ष्म चेद्, वित्तं लप्स्यामहे। यावत् त्वं ईशिष्यसि, [तावत्] जीविष्यामः। वरः तु मे वरणीयः, सः एव॥
Wealth cannot satisfy a person. I will get enough wealth, just because I have seen You. I will live as long as You so rule. However, the boon I have chosen is but this.
Wealth cannot satisfy a person (न वित्तेन तर्पणीयः मनुष्यः).
I will get (enough) wealth (लप्स्यामहे वित्तम्), just because I have seen You (अद्राक्ष्म चेद् त्वा).
I will live (जीविष्यामः) as long as You (so) rule (यावत् ईशिष्यसि त्वम्).
However, the boon I have chosen is but this (वरः तु मे वरणीयः सः एव).
प्रभूतेन वित्तेन तर्पणीयो मनुष्यः। न हि लोके वित्त-लाभः कस्यचित् तृप्ति-करो दृष्टः।
Besides, manuṣyaḥ, man; na tarpaṇīyaḥ, is not to be satisfied; vittena, with wealth – in abundance; for the acquisition of wealth is not seen in this world to satisfy anyone.

यदि नाम अस्माकं वित्त-तृष्णा स्याद्, लप्स्यामहे प्राप्स्यामहे इत्य् एतद् वित्तम्, अद्राक्ष्म दृष्टवन्तो वयं चेत् त्वा त्वाम्।
Should there arise in us any hankering for wealth, lapsyāmahe, we shall acquire, i.e. we shall get; vittam, wealth; cet adrākṣma, now that we have seen; tvā, you – tvā being the same as tvām, you.

जीवितम् अपि तथैव। जीविष्यामो यावद् याम्ये पदे त्वम् ईशिष्यसि ईशिष्यसे, प्रभुः स्याः। कथं हि मर्त्यस् त्वया समेत्य अल्प-धनायुर् भवेद्?
Thus, too we shall get longevity. Jīviṣyāmaḥ, we shall live; yāvat, as long as; tvam, you; īśiṣyasi (should rather be īśiṣyase), will rule – lord it over in the position of Death. How can a man, after having met you, become poor or short-lived?

वरस् तु मे वरणीयः स एव यद् आत्म-विज्ञानम्॥

Varaḥ tu me varaṇīyaḥ saḥ eva, but the boon that is worth praying for by me is that alone – that which is the knowledge of the Self.

यतश् च –
a-jīryatā, a-mṛta, upetya, jīryat, martya, ku-adhas-stha (kva tad-āstha), prajānat;
abhidhyāyat, varṇa-rati-pramoda, ati-dīrdha, jīvita, kim, √ram.

कः [विवेकी] [यः] अ-जीर्यताम् अ-मृतानाम् उपेत्य प्रजानन्, जीर्यन् [च],मर्त्यः [सन्] कु-अधस्-स्थः [अधः पृथिवी-स्थः सन्], वर्ण-रति-प्रमोदान् अभिध्यायन् [च] अति-दीर्धे जीविते रमेत?
After meeting the undecaying immortals up here, such as Yourself, knowing oneself as a decaying mortal living down below on earth, and thinking over these limited enjoyments from music and pleasuring, who would revel in such a long life (full of decay and unsatisfying)?
After meeting the undecaying immortals (up here, such as Yourself) (अ-जीर्यताम् अ-मृतानाम् उपेत्य),
knowing (oneself) as a decaying mortal living down below (on earth) (जीर्यन् मर्त्यः कु-अधस्-स्थः प्रजानन्),
(and) thinking over these (limited) enjoyments from music and pleasuring (अभिध्यायन् वर्ण-रति-प्रमोदान्),
who would revel in (such) a long life (full of decay and unsatisfying) (अति-दीर्धे जीविते कः रमेत)?
अ-जीर्यतां वयो-हानिम् अ-प्राप्नुवताम् अ-मृतानां स-काशम् उपेत्य उपगम्य आत्मन उत्कृष्टं प्रयोजनान्तरं प्राप्तव्यं तेभ्यः प्रजानन्न् उपलभमानः, स्वयं तु जीर्यन् मर्त्यः जरा-मरणवान् क्व्-अधः-स्थः कुः पृथिवी अधश् च अन्तर्-इक्षादि-लोकापेक्षया तस्यां तिष्ठतीति क्व्-अधः-स्थः सन् कथम् एवम् अ-विवेकिभिः प्रार्थनीयं पुत्र-वित्त-हिरण्याद्य् अ-स्थिरं वृणीते।
Upetya, having approached the proximity; a-jīryatām, of the undecaying, of those who do not undergo the loss of age; a-mṛtānām, of the immortals; (and) prajānan, knowing, perceiving – that some other better benefit can be derived from them; but himself being jīryan martyaḥ, subject to decrepitude and death; (and himself) kvadhaḥ-sthaḥ, living on the earth – the word being derived thus; ku is the earth and it is adhaḥ, below, in relation to the sky and other regions; one who lives (tiṣṭhati) there is kv-adhaḥ-sthaḥ. (Being so) how can he ask for such evanescent things as sons, wealth, gold, etc. which are fit to be prayed for by the non-discriminating people?

क्व तद्-आस्थः?” इति वा पाठान्तरम्। अस्मिन् पक्षे चैवम् अ-क्षर-योजना – तेषु पुत्रादिषु आस्था आस्थितिः तात्-पर्येण वर्त्तनं यस्य स तद्-आस्थः। ततोऽधिकतरं पुरुषार्थं दुष्-प्रापम् अपि प्रापिपयिषुः क्व तद्-आस्थो भवेद्? न कश्चित् तद्-अ-सार-ज्ञस् तद्-अर्थी स्याद् इत्य् अर्थः। सर्वो ह्य् उपर्य् उपरि एव बुभूषति लोकः।
Or there may be a different reading – kva tad-āsthaḥ – in which case the words are to be construed thus: tad-āsthaḥ is one who has āsthā, absorption in, resorts to with absorption (teṣu) in those, sons etc; kva (means) where. (So the phrase means) – where will one, who wishes to achieve a human goal higher than that, difficult though it is to secure, become tad-āsthaḥ, occupied with them? The idea is that nobody who knows their worthlessness will hanker after them. For every person verily wants to go higher and higher up.

तस्मान् न पुत्र-वित्तादि-लोभैः प्रलोभ्योऽहम्। किञ्च, अप्सरः-प्रमुखान् वर्ण-रति-प्रमोदान् अन्-अवस्थित-रूपतया अभिध्यायन् निरूपयन् यथावद् अति-दीर्घे जीविते को विवेकी रमेत

Therefore, I am not to be seduced by the lure of sons, wealth, etc. Moreover, kaḥ, who – what sensible man; abhidhyāyam, while deliberating on – ascertaining the real nature of; varṇa-rati-pramodān, music, disport, and delight – derivable from celestial nymphs etc.; as transitory, rameta, will delight; ati-dīrghe jīvite, in a long life?

अतो विहाय अ-नित्यैः कामैः प्रलोभनम्, यन् मया प्रार्थितम् –
Hence give up alluring me with transitory things, and {tell) what I have prayed for:
yad, idam, vicikitsat, mṛtyu, yad, sāmparāya, √mah, √brū, asmad, tad;
yad, idam, vara, gūḍha, anupraviṣṭa, na, anya, tad, naciketas, √vṛ.

मृत्यो, यस्मिन् इदं विचिकित्सन्ति, यद् तद् साम्पराये [=पर-लोक-साधने] नः महति ब्रूहि। यः अयं वरः गूढम् अनुप्रविष्टः, तस्मात् अन्यं नचिकेताः न वृणीते॥
This in which people are entertaining doubts, O Lord Death, that concerns the great passage beyond, please tell that to us. This boon (this question) has become a mystery to be believed or not, so I do not choose anything else than that boon.
This in which people are entertaining doubts (यस्मिन् इदं विचिकित्सन्ति), O Lord Death (मृत्यो),
that concerns the great passage beyond (यद् साम्पराये महति), please tell that to us (ब्रूहि नः तद्).
This boon (this question) has become a mystery (to be believed or not) (यः अयं वरः गूढम् अनुप्रविष्टः),
(so I) Naciketas does not choose anything else than that (boon) (न अन्यं तस्मात् नचिकेताः वृणीते).
यस्मिन् प्रेते इदं विचिकित्सनं विचिकित्सन्ति अस्ति नास्ति इत्य् एवं-प्रकारं, हे मृत्यो, साम्पराये पर-लोक-विषये महति महत्-प्रयोजन-निमित्ते आत्मनो निर्णय-विज्ञानं यत् तत् ब्रूहि कथय नोऽस्मभ्यम्।
Martyo, O Death, brūhi naḥ, tell us; tat, that, which is prayed for by me; yasmin, about which – which Self; people idam vicikitsanti, entertain this doubt – as to whether it exists or not; sāmparāye, in the context of the next world – when a man dies; yat, which – which conclusive knowledge of the Self; mahati, is calculated to lead to a great result.

किं बहुना, ‘योऽयं प्रकृत आत्म-विषयो वरो गूढं गहनं दुर्-विवेचनं प्राप्तोऽनुप्रविष्टः, तस्माद् वराद् अन्यम् अ-विवेकिभिः प्रार्थनीयम् अ-नित्य-विषयं वरं नचिकेता न वृणीते मनसापि’ इति श्रुतेर् वचनम् इति॥

To be brief, ayam varaḥ, this boon – that relates to the Self under discussion; yaḥ, which (boon); gūḍham anupraviṣṭaḥ, has entered into an inaccessible recess – has become very inscrutable; apart from that boon anyam, any other – any boon with regard to the non-Self that can be sought after by senseless people; naciketā na vṛṇīte, Naciketas does not pray for – even in thought. This (last sentence) is a statement by the Upaniṣad itself (and is not an utterance of Naciketas).

॥इति प्रथमेऽध्याये प्रथमा वल्ली॥

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Lord Death grants Naciketas the final boon

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परीक्ष्य शिष्यं विद्या-योग्यतां चावगम्याह –
Having tested the disciple and found his fitness for knowledge, he (Yama) said:
anya, śreyas, anya, uta, eva, preyas, tad, ubha, nānā-artha, puruṣa, √si;
tad, śreyas, ādadāna, sādhu, √bhū, √hā, artha, yad, u, preyas, √vṛ.

अन्यद् श्रेयस्, अन्यद् उत एव प्रेयस्। ते उभे नाना-अर्थे पुरुषं सिनीतः। तयोः श्रेयस् आददानस्य साधु भवति। यः उ प्रेयस् वृणीते, [परम-]अर्थात् हीयते॥
(Lord Death teaches)
Śreyas (the beneficial) is one and preyas (the pleasurable) is another. Both these two with different goals bind the person. Between those two, śreyas (the beneficial) is effective for one who is pursuing the highest goal. The one who chooses preyas (the pleasurable) falls short of that goal.
(Lord Death teaches)
Śreyas (the beneficial) is one (अन्यद् श्रेयस्) and preyas (the pleasurable) is another (अन्यद् उत एव प्रेयस्).
Both these two with different goals (ते उभे नाना-अर्थे) bind the person (पुरुषं सिनीतः).
Between those two, śreyas (the beneficial) is effective (sādhu) for one who is pursuing (the highest goal) (तयोः श्रेयस् आददानस्य साधु भवति).
The one who chooses preyas (the pleasurable) falls short of the (highest) goal (हीयते अर्थात् यः उ प्रेयस् वृणीते).
अन्यत् पृथग् एव श्रेयो निःश्रेयसम्। तथा अन्यद् उत अपि एव प्रेयः प्रियतरम् अपि।
Śreyas, the preferable, the supreme goal (freedom); anyat eva, (is) certainly different. Similarly, uta, too; preyas, the more pleasant; anyat eva, (is) different indeed.

ते श्रेयः-प्रेयसी उभे नानार्थे भिन्न-प्रयोजने सती पुरुषम् अधिकृतं वर्णाश्रमादि-विशिष्टं सिनीतो बध्नीतः।
Te ubhe, both of them – the pleasurable and the preferable; nānā arthe, serving divergent purposes – as they do; sinītaḥ, bind; puruṣam, man – one who, as subject to caste, stage of life, etc;, is competent (for either).

ताभ्यां विद्याविद्याभ्याम् आत्म-कर्त्तव्यतया प्रयुज्यते सर्वः पुरुषः। श्रेयः-प्रेयसोर् हि अभ्युदयामृतत्वार्थी पुरुषः प्रवर्तते। अतः श्रेयः-प्रेयः-प्रयोजन-कर्त्तव्यतया ताभ्यां ‘बद्ध’ इत्य् उच्यते सर्वः पुरुषः।
All men are impelled by these two under an idea of personal duty; for according as one hankers after prosperity or immortality, one engages in the pleasurable or the preferable. Therefore, all men are said to be bound by these two through their sense of duty with regard to what leads to the pleasurable or the preferable. These two, though related severally to the (two) human goals
[•(i) Prosperity here and hereafter, and (ii) salvation.•],
are opposed to each other, inasmuch as they are of the nature of knowledge and ignorance.

ते यद्य् अप्य् एकैक-पुरुषार्थ-सम्बन्धिनी विद्याविद्या-रूपत्वाद् विरुद्धे इति अन्यतरापरित्यागेनैकेन पुरुषेण सहानुष्ठातुम्-अ-शक्यत्वात्, तयोः हित्वाऽविद्या-रूपं प्रेयः श्रेयः एव केवलम् आददानस्य उपादानं कुर्वतः साधु शोभनं शिवं भवति
Thus since these cannot be performed together by the same person, without discarding either of the two, therefore tayoḥ, of the two; ādadānasya, to one who accepts; only śreyas, the preferable, by discarding the pleasurable, (the latter) being of the nature of ignorance; sādhu bhavati, well-being, good, comes (as a result).

यस् त्व् अ-दूर-दर्शी विमूढो हीयते वियुज्यते। कस्माद् अर्थात् पुरुषार्थात् पारमार्थिकात् प्रयोजनान् नित्यात् प्रच्यवते इत्य् अर्थः। कोऽसौ? य उ प्रेयो वृणीते उपादत्ते इत्य् एतत्॥

But he who is a short-sighted, the ignorant man, hīyate, gets alienated; arthāt, from this objective, from the human goal, i.e. he falls from the eternal supreme purpose. Who is that man? Yaḥ u, the one that; preyas vṛṇīte, selects, i.e. takes hold of, the pleasurable.

यद्य् उभे अपि कर्तुं स्वायत्ते पुरुषेण, किम् अर्थं प्रेय एवादत्ते बाहुल्येन लोकः? इत्य् उच्यते –
If both can be done by a man at will, why do people cling mostly to the pleasurable only? This is being answered:
śreyas, preyas, ca, manuṣya, ā-√i, tad, samparitya, √vic, dhīra;
śreyas, hi, dhīra, abhi, preyas, √vṛ, preyas, manda, yoga-kṣema, √vṛ.

श्रेयस् च प्रेयस् च मनुष्यम् एतः। तौ सम्परीत्य, धीरः विविनक्ति। प्रेयसः धीरः श्रेयस् हि अभि वृणीते। योग-क्षेमात् मन्दः प्रेयस् वृणीते॥
The beneficial (śreyas) and the pleasurable (preyas) confront a person. The wise person examines and differentiates the two. The discerning person such as yourself chooses the beneficial over the pleasurable. The mediocre chooses the pleasurable out of the desire for acquiring and protecting pleasurable experiences.
The beneficial (śreyas) and the pleasurable (preyas) (श्रेयस् च प्रेयस् च) confront a person (मनुष्यम् एतः).
The discerning person examines and differentiates the two (तौ सम्परीत्य, विविनक्ति धीरः).
The discerning person (such as yourself) chooses the beneficial over the pleasurable (श्रेयस् हि धीरः अभि प्रेयसः वृणीते).
The mediocre chooses the pleasurable out of (the desire for) acquiring and protecting (pleasurable experiences) (प्रेयस् मन्दः योग-क्षेमात् वृणीते).
सत्यं स्वायत्ते। तथापि साधनतः फलतश् च मन्द-बुद्धीनां दुर्-विवेक-रूपे सती व्यामिश्री-भूते इव मनुष्यं पुरुषम् एतः प्राप्नुतः श्रेयश् च प्रेयश् च
True it is that they are subject to (human) option; still, since they are not easily distinguishable by men of poor intellect, either with regard to their means of with regard to their fruits, therefore, śreyas ca preyas ca, the preferable and the pleasurable; manuṣyam etaḥ (ā-itaḥ), approach this man, as though they are intermixed.

अतो हंस इव अम्भसः पयः, तौ श्रेयः-प्रेयः-पदार्थौ सम्परीत्य सम्यक्-परिगम्य मनसा आलोच्य गुरु-लाघवं विविनक्ति पृथक् करोति धीरो धीमान्। विविच्य च श्रेयो हि श्रेय एव अभिवृणीते प्रेयसः अभ्यर्हितत्वाच् छ्रेयसः। कोऽसौ? धीरः
Therefore, just as a swan separates milk from water, similarly dhīraḥ, a man of intelligence; samparītya, having surveyed fully, having considered mentally their importance and unimportance; vivinaki, separates; tau, those two, viz the preferable and the pleasurable things. And having distinguished, śreyas hi, the electable indeed; abhivṛṇīte, (he) selects, because of its higher value; preyasaḥ, in comparison with the delectable. Who is he (that prefers)? Dhīraḥ, the intelligent man.

यस् तु मन्दः अल्प-बुद्धिः स विवेकासामर्थ्याद् योग-क्षेमात् योग-क्षेम-निमित्तं शरीराद्य्-उपचय-रक्षण-निमित्तम् इत्य् एतत् प्रेयः पशु-पुत्रादि-लक्षणं वृणीते

As for the mandaḥ, the man of poor intelligence; he, because of a lack of discrimination, yoga-kṣemāt, for the sake of yoga and kṣema, i.e. for the growth and protection of the body etc.; vṛṇīte, selects; preyas, the delectable, constituted by cattle, sons, etc.

tad, yuṣmad, priya, priya-rūpa, ca, kāma, abhidhyāyat, naciketas, ati-√sṛj;
na, etad, sṛṅkā, vittamayī, avāpta, yad, √majj, bahu, manuṣya.

नचिकेतस्, प्रियान् प्रिय-रूपान् च कामान् अभिध्यायन्, सः त्वं [तान्] अत्यस्राक्षीः। यस्यां बहवः मनुष्याः मज्जन्ति, एतां वित्तमयीं सृङ्कां [त्वं] न अवाप्तः॥
Having considered the pleasing and attractive sense objects, you indeed discarded them both, O Naciketas. You did not accept this precious garland, in which many people lose themselves.
You indeed (सः त्वं), the pleasing and attractive sense objects (प्रियान् प्रिय-रूपान् च कामान्)
having considered (अभिध्यायन्), O Naciketas (नचिकेतस्), discarded (them both) (अत्यस्राक्षीः).
(You) did not accept this precious garland (न एतां सृङ्कां वित्तमयीं अवाप्तः),
in which many people lose (themselves) (यस्यां मज्जन्ति बहवः मनुष्याः).
स त्वं पुनः पुनो मया प्रलोभ्यमानोऽपि प्रियान् पुत्रादीन् प्रिय-रूपांश् च अप्सरः-प्रभृति-लक्षणान् कामान् अभिध्यायन् चिन्तयन् तेषाम् अ-नित्यत्वासारत्वादि-दोषान् हे नचिकेतः अत्यस्राक्षीः अतिसृष्टवान् परित्यक्तवान् असि।
Saḥ tvam, you, such as you are – though tempted by me again and again; abhidhyāyan, having considered – the defects such as impermanence and insubstantiality of; kāmān, desirable things; viz priyān, dear ones, such as children etc.; ca, and; priya-rūpān, producers of delight, such as nymphs etc.
[•Children are one’s own Self, as it were, whereas nymphs are a degree removed from one.•];
naciketaḥ, O Naciketas; atyasrākṣīḥ, you have discarded.

अहो बुद्धिमत्ता तव। न एताम् अवाप्तवान् असि सृङ्कां (KathU.1.1.16) सृतिं कुत्सितां मूढ-जन-प्रवृत्तां वित्तमयीं धन-प्रायाम्, यस्यां सृतौ मज्जन्ति सीदन्ति बहवः अन्-एके मूढा मनुष्याः

What an intelligence you have! Na, avāptaḥ, you have not accepted; etām, this; ugly sṛṅkām, course; vittamayīm, abounding in wealth, which is resorted to by ignorant people; yasyām, in which course; bahavaḥ, many; manuṣyāḥ, men; majjanti, sink, come to grief.

तयोः श्रेय आददानस्य साधु भवति हीयतेऽर्थाद् य उ प्रेयो वृणीते इति ह्य् उक्तम्। तत् कस्माद्? यतः –
It has been said, ‘Good befalls him who accepts the preferable among these two. He who selects the pleasurable, falls from the true end.’ (KathU.1.2.1) Why is that so? Because:
dūram, etad, viparīta, viṣvañc, a-vidyā, yad, ca, vidyā, iti, jñātā;
vidyā-abhīpsina, naciketas, √man, na, yuṣmad, kāma, bahu, √lup.

अविद्या विद्या च इति या ज्ञाता, एते दूरं विपरीते विषूची। त्वा नचिकेतसं विद्या-अभीप्सिनं मन्ये, [यस्मात्] बहवः कामाः न अलोलुपन्त॥
Preyas and śreyas are widely opposed and diverging (leading to bondage and to freedom, respectively), and are also known as a-vidyā and vidyā (ignorance and knowledge). I consider Naciketas to be a seeker of knowledge, since these numerous sense objects did not tempt you.
These two (preyas and śreyas) are widely opposed (दूरम् एते विपरीते) (and) diverging (विषूची),
are (also) known as a-vidyā (ignorance) and vidyā (knowledge) (अविद्या या च विद्या इति ज्ञाता).
I consider Naciketas to be a seeker of knowledge (विद्या-अभीप्सिनं नचिकेतसं मन्ये),
(since) these numerous sense objects did not tempt you (न त्वा कामाः बहवः अलोलुपन्त).
दूरं दूरेण महतान्तरेण एते विपरीते अन्योन्य-व्यावृत्त-रूपे विवेकाविवेकात्मकत्वात् तमः-प्रकाशौ इव। विषूची विषूच्यौ नाना-गती, भिन्न-फले संसार-मोक्ष-हेतुत्वेन इत्य् एतत्।
Ete, these two; are dūram, widely, by a great distance; viparīte, contradictory, mutually exclusive, like light and darkness, they being of the nature of discrimination and non-discrimination; viṣūcī (i.e. viṣūcyau), have divergent courses, i.e. they produce different results, being the causes, of worldly existence and emancipation. This is the idea.

के ते इत्य् उच्यते – या च अ-विद्या प्रेयो-विषया विद्येति च श्रेयो-विषया ज्ञाता निर्ज्ञाताऽवगता पण्डितैः। तत्र विद्याभीप्सिनं विद्यार्थिनं नचिकेतसं त्वाम् अहं मन्ये
Which are they? The answer is: Yā ca, that which; jñātā, is fully ascertained, known by the learned; a-vidyā iti, as ignorance – which has for its object the pleasurable; yās ca, and that which; (is known) vidyā iti, as knowledge – which has for its object the preferable. Of these two, manye, I consider; you naciketasam, Naciketas; vidyā-abhīpsinam, as desirous of knowledge.

कस्मात्? यस्माद् अ-विद्वद्-बुद्धि-प्रलोभिनः कामाः अप्सरः-प्रभृतयः बहवः अपि त्वा त्वां न अ-लोलुपन्त न विच्छेदं कृतवन्तः श्रेयो-मार्गाद् आत्मोपभोगाभिवाञ्छा-सम्पादनेन। अतो विद्यार्थिनं श्रेयो-भाजनं मन्ये इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

Why? Because, kāmāḥ, the enjoyable things, such as nymphs etc. – which distract the intellect of the unenlightened; although they are bahavaḥ, many; they na a-lolupanta, did not tempt; tvā, you – tvā being the same as tvām; did not deflect you from the path of the preferable by arousing a desire for enjoying them. Therefore, I consider you to be craving for enlightenment, to be fit for the preferable (śreyas) – this is the idea.

ये तु संसार-भाजो जनाः –
But those who are fit for worldly existence they:
a-vidyā, antare, vartamāna, svayam, dhīra, paṇḍitam-manyamāna;
dandramyamāṇa, pari-√i, mūḍha, andha, eva, nīyamāna, yathā, andha.

अविद्यायाम् अन्तरे वर्तमानाः, स्वयं पण्डितं मन्यमानाः धीराः, मूढाः दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति, यथा अन्धाः अन्धेन एव नीयमानाः॥
Steeped in ignorance, considering themselves to be wise, the deluded people go around continually wandering (not reaching a final goal), like the blind led by the blind they follow each other.
Steeped in ignorance (अविद्यायाम् अन्तरे वर्तमानाः),
considering themselves to be wise (स्वयं धीराः पण्डितं-मन्यमानाः),
the deluded people go around continually wandering (not reaching the highest goal) (दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति मूढाः),
like the blind led by the blind (they follow each other) (अन्धेन एव नीयमानाः यथा अन्धाः).
अ-विद्यायाम् अन्तरे मध्ये घनी-भूते इव तमसि वर्त्तमानाः वेष्ट्यमानाः पुत्र-पश्वादि-तृष्णा-पाश-शतैः, स्वयं वयं धीराः प्रज्ञावन्तः पण्डिताः शास्त्र-कुशलाश् चेति मन्यमानाः
Vartamānāḥ, living; a-vidyāyām antare, in the midst of ignorance – as though in the midst of thick darkness, being entangled in hundreds of fetters, forged by craving for sons, cattle, etc.; manyamānāḥ, considering – thinking of themselves; ‘svayam, we ourselves are; dhīrāḥ, intelligent; (paṇḍataṃ-manyamānāḥ) and paṇḍitāḥ, versed in the scriptures’

ते दन्द्रम्यमाणाः अत्य्-अर्थं कुटिलाम् अन्-एक-रूपां गतिं गच्छन्तो जरा-मरण-रोगादि-दुःखैः परियन्ति परिगच्छन्ति मूढा अ-विवेकिनः, अन्धेनैव दृष्टि-विहीनेनैव नीयमाना विषमे पथि यथा बहवः अन्धाः, महान्तम् अन्-अर्थम् ऋच्छन्ति तद्वत्॥

Those mūḍhāḥ, senseless, non-discriminating people; pariyanti, go round and round; dandramyamāṇāḥ, by following
[•Our reading is gacchantaḥ. A different reading is icchantaḥ wishing for.•]
very much the various crooked courses, being afflicted by old age, death, disease, etc.; just as many andhāḥ, blind people; nīyamānāḥ, being led; andhena eva, by the blind indeed, on an uneven road, come to great calamity.

अत एव मूढत्वात् –
Because of this alone, because of ignorance, the means for the attainment of the other world does non become revealed (to them):
na, sāmparāya, prati, √bhā (prati-√bhā), bāla, pramādyat, vitta-moha, mūḍha;
idam, loka, na, √as, para, iti, mānin, punar, punar, vasa, ā-√pad, asmad.

साम्परायः वित्त-मोहेन मूढं प्रमाद्यन्तं बालं न प्रति भाति। ‘अयं लोकः, अस्ति न परः’ इति मानी पुनर् पुनर् मे वशम् आपद्यते॥
Being distracted by an infatuation for this world’s ephemeral wealth and remaining deluded, the passage beyond is not clear to the immature. Thinking, “This (the sense-objects alone) is the world, there is nothing more,” one again and again falls under Death’s control.
The passage beyond is not clear to the immature (न साम्परायः प्रति भाति बालम्),
being distracted by an infatuation for (this world’s ephemeral) wealth, (remaining) deluded (प्रमाद्यन्तं वित्त-मोहेन मूढम्).
Thinking, “This (the sense-objects alone) is the world, there is nothing more” (‘अयं लोकः, न अस्ति परः’ इति मानी),
this one again and again falls under My (Death’s) control (पुनर् पुनर् वशम् आपद्यते मे).
न साम्परायः प्रति भाति। सम्परे ईयते इति सम्परायः पर-लोकः, तत्-प्राप्ति-प्रयोजनः साधन-विशेषः शास्त्रीयः साम्परायः। स च बालम् अ-विवेकिनं प्रति न प्रतिभाति न प्रकाशते नोपतिष्ठते इत्य् एतत्। प्रमाद्यन्तं प्रमादं कुर्वन्तं पुत्र-पश्वादि-प्रयोजनेष्व् आसक्त-मनसम्। तथा वित्त-मोहेन वित्त-निमित्तेनाविवेकेन मूढं तमस्-आच्छन्नं सन्तम्।
Samparāyaḥ is the other world, attainable after the falling of the body (sampara); Sāmparāyaḥ is any particular scriptural means leading to the attainment of that other world. And this (means) na prati-bhāti, does not become revealed, i.e. does not become serviceable; bālam, to a boy, to a non-discriminating man; (who is) pramādyantam, blundering – whose mind clings to such needs as children, cattle, etc.; and so also who is mūḍham, confounded, being covered by darkness (of ignorance); vitta-mohena, because of the non-discrimination caused by wealth.

अयम् एव लोको योऽयं दृश्यमानः स्त्र्य्-अन्न-पानादि-विशिष्टः, नास्ति परः अ-दृष्टो लोकः, इत्य् एवं मनन-शीलः मानीपुनः पुनो जनित्वा वशं मद्-अधीनताम् आपद्यते मे मृत्योर् मम। जनन-मरणादि-लक्षण-दुःख-प्रबन्धारूढ एव भवतीत्य् अर्थः। प्रायेण ह्य् एवं-विध एव लोकः॥

Ayam lokaḥ, there is only this world – that which is visible and abounds with women, food, drink, etc.; na paraḥ asti, there is no other world, that is invisible’ – iti mānī, constantly thinking thus; (he) getting born, punaḥ punaḥ, again and again; āpadyate, becomes subject to; the vaśam, control; me, of me, who am Death; that is, he remains involved in a succession of grief in the form of birth, death, etc. Such is the world in general.

यस् तु श्रेयोर्-अर्थी स सहस्रेषु कश्चिद् एवात्म-विद् भवति त्वद्-विधः यस्मात् –
But among thousands, it is only one like you who hankers after the preferable, and who becomes a knower of the Self. Because:
śravaṇa, api, bahu, yad, na, labhya, śṛṇvat, api, bahu, yad, na, √vid;
āścarya, vaktṛ, kuśala, idam, labdhṛ, āścarya, jñātṛ, kuśala, anuśiṣṭa.

यः [आत्मा] बहुभिः न श्रवणाय अपि लभ्यः, यं बहवः शृण्वन्तः अपि न विद्युः, अस्य वक्ता आश्चर्यः, कुशलः लब्धा आश्चार्यः कुशल-अनुशिष्टः ज्ञाता [च]॥
This nature of the person (KathU.1.1.21) is not available to many even for hearing, and which many, even having heard, do not know. The teacher of this is a wonder and still only a proper student gets it. The one who knows, traditionally instructed by a competent teacher is also a wonder.
This (nature of the person, the dharma, the ātman, the subject of this knowledge) is not available to many even for hearing (श्रवणाय अपि बहुभिः यः न लभ्यः),
and which many, even having heard, do not know (शृण्वन्तः अपि बहवः यं न विद्युः).
The teacher of this (ātman) is a wonder (and still only) a proper (student) gets it (आश्चर्यः वक्ता कुशलः अस्य लब्धा).
The one who knows, traditionally instructed by a competent (teacher) is (also) a wonder (आश्चार्यः ज्ञाता कुशल-अनुशिष्टः).
श्रवणाय अपि श्रवणार्थं श्रोतुम् अपि यो न लभ्यः आत्मा बहुभिः अन्-एकैः। शृण्वन्तोऽपि बहवोऽन्-एकेऽन्ये यम् आत्मानं न विद्युर् न विदन्ति, अ-भागिनोऽसंस्कृतात्मानो न विजानीयुः।
Yaḥ, that which – the Self that; na labhyaḥ, is not attainable; bahubhiḥ, by many; śravaṇāya api, even for the sake of hearing; yam, which – which Self; bahavaḥ, many (others); śṛṇvantaḥ api, even while hearing; na vidyuḥ, (vidanti), do not know; the unfortunate whose minds have not been purified may not know.

किञ्च, अस्य वक्ता अपि आश्चर्यः अद्भुतवद् एव, अन्-एकेषु कश्चिद् एव भवति।
Moreover, even asya vaktā, Its expounder; (is) āścaryaḥ, wonderful – comparable to a wonder – a rare one, indeed, among many.

तथा श्रुत्वापि अस्य आत्मनः कुशलः निपुण एवानेकेषु लब्धा कश्चिद् एव भवति। यस्माद् आश्चर्यो ज्ञाता कश्चिद् एव कुशलानुशिष्टः कुशलेन निपुणेनाचार्येण अनुशिष्टः सन्॥

Similarly, even after hearing of this Self, kusalaḥ, one who is proficient – a rare one among many; becomes the labdhā, attainer. For āścāryaḥ jñātā, a wonderful man – a rare soul – becomes a knower; kuśala-anuśiṣṭaḥ, being instructed by a proficient teacher.

कस्मात् –
Why (so)? Because:
na, nara, avara, prokta, etad, su-vijñeya, bahudhā, cintyamāna;
an-anya-prokta, a-gati, atra, na, √as, aṇīyas, hi, a-tarkya, aṇu-pramāṇa.

अवरेण नरेण प्रोक्तः एषः न सु-विज्ञेयः, बहुधा चिन्त्यमानः, अन्-अन्य-प्रोक्ते अत्र अ-गतिः न अस्ति, अ-तर्क्यम् अणीयान् हि अणु-प्रमानात्॥
This ātman, the self, taught by an incompetent person cannot be clearly known, it being speculated in so many ways. Taught by one who is non-different from it there is no going astray. It is beyond logic, since it is subtler than any subtle means of measuring.
This (ātman, the self) taught by an incompetent person (can) not (न नरेण अवरेण प्रोक्तः एषः)
be clearly known (सु-विज्ञेयः), it being speculated in so many ways (बहुधा चिन्त्यमानः).
Taught by one who is non-different (from it) there is no going astray (अन्-अन्य-प्रोक्ते अ-गतिः अत्र न अस्ति).
It is beyond logic, since it is subtler than (any) subtle means of measuring (अ-तर्क्यम् अणीयान् हि अणु-प्रमानात्).
हि नरेण मनुष्येण अवरेण प्रोक्तः – अवरेण हीनेन प्राकृत-बुद्धिनेत्य् एतद् – उक्त एष आत्मा यं त्वं मां पृच्छसि, न हि सुष्ठु सम्यक् विज्ञेयः विज्ञातुं शक्यः। यस्माद् बहुधा ‘अस्ति नास्ति’ कर्ताकर्ता शुद्धोऽशुद्धः इत्य्-आद्य्-अन्-एकधा चिन्त्यमानो वादिभिः।
Eṣaḥ, this – the Self about whom you ask me; (when) proktaḥ, spoken of; avareṇa nareṇa, by an inferior man, i.e. by a man of worldly understanding; na hi su-vijñeyaḥ, is not certainly capable of being adequately understand; for It is bahudhā, variously – such as ‘It exists’, ‘It does not exist’, ‘It is the doer’, ‘It is not the doer’, ‘It is pure’, ‘It is impure’, etc.; cintyamānaḥ, deliberated on – by disputants.

कथं पुनः सु-विज्ञेय इत्य् उच्यते –
How, again, is It well understand? This is being said:

१) अन्-अन्य-प्रोक्ते अन्-अन्येन अ-पृथग्-दर्शिना आचार्येण प्रतिपाद्य-ब्रह्मात्म-भूतेन प्रोक्ते उक्ते आत्मनि गतिर् अन्-एकधा अस्ति-नास्तीत्य्-आदि-लक्षणा चिन्ता गतिः अत्र अस्मिन्न् आत्मनि नास्ति न विद्यते। सर्व-विकल्प-गति-प्रत्यस्त-मितत्वाद् आत्मनः।
The Self an-anya-prokte, when spoken of by a non-different man, by the teacher who does not see duality, who has become identified with the Brahman that is to be revealed (by him)
[•Or, ‘revealed in the UpaniṣadsBala-gopalendra•];
atra, here, with regard to the Self; na asti, there does not remain; gatiḥ, cogitation, of various kinds as to whether It exists or not; for from the Self is ruled out all thoughts involving doubt.

२) अथवा स्वात्म-भूते अन्-अन्यस्मिन् आत्मनि प्रोक्ते अन्-अन्य-प्रोक्ते गतिर् अत्र अन्यावगतिर् नास्ति ज्ञेयस्यान्यस्याभावात्। ज्ञानस्य ह्य् एषा परा काष्ठा (निष्ठा) यद् आत्मैकत्व-विज्ञानम्। अतः अवगन्तव्याभावान् न गतिर् अत्रावशिष्यते।
Or - an-anya-prokte, when the (supreme) Self, that is non-different from, and is, one’s very Self, is adequately taught
[•Or, ‘taught as non-different from, and as, one's very Self’ -Bala-gopalendra.•];
na asti gatiḥ, there is no other comprehension
[•Apart from the realization: ‘I am Brahman.’•]
atra, of this Self; because there is nothing else
[•Apart from the unity of the Self and Brahman.•]
to be known. For the realization of the unity of the Self is the culmination of all knowledge. Therefore, as there is no knowable, there remains nothing to be known here.

३) संसार-गतिर् वा अत्र नास्ति, अन्-अन्ये आत्मनि प्रोक्ते न-अन्तरीयकत्वात् तद्-विज्ञान-फलस्य मोक्षस्य।
Or – when the non-different Self is spoken of na asti atra gatiḥ, there remains no transmigration
[•Bala-gopalendra interprets saṃsāra-gati as the appearance of duality as a reality. This appearance ceases after Self-knowledge.•];
for emancipation, which is the result of that realization, follows immediately.

४) अथवा प्रोच्यमान-ब्रह्मात्म-भूतेन आचार्येण अन्-अन्यतया प्रोक्ते आत्मनि अ-गतिः अन्-अवबोधः अ-परिज्ञानम् अत्र नास्ति। भवत्य् एव_अवगतिस् तद्-विषया श्रोतुः, ‘तद् अस्म्य् अहम्’ इत्य्, आचार्यस्य इव इत्य् अर्थः।
Or – when the Self is spoken of by a teacher who has become identified with Brahman that he speaks of, there is na a-gatiḥ, no non-comprehension, non-realization. To this hearer the realization about that Self does come as, ‘I am that (Self)’, just as it did in the case of the teacher. This is the idea.

एवं सु-विज्ञेयः आत्मा आगमवता_आचार्येण अन्-अन्यतया प्रोक्तः।
Thus is the Self well understood when It is taught to be non-different (from the taught) by a teacher who is well versed in the scriptures.
[•’When It is taught by a teacher, well versed in the scriptures and established in a state of non-difference’ -Bala-gopalendra.•]

इतरथा हि अणीयान् अणुतरः अणु-प्रमाणाद् अपि सम्पद्यते आत्मा। अ-तर्क्यम् अ-तर्क्यः स्व-बुद्ध्या अभ्यूहेन केवलेन तर्केण। तर्क्यमाणेऽणु-परिमाणे केनचित् स्थापिते आत्मनि, ततो ह्य् अणुतरम् अन्योऽभ्यूहति, ततोऽप्य् अन्योऽणुतमम् इति। न हि कु-तर्कस्य निष्ठा क्वचिद् विद्यते॥

Else the Self becomes aṇīyān, more subtle; even aṇu-pramāṇāt, than an atomic thing. (For It is) a-tarkyam (should be a-tarkyaḥ), cannot be argued out – cannot be known through mere reasoning called up through one’s own (independent) intellect
[•As distinguished from the intellect purified by the teaching of an adept.•]
For if the Self be regarded as an object of argumentation and postulated to be atomic in quantity, someone else may hold It to be subtler than that, while still another may hold It to be the subtlest. Thus there is no finality about sophistry.

na, etad, tarka, mati, āpaneya, proktā, anya, eva, su-jñāna, preṣṭha;
yad, yuṣmad, √āp, satya-dhṛti, bata, √as, tvā-dṛś, asmad, √bhū, naciketas, praṣṭṛ.

एषा मतिः न तर्केण आपनेया। प्रेष्ठ, प्रोक्ता अन्येन एव सु-ज्ञानाय। यां आपः त्वं सत्य-धृतिः बत असि। नचिकेतस्, नः प्रष्टा त्वा-दृक् भूयात्॥
This knowledge cannot be attained or taught by logic alone. Taught by one who is competent, it is easy to understand, O dearest one. And you got such a teacher in Me by your boon. Ah, you have true resolve. May we have more seekers like you, O Naciketas.
This knowledge cannot be attained (or taught) by logic (alone) (न एषा तर्केण मतिः आपनेया).
Taught by another (who is competent) it is for easy understanding, O dearest one (प्रोक्ता अन्येन एव सु-ज्ञानाय, प्रेष्ठ),
which you got (by your boon) (यां त्वम् आपः). Ah, you have true resolve (सत्य-धृतिः बत असि).
May we have more seekers like you, O Naciketas (त्वा-दृक् नः भूयात्, नचिकेतस्, प्रष्टा).
अतोऽन्-अन्य-प्रोक्ते आत्मन्य् उत्पन्ना या, इयम् आगम-प्रतिपाद्या आत्म-मतिः नैषा तर्केण स्व-बुद्ध्य्-अभ्यूह-मात्रेण आपनेया न प्रापणीयेत्य् अर्थः। न अपनेतव्या वा, न हातव्या। तार्किको हि अन्-आगम-ज्ञः स्व-बुद्धि-परिकल्पितं यत् किञ्चिद् एव कथयति। अत एव च येयम् आगम-प्रभूता मतिः अन्येनैव आगमाभिज्ञेनाचार्येण एव तार्किकात् प्रोक्ता सती सु-ज्ञानाय भवति हे प्रेष्ठ प्रियतम।
Therefore eṣā, this – this wisdom about the Self, as presented by Vedas, that arises when the Self is taught by one who has become identified with It; na āpaneyā, i.e. na prāpaṇīyā, is not to be attained; tarkeṇa, through argumentation – called up merely by one’s own intellect. Or (reading the word as na apaneyā, the expression na apaneyā means), should not be eradicated, should not be destroyed. For a logician who is not versed in the Vedas, talks of all sorts of things that can be called up by his own intellect. Therefore, preṣṭha, O dearest one; this wisdom that originates from the Vedas, su-jñānāya (bhavati), leads to sound knowledge; when proktā, imparted; anyena eva, by a different person indeed – by a teacher who is versed in the Vedas and is different from the logician.

का पुनः सा तर्कागम्या मतिः इत्य् उच्यते –
What, again, is that belief which is beyond argumentation? This is being said:

यां त्वं मतिं मद्-वर-प्रदानेन आपः प्राप्तवान् असि। सत्या अ-वि-तथ-विषया धृतिर् यस्य तव स त्वं सत्य-धृतिर् बत असि इत्य् अनुकम्पयन्न् आह मृत्युर् नचिकेतसं वक्ष्यमाण-विज्ञान-स्तुतये। त्वा-दृक् त्वत्-तुल्यः नः अस्मभ्यं भूयात् भवतात् भवत्व् अन्यः पुत्रः शिष्यो वा प्रष्टा। की-दृक्? या-दृक् त्वं हे नचिकेतः प्रष्टा

Yām, that which – the wisdom that; tvam āpaḥ, you have attained, through the granting of the boon by me. Asi, you are; satya-dhṛtiḥ, of true resolution – your resolves refer to real things. Death utters the word bata (a particle expressing compassion) out of compassion for Naciketas, thereby eulogizing the knowledge that is going to be imparted. Any other praṣṭā, questioner – whether a son or a disciple; (that there may be) naḥ, to us; bhūyāt, may he be; tvā-dṛk, like you. Of what sort? The kind of questioner that you are; naciketaḥ, O Naciketas.

पुनर् अपि तुष्ट आह –
Being pleased, he said again:
√jñā, asmad, śeva-dhi, iti, a-nitya, na, hi, a-dhruva, pra-√āp, hi, dhṛuvam, tad;
tatas, asmad, nāciketa, cita, agni, a-nitya, dravya, prāptavat, √as, nitya.

शेव-धिः अ-नित्यं इति अहं जानामि, अ-ध्रुवैः हि तद् ध्रुवं न हि प्राप्यते। ततस् मया नाचिकेतः अग्निः अ-नित्यैः द्रव्यैः चितः। नित्यं [याम्यं स्थानं] प्राप्तवान् अस्मि॥
I was knowing that what is held dear (the fruits of action) are impermanent, because the permanent cannot indeed be attained by impermanent actions. Yet still I piled up the Nāciketa fire, and attained this (relative) permanent post in heaven by these impermanent materials.
I (was) knowing that what is said to be held dear (the fruits of our action) are impermanent (जानामि अहं शेव-धिः इति अ-नित्यम्),
because the permanent cannot indeed be attained by the impermanent (actions) (न हि अ-ध्रुवैः प्राप्यते हि ध्रुवं तद्).
Yet (still) I indeed piled up the Nāciketa fire (ततस् मया नाचिकेतः चितः अग्निः)
(and) attained this (relative) permanence (My post in heaven) by these impermanent materials (अ-नित्यैः द्रव्यैः प्राप्तवान् अस्मि नित्यम्).
जानाम्य् अहं शेव-धिः निधिः कर्म-फल-लक्षणः, निधिः इव प्रार्थ्यत इति। असौ अ-नित्यम् अ-नित्य इति जानामि। न हि यस्माद् अ-नित्यैः अ-ध्रुवैः नित्यं ध्रुवं तत् प्राप्यते परमात्माख्यः शेव-धिः।
Aham jānāmi, I know; iti, (this fact) that; śeva-dhiḥ, the treasure – comprising the fruits of action, which are prayed for like a treasure; that (treasure) is a-nityam (rather a-nityaḥ), impermanent. Hi, for; a-dhruvaiḥ, through impermanent things; tat, that; dhruvam, permanent entity – which is the treasure called the supreme Self; na prāpyate, cannot be attained.

यस् त्व् अ-नित्य-सुखात्मकः शेव-धिः स एवानित्यैर् द्रव्यैः प्राप्यते हि यतः, ततः तस्मान् मया जानतापि ‘नित्यम् अ-नित्य-साधनैः न प्राप्यते’ इति नाचिकेतश् चितोऽग्निर् अ-नित्यैर् द्रव्यैः पश्वादिभिः स्वर्ग-सुख-साधन-भूतोऽग्निः निर्वर्त्तित इत्य् अर्थः। तेनाहम् अधिकारापन्नो नित्यं याम्यं स्थानं स्वर्गाख्यं नित्यम् आपेक्षिकं प्राप्तवान् अस्मि

But that treasure alone, which consists of impermanent pleasure, is attained through impermanent things. Hi, since, this is so; tataḥ, therefore; mayā, by me – knowing as I did, that the permanent cannot be attained through evanescent means; nāciketaḥ agniḥ, the fire called Nāciketaḥ; citaḥ, was piled up, i.e. the sacrifice that is meant for the acquisition of heavenly bliss, was accomplished; a-nityaiḥ dravyaiḥ, with impermanent things – by animals etc. Having acquired the requisite merit thereby, prāptavān asmi, I have achieved; nityam, the permanent – the relatively permanent abode of Death, which is called heaven.

kāma, āpti, jagat, pratiṣṭhā, kratu, an-antya, a-bhaya, pāra;
stoma-mahat, uru-gāya, pratiṣṭhā, dṛṣṭvā, dhṛti, dhīra, naciketas, ati-√sṛj.

नचिकेतस्, कामस्य आप्तिं, जगतः प्रतिष्ठां, क्रतोः [फलम्] अन्-अन्त्यं, अ-भयस्य पारं, स्तोम-महत्, उरु-गायं, [स्वं] प्रतिष्ठां दृष्ट्वा – धृत्या धीरः अत्यस्राक्षीः॥
Having looked at this upper limit of pleasure, the basis of the universe, the top goal of ritual plus meditation, the limit of fearlessness, the praised vastness, the most widely praised goal, O Nacikesas, being discerning you have firmly discarded this brahma-loka as a boon for yourself (though you asked it in the second boon for others).
This (upper) limit of pleasure (कामस्य आप्तिं), the basis (pratiṣṭhā) of the universe (जगतः प्रतिष्ठाम्),
the top goal of ritual (plus meditation) (क्रतोः अन्-अन्त्यम्), the limit of fearlessness (अ-भयस्य पारम्),
the praised vastness (स्तोम-महत्), the (most) widely praised (उरु-गायं), having looked at this basis (pratiṣṭhā of the universe) (प्रतिष्ठां दृष्ट्वा),
you being discerning, O Nacikesas have firmly (धृत्या धीरः, नचिकेतस्), discarded (this brahma-loka as a boon for yourself) (अत्यस्राक्षीः).
त्वं तु कामस्य आप्तिं समाप्तिम्, अत्रैव इहैव सर्वे कामाः परिसमाप्ताः। जगतः साध्यात्माधिभूताधिदैवादेः प्रतिष्ठाम् आश्रयं सर्वात्मकत्वात्। क्रतोर् उपासनायाः फलं हैरण्य-गर्भं पदम् अन्-अन्त्यम् आन्-अन्त्यम्। अ-भयस्यपारं परां निष्ठाम्। स्तोमं स्तुत्यम्, महद् अणिमाद्य्-ऐश्वर्याद्य्-अन्-एक-गुण-संहतम्, स्तोमं च तन् महच् च निर्-अतिशयत्वात् स्तोम-महत्उरु-गायं विस्तीर्णां गतिम्।
But you, dṛṣṭvā, having seen (examined); (Hiraṇya-garbha as) kāmasya āptim, the end (culmination) of desire – that here indeed all desires end
[•Here, i.e. in the state of Hiraṇya-garbha. Desire cannot lead men beyond Hiraṇya-garbha.•]
(vide MunU.3.2.2); having seen (Hiraṇya-garbha as) jagataḥ pratiṣṭhām, the support – because of His all-pervasiveness – of the world comprising all that is personal, elemental, heavenly, etc.; (having seen) the an-antyam, i.e. ān-antyam, infinitude; kratoḥ, of meditation
[•This is according to Bala-gopalendra. Some translate it as ‘of sacrifice’.•]
– the (relatively infinite) result (of meditation on Hiraṇya-garbha; (having seen) pāram, the other shore, the utmost limit; a-bhayasya, of fearlessness; (having seen) the uru-gāyam, course (of Hiraṇya-garbha) that is extensive (uru)
[•Since thereby is attained the state of Hiraṇya-garbha which lasts for a long time till final dissolution.•];
(and) which is stoma-mahat: that which is stoma, praiseworthy, and mahat, great – abounding in many attributes such as divine faculties of becoming subtle etc. – is stoma-mahat, because it is possessed of super-excellence;

प्रतिष्ठां स्थितिम् आत्मनोऽन्-उत्तमाम् अपि दृष्ट्वा धृत्या धैर्येण धीरो धीमान् सन् नचिकेतः अत्य्-अस्राक्षीः परम् एवाकाङ्क्षन्न् अति-सृष्टवान् असि सर्वम् एतत् संसार-भोग-जातम्। अहो बत अन्-उत्तम-गुणोऽसि॥

And dṛṣṭvā, having seen; pratiṣṭhām, existence – your own state, unsurpassable though it is; Naciketaḥ, O Naciketas; (having seen all these) dhṛtyā, with patience; and having become, dhīraḥ, intelligent; aty-asrākṣiḥ you have renounced – have given up all these worldly enjoyments (up to the state of Hiraṇya-garbha), being desirous only of the supreme One. O! what an unsurpassable quality you are endowed with!

tad, dus-darśa, gūḍha, anupraviṣṭa, guhā-hita, gahvare-stha, purāṇa;
adhi-ātma-yoga-adhigama, deva, matvā, dhīra, harṣa-śoka, √hā.

तं दुर्-दर्शं, गूढम् अनुप्रविष्टं, गुहा-हितं, गह्वरे-ष्ठं [दुर्-गहन-स्थः], पुराणं देवं अध्यात्म-योग-अधिगमेन मत्वा, धीरः हर्ष-शोकौ जहाति॥
(The I, the self of the seer) that is unseen, hidden yet present in the cave (the intellect), situated in the impenetrable and ever existing, is the effulgent deva. Only by resorting to self enquiry (adhyātma-yoga) does one come to know it. Then only can the discerning person give up elation and sorrow, the ups and downs of emotion.
That unseen (तं दुर्-दर्शं), hidden in the cave (गूढम् अनुप्रविष्टम्),
present in the intellect (गुहा-हितं), situated in the impenetrable (as the I, the self of the seer) (गह्वरे-ष्ठं), always existing (पुराणम्),
this effulgence (deva), which (only) by resorting to the means of self enquiry (adhyātma-yoga) (अध्यात्म-योग-अधिगमेन देवम्)
one comes to know (मत्वा), does the discerning person give up elation and sorrow (the ups and downs of emotion) (धीरः हर्ष-शोकौ जहाति).
यं त्वं ज्ञातुम् इच्छस्य् आत्मानम् – तं दुर्-दर्शं दुःखेन दर्शनम् अस्येति दुर्-दर्शः, अति-सूक्ष्मत्वात्, तम्। गूढं गहनम् अनुप्रविष्टं प्राकृत-विषय-विकार-विज्ञानैः प्रच्छन्नम् इत्य् एतत्। गुहा-हितं गुहायां बुद्धौ (निहितं) स्थितं तत्रोपलभ्यमानत्वात्। गह्वरे-ष्ठं गह्वरे विषमे अन्-एकानर्थ-सङ्कटे तिष्ठतीति गह्वरे-ष्ठम्। यत एवं गूढम् अनुप्रविष्टो गुहा-हितश् च, अतोऽसौ गह्वरे-ष्ठः। अतो दुर्-दर्शः।
Tam, Him – the Self that you want to know; which is dur-darśam, hard to see, because of Its extreme subtleness; gūḍham anupraviṣṭam, lodged inaccessibly, i.e. hidden by knowledge that changes in accordance with worldly objects; guhā-hitam, located in the intellect – because It is perceived there; gahvare-ṣṭham, existing in the midst of misery – in the body and senses which are the sources of many miseries. Since It is thus lodged inaccessibly and located in the intellect, therefore, It is seated in the midst of misery. Hence It is hard to see.

तं पुराणं पुरा-तनम् अध्य्-आत्म-योगाधिगमेन विषयेभ्यः प्रतिसंहृत्य चेतस आत्मनि समाधानम् अध्य्-आत्म-योगः, तस्याधिगमः तेन, मत्वा देवम् आत्मानं धीरः (धीमान्) हर्ष-शोकौ आत्मनः उत्कर्षापकर्षयोर् अ-भावाद् जहाति

Matvā, meditating on; that purāṇam, old (everlasting); devam, Deity – the Self; adhy-ātma-yoga-adhigamena - concentration of the mind on the Self after withdrawing it from outer objects is adhyātma-yoga – through the attainment of that; dhīraḥ, the intelligent man; jahāti, gives up; harṣa-śokau, happiness and sorrow – since there is no excellence or deterioration for the Self.

किञ्च –
etad, śrutvā, samparigṛhya, martya, pravṛhya, dharmya, aṇu, etad, āpya;
tad, √mud, modanīya, hi, labdhvā, vivṛta, sadman, naciketas, √man.

एतद् श्रुत्वा सम्परिगृह्य प्रवृह्य, एतं धर्म्यम् अणुम् आप्य – सः मर्त्यः मोदते, मोदनीयं हि लब्ध्वा। सद्म [ब्रह्म-भवनं] विवृतं नचिकेतसं मन्ये॥
Having listened to this teaching, a mortal clearly grasping its meaning, distinguishing the self from the not-self, and accepting as oneself this subtle nature of oneself, does this one then rejoice, having obtained the source of joy. I consider this abode (this brahman, the limitless) to be open to you, Naciketas.
Having listened to this (teaching) (एतद् श्रुत्वा), a mortal clearly grasping (its meaning) (सम्परिगृह्य मर्त्यः),
distinguishing (the self from the not-self) (प्रवृह्य), (and) accepting (as oneself) this subtle basis of dharma (oneself) (धर्म्यम् अणुम् एतं आप्य),
does this one (then) rejoice (सः मोदते), having obtained the (source of) joy (मोदनीयं हि लब्ध्वा).
I consider this abode (that is brahman, the limitless) to be open to (you) Naciketas (विवृतं सद्म नचिकेतसं मन्ये).
एतद् आत्म-तत्त्वं यद् अहं वक्ष्यामि, तत् श्रुत्वा आचार्य-प्रसादात्(-स-काशात्) समयग् आत्म-भावेन परिगृह्य उपादाय मर्त्यो मरण-धर्मा, धर्माद् अन्-अपेतं धर्म्यं प्रवृह्य उद्यम्य पृथक्-कृत्य शरीरादेः अणुं सूक्ष्मम् एतम् आत्मानम् आप्य प्राप्य मर्त्यो विद्वान् मोदते मोदनीयं हर्षणीयम् आत्मानं लब्ध्वा
A mortal who is subject to death, śrutvā, after hearing – through the favour of the teacher; etat, this reality of the Self that I shall speak of; sam-parigṛhya, after grasping (It) fully – as one’s own Self; pravṛhya, after separating (from body etc).); this dharmyam, righteous
[•Lit. that which is conducive to virtue, the knowledge of Reality being the highest virtue.•]
(thing, the Self); and āpya, after attaining; etam aṇum, this subtle thing – the Self; saḥ martyaḥ, that mortal – (who has become) the enlightened man; modate, rejoices; labdhvā, having obtained; modanīyam, that which causes delight.

तद् एतद् एवं-विधं ब्रह्म सद्म भवनं नचिकेतसं त्वां प्रति अपावृत-द्वारं विवृतम् अभिमुखी-भूतं मन्ये। मोक्षार्हं त्वां मन्ये इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

Therefore, manye, I consider; that this sadma, mansion – the abode of Brahman, which is of this kind; vivṛtam, is wide open to – has approached towards
[•Brahman and the mansion are identical, and the approach of this mansion towards Naciketas consists in the propitiousness of Brahman.•];
naciketasam, (you) Naciketas. The idea is: ‘I consider you fit for emancipation.’

एतच् छ्रुत्वा नचिकेताः पुनर् (KathU.1.1.20) आह –
(Naciketas said): ‘If I am fit and you, too, sir are pleased with me, then:
anyatra, dharma, anyatra, a-dharma, anyatra, idam, kṛta-a-kṛta;
anyatra, bhūta, ca, bhavya, ca, yad, tad, √dṛś, tad, √vad.

यद् धर्मात् अन्यत्र, अ-धर्मात् अन्यत्र, अस्मात् कृत-अकृतात् अन्यत्र, भूतात् च भव्यात् च अन्यत्र, तद् पश्यसि। तद् वद॥
(Naciketas said)
What is other than dharma (virtue) and a-dharma (vice), what is other than both effect and cause, and other than past and future – that which You see, tell that to me.
(Naciketas said)
What is other than dharma (virtue) (and) other than a-dharma (vice) (अन्यत्र धर्मात्, अन्यत्र अ-धर्मात्),
what is other than both the created and uncreated (effect and cause) (अन्यत्र अस्मात् कृत-अकृतात्),
and other than what was and what will be (past and future) (अन्यत्र भूतात् च भव्यात् च),
that which You see, tell that (to me) (यद् तद् पश्यसि, तद् वद).
यद्य् अहं योग्यः प्रसन्नश् चासि भगवन् मां प्रति – अन्यत्र धर्मात् शास्त्रीयाद् धर्मानुष्ठानात् तत्-फलात् तत्-कारकेभ्यश् च पृथग्-भूतम् इत्य् अर्थः। तथा अन्यत्र अ-धर्मात्। तथा अन्यत्रास्मात् कृताकृतात् कृतं कार्यम् अ-कृतं कारणम् अस्माद् अन्यत्र। किञ्च, अन्यत्र भूताच् च अतिक्रान्तात् कालाद् भव्याच् च भविष्यतश् च, तथा वर्त्तमानात्। काल-त्रयेण यन् न परिच्छिद्यते इत्य् अर्थः। यद् ई-दृशं वस्तु सर्व-व्यवहार-गोचरातीतं पश्यसि जानासि तद् वद मह्यम्॥
Anyatra dharmāt, different from virtue – i.e. from the performance of scriptural duties, their results, and their accessories; so also anyatra a-dharmāt, different from vice; so also anyatra asmāt kṛta-akṛtāt, different from this kṛta, the effect, and a-kṛta, the cause; moreover, anyatra bhūtāt ca bhavyāt ca, different from the past time, and from the future – as also the present – i.e. what is not limited by the three times (past, present, and future); yat, what – the thing of this kind that is beyond the reach of all empirical experience, which; paśyasi, you see, you know; tat, that thing; vada, you tell – me.

इत्य् एवं पृष्टवते मृत्युर् उवाच, पृष्टं वस्तु विशेषणान्तरं च विवक्षन् –
With a view to speaking of the thing asked for, as also some other attributes, Death said to him who had inquired, thus:
sarva, veda, yad, pada, ā-√mnā, tapas, sarva, ca, yad, √vad;
yad, icchat, brahma-carya, √car, tad, yuṣmad, pada, saṅgraha, √brū, om, iti, etad.

यद् पदं सर्वे वेदाः आमनन्ति, यद् च सर्वाणि तपांसि वदन्ति, यद् इच्छन्तः ब्रह्म-चर्यं चरन्ति, तद् पदं ते सङ्ग्रहेण ब्रवीमि – ओम् इति एतद्॥
(Lord Death said)
The abode (pada) which all the Vedas proclaim, which all prayerful disciplines speak, and desiring which they take to a life of seeking brahman, that abode I tell to you in brief. It is Om.
(Lord Death said)
The abode (pada) which all the Vedas proclaim (सर्वे वेदाः यद् पदं आमनन्ति),
which all prayerful disciplines speak (तपांसि सर्वाणि च यद् वदन्ति),
(and) desiring which they take to a life of seeking brahman (यद् इच्छन्तः ब्रह्म-चर्यं चरन्ति),
that abode I tell to you in brief (तद् ते पदं सङ्ग्रहेण ब्रवीमि).
This is Om (ओम् इति एतद्).
सर्वे वेदा यत् पदं पदनीयं गमनीयम् अ-विभागेन (अ-विरोधेन) आमनन्ति प्रतिपादयन्ति। तपांसि सर्वाणि च यद् वदन्ति यत्-प्राप्त्य्-अर्थानीत्य् अर्थः। यद् इच्छन्तो ब्रह्म-चर्यं गुरु-कुल-वास-लक्षणम् अन्यद् वा ब्रह्म-प्राप्त्य्-अर्थं चरन्तितत् ते तुभ्यं पदं यज् ज्ञातुम् इच्छसि सङ्ग्रहेण संक्षेपतो ब्रवीमिओम् इत्य् एतत्। तद् एतत् पदं यद् बुभुत्सितं त्वया तद् एतद् ‘ओम्’ इति, ओं-शब्द-वाच्यम्, ओं-शब्द-प्रतीकं च॥
Yat padam, that attainable thing – the goal, which; sarve vedāḥ, all the Vedas – without divergence; āmananti, propound; ca, and; yat, that which; sarvāṇi tapāṃsi, all the austerities; vadanti, speak of – i.e. are meant for the attainment of; yat icchantaḥ, wishing for which; caranti, (they) practise; brahma-caryam, Brahma-carya that either consists in residence (for study) in the house of the teacher or is of some other kind (i.e. lifelong celibacy) meant for the attainment of Brahman; bravīmi, I tell; te, you; saṅgraheṇa, in brief; tat, that; padam, goal, which you want to know: Om iti etat, it is this, viz Om. The goal that you desire to know is this that is indicated (vācyam) by the word Om and that has Om as its symbol (pratīkam).
[•It is well known that the thing that is revealed (i.e. flashes in the mind) on the utterance of a word is signified by that word. Thus the knowledge, untouched by outer objects, that reveals itself to the man of concentrated mind on the utterance of the word Om, is also dependent on and signified by Om. One should meditate thus: ‘I am Brahman, as signified by Om and as conditioned by Māyā in which is sattva quality preponderates.’ If, however, one is not able to do so, one should superimpose the idea of Brahman on the symbol Om. The best minds can think of Brahman without Om. The middle ones can meditate on Brahman with the help of Om. And the inferior ones can worship Brahman in the symbol Om.•]

अतः –
(Since Om is the name and symbol of Brahman), therefore:
etad, hi, eva, a-kṣara, brahman, etad, hi, eva, a-kṣara, para;
etad, hi, eva, a-kṣara, jñātvā, yad, yad, √iṣ, tad, tad.

एतद् हि अ-क्षरं [ओम्] एव ब्रह्म। एतद् हि अ-क्षरं एव परम्। एतद् हि अ-क्षरं एव ज्ञात्वा, यः यद् [परम् अ-परं वा] इच्छति तस्य [ज्ञानिनः उपासकस्य वा] तद् [पदं आप्नोति]॥
This syllable (Om) indeed is the imperishable Lord Brahmā (the first manifest Hiraṇya-garbha, KathU.1.1.17). This syllable indeed is also the ultimate brahman (neither cause nor effect, which you just asked). Meditating upon and knowing (either the lower or higher aspect of brahman, respectively) this same syllable, one gets whichever (aspect of brahman) one seeks.
This syllable (Om) indeed alone is the imperishable brahman (Lord Brahmā) (एतद् हि एव अ-क्षरं ब्रह्म).
This syllable indeed alone is the ultimate (brahman) (neither cause, nor effect) (एतद् हि एव अ-क्षरं परम्).
Meditating upon and knowing (either the lower or higher aspect of brahman, respectively) this same syllable (एतद् हि अ-क्षरम् एव ज्ञात्वा),
whichever (aspect of brahman) one seeks (यः यद् इच्छति), that one gets (तस्य तद्).
एतद् ध्य् एवाक्षरं ब्रह्म अ-परम्। एतद् ध्य् एवाक्षरं परं च। तयोर् हि प्रतीकम् एतद् अ-क्षरम्।
Etat hi eva a-kṣaram brahma, this letter (Om), indeed, is (the inferior) Brahman, (Hiraṇya-garbha). And etat hi eva a-kṣaram param, this letter (Om) is the supreme Brahman. For them both, this letter (Om) is the symbol (pratīkam).

एतद् ध्य् एवाक्षरं ज्ञात्वा उपास्य ब्रह्मेति यः यद् इच्छति परम् अ-परं वा तस्य तद् भवति। परं चेज् ज्ञातव्यम्। अ-परं चेत् प्राप्तव्यम्॥

Jñātvā, (while) worshipping; etat hi eva a-kṣaram, this very letter Om as Brahman; anything that – whether the supreme or the inferior Brahman; yaḥ yad, anybody; icchati, wishes for; tat tasya, that becomes his: If it is the supreme Brahman (that he desires), It becomes knowable (jñātavyam); if it is the inferior Brahman, It becomes attainable (prāptavyam).

यत एवम् अतः –
Since this is so, therefore:
etad, ālambana, śreṣṭha, etad, ālambana, para;
etad, ālambana, jñātvā, brahma-loka, √mah.

एतद् आलम्बनं श्रेष्ठम्। एतद् आलम्बनं परम्। एतद् आलम्बनं ज्ञात्वा, ब्रह्म-लोके महीयते॥
This basis, Om, is for the most śreyas (beneficial). This basis, Om, is for the ultimate brahman. Meditating upon this Om, one becomes exalted in brahma-loka (the highest heaven). (Or, knowing this Om as the higher aspect of brahman, one becomes exalted as brahman, manifesting as this world).
This basis (ālambana, refuge) is (for) the most śreyas (most beneficial) (एतद् आलम्बनं श्रेष्ठम्).
This basis (ālambana, Om) is (for) the ultimate (brahman) (एतद् आलम्बनं परम्).
Meditating upon (or, knowing) this ālambana (Om) ( एतद् आलम्बनं ज्ञात्वा),
one becomes exalted in brahma-loka (the highest heaven) (or,exalted as brahman manifesting as this world) (ब्रह्म-लोके महीयते).
एतद् ब्रह्म-प्राप्त्य्-आलम्बनानां श्रेष्ठं प्रशस्यतमम्। एतद् आलम्बनं परम् अ-परं च, परापर-ब्रह्म-विषयत्वात्।
Among all the mediums (e.g. Gāyatrī), for the attainment of Brahman, etat ālambanam, this medium; is śreṣṭham, the highest – the most praiseworthy; etat ālambanam, this medium; (is) param, the supreme Brahman – as well as the inferior Brahman, since it relates to both the inferior Brahman and the supreme Brahman.

एतद् आलम्बनं ज्ञात्वा ब्रह्म-लोके महीयते। परस्मिन् ब्रह्मण्य् अ-परस्मिंश् च ब्रह्म-भूतो ब्रह्मवद् उपास्यो भवतीत्य् अर्थः॥

Jñātvā, meditating on; etat ālambanam, this medium; brahma-loke mahīyate, one is worshipped in the world of Brahman. The idea is this: Getting identified with the supreme Brahman or the inferior Brahman, (as a result of meditation), he becomes adorable like Brahman.

“अन्यत्र धर्माद्” (KathU.1.2.14) इत्य्-आदिना पृष्टस्यात्मनः अ-शेष-विशेष-रहितस्य आलम्बनत्वेन प्रतीकत्वेन च ओङ्कारो निर्दिष्टः, अ-परस्य च ब्रह्मणः, मन्द-मध्यम-प्रतिपत्तॄन् प्रति।
For those aspirants of medium and inferior quality, Om has been indicated both as a medium (for meditation on), and a symbol (for worship) of, the Self which is devoid of all attributes and which was inquired about in ‘Tell me, of that thing which you see as different from virtue’, etc; (KathU.1.2.14); and it has also been presented similarly, for similar aspirants, who wish to know the inferior Brahman.

अथेदानीं तस्य ओङ्कारालम्बनस्यात्मनः साक्षात् स्व-रूप-निर्दिधारयिषया इदम् उच्यते –

Now this is being said with a view to ascertaining directly the nature of that Self which has Om as Its medium:
na, √jan, √mṛ, vā, vipas-cit, na, idam, kutas-cid, na, √bhū, ka-cid;
a-ja, nitya, śāśvata, idam, purāṇa, na, √han, hanyamāna, śarīra.

विपस्-चिद् न जायते म्रियते वा। अयं न कुतस्-चिद्, न कः-चिद् बभूव। अयं अ-जः, नित्यः, शाश्वतः, पुराणः। शरीरे हन्यमाने न हन्यते॥ (BhG.2.20)
This effulgent intelligence within is not born nor does it die. Neither did this come from anything, nor did it become anything else. This embodied one, which is unborn, timeless, ever the same, and is always there, is not destroyed (changed) when the body is destroyed (changed).
This intelligence (vipaścit) (within) is not born nor does it die (न जायते म्रियते वा विपस्-चिद्).
Neither did this come from anything (न अयं कुतस्-चिद्), nor did it become anything else (न बभूव कः-चिद्).
This (embodied one), which is unborn, timeless, ever the same, and is always there (अ-जः, नित्यः, शाश्वतः, अयं पुराणः),
is not harmed (changed) when the body is harmed (changed) (न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे).
न जायते नोत्पद्यते म्रियते वा न म्रियते च। उत्पत्तिमतो वस्तुनोऽनित्यस्य_अन्-एका विक्रियाः। तासाम् आद्य्-अन्ते जन्म-विनाश-लक्षणे विक्रिये इहात्मनि प्रतिषिध्येते प्रथमं, सर्व-विक्रिया-प्रतिषेधार्थं ‘न जायते म्रियते वा’ इति। विपश्-चिद् मेधावी, अ-विपरिलुप्त-चैतन्य-स्व-भावत्वात्।
Vipaś-cit, the intelligent One (Self) – intelligent, because Its nature of consciousness is never lost; na jāyate, is not born – It is not produced; na vā mriyate nor does It die. An impermanent thing that has origination, is subject to many modifications. With a view to denying all the modifications in the Self, the first and last of these modifications, in the form of birth and death, are being first denied here in the text: ‘He is neither born nor dies.’

किञ्च, न अयम् आत्मा कुतश्चित् कारणान्तराद् बभूव, न प्रभूतः। स्वस्माच् चात्मनो न बभूव कश्चिद् अर्थान्तर-भूतः।
Moreover, ayam, this One – the Self; na kutaścit, did not come from anything – did not originate from any other cause; and from the Self Itself na kaścit babhūva, nothing originated – as something different from It.

अतोऽयम् आत्मा अ-जो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽपक्षय-विवर्जितः। यो ह्य् अ-शाश्वतः सोऽपक्षीयते, अयं तु शाश्वतः। अत एव पुराणः पुरापि नव एवेति। यो ह्य् अवयवोपचय-द्वारेणाभिनिर्वर्त्यते, स इदानीं नवः, यथा कुम्भादिः। तद्-विपरीतस् त्व् आत्मा पुराणो वृद्धि-विवर्जित इत्य् अर्थः।
Therefore, ayam, this Self; (is) a-jaḥ, birthless; nityaḥ, eternal; śāśvataḥ, undecaying. That which is impermanent is subject to decay, but this one is everlasting; therefore, again, It is purāṇaḥ, ancient – new indeed even in the past. A thing is said to be new now, which emerges into being through the development of its parts, as for instance, a pot etc. The Self, however , is opposed to them. It is ancient, i.e. devoid of growth.

यत एवम्, अतो न हन्यते न हिंस्यते हन्यमाने शस्त्रादिभिः शरीरे, तत्-स्थोऽपि आकाशवद् एव॥

Since this is so, therefore, na hanyate, It is not killed – not injured; śarīre hanyamāne, when the body is killed – with weapons etc. – though It exists there, just like space.

hantṛ, ced, √man, hantum, hata, ced, √man, hata;
ubha, tad, na, vi-√jñā, na, idam, √han, na, √han.

हन्ता चेद् हन्तुं मन्यते, हतः चेद् हतं मन्यते, उभौ तौ न विजानीतः। अयं न हन्ति, न हन्यते॥ (BhG.2.19)
If the individual harmer thinks it is the one harming, and if the individual to be harmed thinks it is the one being harmed, both of them do not know. This (self, I) neither harms (acts), nor is harmed (acted upon).
If the (embodied one) harmer thinks it is the one to be doing the harming (हन्ता चेद् मन्यते हन्तुम्),
(and) if the (embodied one) to be harmed thinks it is the one being harmed (हतः चेद् मन्यते हतम्),
both of them do not know (उभौ तौ न विजानीतः).
This (self, I) neither harms (acts) (न अयं हन्ति), nor is harmed (acted upon) (न हन्यते).
एवं-भूतम् अप्य् आत्मानं शरीर-मात्रात्म-दृष्टिर् हन्ता चेद् यदि मन्यते चिन्तयति हन्तुं ‘हनिष्याम्य् एनम्’ इति। योऽप्य् अन्यो हतः सोऽपि चेद् मन्यते हतम् आत्मानं ‘हतोऽहम्’ इति। उभौ अपि तौ न विजानीतः स्वम् आत्मानम्। यतो नायं हन्ति अ-विक्रियत्वाद् आत्मनः। तथा न हन्यते आकाशवद् अ-विक्रियत्वाद् एव।
Even though the Self is of this kind, still cet, If; someone who looks upon the mere body as the Self, manyate, thinks – of It; hantum, for the sake of killing – (if he) thinks, hantā, ‘I shall kill It’; and the other who is hataḥ, killed; cet, if; he too, should manyate, think; the Self to be hatam, killed – (if he) thinks, ‘I am killed’; ubhau tau, both of them, equally; na vijānītaḥ, do not know – their own Self; because ayam, this One; na hanti, does not kill – the Self being unchangeable; similarly, na hanyate, It is not killed because of the very fact of unchangeability, as in the case of space.

अतोऽन्-आत्म-ज्ञ-विषय एव धर्माधर्मादि-लक्षणः संसारः, न_आत्म-ज्ञस्य (ब्रह्म-ज्ञस्य)। श्रुति-प्रामाण्याद्, न्यायाच् च धर्माधर्माद्य्-अन्-उपपत्तेः॥

Therefore, the worldly existence, consisting of virtue and vice, relates merely to the ignorant man; it does not belong to the knower of Brahman, because for him virtue and vice are inappropriate according to both the Veda authority and logic.

कथं पुनर् आत्मानं जानाति इत्य् उच्यते –
How, again, does one know the Self? This is being said:
aṇu, aṇīyas, mahat, mahīyas, ātman, idam, jantu, nihita, guhā;
tad, a-kratu, √dṛś, vīta-śoka, dhātu-prasāda, mahiman, ātman.

आत्मा अणोः अणीयान् महतः महीयान् [च] अस्य जन्तोः गुहायां निहितः। अ-क्रतुः तम् आत्मनः महिमानं धातु-प्रसादात् पश्यति, [ततः] वीत-शोकः॥
Smaller than the small and bigger than the big, this dimensionless self is hence present in the heart (the mind) of every living being. A person without small desires sees (clearly knows) this self, and becomes free from sorrow (worry). From this unbothered clarity of the senses, one appreciates the unaffected limitlessness of the self.
Smaller than the small (अणोः अणीयान्), (and) bigger than the big (महतः महीयान्),
this (dimensionless) self is (hence) present in the heart (mind) of (every) living being (आत्मा अस्य जन्तोः निहितः गुहायाम्).
A person without (small) desires sees this (self) (तम् अ-क्रतुः पश्यति), (and) becomes free from sorrow (worry) (वीत-शोकः).
From this (unbothered) clarity of the senses (धातु-प्रसादात्) (one appreciates) the (unaffected) limitlessness of the self (महिमानम् आत्मनः).
अणोः सूक्ष्माद् अणीयान् श्यामाकादेर् अणुतरः। महतः महत्-परिमाणान् महीयान् महत्तरः पृथिव्यादेः। अणु महद् वा यद् अस्ति लोके वस्तु, तत् तेनैवात्मना नित्येनात्मवत् सम्भवति। तद् आत्मना विनिर्मुक्तम् अ-सत् सम्पद्यते। तस्माद् असाव् एवात्मा अणोर् अणीयान् महतो महीयान्, सर्व-नाम-रूप-वस्तूपाधिकत्वात्। स च आत्मा अस्य जन्तोर् ब्रह्मादि-स्तम्ब-पर्यन्तस्य प्राणि-जातस्य गुहायां हृदये निहित आत्म-भूतः स्थित इत्य् अर्थः।
(The Self is) aṇīyān, subtler; aṇoḥ, than the subtle – such as a (tiny) syāmāka grain; mahīyān, greater; mahataḥ, than the great – things that have a great dimension, such as the earth. Whatever great or atomic thing there be in the world, can be so by being possessed of its reality through that eternal Self. When deprived of that Self, it is reduced to unreality. Therefore, that very Self is subtler than the subtle and greater than the great, for It is conditioned by all names, forms, and activities which are its limiting adjuncts. And that ātmā, Self; nihitaḥ, is lodged, i.e. exists as the Self; guhāyām, in the heart; asya jantoḥ, of this creature – (in the heart) of all beings beginning from Brahmā and ending with a clump of grass.

तम् आत्मानं दर्शन-श्रवण-मनन-विज्ञान-लिङ्गम् अ-क्रतुर् अ-कामः, दृष्टादृष्ट-बाह्य-विषयेभ्य उपरत-बुद्धिर् इत्य् अर्थः। यदा चैवं तदा – मन-आदीनि करणानि धातवः शरीरस्य धारणात्, प्रसीदन्तीत्य् एषां धातूनां प्रसादाद् आत्मनः महिमानं कर्म-निमित्त-वृद्धि-क्षय-रहितं पश्यति ‘अयम् अहम् अस्मि’ इति साक्षाद् विजानाति। ततो वीत-शोको भवति॥

Tam, that Self – the means for whose realization are hearing, thinking, and meditation
[•This is accroding to Bala-gopalendra. The phrase darśana-śravaṇa-manana-vijñāna-liṅgam may also mean, ‘the Self whose existence is inferable from the acts of seeing, hearing, thinking, and knowing’.•];
(he sees, who is) a-kratuḥ, a desireless man, i.e. one whose intellect has been withdrawn from all outer objects, seen or unseen; and when this (detachment) takes place, dhātavaḥ, the organs such as mind etc. become composed, the dhātus being so called because of their holding (dhāraṇa) the body. (So) dhātu-prasādāt, through the serenity of these organs; (he) paśyati, sees; tam mahimānam, that glory; ātmanaḥ, of the Self – which is not subject to growth and decay in accordance with the result of work: he sees, i.e. he directly realizes the Self as ‘I am the Self’ , and thereby he becomes vīta-śokaḥ, free from sorrow.

अन्यथा दुर्-विज्ञेयोऽयम् आत्मा कामिभिः प्राकृत-पुरुषैर् यस्मात् –
Otherwise, the Self is difficult to be known by ordinary poeple who are possessed of desire, because:
āsīna, dūram, √vraj, śayāna, √yā, sarvatas;
kim, tad, mada-a-mada, deva, mad-anya, jñātum, √arh.

आसीनः दूरं व्रजति। शयानः सर्वतस् याति। मद्-अन्यः कः तं मद-अमदं [विरुद्ध-लक्षणं] देवं ज्ञातुम् अर्हति॥
While the body is sitting, the dimensionless ātman (as though) travels far. While the mind is sleeping, it (as though) goes everywhere. Who could know that effulgent deva (consciousness-being) which (seems to) be the elated or depressed mind, other than a discerning person such as Me (who has this teaching)?
While (the body is) sitting, it (the dimensionless ātman) (as though) travels far (आसीनः दूरं व्रजति).
While (the mind is) sleeping, it (as though) goes everywhere (शयानः याति सर्वतस्).
The effulgent one (deva, consciousness-being) which (seems to) be the elated or depressed (mind), who (कः तं मद-अमदं देवम्)
could know other than (a discerning person such as) Me (who has this teaching) (मद्-अन्यः ज्ञातुम् अर्हति)?
आसीनोऽवस्थितोऽचल एव सन् दूरं व्रजतिशयानो याति सर्वतः
(The Self) while, āsīnaḥ, sitting – remaining stationary, motionless; dūram vrajati, goes far; śayānaḥ, while sleeping; yāti, goes; sarvataḥ, everywhere.

एवम् असाव् आत्मा देवो मदामदः समदोऽमदश्च, सहर्षोऽहर्षश् च, विरुद्ध-धर्मवान्। अतोऽशक्यत्वाज् ज्ञातुं कस् तं मदामदं देवं मद्-अन्यो ज्ञातुम् अर्हति?
Similarly, that Deity, the Self, is mada-amadaḥ, possessed of mada, and devoid of mada – joyful and joyless – possessed of contradictory qualities. Hence, it being difficult to know It, kaḥ, who; mad-anyaḥ, apart from me; jñātum arhati, can know; tam mada-amadam devam, that joyful and joyless Deity?

अस्मद्-आदेर् एव सूक्ष्म-बुद्धेः पण्डितस्य कस्यचित् सु-विज्ञेयोऽयम् आत्मा, स्थिति-गति-नित्यानित्यादि-विरुद्धानेक-धर्मोपाधिकत्वाद्, विरुद्ध-धर्मवत्त्वाद् विश्व-रूप इव चिन्ता-मणिवद् अवभासते। अतो दुर्-विज्ञेयत्वं दर्शयति – ‘कस् तं मद्-अन्यो ज्ञातुम् अर्हति’ इति।
It is only by a wise man of fine intellect, like us, that this Self can be known well. Since the Self, as conditioned by various contradictory limiting adjuncts, is possessed of opposite qualities like rest and motion, permanence and impermanence, etc., therefore It appears variously like a prism (viśva-rūpa) or a philosopher’s stone (cintā-maṇi)
[•A viśva-rūpa gem appears possessed of diverse colours, and a cintā-maṇi assumes various aspects in accordance with the thought of its possessor.•].
Hence the difficulty of Its realization is being pointed out in the sentence; kaḥ tam mad-anyaḥ jñātum arhati, who apart from me can know It?

करणानाम् उपशमः शयनम्। करण-जनितस्यैक-देश-विज्ञानस्य उपशमः शयानस्य भवति। यदा चैवं केवल-सामान्य-विज्ञानत्वात् सर्वतो याति इव। यदा विशेष-विज्ञान-स्थः स्वेन रूपेण स्थित एव सन् मन-आदि-गतिषु तद्-उपाधिकत्वाद् दूरं व्रजति इव। स च इहैव वर्त्तते॥

Sleep is the cessation of the activities of the senses. The delimitation of Consciousness,
[•Then Consciousness has such limited expressions as, ‘I am a man’, ‘I see a blue thing’, and so on-A.G.•]
caused by the senses, ceases for a sleeping man. When the Self is in such a state (of sleep), Its consciousness being of a general character, It yati sarvataḥ, seems to go, (to be present), everywhere. When It is in a state of particularized consciousness (viśeṣa-vijñāna), It, though really stationary by Its own nature, dūram vrajati, seems to travel far, in accordance with the movement of the mind etc., because It is conditioned by those mind etc. In reality, It continues here (in this body) only.

तद्-विज्ञानाच् च शोकात्यय इत्य् अपि दर्शयति –
The text further shows how from the knowledge of the Self comes the elimination of grief as well:
a-śarīra, śarīra, an-avastha, avasthita;
mahat, vibhu, ātman, matvā, dhīra, na, √śuc.

शरीरेषु अ-शरीरम्, अन्-अवस्थेषु अवस्थितं, महान्तं विभुम् [च] आत्मानं मत्वा, धीरः न शोचति॥ (cf. BhG.2.11)
Knowing this bodiless amidst all bodies, the permanent amidst the impermanent, the brahman as the all-pervading ātman (dimensionless self), the discerning one does not grieve (there being no source of fear).
Bodiless amidst (all) bodies (अ-शरीरम् शरीरेषु),
permanent amidst the impermanent (the changing) (अन्-अवस्थेषु अवस्थितम्),
this Big (i.e., brahman) (महान्तं), all-pervading ātman (dimensionless self) (विभुम् आत्मानम्)
knowing (contemplating) (मत्वा), the discerning one does not grieve (there being no source of fear) (धीरः न शोचति).
अ-शरीरं स्वेन रूपेणाकाश-कल्प आत्मा तम् अ-शरीरं शरीरेषु देव-पितृ-मनुष्यादि-शरीरेषु। अन्-अवस्थेषु अवस्थिति-रहितेष्व् अ-नित्येषु अवस्थितं नित्यम् अ-विकृतम् इत्य् एतद्। महान्तम् महत्त्वस्य_आपेक्षिकत्व-शङ्कायाम् आह विभुं व्यापिनम्। आत्मानम् आत्म-ग्रहणं स्वतोऽन्-अन्यत्व-प्रदर्शनार्थम्। आत्म-शब्दः प्रत्यग्-आत्म-विषये एव मुख्यः।
The Self in Its own nature, is like space; (having meditated on) that Self (as) a-śarīram, unembodied – as that bodiless Self; śarīreṣu, in the midst of bodies – of gods, manes, human beings, etc.; (as) avasthitam, permanent, i.e. unchanging; an-avastheṣu, in those that have no fixity – amidst the impermanent; and (having meditated) on the mahāntam, great – (and) lest the greatness be taken relatively, the text says – vibhum, pervasive; ātmānam, Self. The word ātman (Self) is used to show the non-distinction (of Brahman) from one’s Self. The word ātman (Self) primarily means the indwelling Self.

तम् ई-दृशम् आत्मानं मत्वा ‘अयम् अहम्’ इति, धीरो धीमान् न शोचति। न ह्य् एवं-विधस्यात्म-विदः शोकोपपत्तिः॥

Matvā, having meditated – as ‘I am this’ – on this Self that is of this kind; dhīraḥ, the wise man; na śocati, does not grieve. For grief cannot reasonably belong to a man of this kind who has known the Self.

यद्य् अपि दुर्-विज्ञेयोऽयम् आत्मा तथाप्य् उपायेन सु-विज्ञेय एवेत्य् आह –
The text says that though this Self is difficult to know, It can be known well through proper means:
na, idam, ātman, pravacana, labhya, na, medhā, na, bahu, śruta;
yad, eva, etad, √vṛ, tad, labhya, tad, etad, ātman, vi-√vṛ, tanū, svā.

अयम् आत्मा प्रवचनेन न लभ्यः, न मेधया, न बहुना श्रुतेन। यम् [आत्मानं] एव एषः [धीरः] [विज्ञातुं] वृणुते [KathU.1.2.2], तेन [स्वात्मना धीर-वरितृ-रूपेन] [अयम् आत्मा] लभ्यः। तस्य एषः आत्मा स्वां तनूं विवृणुते॥ (MunU.3.2.3)
This ātman is not attained by reciting scripture, nor by memory of scripture, nor by listening to many scriptures (i.e., words cannot reveal ātman, they can only remove confusions). The ātman that alone one chooses (solely commits to, as you did, Naciketas), by that ātman is this ātman attained, since this ātman self-reveals its form (as the only limitless witness-being).
This ātman is not attained by reciting (scripture) (न अयम् आत्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यः),
nor by memory (of scripture) (न मेधया), nor by listening to many (scriptures) (न बहुना श्रुतेन).
What (ātman) alone one chooses (solely commits to), by that (ātman) is this (ātman) attained (यम् एव एषः वृणुते तेन लभ्यः),
(since) this ātman (self-)reveals its form (as the only limitless witness-being) (तस्य एषः आत्मा विवृणुते तनूं स्वाम्).
नायम् आत्मा प्रवचनेन अन्-एक-वेद-स्वी-करणेन लभ्यो ज्ञेयः। अपि मेधया ग्रन्थार्थ-धारण-शक्त्या। न बहुना श्रुतेन केवलेन। केन तर्हि लभ्य इत्य् उच्यते –
Ayam ātmā, this Self; na labhyaḥ, is not to be attained, is not to be known; pravacanena, through the acquisition of (i.e. reciting) many Vedas; and na medhayā, not through the intellect – through the power of grasping (i.e. retaining) the meaning of texts; na bahunā śrutena, not through much hearing – alone. How is It then to be known? This is being said:

यम् एव स्वम् आत्मानम् एष साधको वृणुते प्रार्थयते, तेन एवात्मना वरित्रा स्वयम् आत्मा लभ्यो ज्ञायते (एवम्) इत्य् एतत्। निष्कामस्यात्मानम् एव प्रार्थयत आत्मनैवात्मा लभ्यते इत्य् अर्थः।
Yam eva, that (Self) indeed which is his (i.e. aspirant’s) own Self; which eṣaḥ, this one – the aspirant; vṛṇute, prays to (i.e. chooses, as Naciketas did); tena, by that – by that very Self which is the seeker (himself); the Self Itself is labhyaḥ, can be known, i.e. It becomes known to be such and such. The meaning is that to a desireless man who seeks for the Self alone, the Self becomes known of Its one accord.
[•Through Its grace. For other interpretations of the verse, see MunU.3.2.3.•]

कथं लभ्यते इत्य् उच्यते – तस्य आत्म-कामस्य एष आत्मा विवृणुते प्रकाशयति पारमार्थिकीं तनूं स्वां स्वकीयां स्व-याथात्म्यम् इत्य् अर्थः॥

How is It known? This is being said: eṣaḥ, this Self; tasya, of that seeker of the Self
[Some take tasya to mean ‘to that seeker’.];
vivṛṇute, reveals; svām, Its own – Its real; tanūm, body, i.e. Its own nature.

किञ्चान्यत् –
There is this further fact:
na, a-virata, dus-carita, na, a-śānta, na, a-samāhita;
na, a-śānta-mānasa, va, api, prajñāna, enad, √āp.

न दुस्-चरितात् अ-विरतः, न अ-शान्तः, न अ-समाहितः, न अ-शान्त-मानसः वा अपि – एनं प्रज्ञानेन आप्नुयात्॥
This ātman cannot be attained simply through learning scripture if, to a sufficient degree, one has not withdrawn from unhelpful (kliṣṭa) conduct and thoughts, has no clarity (sattva-predominance) of the senses, has no steadiness of mind, and has no peace of mind.
Neither one who has not withdrawn from unhelpful (kliṣṭa) conduct (and thoughts) (न अ-विरतः दुस्-चरितात्),
nor has no clarity (sattva-predominance) of the senses (न अ-शान्तः), nor has no steadiness (of mind) (न अ-समाहितः),
nor has no peace of mind (न अ-शान्त-मानसः वा अपि),
(who does not to a sufficient degree have these) can attain this (ātman) by (only) learning (scripture) (प्रज्ञानेन एनम् आप्नुयात्).
न दुश्-चरितात् प्रतिषिद्धाच् छ्रुति-स्मृत्य्-अविहितात् पाप-कर्मणोऽविरतः अन्-उपरतः। अपि इन्द्रिय-लौल्याद् अ-शान्तोऽन्-उपरतः। अपि अ-समाहितोऽन्-एकाग्र-मना विक्षिप्त-चित्तः। समाहित-चित्तोऽपि सन् समाधान-फलार्थित्वान् न अपि अ-शान्त-मानसो व्यापृत-चित्तो वा प्रज्ञानेन ब्रह्म-विज्ञानेन एनं प्रकृतम् आत्मानम् आप्नुयात्
Na a-virataḥ, not one who has not desisted; duś-caritāt, from bad conduct – from sinful works either prohibited, or not sanctioned by the Vedas and the smṛtis; na a-śāntaḥ, nor one whose senses are not controlled – one who has not turned away from the lure of the senses; na a-samāhitaḥ, nor one whose mind is not concentrated – one whose mind is scattered; na api vā, nor one whose mind may be concentrated (samāhita), but still who is a-śānta-manasaḥ, whose mind is not at rest, because of hankering for the result of concentration; āpnuyāt, can attain; enam, this Self, that is being considered; prajñānena, through knowledge – of Brahman.

यस् तु दुश्-चरिताद् विरतः, इन्द्रिय-लौल्याच् च, समाहित-चित्तः, समाधान-फलाद् अप्य् उपशान्त-मानसश् च, आचार्यवान् प्रज्ञानेन यथोक्तम् आत्मानं प्राप्नोतीत्य् अर्थः॥

But the man who has desisted from bad conduct, as also from the lure of the senses, whose mind has become concentrated, and who is also free from anxiety about the results of concentration, and has a teacher, attains the aforesaid Self through knowledge. This is the idea.

यस् त्व् अन्-एवं-भूतः –
But how can one, who is not of this kind (know the Self):
yad, brahman, ca, kṣatra, ca, ubha, √bhū, odana;
mṛtyu, yad, upasecana, kim, itthā, √vid, yatra, tad.

यस्य ब्रह्म च क्षत्रं च उभे ओदनः भवतः, यस्य मृत्युः उपसेचनं [भवति] – कः इत्था [सन्] ‘यत्र सः [आत्मा]’ वेद?
In the above way (unqualified for this knowledge), who could know “where is this (dimensionless, unseen ātman),” for which ātman, all the brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyas (the virtuous and the brave) both are food (as it were), and Lord Death is a condiment (being endlessly consumed in the cycles of saṃsāra)?
For which (ātman) (all) the brāhmaṇas (virtuous) and kṣatriyas (brave) (यस्य ब्रह्म च क्षत्रं च)
both are food (as it were) (उभे भवतः ओदनः),
(and) for which (ātman) Lord Death is a condiment (being endlessly consumed in the cycles of saṃsāra) (मृत्युः यस्य उपसेचनम्),
in that way (without sufficient qualifications for this knowledge) who (could) know “where is this (dimensionless, unseen ātman)” (कः इत्था वेद‘यत्र सः’)?
यस्य आत्मनो ब्रह्म च क्षत्रं च ब्रह्म-क्षत्रे सर्व-धर्म-विधारकेऽपि सर्व-त्राण-भूते उभे ओदनोऽशनं भवतः स्याताम्। सर्व-हरोऽपि मृत्युर् यस्य उपसेचनम् इव ओदनस्य, अशनत्वेऽप्य् अ-पर्याप्तः।
Yasya, for which, Self; ubhe, both; brahma ca kṣatram ca, the Brāhmaṇa and the kṣatriya – though they are the upholders of all righteousness and the protectors of all; bhavataḥ, become; odanaḥ, food; yasya, for which Self; mṛtyuḥ, death – though it is the destroyer of all; (becomes like) upasecanam, supplement to the food (such as, a sprinkled seasoning) – being unfit even to be a food;

तं [सर्व-संहारिकम् आत्मानं] प्राकृत-बुद्धिर् यथोक्त-साधन-रहितः सन् क इत्था इत्थम् एवं यथोक्त-साधनवान् इव इत्य् अर्थः वेद विजानाति यत्र स आत्मा इति?॥

Kaḥ, who – being a man with a worldly intellect, and devoid of the disciplines described above; veda, knows; itthā, in this way – like the man endowed with the above mentioned disciplines; yatra, as to where; saḥ, It – the Self (exists)?
[•The Self, the eater – the destroyer of the universe – exists in Its own glory. Who knows It as such?•]

॥इति प्रथमेऽध्याये द्वितीया वल्ली॥

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Distinction of experiencer and the self. The chariot analogy.

mn.01 mn.02 mn.03 mn.04 mn.05 mn.06 mn.07 mn.08 mn.09 mn.10 mn.11 mn.12 mn.13 mn.14 mn.15 mn.16 mn.17

“ऋतं पिबन्तौ” इत्य् अस्या वल्ल्याः सम्बन्धो –
The connection that this canto, beginning with ṛtam pibantau, has (with the earlier ones) is this:

विद्याविद्ये नाना-विरुद्ध-फले इत्य् उपन्यस्ते। न तु स-फले ते यथावन् निर्णीते। तन्-निर्णयार्था रथ-रूपक-कल्पना। तथा च प्रतिपत्ति-सौ-कर्यम्।
Knowledge and ignorance have been presented as possessed of diverse, opposite results; but they have not been ascertained properly (as regards their natures and means) together with their results. For the determination of this is called up the analogy of the chariot, inasmuch as this leads to easy comprehension.

एवं च प्राप्तृ-प्राप्य-गन्तृ-गन्तव्य-विवेकार्थं द्वौ आत्मानौ उपन्यस्येते –

Thus also are presented two selves, for distinguishing between the attained and the attainer, and the goal and the goer:
ṛta, pibat, su-kṛta, loka, guhā, praviṣṭa, parama, para-ardha;
chāyā-ātapa, brahma-vid, √vad, pañca-agni, yad, ca, tri-nāciketa.

ब्रह्म-विदः पञ्च-अग्नयः ये त्रि-नाचिकेताः च छाया-आतपौ [इव] वदन्ति – लोके सु-कृतस्य ऋतं पिबन्तौ, परमे पर-अर्धे गुहां प्रविष्टौ॥
(Lord Death said)
In the body there are two (aspects of ātman, the individual and the Lord) who partake of the truth of virtuous deeds (see MunU.3.1.1–3). Both are present in the cave (the heart, intellect) in the limitless abode (the mind-space) where the presence of para brahman is to be known. The knowers of brahman, as well as householders and Nāciketa ritualists, say these two are distinct like shade and light.
(Lord Death said)
In the body (loka) there are two who partake of the truth (the ordained result, karma-phala) of virtuous deeds (ऋतं पिबन्तौ सु-कृतस्य लोके).
Both have entered (are present in) the cave (heart, intellect) in (the mind-space) the limitless abode (ardha) (where the presence) of para (brahman) (is to be known) (गुहां प्रविष्टौ परमे पर-अर्धे).
The knowers of brahman say these two are (distinct like) shade and light (छाया-आतपौ ब्रह्म-विदः वदन्ति),
as well as (say) householders (keepers of the five agṅi-hotra fires) and three-Nāciketa ritualists (पञ्च-अग्नयः ये च त्रि-नाचिकेताः).
ऋतं सत्यम् अ-वश्यं-भावित्वात् कर्म-फलं पिबन्तौ। एकस् तत्र कर्म-फलं पिबति भुङ्क्ते न इतरः। तथापि पातृ-सम्बन्धात् ‘पिबन्ताव्’ इत्य् उच्यते छत्रि-न्यायेन। सु-कृतस्य स्वयं-कृतस्य कर्मणः ‘ऋतम्’ इति पूर्वेण सम्बन्धः।
Pibantau, two drinkers of; ṛtam, truth, i.e. the results of work (which is called truth) because of its inevitability. Of these two, one drinks – enjoys – the fruit of work, and not the other. Still both are called enjoyers, because of association with the enjoyer, on the analogy of the expression ‘the possessors of the umbrella’.
[•When a king with his retinue moves out in a procession with umbrellas, people say, ‘Chatriṇaḥ yānti – people with umbrellas are going’, though most of the people in the procession do not possess umbrellas.•]
Su-kṛtasya, of what is done by oneself. This (word) is to be constructed with ṛtam, mentioned earlier – (meaning thereby the drinkers of) the results of the work done by oneself.

लोकेऽस्मिन् शरीरे, गुहां गुहायां बुद्धौ प्रविष्टौपरमे बाह्य-पुरुषाकाश-संस्थानापेक्षया परमम्। परार्धे परस्य ब्रह्मणोऽर्धं स्थानं परार्धं हार्द्-आकाशम्। तस्मिन् हि परं ब्रह्मोपलभ्यते। अतस् तस्मिन् परमे परार्धे हार्द्-आकाशे प्रविष्टाव् इत्य् अर्थः।
Praviṣṭau, (these) two have entered; loke, within this body; guhām (is the same as guhāyām), into the cavity, into the intellect. Parame, (means) in the supreme; it (i.e. the space outside within the heart) is supreme in comparison with the space outside (the cavity) circumscribed by the human body; para-ardhe, into that which is the abode (ardha) of Brahman (para) – there, indeed, is the supreme Brahman perceived. So the meaning is that they two have entered into the supreme abode of Brahman, which is the space within the heart.

तौ च च्छायातपौ इव वि-लक्षणौ संसारित्वासंसारित्वेन ब्रह्म-विदः वदन्ति कथयन्ति। न केवलम् अ-कर्मिण एव वदन्ति, पञ्चाग्नयो गृह-स्थाः, ये च त्रि-णाचिकेताः त्रिः-कृत्वो नाचिकेतोऽग्निश् चितो यैस् ते त्रि-णाचिकेताः॥

And brahma-vidaḥ, the knowers of Brahman; vadanti, speak of – these two; as different like chāyā-ātapau, shade and light – because of (their) worldliness and freedom from worldliness. Not only those who have given up rites speak (thus), but also pañca-agnayaḥ, those who worship the five fires – i.e. the householders; ye ca, and also; those who are tri-ṇāciketāḥ, the people by whom has been piled up thrice the fire called Nāciketa.

yad, setu, ījāna, a-kṣara, brahman, yad, para;
a-bhaya, titīrṣat, pāra, nāciketa, √śak.

यः ईजानानां सेतुः [इव], [तं] नाचिकेतं [विराट्-आत्मिकं अग्निं] शकेमहि, यद् अ-क्षरं परं ब्रह्म अ-भयं, [तद्] [संसारस्य] पारं तितीर्षतां [शकेमहि]॥
(Between the two) the one being (like) a bridge to heaven for the ritualists and meditators via the lower Om, and the other via the higher Om to the imperishable ultimate brahman which is fearlessness for those who wish to cross to the shore beyond saṃsāra, we (being worldly, at this time) are only able to pile up and meditate upon the Nāciketa ritual.
(Between the two) one is (like) a bridge (means to heaven) for the ritualists (and meditators via the lower Om) (यः सेतुः ईजानानाम्)
(and) the other (via the higher Om) which is the imperishable, ultimate brahman (अ-क्षरं ब्रह्म यद् परम्)
which is fearlessness for those who wish to cross to the shore (beyond saṃsāra) (अ-भयं तितीर्षतां पारम्),
we (being worldly, at this time) are only able (to pile up and meditate upon) the Nāciketa (ritual) (नाचिकेतं शकेमहि).
यः सेतुः सेतुर् इव सेतुर् ईजानानां यजमानानां कर्मिणां, दुःख-सन्तरणार्थत्वात्, नाचिकेतं नाचिकेतोऽग्निः तं, वयं ज्ञातुं चेतुं च शकेमहि शक्नुवन्तः।
Śakemahi, we were able – to know as well as to pile up; nāciketam, the Nāciketa Fire (which is Virāṭ); yaḥ, the one who; is like a setuḥ, bridge – since it is calculated to lead beyond sorrow; ījānānām, for the sacrificers – the performers of rites.

किञ्च, यच् च अ-भयं भय-शून्यं, संसारस्य पारं तितीर्षतां तर्तुम् इच्छतां ब्रह्म-विदां यत् परम् आश्रयम् अ-क्षरम् आत्माख्यं ब्रह्म, तच् च ज्ञातुं शकेमहि।
Moreover, the one who is a-bhayam, the fearless; a-kṣaram brahma, the undecaying Brahman – which is the supreme resort of the knowers of Brahman and is called the Self; param titīrṣatām, for those who want to go to the shore – to the shore of the (sea of this) world – that also we succeeded to know.

परापरे ब्रह्मणी कर्म-ब्रह्म-विद्-आश्रये वेदितव्ये इति वाक्यार्थः। तयोर् एव ह्य् उपन्यासः कृतः ‘ऋतं पिबन्तौ’ इति (KathU.1.3.1)॥

The meaning of the sentence is that both the inferior and the transcendental Brahman, which are the refuge of the knowers of rites and Brahman respectively, are worthy of realization. For these two, in fact, have been introduced in the verse, ‘ṛtam pibantau’ etc.

तत्र यः उपाधि-कृतः संसारी विद्याविद्ययोर् अधिकृतः मोक्ष-गमनाय संसार-गमनाय च, तस्य तद्-उभय-गमने साधनो रथः कल्प्यते –
For the sake of that one among these (two Selves), which has through limiting adjuncts become the transmigrating soul and is fit for knowledge and ignorance, a chariot, to attain either emancipation or the worldly state, is being imagined as a means to its reaching either:
ātman, rathin, √vid, śarīra, ratha, eva, tu;
buddhi, tu, sā-rathi, √vid, manas, pragraha, eva, ca.

आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि, शरीरं तु रथम् एव। बुद्धिं तु सा-रथिं विद्धि, मनः च प्रग्रहम् एव॥
Know the ātman (the self) as the master of the chariot and the (subtle) body as the chariot. Know the intellect (buddhi, all firm thoughts) as the driver and the mind (manas, all quick, vacillating thoughts) as the reins.
Know the ātman (the self) as the master of the chariot (आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि)
and the (subtle) body as the chariot (शरीरं रथम् एव तु).
Know the intellect (buddhi, all firm thoughts) as the driver (बुद्धिं तु सा-रथिं विद्धि)
and the mind (manas, all quick, vacillating thoughts) as the reins (मनः प्रग्रहम् एव च).
तत्र तम् आत्मानम् ऋत-पं संसारिणं रथिनं रथ-स्वामिनं विद्धि जानीहि।
Of these, viddhi, know; ātmānam, the self – the enjoyer of the fruits of karma, which is the soul in the worldly state; as rathinam, the rider, the master of the chariot;

शरीरं रथम् एव तु रथ-बद्ध-हय-स्थानीयैर् इन्द्रियैर् आकृष्यमाणत्वात् शरीरस्य।
Tu, and; (know) śarīram, the body; as the ratham, the chariot – since the body is pulled by the organs which occupy the place of the horses tied to the chariot;

बुद्धिं तु अध्यवसाय-लक्षणां सा-रथिं विद्धि। बुद्धि-नेतृ-प्रधानत्वात् शरीरस्य, सा-रथि-नेतृ-प्रधान इव रथः। सर्वं हि देह-गतं कार्यं बुद्धि-कर्त्तव्यम् एव प्रायेण।
Tu, and; viddhi, know; buddhim, the intellect – characterized by determination; as sā-rathim, charioteer – since the body has the guiding intellect as its chief, just as the chariot has the guiding charioteer as its chief. All physical work, indeed, is generally directed by the intellect.

मनः सङ्कल्प-विकल्पादि-लक्षणं प्रग्रहम् रशनां विद्धि। मनसा हि प्रगृहीतानि श्रोत्रादीनि करणानि प्रवर्त्तन्ते रशनया इव अश्वाः॥

Know manas, the mind – characterized by volition, doubt, etc.; as pragraham, the bridle – for, just as the horses act when held in by the reins, similarly the organs such as ear etc. act when held in by the mind.

indriya, haya, √ah, viṣaya, tad, go-cara;
ātma-indriya-manas-yukta, bhoktṛ, iti, √ah, manīṣin.

इन्द्रियाणि हयान् आहुः, तेषु विषयान् गो-चरान्; मनीषिणः आत्म-इन्द्रिय-मनस्-युक्तं [आत्मानं] ‘भोक्ता’ इति आहुः॥
They call the five sense organs the horses, and their five kind of sense objects the paths. The wise call the ātman (master) along with the body-senses-mind complex the experiencer.
They call the (five) sense organs as the horses (इन्द्रियाणि हयान् आहुः),
(and) (their five kind of) sense objects as the paths (विषयान् तेषु गो-चरान्).
(The ātman, master) along with the body-senses-mind (complex) (आत्म-इन्द्रिय-मनस्-युक्तम्)
the wise call as the experiencer (भोक्ता इति आहुः मनीषिणः).
इन्द्रियाणि चक्षुर्-आदीनि हयान् आहू रथ-कल्पना-कुशलाः, शरीर-रथाकर्षण-सामान्यात्।
Āhuḥ, they – those versed in calling up the imagery of the chariot – call; indriyāṇi, the organs – eye etc.; hayān, horses – because of the similarity of drawing the chariot and the body.

तेषु एव इन्द्रियेषु हयत्वेन परिकल्पितेषु गोचरान् मार्गान् रूपादीन् विषयान् विद्धि।
Teṣu, those very organs having been imagined as horses; know, viṣayān, the objects – such as colour etc.; as go-carān, the roads.

आत्मेन्द्रिय-मनो-युक्तं शरीरेन्द्रिय-मनोभिः सहितं संयुक्तम् आत्मानं भोक्तेति संसारीति आहुः मनीषिणो विवेकिनः।
Manīṣiṇaḥ, the discriminating people; āhuḥ, call; ātma-indriya-mano-yuktam, the Self as associated with body, organs, and mind; as bhoktā iti, the enjoyer, the transmigrating soul.

न हि केवलस्यात्मनो भोक्तृत्वम् अस्ति। बुद्ध्य्-आद्य्-उपाधि-कृतम् एव तस्य भोक्तृत्वम्। तथा च श्रुत्य्-अन्तरं केवलस्याभोक्तृत्वम् एव दर्शयति – ‘ध्यायति इव लेलायति इव’ इत्य्-आदि (BrhU.4.3.7)। एवं च सति वक्ष्यमाण-रथ-कल्पनया (KathU.1.3.9) वैष्णवस्य पदस्यात्मतया प्रतिपत्तिर् उपपद्यते, नान्यथा, स्व-भावानतिक्रमात्॥

For the absolute Self can have no enjoyership; Its enjoyership is in fact created by the limiting adjuncts such as the intellect etc. Thus also there is another Veda text which shows the non-enjoyership of the absolute (Self): ‘It thinks, as it were, and shakes, as it were’ etc. (BrhUEng.4.3.7). Only if this is so, does it become appropriate to attain the state of Viṣṇu (KathU.1.3.9) as one’s own, through the analogy of the chariot which is going to be elaborated; but not otherwise, because one cannot transcend one’s (true) nature.

तत्रैवं सति –
This being so:
yad, tu, a-vijñānavat, √bhū, a-yukta, manas, sadā;
tad, indriya, a-vaśya, dus-aśva, iva, sā-rathi.

यः [सा-रथिः] तु सदा अ-युक्तेन मनसा अ-विज्ञानवान् भवति, तस्य सा-रथेः इन्द्रियाणि अ-वश्यानि दुष्ट-अश्वाः इव॥
Whereas, for the intellect (driver) who lacks discernment and thus is ever with a mind (reins) not in control, the sense organs are unruly, like wild horses for a chariot driver.
Whereas, (for) (the intellect, driver) who lacks discernment (यः तु अ-विज्ञानवान् भवति),
(and thus) is ever with a mind (reins) not in control (अ-युक्तेन मनसा सदा),
for that (intellect) the sense organs are unruly (तस्य इन्द्रियाणि अ-वश्यानि),
like wild horses for a chariot driver (दुष्ट-अश्वाः इव सा-रथेः).
यस् तु बुद्ध्य्-आख्यः सा-रथिर् अ-विज्ञानवान् अ-निपुणोऽविवेकी प्रवृत्तौ च निवृत्तौ च भवति यथा इतरो रथ-चर्यायाम्, अ-युक्तेन अ-प्रगृहीतेन अ-समाहितेन मनसा प्रग्रह-स्थानीयेन सदा युक्तो भवति,
Yaḥ tu, he, however, who – the charioteer called the intellect; bhavati; becomes; a-vijñānavān, unskilful – lacking in discrimination as regards engagement and disengagement, just as the other (real charioteer) is in conducting the chariot; being sadā, ever; associated a-yuktena manasā, with an uncontrolled mind which is comparable to the bridle; tasya, his – of that incompetent intellect, i.e. of the driver; indriyāṇi,

तस्य अ-कुशलस्य बुद्धि-सा-रथेर् इन्द्रियाणि अश्व-स्थानीयानि अ-वश्यानि अ-शक्य-निवारणानि दुष्टाश्वा अ-दान्ताश्वा इव इतर-सा-रथेर् भवन्ति॥

The organs – which are analogous to the horses; are a-vaśyāni, unruly, uncontrollable; duṣṭa-aśvāḥ iva, like the vicious horses; sa-ratheḥ, of the charioteer – of the other (real) driver.

yad, tu, vijñānavat, √bhū, yukta, manas, sadā;
tad, indriya, vaśya, sat-aśva, iva, sā-rathi.

यः तु सदा युक्तेन मनसा विज्ञानवान् भवति, तस्य सा-रथेः इन्द्रियाणि वश्यानि सत्-अश्वाः इव॥
But, for the intellect (driver) who has discernment and thus is ever with a mind (reins) in control, the sense organs are under its control, like trained horses for a chariot driver.
But, (for) (the intellect, driver) who has discernment (यः तु विज्ञानवान् भवति)
(and thus) is ever with a mind (reins) in control (युक्तेन मनसा सदा),
for that (intellect) the sense organs are under (its) control (तस्य इन्द्रियाणि वश्यानि),
like trained horses for a chariot driver (सत्-अश्वाः इव सा-रथेः).
यस् तु पुनः पूर्वोक्त-विपरीतः सा-रथिः भवति विज्ञानवान् निपुणः विवेकवान् युक्तेन मनसा प्रगृहीत-मनाः समाहित-चित्तः सदा, तस्य अश्व-स्थानीयानि इन्द्रियाणि प्रवर्त्तयितुं निवर्त्तयितुं वा शक्यानि वश्यानि दान्ताः सद्-अश्वा इव इतर-सा-रथेः
Yaḥ tu, but that (intellect), again, which is a charioteer opposed to the previous one; which bhavati, becomes; vijñānavān, skilful and possessed of discrimination; yuktena manasā sadā, being ever associated with a controlled mind – being endowed with a concentrated mind; tasya, of that (intellect); indriyāṇi, the organs – that are analogous to the horses; are vaśyāni, controllable – can be urged on or stopped; sad-aśvāḥ iva, like the good horses; sa-ratheḥ, of the charioteer – of the other (real) driver.

तत्र पूर्वोक्तस्याविज्ञानवतो बुद्धि-सा-रथेर् इदं फलम् आह –
This is the result that is being foretold for the aforesaid rider who has a non-discriminating intellect as his charioteer:
yad, tu, a-vijñānavat, √bhū, a-manaska, sadā, a-śuci;
na, tad, tad, pada, √āp, saṃsāra, ca, adhi-√gam.

यः तु अ-विज्ञानवान् अ-मनस्कः [च], [सः सा-रथी] सदा अ-शुचिः भवति। [तेन सा-रथिना] सः [रथी] तद् पदं न आप्नोति, संसारं च अधिगच्छति॥
The one who has an intellect with no discernment (of helpful from unhelpful, and self from not-self), who thus is ever without a disciplined mind (manas), and who is impure (with rajas and tamas predominance), that individual person (jīva-ātman) does not attain the ultimate goal, brahman (KathU.1.3.2), and remains in saṃsāra (continuous unbecoming becoming).
The (jīva-ātman, individual person) who has an intellect with no discernment (of helpful from unhelpful, and self from not-self) (यः तु अ-विज्ञानवान् भवति),
(thus) is ever without a (disciplined) mind (manas) and impure (with rajas and tamas predominance) (अ-मनस्कः सदा अ-शुचिः),
does not attain the goal (ultimate brahman) (न सः तद् पदं आप्नोति),
and remains in saṃsāra (continuous unbecoming becoming) (संसारं च अधिगच्छति).
यस् त्व् अ-विज्ञानवान् भवतिअ-मनस्कोऽप्रगृहीत-मनस्कः। स तत एव अ-शुचिः सदा एव। न स रथी तत् पूर्वोक्तम् ‘अ-क्षरं यत् परं’ (KathU.1.3.2) पदम् आप्नोति तेन सा-रथिना। न केवलं कैवल्यं नाप्नोति, संसारं च जन्म-मरण-लक्षणम् अधिगच्छति
Yaḥ tu, but he (the soul, the master of the chariot) who; a-vijñānavān bhavati, is associated with a non-discriminating intellect; a-manaskaḥ, whose mind is not under control; who is, because of that very reason, a-śuciḥ, unclean; sadā, for ever; saḥ, that rider of the chariot; na āpnoti, does not attain – with the help of that charioteer (viz the intellect); tat, that – the aforesaid undecaying One, which is the supreme, padam, goal. Not only does he not attain emancipation, but also adhigacchati, he reaches saṃsāram, worldly existence – involving birth and death.

yad, tu, vijñānavat, √bhū, sa-manaska, sadā, śuci;
tad, tu, tad, pada, √āp, yad, bhūyas, na, √jan.

यः तु [रथी] विज्ञानवान् स-मनस्कः [च], [सः] सदा शुचिः भवति। सः [रथी] तु तद् पदम् आप्नोति, यस्मात् न भूयस् जायते॥
Whereas, the one who has an intellect with discernment (of self from not-self), who thus is ever with a disciplined mind (manas) and pure (with sattva predominance), that individual person (jīva-ātman) does attain (becomes) the ultimate goal, brahman, because of which this one is not born again (into saṃsāra).
Whereas, the (jīva-ātman, individual person) who has an intellect with discernment (of self from not-self) (यः तु विज्ञानवान् भवति),
(thus) is ever with a (disciplined) mind (manas) and pure (with sattva predominance) (स-मनस्कः सदा शुचिः).
That one attains (becomes) the goal (ultimate brahman, para-ātman) (सः तु तद् पदम् आप्नोति),
because of which this one is not born again (into saṃsāra) (यस्मात् भूयस् न जायते).
यस् तु द्वितीयो विज्ञानवान् विज्ञानवत्-सारथ्य्-उपेतो रथी, विद्वान् इत्य् एतत्। युक्त-मनाः स-मनस्कः। स तत एव सदा शुचिःस तु तत् पदम् आप्नोति, यस्माद् आप्तात् पदाद् अ-प्रच्युतः सन् भूयः पुनर् न जायते संसारे॥
The other one, yaḥ tu, who, however; is vijñānavān, associated with a discriminating charioteer – i.e. the rider of the chariot who has knowledge; sa-manaskaḥ, who is possessed of a controlled mind; and who is for that very reason sadā śuciḥ, ever pure; saḥ tu, he however; tat padam āpnoti, attains that state; yasmāt, from which – becoming non-alienable from which acquired goal; he na jāyate, is not born – in the world; bhūyaḥ, again.

किं तत् पदम् इत्य् आह –
What is that goal? In answer the text says:
vijñāna-sā-rathi, yad, tu, manas-pragrahavat, nara;
tad, adhvan, pāra, √āp, tad, viṣṇu, parama, pada.

यः तु नरः विज्ञान-सा-रथिः मनस्-प्रग्रहवान् [च], सः [रथी] अध्वनः पारम् आप्नोति, तद् विष्णोः परमं पदम्॥
Having an intellect as chariot driver with discernment of the self from not-self, and having a controlled mind as reins, this person reaches the far shore (the end of saṃsāra), the end of the road (as it were, since ātman is all-pervading, KathU.1.2.22). That is the ultimate abode of Viṣṇu (the pervader, brahman).
Having an intellect as chariot driver with discernment (of the self from not-self) (विज्ञान-सा-रथिः यः तु)
(and) having a controlled mind (as reins), this person (मनस्-प्रग्रहवान् नरः)
reaches the far shore (the end of saṃsāra), the end of the road (as it were, since ātman is all-pervading, KathU.1.2.22) (सः अध्वनः पारम् आप्नोति).
That is the ultimate abode of Viṣṇu (the pervader, brahman) (तद् विष्णोः परमं पदम्).
विज्ञान-सा-रथिर् यस् तु यो विवेक-बुद्धि-सा-रथिः पूर्वोक्तो मनः-प्रग्रहवान् प्रगृहीत-मनाः समाहित-चित्तः सन् शुचिर् नरो विद्वान्, सोऽध्वनः संसार-गतेः पारं परम् एव अधिगन्तव्यम्, इत्य् एतत् आप्नोति मुच्यते सर्व-संसार-बन्धनैः। तद् विष्णोर् व्यापन-शीलस्य ब्रह्मणः परमात्मनो वासु-देवाख्यस्य परमं प्रकृष्टं पदं स्थानम्, स-तत्त्वम् इत्य् एतत्। यद् असाव् आप्नोति विद्वान्॥
Yaḥ naraḥ tu, the man however, who, as described earlier; vijñāna-sarathiḥ, has a discriminating intellect as his charioteer; manaḥ-pragrahavān, who has the mind as his reins – whose mind is controlled, who having a concentrated mind as become holy; saḥ (naraḥ), that man – that man of knowledge; āpnoti, reaches; adhvanaḥ pāram, the end of the road, i.e. the very supreme goal to be reached beyond the course of the world. He becomes free from all the worldly bondages. Tat, that, is paramam padam, the highest place, i.e. the very nature; viṣṇoḥ, of Viṣṇu – of the all-pervading Brahman, of the supreme Self who is called Vāsu-deva
[•He who provides dwelling place (vāsa) for all in Himself, is vāsu. Deva is effulgent, i.e. self-luminous. He is both vāsu and deva.•]
– which this man of knowledge attains.

अधुना यत् पदं गन्तव्यं तस्य इन्द्रियाणि स्थूलान्य् आरभ्य सूक्ष्म-तारतम्य-क्रमेण प्रत्यग्-आत्मतया अधिगमः कर्त्तव्य इत्य् एवम् अर्थम् इदम् आरभ्यते –
Now this portion begins in order to show how the goal (i.e. Brahman), that is to be reached, is to be realized as the indwelling Self through an ascending gradation, from grossness to subtleness, commencing from the gross senses:
indriya, para, hi, artha, artha, ca, para, manas;
manas, tu, parā, buddhi, buddhi, ātman, mahat, para.

[पृथक्-पञ्च-महा-भूतानि] अर्थाः हि [तत्-कार्येभ्यः] इन्द्रियेभ्यः पराः [समष्टितः कारणतः च] [अथवा अर्थाः प्रवर्तकाः इन्द्रियाणां अतः पराः], मनः च अर्थेभ्यः परं [यस्मात् उभय-ग्रहकं अतः उभय-परं], बुद्धिः तु मनसः परा, महान् आत्मा बुद्धेः परः [समष्टितः]॥ (cf. BhG.3.42)
Than the sense organs, the objects of the mind are more subtle (i.e., more fundamental and more pervasive). Than the objects of the mind, the mind (manas) is more subtle. Than the mind, the intellect (buddhi) is more subtle. Than the intellect, the total intellect (Hiraṇya-garbha) is more subtle.
Than the sense organs (इन्द्रियेभ्यः), the objects (of the mind) are more subtle (para) (पराः हि अर्थाः).
Than the objects (of the mind) (अर्थेभ्यः च), the mind (manas) is more subtle (परं मनः).
Than the mind (मनसः तु), the intellect (buddhi) is more subtle (परा बुद्धिः).
Than the intellect (बुद्धेः), the mahān ātmā (the total intellect) is more subtle (आत्मा महान् परः).
स्थूलानि तावद् इन्द्रियाणि। तानि यैर् अर्थैर् आत्म-प्रकाशनाय आरब्धानि तेभ्य इन्द्रियेभ्यः स्व-कार्येभ्यस् ते पराः हि अर्थाः सूक्ष्मा महान्तश् च प्रत्यग्-आत्म-भूताश् च।
Now, then, the senses are gross. The arthāḥ, sense-objects, by which those senses were created for their (i.e. of the sense-objects) own revelation; are parāḥ hi, certainly higher – subtler, more pervasive, and are their inner selves; indriyebhyaḥ, than those senses – which are their own effects (the sense-organs having been created from sense-objects for perceiving them).

तेभ्योऽपि अर्थेभ्यश् च परं सूक्ष्मतरं महत् प्रत्यग्-आत्म-भूतं च मनो, मनः-शब्द-वाच्यं मनस आरम्भकं भूत-सूक्ष्मं सङ्कल्प-विकल्पाद्य्-आरम्भकत्वात्।
Arthebhyaḥ ca, as compared with even those sense-objects; manas, the mind; is param, higher – more subtle, pervasive, and is their inner self. By the word manas is indicated the elements in their rudimentary subtle form (tan-mātras) which are the material cause of the mind, for they are the originators of volition and conjecture.

मनसोऽपि परा सूक्ष्म-तरा महत्-तरा प्रत्यग्-आत्म-भूता च बुद्धिर्, बुद्धि-शब्द-वाच्यम् अध्यवसायाद्य्-आरम्भकं भूत-सूक्ष्मम्।
Manasaḥ (api), as compared with even the mind; buddhiḥ, the intellect; is parā, higher – subtler, more pervasive, and is their inner self. By the word buddhiḥ, is denoted the rudimentary elements (tan-mātras) which are the source of determination etc.

बुद्धेर् आत्मा सर्व-प्राणि-बुद्धीनां प्रत्यग्-आत्म-भूतत्वाद् आत्मा महान्, सर्व-महत्त्वाद्, अ-व्यक्ताद् यत् प्रथमं जातं, हैरण्य-गर्भं तत्त्वं, बोधाबोधात्मकं, महान् आत्मा बुद्धेः परः इत्य् उच्यते॥

Buddheḥ, as compared with the intellect; mahān ātmā, the Great Soul (is higher); it is ātmā, the soul, because it is the innermost principle of the intelligence of all beings, and it is mahān, great, because it is the most pervasive of all. The principle called Hiraṇya-garbha, which was born before all, from the Unmanifested (Māyā), and which consists of both intelligence and activity, is called the Great Soul that is paraḥ, higher, than the intellect.

mahat, para, a-vyakta, a-vyakta, puruṣa, para;
puruṣa, na, para, ka-cid, tad, kāṣṭhā, tad, parā, gati.

अ-व्यक्तं महतः परं, पुरुषः अ-व्यक्तात् परः [समष्ठितः], पुरुषात् न किञ्चिद् परं, सा काष्ठा सा परा गतिः॥
Than the total intellect (mahat), the unmanifest is more subtle. Than the unmanifest, the puruṣa (the limitless self) is more subtle. Than the puruṣa, there is nothing more subtle. That maximum limit, that goal, is the ultimate.
Than mahat (total intellect) (महतः), the unmanifest is more subtle (परम् अ-व्यक्तम्).
Than the unmanifest (अ-व्यक्तात्), the puruṣa (the limitless self) is more subtle (पुरुषः परः).
Than the puruṣa (पुरुषात्), there is nothing more subtle (न परं किञ्चिद्).
That maximum limit (सा काष्ठा), that goal, is the ultimate (सा परा गतिः).
महतोऽपि परं सूक्ष्मतरं प्रत्यग्-आत्म-भूतं सर्व-महत्तरं च अ-व्यक्तं सर्वस्य जगतो बीज-भूतम्, अ-व्याकृत-नाम-रूप-सतत्त्वं, सर्व-कार्य-कारण-शक्ति-समाहार-रूपम्, अ-व्यक्ताव्याकृताकाशादि-नाम-वाच्यं, परमात्मन्य् ओत-प्रोत-भावेन समाश्रितं (BrhU.3.6.1) वट-कणिकायाम् इव वट-वृक्ष-शक्तिः।
Mahataḥ, as compared (even) with Mahat (the Great Soul); param, higher – subtler, the inner self, and the most pervasive; is a-vyaktam, the Unmanifested – that which is the seed of the whole universe, the essence of unmanifested name of form, the state of aggregation of all powers of causes and effects, [•During cosmic dissolution.•] called by such names as a-vyakta (Unmanifested), a-vyākṛta (Unevolved), ākāśa (Space), etc., resting on the supreme Self through and through like the potentiality of a banyan tree in a tiny banyan seed.
[•‘As the seed, with the potentiality of the tree, is but a single entity, without a second. similarly Brahman, too, as possessed of the power of Māyā, is not a dual entity.’-A.G.•]

तस्माद् अ-व्यक्तात् परः सूक्ष्म-तरः सर्व-कारण-कारणत्वात् प्रत्यग्-आत्मत्वाच् च महांश् च, अत एव पुरुषः सर्व-पूरणात्।
A-vyaktāt, as compared with that a-vyakta
[•That has no individuality when ascertained from the point of view of existence etc. It is the cause of the whole manifested world. Since it is dependent on the supreme Self, the latter is indirectly called the cause. But in reality the Self is not the cause, because It is not subject to mutation.•];
(the Puruṣa is) paraḥ, higher – subtler and greater, being the cause of all the causes and the inmost self of all – and therefore too, He is called puruṣaḥ, because He fills up (pūraṇa) everything.

ततोऽन्यस्य परस्य प्रसङ्गं निवारयन्न् आह – ‘पुरुषान् न परं किञ्चिद्’ इति। यस्मान् अस्ति पुरुषाच् चिन्-मात्र-घनात् परं किञ्चिद् अपि वस्त्व्-अन्तरम्, तस्मात् सूक्ष्मत्व-महत्त्व-प्रत्यग्-आत्मत्वानां सा काष्ठा निष्ठा पर्यवसानम्। अत्र हि इन्द्रियेभ्य आरभ्य सूक्ष्मत्वादि परिसमाप्तम् ।
Ruling out the possibility of anything being higher than Him, the text says, puruṣāt na param kiñcit, there is nothing higher than the Puruṣa. Since there is no other substance beyond the Puruṣa who is a mass of pure consciousness, therefore, , He, the Puruṣa; is kāṣṭhā, the acme, the culmination – of subtleness, greatness, and inwardness, as Self. Here, indeed, culminate all subtleness etc., commencing from the senses.

अत एव च गन्तॄणां सर्व-गतिमतां संसारिणां सा परा प्रकृष्टा गतिः, ‘यद् गत्वा न निवर्त्तन्ते’ इति (BhG.15.6) स्मृतेः॥

And hence this is parā gatiḥ, the supreme goal – of all travellers, all individual souls that transmigrate; because the Smṛti says, ’Going where they do not return.’ (BhG.8.21, 15.6).

ननु गतिश् चेद् आगत्यापि भवितव्यम्, कथं ‘यस्माद् भूयो न जायते’ इति (KathU.1.3.8)?
Objection: Is it not a fact that if there is going, there shall be coming as well? How is it then said, ‘from which he is not born again’? (KathU.1.3.8)

नैष दोषः। सर्वस्य [पुरुषस्य] प्रत्यग्-आत्मत्वाद् अवगतिर् एव गतिर् इत्य् उपचर्यते। प्रत्यग्-आत्मत्वं च दर्शितम् इन्द्रिय-मनो-बुद्धि-परत्वेन।
Answer: That is no fault. Since He is the indwelling Self of all, the fact of realizing Him is figuratively spoken of as attaining Him. And that He is the indwelling Self is shown through His being higher than the senses, the mind, and the intellect.

यो हि गन्ता सोऽगतम् अ-प्रत्यग्-रूपं गच्छति अन्-आत्म-भूतं, न विपर्ययेण। तथा च श्रुतिर् ‘अन्-अध्वगा अध्वसु पारयिष्णवः’ इत्य्-आद्या (ItHasU.18)। तथा च दर्शयति प्रत्यग्-आत्मत्वं सर्वस्य –

He who is a traveller goes, indeed, to something that is unattained, non-immanent, and non-Self, but not contrariwise. Thus there is the Veda text: ‘Those who want to get beyond the ways (of the world), do not walk on roads,’ etc. (Iti. 18) Thus also is being shown that He is the indwelling Self of all:
etad, sarva, bhūta, gūḍha, ātman, na, pra-√kāś;
√dṛś, tu, agryā, buddhi, sūkṣmā, sūkṣma-darśin.

एषः सर्वेषु भूतेषु गूढः आत्मा न प्रकाशते, सूक्ष्म-दर्शिभिः तु अग्र्यया सूक्ष्मया बुद्ध्या दृश्यते॥
In all beings, this self (ātman), being hidden by ignorance, is not evident. However, it is evident by those with a subtle vision through a sharp and subtle intellect (informed and honed by this teaching).
In all beings, this (एषः सर्वेषु भूतेषु)
self (ātman), being hidden (by ignorance), is not evident (गूढः आत्मा न प्रकाशते).
However, it is evident through a sharp intellect (दृश्यते तु अग्र्यया बुद्ध्या)
that is subtle, by those with this subtle vision (सूक्ष्मया सूक्ष्म-दर्शिभिः).
एषः पुरुषः सर्वेषु ब्रह्मादि-स्तम्ब-पर्यन्तेषु भूतेषु गूढः संवृतः दर्शन-श्रवणादि-कर्मा अ-विद्या-मायाच्छन्नः। अत एव आत्मा न प्रकाशते आत्मत्वेन कस्यचित्।
Eṣaḥ, this one – this Puruṣa; sarveṣu bhūteṣu, in all creatures – from Brahmā to a clump of grass; gūḍhaḥ, is hidden – though He has such activities as hearing, seeing, etc., yet He is covered by a-vidyā, i.e. Māyā.
[•The very word a-vidyā (ignorance) suggests that it is removable by vidyā (knowledge); and Māyā (cosmic illusion) suggests that it is unreal.•]
Thus, since He is the ātmā, the Self (of all); na prakāśate, (He) does not appear as the Self of anyone.
[•The Self, as such, cannot be the content of any conventional idea.•]

अहो अति-गम्भीरा दुर्-अवगाह्या विचित्रा माया चेयं, यद् अयं सर्वो जन्तुः परमार्थतः परमार्थ-स-तत्त्वोऽप्य् एवं बोध्यमानो ‘अहं परमात्मा’ इति न गृह्णाति, अन्-आत्मानं देहेन्द्रियादि-सङ्गातम् आत्मनो दृश्यमानम् अपि घटादिवद् आत्मत्वेन ‘अहम् अमुष्य पुत्र’ इत्य् अनुच्यमानोऽपि गृह्णाति।
Alas, how unfathomable, inscrutable, and variegated is this Māyā, that every creature, though in reality identical with the supreme Entity, and is instructed as such, does not grasp the fact ‘I am the supreme Self’, while even without being told, he accepts as his Self the non-selves, viz the aggregate of body and senses, under the idea ‘I am the son of such a one’, though these (latter) are objects of perception to oneself (and are hence not his selves) like pots etc!

नूनं परस्यैव मायया मोमुह्यमानः सर्वो लोको बम्भ्रमीति। तथा च स्मरणम् – ‘नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योग-माया-समावृतः’ (BhG.7.25) इत्य्-आदि।
Verily, it is because of being deluded by the Māyā of the supreme Being that every man moves again and again (through birth and death). There is this Smṛti on this point: ‘I am not revealed to all, being veiled by my Yoga-Māyā (i.e. the illusion born of the congress of the guṇas), etc. (BhG.7.25).

ननु विरुद्धम् इदम् उच्यते – ‘मत्वा धीरो न शोचति’ (KathU.1.2.22), ‘न प्रकाशते’ इति च।
Objection: Is it not contradictory to say, ‘Having realized It, the intelligent man does not grieve’ (KathU.2.1.4) and ‘He does not appear’?

नैतद् एवम्। अ-संस्कृत-बुद्धेर् अ-विज्ञेयत्वान् ‘न प्रकाशते’ इत्य् उक्तम्। दृश्यते तु संस्कृतया अग्र्यया, अग्रम् इव अग्र्या तया, एकाग्रतयोपेतया इत्य् एतत्। सूक्ष्मया सूक्ष्म-वस्तु-निरूपण-परया।
Answer: This is not so. Since He is not known to a man whose intellect has not been purified, it is said, ‘He does not appear’. Tu (but); dṛśyate, (He) is seen; through the purified (intellect) – agryayā through the pointed (intellect); that (intellect) which is like a point (agra) is agryā; through that, i.e. through that (intellect) which is associated with concentration; sūkṣmayā, through the subtle (intellect) that is engaged in ascertaining subtle things.
[•‘When the mind becomes concentrated through the perfection of meditation and thus becomes helpful, then from the mahā-vākya (great saying – Thou art That) associated with that mind, there arises such a conviction as “I am Brahman.” On that intellectual pattern is revealed the reality of Brahman; and this is conventionally referred to as the self-revealed immediate perception of Brahman.’ A.G.•]

कैः? सूक्ष्म-दर्शिभिर् ‘इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्य् अर्थाः’ (KathU.1.3.10) इत्य् आदि-प्रकारेण सूक्ष्मता-पारम्पर्य-दर्शनेन परं सूक्ष्मं द्रष्टुं शीलं येषां ते सूक्ष्म-दर्शिनः, तैः सूक्ष्म-दर्शिभिः, पण्डितैर् इत्य् एतत्॥

By whom? Sūkṣma-darśibhiḥ, by the seers of subtle things. The seers are those who have become skilled in penetrating into the subtlest thing through their perception of an ascending order of subtleness by following the process as indicated in the text, ‘The sense-objects are higher than the senses,’ etc. (KathU.1.3.10) By them, i.e. by the wise people.

तत्-प्रतिपत्त्य् उपायम् आह –
The means for His attainment is being stated:
√yam, vāc, manas, prājña, tad, √yam, jñāna, ātman;
jñāna, ātman, mahat, ni-√yam, tad, √yam, śānta, ātman.

प्राज्ञः [=विवेकी] वाच् मनसी [=वाग्-आदि-करणं वाचं वा मनसि] यच्छेत्, तद् [मनस्] ज्ञाने आत्मनि [=बुद्धौ] यच्छेत्, ज्ञानं महति आत्मनि नियच्छेत्, तद् शान्ते आत्मनि यच्छेत्॥
(As a contemplative methodology) the discerning person should resolve (reposition one’s identity from) speech (and the other organs) into the mind (manas), and should resolve that into the intellect as one’s self, then resolve one’s intellect into the total intellect as one’s self, and resolve that into the one’s peaceful self (the puruṣa, the ultimate limit).
(As a contemplative methodology) the discerning person should resolve (reposition one’s identity from) speech (and the other organs) into the mind (manas) (यच्छेत् वाच् मनसी प्राज्ञः),
(and) should resolve that (manas) into the intellect as one’s self (तद् यच्छेत् ज्ञाने आत्मनि),
(then) resolve one’s intellect into the mahat (the total intellect) as one’s self (ज्ञानं आत्मनि महति नियच्छेत्),
(and) resolve that (mahat) into the one’s peaceful self (the puruṣa, the ultimate limit) (तद् शान्ते आत्मनि यच्छेत्).
यच्छेद् नियच्छेद् उपसंहरेत् प्राज्ञो विवेकी। किम्? वाग् वाचम्। वाग् अत्रोपलक्षणार्था सर्वेषाम् इन्द्रियाणाम् (BrhU.1.5.3)। क्व? मनसी मनसि। छान्दसं दैर्घ्यम्।
Prājñaḥ, the discriminating man; yacchet, should merge. What (should he merge)? Vāk, i.e. vācam, the organ of speech, (i.e. all the organs), vāk being used suggestively for all organs. Where? Manasī, into the mind; the use of the word with a long i is a Veda licence.

तच् च मनो यच्छेज् ज्ञाने प्रकाश-स्वरूपे बुद्धाव् आत्मनि। बुद्धिर् हि मन-आदि-करणान्य् आप्नोतीत्य् आत्मा प्रत्यक् तेषाम्।
Tat, that mind, again; yacchet, he should merge; jñāne ātmani, into the intellect – bright by nature – which is their self; as the intellect pervades the organs, beginning with the mind, it is their self, their innermost principle.

ज्ञानं बुद्धिम् आत्मनि महति प्रथम-जे नियच्छेत्। प्रथम-जवत् स्वच्छ-स्व-भावकम् आत्मनो विज्ञानम् आपादयेद् इत्य् अर्थः।
Jñānam, the intellect; niyacchet, he should dissolve; mahati ātmani, in the Great Soul – the First Born (Hiraṇya-garbha). The idea is that he should make the intelligence as clear in its nature as is the First Born.

तद् तं च महान्तम् आत्मानं यच्छेत् शान्ते सर्व-विशेष-प्रत्यस्तमित-रूपेऽविक्रिये सर्वान्तरे सर्व-बुद्धि-प्रत्यय-साक्षिणि मुख्ये आत्मनि

And that Great Soul again, yacchet, he should sink; śānte, into the peaceful – whose nature does not admit of any distinction, which is unchangeable; (into that peaceful) ātmani, Self – into the real Self which is within all and is the witness of all the modifications of the intellect.

एवं पुरुषे आत्मनि सर्वं प्रविलाप्य – नाम-रूप-कर्म-त्रयं (BrhU.1.6.1), यन् मिथ्याज्ञान-विजृम्भितं, क्रिया-कारक-फल-लक्षणं स्वात्म-याथात्म्य-ज्ञानेन, मरीच्य्-उदक-रज्जु-सर्प-गगन-मलानि इव मरीचि-रज्जु-गगन-स्व-रूप-दर्शनेनैव –
Just as the water in a mirage, the snake on rope, and dirt in the sky, are eliminated through the perception of the real nature of the mirage, rope, and the sky, similarly by dissolving in the Puruṣa – the Self – through the knowledge of the true nature of one’s own Self, all that is projected by unreal ignorance, which is characterized by action, instrument, and result, and which is but constituted by the three – name, form, and action (BrhUEng.1.6.1) –

स्व-स्थः प्रशान्तात्मा कृत-कृत्यो भवति यतः, अतस् तद्-दर्शनार्थम् –

One becomes established in the Self and peaceful in mind, and he has his goal achieved. Since this is so, therefore, for the sake of realizing this:
ud-√sthā, √jāgṛ, prāpya, vara, ni-√budh;
kṣura, dhārā, niśitā, dus-atyaya, dus-ga, panthan, tad, kavi, √vad.

उत्तिष्ठत, जाग्रत, वरान् [आचार्यान्] प्राप्य निबोधत। [यथा] क्षुरस्य निशिता धारा दुर्-अत्यया, कवयः पथः [=ज्ञान-मार्गस्य] तद् [तं पन्थानं वा] दुर्-गं वदन्ति॥
Arise and Awake (turn to this teaching and shake off your self-confusions). By approaching a choice teacher, may you all learn. As a razor sharp edge is difficult to traverse, the wise say that this path of self-knowledge is dur-ga (not traversed without a fine intellect’s attention).
Arise and Awake (turn to this teaching and shake off your self-confusions) (उत्तिष्ठत, जाग्रत).
(By) approaching a choice teacher, may you all learn (प्राप्य वरान् निबोधत).
(As) a razor sharp edge (dharā) (क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता) is difficult to traverse (दुर्-अत्यया),
the wise say that this path (of self-knowledge) is dur-ga (not traversed without a fine intellect’s attention) (कवयः पथः तद् दुर्-गं वदन्ति).
अनाद्य्-अ-विद्या-प्रसुप्ता उत्तिष्ठत हे जन्तवः, आत्म-ज्ञानाभिमुखा भवत। जाग्रत अ-ज्ञान-निद्राया घोर-रूपायाः सर्वानर्थ-बीज-भूतायाः क्षयं कुरुत।
You creatures, who are sleeping in ignorance that has no beginning, uttiṣṭhata, arise, turn towards the knowledge of the Self; jāgrata, awake – put an end to the sleep of ignorance which is terrible by nature, and is the seed of all evil.

कथम्? प्राप्य उपगम्य वरान् प्रकृष्टान् आचार्यांस् तद्-विदः, तद्-उपदिष्टं सर्वान्तरम् आत्मानम् ‘अहम् अस्मि’ इति निबोधत अवगच्छत। ‘न हि उपेक्षितव्यम्’ इति श्रुतिर् अनुकम्पया आह मातृवत्, अति-सूक्ष्म-बुद्धि-विषयत्वाज् ज्ञेयस्य।
How (to put an end to it)? Prāpya, approaching; varān, the adorable ones, the excellent teachers – who know that (Self); nibodhata, learn – understand the all-pervading Self, taught by them, as ‘I am that’. The Upaniṣad says out of compassion, like a mother, that this should not be neglected, for the thing to be known is comprehensible by a very fine intellect.

किम् इव सूक्ष्म-बुद्धिः? इत्य् उच्यते – क्षुरस्य धारा अग्रं निशिता तीक्ष्णी-कृता दुर्-अत्यया दुःखेनात्ययो यस्याः सा दुर्-अत्यया। यथा सा पद्भ्यां दुर्-गमनीया, तथा दुर्-गं दुः-सम्पाद्यम् इत्य् एतत्। पथः पन्थानं तत् तं ज्ञान-लक्षणं मार्गं कवयो मेधाविनो वदन्ति। ज्ञेयस्याति-सूक्ष्मत्वात्, तद्-विषयस्य ज्ञान-मार्गस्य दुः-सम्पाद्यत्वं वदन्ति इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

With what can that fine intellect be compared? This is being said: Dhārā, the edge; kṣurasya, of a razor; niśitā, being sharpened; becomes, dur-atyayā, such as can be passed over with great difficulty, impassable. As that razor is difficult to walk on (traverse) with the feet, similarly, kavayaḥ, the intelligent people; vadanti, describe; pathaḥ (should rather be (panthānam), the path – consisting in the knowledge of Reality; (as) dur-gam, impassable, i.e. hard to attain. The idea is that since the object to be known is very subtle, they speak of the path of knowledge leading to it as impassable.

तत् कथम् अति-सूक्ष्मत्वं ज्ञेयस्य? इत्य् उच्यते।
How is the thing to be known very subtle? That is being said:

स्थूला तावद् इयं मेदिनी शब्द-स्पर्श-रूप-रस-गन्धोपचिता सर्वेन्द्रिय-विषय-भूता तथा शरीरम्। तत्रैकैक-गुणापकर्षेण गन्धादीनां सूक्ष्मत्व-महत्त्व-विशुद्धत्व-नित्यत्वादि-तारतम्यं दृष्टम् अ-बादिषु यावद् आकाशम् इति,
Now, then, this earth is gross, developed as it is by (the principles of) sound, touch, colour, taste, and smell; and it is an object of perception to all the senses. So also is the body. Here a gradation of subtleness, pervasiveness, purity, permanence, etc. is noticed in water etc., through the elimination of the attributes of smell etc., one by one, till one reaches ākāśa (space).
[•Earth is possessed of five qualities – smell, taste, colour, touch, and sound; water consists of the four qualities beginning from taste; fire of the next three; air of the next two; and space of the last one. It is difficult to translate the word ākāśa. Vedānta-sāra defines it as the element that provides space and has sound as its quality.•]

ते गन्धादयः सर्वे एव स्थूलत्वाद् कारणाः शब्दान्ता यत्र न सन्ति, किम्-उ तस्य सूक्ष्मत्वादि-निरतिशयत्वं वक्तव्यम् इत्य् एतद् दर्शयति श्रुतिः –

Therefore, what need is there to speak of the unsurpassable subtleness etc. of that in which do not exist those attributes – beginning with smell and ending with sound – that are the causes of grossness. This is what the Upaniṣad shows:
a-śabda, a-sparśa, a-rūpa, a-vyaya, tathā, a-rasa, nitya, a-gandhavat, ca, yad;
an-ādi, an-anta, mahat, para, dhruva, nicāyya, tad, mṛtyu-mukha, pra-√muc.

यद् अ-शब्दम्, अ-स्पर्शम्, अ-रूपम्, अ-व्ययं, तथा अ-रसं, नित्यम्, अ-गन्धवत् च, अन्-आदि, अन्-अन्तं, महतः परं, ध्रुवं, तद् [ब्रह्म] निचाय्य मृत्यु-मुखात् प्रमुच्यते॥
This (brahman) is soundless, tasteless, touchless, odorless, and formless, is changeless, constant, timeless, beginningless, and endless, and is beyond the mahat (beyond the universal intellect). Clearly knowing that, one is completely freed from the jaws of death.
This (brahman) is soundless, touchless, formless, changeless (अ-शब्दम्, अ-स्पर्शम्, अ-रूपम्, अ-व्ययम्),
tasteless, timeless, odorless (तथा अ-रसं, नित्यम्, अ-गन्धवत् च यद्)
beginningless, endless, beyond the mahat, and constant (अन्-आदि, अन्-अन्तं, महतः परं, ध्रुवम्).
Clearly knowing that (निचाय्य तद्), one is completely freed from the jaws of death (मृत्यु-मुखात् प्रमुच्यते).
अ-शब्दम् अ-स्पर्शम् अ-रूपम् अ-व्ययं तथा अ-रसं नित्यम् अ-गन्धवच् च यद् एतद् व्याख्यातं ब्रह्म अ-व्ययम्।
Yat, that which – is described as; a-śabdam, soundless; a-sparśam, touchless; a-rūpam, colourless; a-vyayam, undiminishing; tathā, and also; a-rasam, tasteless; nityam, eternal; a-gandhavat, odourless – that is the undecaying Brahman.

यद् धि शब्दादिमत्, तद् व्येति। इदं त्व् अ-शब्दादिमत्त्वाद् अ-व्ययं, न व्येति न क्षीयते। अत एव च नित्यम्। यद् धि व्येति, तद् अ-नित्यम्। इदं तु न व्येति, अतो नित्यम्।
That which is possessed of sound etc., diminishes. But this one, being soundless etc., is a-vyayam – It does not diminish, does not decay; and because of this, It is eternal. Whatever decays is non-eternal; but this one does not decay, therefore it is permanent.

इतश् च नित्यम् – अन्-आदि अ-विद्यमान आदिः कारणम् अस्य तद् इदम् अन्-आदि। यद् ध्य् आदिमत् तत् कार्यत्वाद् अ-नित्यं कारणे प्रलीयते यथा पृथिव्य्-आदि। इदं तु सर्व-कारणत्वाद् अ-कार्यम्। अ-कार्यत्वान् नित्यम्। न तस्य कारणम् अस्ति यस्मिन् प्रलीयेत।
For this further reason, too, It is eternal: that which has no ādi (beginning), cause, is an-ādi, beginningless. That which has a cause, is impermanent, because it is an effect and it merges into its cause, as for instance earth etc. But this one being the cause of all, is not the effect; and because It is not an effect, It is eternal; It has no cause into which It can merge.

तथा अन्-अन्तम् अ-विद्यमानोऽन्तः कार्यम् अस्य तद् अन्-अन्तम्। यथा कदल्यादेः फलादि-कार्योत्पादनेन अप्य् अ-नित्यत्वं दृष्टम्, न च तथापि अन्तवत्त्वं ब्रह्मणः। अतोऽपि नित्यम्।
Similarly, an-antam, infinite – that which has no end, no effect. As the plantain etc. are seen to be impermanent after yielding their products in the form of fruits etc., not even in that way has Brahman any finitude; hence too, It is eternal.

महतो महत्-तत्त्वाद् बुद्ध्य्-आख्यात् परं विलक्षणं नित्य-विज्ञप्ति-स्व-रूपत्वात्। सर्व-साक्षि हि सर्व-भूतात्मत्वाद् ब्रह्म। उक्तं हि ‘एष सर्वेषु भूतेषु’ (KathU.1.3.12) इत्य्-आदि। ध्रुवं च कूट-स्थं नित्यं, न पृथिव्य्-आदिवद् आपेक्षिकं नित्यत्वम्।
Mahataḥ, from the principle Mahat, called buddhi, intelligence; It is param, distinct (i.e. other), by nature – for It is the witness of all, being eternal Consciousness; and It is Brahman, being the Self of all beings. For it has been already said, ‘He is hidden in all beings’, etc. (KathU.1.3.12) And It is dhruvam, changelessly constant, whose eternality is not relative like that of the earth etc.

तद् एवं-भूतं ब्रह्मात्मानं निचाय्य अवगम्य तम् आत्मानं, मृत्यु-मुखान् मृत्यु-गोचराद् अ-विद्या-काम-कर्म-लक्षणात् प्रमुच्यते वियुज्यते॥

Nicāyya, realizing; tat, that Self – the Self that is the Brahman of this kind; pramucyate, one (-self) gets freed from – detached from; mṛtyu-mukhāt, from the jaws, the grasp, of Death – which consists of ignorance, desire, and action (a-vidyā, kāma, karma).

प्रस्तुत-विज्ञान-स्तुत्य्-अर्थम् आह श्रुतिः –
For the sake of eulogizing the knowledge under discussion the Upaniṣad says:
nāniketas, upākhyāna, mṛtyu-prokta, sanā-tana;
uktvā, śrutvā, ca, medhāvin, brahma-loka, √mahat.

सना-तनं उपाख्यानं नाचिकेतं मृत्यु-प्रोक्तं श्रुत्वा उक्त्वा च मेधावी ब्रह्म-लोके महीयते॥
Having heard and repeating (to others) this ever existing teaching received by Naciketas and taught by Lord Death, a discerning person becomes glorified in brahma-loka (the highest heaven).
This teaching received by Naciketas (नाचिकेतम् उपाख्यानम्),
ever existing, taught by Lord Death (सना-तनं मृत्यु-प्रोक्तम्),
having heard and repeating (to others), a discerning person (श्रुत्वा उक्त्वा च मेधावी)
becomes glorified in brahma-loka (the highest heaven) (ब्रह्म-लोके महीयते).
नाचिकेतं नचिकेतसा प्राप्तं नाचिकेतं, मृत्युना प्रोक्तं मृत्यु-प्रोक्तम् इदम् आख्यानम् उपाख्यानं वल्ली-त्रय-लक्षणं सना-तनं चिरन्-तनं वैदिकत्वाद् उक्त्वा ब्राह्मणेभ्यः श्रुत्वा च आचार्येभ्यो मेधावी ब्रह्मैव लोको ब्रह्म-लोकस् तस्मिन् ब्रह्म-लोके महीयते आत्म-भूत उपास्यो भवतीत्य् अभिप्रायः॥
Uktvā, relating (repeating) – to Brāhmaṇas; ca, and; śrutvā, (after) hearing – from teachers; this sanā–tanam upākhyānam, eternal anecdote – eternal because it is Veda; (that was) nāciketam, received by Naciketas; (and) mṛtyu-proktam, told by Death; medhāvī, the intelligent man; mahīyate, becomes glorified – i.e. he becomes adorable by becoming identified with Brahman; brahma-loke, in the region of Brahman that is identical with Brahman Itself.

yad, idam, parama, guhya, √śru, brahma-saṃsad;
prayata, śrāddha-kāla, vā, tad, ān-antya, √kḷp, tad, ān-antya, √kḷp.

यः प्रयतः ब्रह्म-संसदि श्राद्ध-काले वा इमं परमं गुह्यं श्रावयेत्, तद् [कथनं श्राद्धं वा] आन्-अन्त्याय कम्पते। तद् आन्-अन्त्याय कल्पते इति॥
The one who makes this very same ultimate secret heard (and understood) in an assembly of brāhmaṇas or, being purified, at the time of śrāddha (the funeral ceremony), then it makes for infinite results. The End.
This very same ultimate secret (यः इमं परमं गुह्यं),
the one who makes this heard (and understood) in an assembly of brāhmaṇas (श्रावयेत् ब्रह्म-संसदि),
or at the time of śrāddha (the funeral ceremony), being purified (प्रयतः श्राद्ध-काले वा),
then it makes for infinite results, (repeat…) (तद् आन्-अन्त्याय कम्पते। तद् आन्-अन्त्याय कल्पते इति).
यः कश्चिद् इमं ग्रन्थं परमं प्रकृष्टं गुह्यं गोप्यं श्रावयेद् ग्रन्थतोऽर्थतश् च ब्राह्मणानां संसदि ब्रह्म-संसदि प्रयतः शुचिर् भूत्वा श्राद्ध-काले वा श्रावयेद् भुञ्जानानां, तत् श्राद्धम् अस्य आन्-अन्त्याय अन्-अन्त-फलाय कल्पते सम्पद्यते। द्विर्-वचनम् अध्याय-परिसमाप्त्य्-अर्थम्॥
Should yaḥ, anyone; prayataḥ, after becoming purified; idam śrāvayet, gets (makes) this text recited – verbatim, as also with explanation; (that is) paramam guhyam, the greatest secret; brahma-saṃsadi, in an assemblage of Brāhmaṇas; , or; gets it recited śrāddha-kāle, at the time of the ceremonies for the dead, to the Brāhmaṇas seated for the feast; (then) tat, that – funeral ceremony, of that man; kalpate, becomes conducive; ān-antyāya, to eternal result. The repetition is for concluding the Part (adhyāya).

॥इति प्रथमेऽध्याये तृतीया वल्ली॥
॥इति श्रीमत्-परम-हंस-परिव्राजकाचार्यस्य श्री-गोविन्द-भगवत्-पूज्य-पाद-शिष्यस्य श्रीमच्-छंकर-भगवतः कृतौ काठकोपनिषद्-भाष्ये प्रथमोऽध्यायः॥

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On contemplation

mn.01 mn.02 mn.03 mn.04 mn.05 mn.06 mn.07 mn.08 mn.09 mn.10 mn.11 mn.12 mn.13 mn.14 mn.15

“एष सर्वेषु भूतेषु गूढोऽऽत्मा न प्रकाशते। दृश्यते त्व् अग्र्यया बुद्ध्या” इत्य् (KathU.1.3.12) उक्तम्। कः पुनः प्रतिबन्धोऽग्र्यायाः बुद्धेः, येन तद्-अभावाद् आत्मा न दृश्यते इति तद्-अदर्शन-कारण-प्रदर्शनार्था वल्ल्य् आरभ्यते।
It has been stated, ’He is hidden in all beings, and hence He does not appear as the Self (of all). But He is seen through a pointed and fine intellect’ (KathU.1.3.12). What again is the obstacle to this pointed intellect because of which there is an absence of that intellect and the Self is not seen? This canto is begun to show the cause of that non-perception.
[•This is according to the reading tad-a-darśana. The other reading is tad-darśana, which gives the opposite meaning.•]

विज्ञाते हि श्रेयः-प्रतिबन्ध-कारणे तद्-अपनयनाय यत्नः आरब्धुं शक्यते, नान्यथेति –

For only when the cause that bars the good is known, can effort be made to remove it and not otherwise:
parāc, kha, vi-√tṛd, svayam-bhū, tad, parāc, √dṛś, na, antar-ātman;
ka-cid, dhīra, pratyac-ātman, √īkṣ, āvṛta-cakṣus, a-mṛtatva, icchat.

स्वयम्-भूः पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् [इव]। तस्मात् पराङ् पश्यति, न अन्तर्-आत्मन् [=-आत्मानम्]। अ-मृतत्वम् इच्छन् कः-चिद् धीरः आवृत-चक्षुर् प्रत्यच्-आत्मानम् ऐक्षत्॥
The self-existing ātman (as though, half) injured the five senses. Therefore, one naturally sees only the outside, not the self from within. A rare discerning person comes to see (know) the self from within also, having directed the attention within, seeking freedom from death (from the impermanent outside world).
The self-existing one (ātman) (as though, half) injured the five senses (पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयम्-भूः).
Therefore (तस्मात्), one (naturally) sees (only) the outside, not the self from within (पराङ् पश्यति, न अन्तर्-आत्मन्).
A (rare) discerning person comes to see (know) the self from within (also) (कः-चिद् धीरः प्रत्यच्-आत्मानम् ऐक्षत्),
having directed the attention within, seeking freedom from death (from the impermanent outside world) (आवृत-चक्षुर् अ-मृतत्वम् इच्छन्).
पराञ्चि पराग् अञ्चन्ति गच्छन्तीति। खानि तद्-उपलक्षितानि श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाणि खानि इत्य् उच्यन्ते। तानि पराञ्च्य् एव शब्दादि-विषय-प्रकाशनाय प्रवर्त्तन्ते। यस्माद् एवं-स्व-भावकानि तानि व्यतृणद् हिंसितवान् हननं कृतवान् इत्य् अर्थः।
Parāñci, outgoing; by the word khāni (kha meaning an orifice, cavity) are referred to the senses such as ear etc.
[•Actually meaning the senses – of hearing, sight, etc.•],
which are suggestively indicated by it. They surely proceed outward for revealing their objects, sound etc. Since they are of such a nature, He vyatṛṇat, afflicted, i.e. killed these.

कोऽसौ स्वयं-भूः परमेश्वरः स्वयम् एव स्व-तन्त्रो भवति सर्व-दा, न पर-तन्त्र इति।
Who is He (that did so)? Svayam-bhūḥ, the Great Lord – who (bhū) exists ever, and (svayam, by Himself) on His own right, and is not subject to anything else.

तस्मात् पराङ् पराग् रूपान् अन्-आत्म-भूतान् शब्दादीन् पश्यति उपलभते उपलब्धा नान्तर्-आत्मन् न अन्तर्-आत्मानम् इत्य् अर्थः।
(Since He injured them), tasmāt, therefore; the perceiver (the individual) paśyati, sees, perceives; parāk, the outer – sounds etc., which are the non-Self and exist as external things; na antar-ātman, i.e. na antar-ātmānam, but (sees) not the inner Self.

एवं-स्व-भावेऽपि सति लोकस्य, कश्चित् नद्याः प्रतिस्रोतः-प्रवर्त्तनम् इव धीरः धीमान् विवेकी प्रत्यग्-आत्मानं प्रत्यक् च असाव् आत्मा चेति प्रत्यग्-आत्मा।
Though such is the nature of man, yet like reversing the current of a river kaścit dhīraḥ, some (rare) discriminating man (sees); pratyag-ātmānam, the indwelling Self. That which is pratyak, in the interior, and at the same time ātmā, the Self, is the pratyag-ātmā.

प्रतीच्य् एवात्म-शब्दो रूढो लोके, न अन्यस्मिन्। व्युत्पत्ति-पक्षेऽपि तत्रैव आत्म-शब्दो वर्त्तते।
In common usage the word ātmā conventionally means only the individual soul, and not anything else. From the point of etymology, too, the word ātmā has that very sense.

यच् चाप्नोति यद् आदत्ते यच् चात्ति विषयान् इह।
यच् चास्य सन्ततो भावस् तस्माद् आत्मेति कीर्त्त्यते॥(LinPur.70.13) इत्य् आत्म-शब्द-व्युत्पत्ति-स्मरणात्।
For in the Smṛti the derivation of the word is given thus: ’Since It pervades (āpnoti), absorbs (ādatte), and enjoys (atti, from the root ad) (all) objects in the world, and since from It the world derives its continuos existence (santataḥ bhāvam), therefore, It is called the ātmā.’ (L. P. I. LXX. 96).

तं प्रत्यग्-आत्मानं स्वं स्व-भावम् ऐक्षद् अपश्यत् पश्यतीत्य् अर्थः, छन्दसि कालानियमात्। कथं पश्यति इत्य् उच्यते – आवृत्त-चक्षुर् आवृत्तं व्यावृत्तं चक्षुः श्रोत्रादिकम् इन्द्रिय-जातम् अ-शेष-विषयाद् यस्य स आवृत्त-चक्षुः। स एवं संस्कृतः प्रत्यग्-आत्मानं पश्यति। न हि बाह्य-विषयालोचन-परत्वं प्रत्यग्-आत्मेक्षणं च एकस्य सम्भवति। किम् अर्थं पुनर् इत्थं महता प्रयासेन स्व-भाव-प्रवृत्ति-निरोधं कृत्वा,
That indwelling Self – one’s own reality – one aikṣat, saw, i.e. sees, for in the Vedas there is no regularity about the tenses. How one sees is being stated: (Becoming) āvṛtta-cakṣuḥ, having one’s eyes covered – having one’s eye, i.e. the group of organs beginning with the ear, turned away from all sense-objects. Such a one, who is purified thus, sees the indwelling Self. For it is not possible for the same person to be engaged in the thought of sense-objects (as distinct) and to have the vision of the Self (as everything) as well.

धीरः प्रत्यग्-आत्मानं पश्यति? इत्य् उच्यते – अ-मृतत्वम् अ-मरण-धर्मत्वं नित्य-स्व-भावताम् इच्छन्न् आत्मन इत्य् अर्थः॥

Why, again does the discriminating man check his natural propensity thus through great effort and then realize the Self? This is the answer: Icchan, desiring – for oneself; a-mṛtatvam, immortality – one’s own unchanging nature.

यत् तावत् स्वा-भाविकं पराग् एव अन्-आत्म-दर्शनं तद् आत्म-दर्शनस्य प्रतिबन्ध-कारणम् अ-विद्या तत्-प्रतिकूलत्वाद्, या च पराक्षु एव अ-विद्योपप्रदर्शितेषु दृष्टादृष्टेषु भोगेषु तृष्णा, ताभ्याम् अ-विद्या-तृष्णाभ्यां प्रतिबद्धात्म-दर्शनाः –
Now then, the natural tendency to perceive only outwardly the things that are not the Self, is the cause of obstruction of the vision of the Self and it is ignorance, since it is opposed to that (vision). And there is that thirst for the enjoyment of those very outer things, whether seen or unseen, which are presented by ignorance. Those whose vision of the Self is obstructed by those two – ignorance (a-vidyā) and thirst (tṛṣṇa):
parāc, kāma, anu-√i, bāla, tad, mṛtyu, √i, vitata, pāśa;
atha, dhīra, a-mṛtatva, viditvā, dhruva, a-dhruva, iha, na, pra-√arth.

बालाः पराचः कामान् अनुयन्ति। ते विततस्य मृत्योः पाशं यन्ति। अथ धीराः अ-मृतत्वं ध्रुवं विदित्वा, न इह अ-ध्रुवेषु प्रार्थयन्ते॥
The immature go after pleasures outside. They continue towards the noose of death spread wide. The discerning ones now knowing the permanent immortality from within, do not seek it here amongst the impermanent sense objects.
The immature go after pleasures outside (पराचः कामान् अनुयन्ति बालाः).
They continue towards the noose of death spread wide (ते मृत्योः यन्ति विततस्य पाशम्).
The discerning ones now knowing the permanent immortality (from within) (अथ धीराः अ-मृतत्वं विदित्वा ध्रुवम्),
do not seek it here amongst the impermanent (sense objects) (अ-ध्रुवेषु इह न प्रार्थयन्ते).
पराचः बहिर्-गतान् एव कामान् काम्यान् विषयान् अनुयन्ति अनुगच्छन्ति बाला अल्प-प्रज्ञाः। ते तेन कारणेन मृत्योर् अविद्या-काम-कर्म-समुदायस्य यन्ति गच्छन्ति विततस्य विस्तीर्णस्य सर्वतो व्याप्तस्य पाशं पाश्यते बध्यते येन तं पाशं देहेन्द्रियादि-संयोग-वियोग-लक्षणम्। अनवरतं जन्म-मरण-जरा-रोगाद्यनेकानर्थ-व्रातं प्रतिपद्यन्त इत्य् अर्थः।
Those bālāḥ, men of little intelligence; anuyanti, follow; only parācaḥ kāmān, the external desirable things. Te, they; because of that reason, yanti, get entangled in; pāśam, the snares – those by which one is bound, consisting in the association with, or dissociation from, the body, senses, etc.; vitatasya, of that which is vast, spread everywhere; mṛtyoḥ, of death – of the group of ignorance, desire, and action. The meaning is that they are constantly subject to birth, death, old age, disease, and a mass of such other multifarious evils.

यत एवम् अथ तस्माद् धीरा विवेकिनः प्रत्यगात्म-स्व-रूपावस्थान-लक्षणम् अ-मृतत्वं ध्रुवं विदित्वा। देवाद्य्-अमृतत्वं हि अ-ध्रुवम्। इदं तु प्रत्यग्-आत्म-स्व-रूपावस्थान-लक्षणं ‘न कर्मणा वर्धते नो कनीयान्’ इति (BrhU.4.4.23) ध्रुवम्। तद् एवं-भूतं कूट-स्थम् अ-विचाल्यम् अ-मृतत्वं विदित्वा अ-ध्रुवेषु सर्व-पदार्थेषु अ-नित्येषु निर्धार्य, ब्राह्मणाः इह संसारेऽनर्थ-प्राये न प्रार्थयन्ते किञ्चिद् अपि, प्रत्यग्-आत्म-दर्शन-प्रतिकूलत्वात्। पुत्र-वित्त-लोकैषणाभ्यो व्युत्तिष्ठन्त्य् एवेत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

Since this is so, atha, hence; dhīrāḥ, the discriminating people; viditvā, having known; a-mṛtatvam, immortality – which consists in continuing in the true state of the indwelling Self; as the dhruvam, sure thing; for the immortality of the gods and others is unstable, whereas this immortality consisting in continuing in the true state of the indwelling Self is stable, as is supported by the text, ’It neither increases nor decreases through work.’ (BrhUEng.4.4.23) Having known the constant and unshakable immortality which is of this kind, having ascertained it from a-dhruveṣu, amidst all impermanent things; the knowers of Brahman na prārthayante, do not pray for – anything; iha, in this world, that is full of evil; because all this is opposed to the vision of the innermost Self. The idea is that they inevitably rise above the desires for progeny, wealth, and words (of enjoyment).

यद्-विज्ञानान् न किञ्चिद् अन्यत् प्रार्थयन्ते ब्राह्मणाः, कथं तद्-अधिगमः? इत्य् उच्यते –
How is that known, by realizing which the men of enlightenment do not pray for anything else? This is being said:
yad, rūpa, rasa, gandha, śabda, sparśa, ca, maithuna;
etad, eva, vi-√jñā, kim, atra, pari-√śiṣ. etad, vai, tad.

येन एतेन एव रूपं रसं गन्धं शब्दान् स्पर्शान् [च, तेषां] मैथुनान् च विजानाति, अत्र किं परिशिष्यते? एतद् [ब्रह्म] वै तद् [“अन्यत्र धर्मात् अन्यत्र अ-धर्मात्” इति (KathU.1.2.14)]॥
One knows by this ātman alone all forms, the tastes, smells, sounds, touches, and the pleasures from those contacts. What then remains here (as if apart from the self)? This self taught here is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
By this (conscious self) (येन), (all) form(s), the taste(s), smell(s) (रूपं, रसं, गन्धं),
sounds, touches, and the pleasures from those contacts (शब्दान्, स्पर्शान् च, मैथुनान्),
one knows (they exist) by this (ātman) alone (एतेन एव विजानाति).
What (then) remains here (as if apart from the self) (अत्र किं परिशिष्यते)?
This (self taught here) is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
येन विज्ञान-स्व-भावेनात्मना रूपं रसं गन्धं शब्दान् स्पर्शांश् च मैथुनान् मैथुन-निमित्तान् सुख-प्रत्ययान् विजानाति विस्पष्टं जानाति सर्वो लोकः।
Yena, that by which – by the Self which is consciousness by nature; all people vijānāti, know clearly; rūpam, colour; rasam, taste; gandham, smell; śabdān, sounds; sparśān, touches; ca, and; maithunān, pleasurable sensations from sex.

ननु नैवं प्रसिद्धिर् लोकस्य ‘आत्मना देहादि-विलक्षणेन अहं विजानामि’ इति।
‘देहादि-सङ्गातोऽहं विजानामि’ इति तु सर्वो लोकोऽवगच्छति।
Objection: May it not be argued that the idea, ’I know through the Self which is distinct from the body etc.’, is not familiar to anyone?
Rather all people experience thus: ’I, who am the combination of the body etc., know’.

न त्व् एवम्। देहादि-सङ्गातस्य अपि शब्दादि-स्व-रूपत्वाविशेषाद् विज्ञेयत्वाविशेषाच् च न युक्तं विज्ञातृत्वम्। यदि हि देहादि-सङ्गातो रूपाद्य्-आत्मकः सन् रूपादीन् विजानीयात्, तर्हि बाह्या अपि रूपादयोऽन्योन्यं स्वं स्वं रूपं च विजानीयुः। न चैतद् अस्ति।
Answer: But this is not so. Since even the aggregate of body etc. is substantially indistinguishable from (knowable objects like) sound etc., and hence it, too, is equally a knowable, it cannot reasonably be the knower. If the aggregate of body etc., though constituted by colour etc., can perceive colour etc., then the external colour etc. may as well know each other, as also their own individual feature. But this does not tally with facts.

तस्माद् देहादि-लक्षणांश् च रूपादीन् एतेनैव देहादि-व्यतिरिक्तेनैव विज्ञान-स्व-भावेनात्मना विजानाति लोकः। यथा येन लोहो दहति सोऽग्निर् इति तद्वत्।
Therefore, just as that through which iron (a hot iron ball) burns (anything) is (inferred to be) fire (present throughout the iron ball), similarly people perceive colour and other attributes, in the form of the body etc., etena eva, through this only – through the Self which is consciousness by nature and which is distinct from the body etc.

आत्मनोऽविज्ञेयम् किम् अत्र अस्मिँल् लोके परिशिष्यते? न किञ्चित् परिशिष्यते। सर्वम् एव त्व् आत्मना विज्ञेयम्। यस्यात्मनोऽविज्ञेयं न किञ्चित् परिशिष्यते, स आत्मा सर्व-ज्ञः।
Kim, what; atra, in this world; pariśiṣyate, remains which is unknowable to the Self? Nothing remains; but everything can certainly be known through the Self. The Self to which nothing can remain unknown is omniscient.

एतद् वै तत्
Etat vai tat, this (Self) indeed is that.

किं तद्? यन् नचिकेतसा पृष्टं (KathU.1.1.20), देवादिभिः अपि विचिकित्सितं (KathU.1.1.21), धर्मादिभ्योऽन्यत् (KathU.1.2.14), विष्णोः परमं पदं (KathU.1.3.9), यस्मात् परं नास्ति (KathU.1.3.11), तद् वै एतद् अधिगतम् इत्य् अर्थः॥

What is that? That which was asked for by Naciketas (KathU.1.1.20), about which even the gods had doubts (KathU.1.1.21), which is different from virtue etc. (KathU.1.2.14), which is the highest state of Viṣṇu (KathU.1.3.9), and beyond which there is nothing (KathU.1.3.11). That very thing, which is described thus, is comprehended here. This is the idea.

अति-सूक्ष्मत्वाद् दुर्-विज्ञेयम् इति मत्वैतम् एवार्थं पुनः पुनर् आह –
Thinking that the Self, being subtle, is difficult to know, the text states the same idea over and over again:
svapna-anta, jāgarita-anta, ca, ubha, yad, anu-√dṛś;
mahat, vibhu, ātman, matvā, dhīra, na, √śuc.

येन [लोकः] उभौ स्वप्न-अन्तं जागरित-अन्तं च अनुपश्यति, [तम्] आत्मानं महान्तं विभुं मत्वा, धीरः न शोचति॥
The discerning person does not grieve, knowing the brahman as the all-pervading ātman (dimensionless self, KathU.1.2.22), by which one perceives both mentally what is within dream and physically what is within waking.
(Mentally) what is within dream (and) (physically) what is within waking (स्वप्न-अन्तं जागरित-अन्तम्),
both these one accordingly perceives (the entire universe) by which (च उभौ येन अनुपश्यति),
that is the Big (i.e., brahman) as the all-pervading ātman (dimensionless self, KathU.1.2.22) (महान्तं विभुम् आत्मानम्)
knowing, the discerning person does not grieve (मत्वा, धीरः न शोचति).
स्वप्नान्तं स्वप्न-मध्यं, स्वप्न-विज्ञेयम् इत्य् एतत्। तथा जागरितान्तं जागरित-मध्यं जागरित-विज्ञेयं उभौ स्वप्न-जागरितान्तौ येन आत्मना अनुपश्यति लोक इति सर्वं पूर्ववत्।
Yena, that – the Self – through which; a man anupaśyati, perceives; svapna-antam, the content of sleep, i.e. the objects in sleep; similarly jāgarita-antam, the content of the waking state, the objects in the waking state; ubhau, both – the sleep and waking objects. All this is to be explained as before.
[•The objection that can be raised with regard to the Self’s being the real knower is to be met as it KathU.2.1.3.•]

तं महान्तं विभुम् आत्मानं मत्वा अवगम्य आत्म-भावेन साक्षाद् ‘अहम् अस्मि परमात्मा’ इति धीरो न शोचति

Matvā, realizing; that mahāntam vibhum ātmānam, great and all-pervading Self; having directly known It as identified with oneself thus, ’I am the supreme Self’; dhīraḥ, the wise man; na śocati, does not grieve.

किञ्च –
yad, idam, madhu-ad, √vid, ātman, jīva, antikāt;
īśāna, bhūta-bhavya, na, tatas, vi-√gup. etad, vai, tad.

यः इमं मधु-अदं जीवम् आत्मानं भूत-भव्यस्य ईशानं अन्तिकात् वेद, ततस् [सः धीरः आत्मानं] न विजुगुप्सते। एतद् वै तद्॥
The one who knows the individual ātman, the consumer of the fruits of action, intimately as the Lord of the past and future, thereafter would not think to have to protect oneself (as there is no other). This is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman, KathU.1.2.14).
The one who knows the consumer of the fruits (of action) (यः इमं मधु-अदं वेद),
the individual ātman (आत्मानं जीवम्) intimately (अन्तिकात्)
as the Lord of the past and future (भूत-भव्यस्य ईशानम्),
thereafter would not think to have to protect (oneself, as there is no other) (न ततस् विजुगुप्सते).
This is the one (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
यः कश्चिद् इमं मध्व्-अदं कर्म-फल-भुजं जीवं प्राणादि-कलापस्य धारयितारम् आत्मानं वेद विजानाति अन्तिकाद् अन्तिके समीपे ईशानम् ईशितारं भूत-भव्यस्य काल-त्रयस्य, ततः तद्-विज्ञानाद् ऊर्ध्वम् आत्मानं न विजुगुप्सते न गोपायितुम् इच्छति, अ-भय-प्राप्तत्वात्। यावद् धि भय-मध्य-स्थोऽनित्यम् आत्मानं मन्यते तावद् गोपायितुम् इच्छति आत्मानम्। यदा तु नित्यम् अ-द्वैतम् आत्मानं विजानाति, तदा कः किं कुतो वा गोपायितुम् इच्छेत्।
Yaḥ, anyone who; veda, knows; antikāt, proximately; imam, this; ātmānam, Self; jīvam, the sustainer of the whole lot of vital force etc.; madhv-adam, the enjoyer of the fruits of works; as īśānam, the ruler; bhūta-bhavyasya, of past and future – of all the three times; tataḥ, after that – after that knowledge; na vijugupsate, does not want to save (the Self) – because he has attained fearlessness. One wants to save the Self so long as one is in the midst of fear and considers the Self to be impermanent. But when one knows the eternal, non-dual Self, then who would wish to save what or from where?

एतद् वै तद् इति पूर्ववत्॥

Etat vai tat is to be explained as before.

यः प्रत्यग्-आत्मा_ईश्वर-भावेन निर्दिष्टः, स सर्वात्मेत्य् एतद् दर्शयति –
It is being shown that the indwelling Self, which has been identified with God, is the Self of all:
yad, pūrva, tapas, jāta, ap, pūrvam, √jan;
guhā, praviśya, tiśṭhat, yad, bhūta, vi-√dṛś. etad, vai, tad.

यः व्यपश्यत [तं] तपसः पूर्वं जातं [हिरण्य-गर्भं] अद्भ्यः [च] पूर्वं अजायत – यः [च] [सर्व-प्राणिं] गुहां प्रविश्य, भूतेभिः तिष्ठन्तं, [सः पश्यति –] एतद् वै तद्॥
The one who knows as oneself this total subtle being (Hiraṇya-garbha) born from the tapas of Lord Brahmā, before the waters (the elements of the universe), who entered (as it were) the cave (of the heart, the intellect) and presides amongst all beings – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
That (Hiraṇya-garbha, the total subtle being) who was born from the tapas (of Lord Brahmā) (यः तपसः पूर्वं जातम्),
born before the waters (the elements of the universe) (अद्भ्यः पूर्वम् अजायत),
having entered (as it were) the cave (of the heart, the intellect) and presides (गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तम्)
amongst all beings, the one who knows (that Hiraṇya-garbha as oneself) (यः भूतेभिः व्यपश्यत)…
this is the one (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
यः कश्चिन् मुमुक्षुः पूर्वं प्रथमं तपसो ज्ञानादि-लक्षणाद् ब्रह्मण [=ईश्वरस्य] इत्य् एतद् जातम् उत्पन्नं हिरण्य-गर्भम्। किम् अपेक्ष्य पूर्वम्? इत्य् आह – अद्भ्यः पूर्वम् अप्-सहितेभ्यः पञ्च-भूतेभ्यः, न केवलाभ्योऽद्भ्य इत्य् अभिप्रायः, अजायत उत्पन्नः।
Yaḥ, anyone – who being desirous of freedom; (vyapaśyata, sees) pūrvam jātam, the First Born – Hiraṇya-garbha; yaḥ, who; ajāyata, was born; pūrvam, earlier. Earlier than what? That is being said: Adbhyaḥ, than water; the idea is that He was earlier than the five elements inclusive of water, and not merely earlier than water.

यस् तं प्रथम-जं देवादि-शरीराणि उत्पाद्य सर्व-प्राणि-गुहां हृदयाकाशं प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तं शब्दादीन् उपलभमानं भूतेभिर् भूतैः कार्य-करण-लक्षणैः सह तिष्ठन्तं यो व्यपश्यत यः पश्यतीत्य् एतत्। य एवं पश्यति,
Anyone who (sees) that First Born, who after having created the bodies of gods etc., (and) praviśya guhām, having entered into the cavity of the heart, of everybody; tiṣṭhanam, remains, is existence; bhūtebhiḥ, in association with the elements – in the midst of body and senses, perceiving sound etc.; yaḥ vyapaśyata, i.e. paśyati, anyone who sees thus,

एतद् एव पश्यति यत् तत् प्रकृतं ब्रह्म॥

He sees; etat, this very one,
[•As an ornament made of gold continues to be gold, so is Hiraṇya-garbha nothing but Brahman.•]
Brahman, that is under discussion.

किञ्च –
yad, prāṇa, sam-√bhū, aditi, devatāmayī;
guhā, praviśya, tiśṭhat, yad, bhūta, vi-√jan. etad, vai, tad.

या अदितिः [नाम हिरण्य-गर्भः] देवतामयी प्राणेन [हिरण्य-गर्भ-रूपेण] सम्भवति, गुहां प्रविश्य, या भूतेभिः तिष्ठन्तीं व्यजायत, [तां सः पश्यति –] एतद् वै तद्॥
The one who knows She who is born as Prāṇa (Hiraṇya-garbha), the Goddess Aditi who consists of all deities, who having entered the cave of the heart and presides amongst all beings – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
She who is born as Prāṇa (Hiraṇya-garbha) (या प्राणेन सम्भवति),
Goddess Aditi who consists of all deities (अदितिः देवतामयी),
who having entered the cave (of the heart) and presides (गुहां प्रविश्य, तिष्ठन्तीं)
amongst all beings, the one who knows (that Aditi as oneself) (या भूतेभिः व्यजायत)…
this is the one (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
या सर्व-देवतामयी सर्व-देवतात्मिका प्राणेन हिरण्य-गर्भ-रूपेण परस्माद् ब्रह्मणः सम्भवति, शब्दादीनाम् अदनाद् अदितिः [इति], तां पूर्ववद् गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तीम् अदितिम्। ताम् एव विशिनष्टि – या भूतेभिर् भूतैः समन्विता व्यजायत उत्पन्नाः
Yā aditiḥ, that Aditi – so called because of enjoying (adana) all such things as sound etc; who is devatāmayī, who comprises all the deities; (and) who sambhavati, takes birth; prāṇena, as Hiraṇya-garbha – from the supreme Brahman. The portion ’He who sees that Aditi as existing in the cavity of the heart after having entered there’ is to be explained as before. That very Aditi is being distinguished: , which; bhūtebhiḥ, as associated with the elements; vyajāyata, took birth, i.e. was created.

इत्य् एतत्

This is that.

किञ्च –
araṇi, nihita, jāta-vedas, garbha, iva, su-bhṛta, garbhiṇī;
dive, dive, īḍya, jāgṛvas, haviṣmat, manuṣya, agni. etad, vai, tad.

जात-वेदाः अग्निः [विराट्] अरण्योः निहितः, गर्भः इव गर्भिणीभिः सु-भृतः, जागृवद्भिः मनुष्येभिः हविष्मद्भिः दिवे दिवे ईड्यः। एतद् वै तद्॥
That Fire (as Virāṭ) present in all beings, which is present in the two pieces of Arṇi wood (rubbed to kindle the ritual fire), (the kindled fire) protected like a fetus by pregnant women, to be worshipped daily by the vigilant ritualists and meditators – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
That Fire present in all beings (as Virāṭ) which is present in the two pieces of Arṇi wood (rubbed to kindle the ritual fire) (अरण्योः निहितः जात-वेदाः),
(the kindled fire) protected like a fetus by pregnant women (गर्भः इव सु-भृतः गर्भिणीभिः),
to be worshipped daily by the vigilant (दिवे दिवे ईड्यः जागृवद्भिः)
ritualists and meditators – that Fire (हविष्मद्भिः मनुष्येभिः अग्निः)
is this (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
योऽधि-यज्ञ उत्तराधर-अरण्योर् निहितः स्थितो जात-वेदाः अग्निः पुनः सर्व-हविषां भोक्ता अध्य्-आत्मं च योगिभिर् गर्भ इव गर्भिणीभिर् अन्तर्-वत्नीभिर् अ-गर्हितान्न-पान-भोजनादिना यथा गर्भः सु-भृतः सुष्ठु सम्यग्-भृतो लोके इव (इति), इत्थम् एव ऋत्विग्भिः योगिभिश् च सु-भृत इत्य् एतत्।
That jāta-vedāḥ, Fire; which in the context of a sacrifice, is nihitaḥ, lodged; araṇyoḥ, in the upper and lower pieces of wood (by rubbing which fire is produced); which, again, as the eater of all oblations, is (lodged) in the individual person (as Virāṭ, in the heart); and which is su-bhṛtaḥ, well protected – by the men of contemplation; garbhaḥ iva, just as the foetus – is will protected; garbhiṇībhiḥ, by pregnant women – by partaking of food, drink etc. that are not improper. The meaning is that, just as in the world the foetus is well protected, similarly it (i.e. the Fire) is protected by the priests and the meditators.

किञ्च, दिवे दिवे अहन्य् अहनि ईड्यः स्तुत्यो वन्द्यश् च कर्मिभिर् योगिभिश् च अध्वरे हृदये च जागृवद्भिर् जागरण-शीलवद्भिर् अ-प्रमत्तैर् इत्य् एतत्। हविष्मद्भिर् आज्यादिमद्भिर् ध्यान-भावनावद्भिश् च मनुष्येभिर् मनुष्यैर् अग्निः
Moreover, that agniḥ, Fire; which is īḍyaḥ, laudable and adorable – by sacrificers and meditators, in the sacrifices and the hearts; dive dive, every day; jāgṛvadbhiḥ, by the sleepless, i.e. the vigilant; manuṣyebhiḥ, i.e. manuṣyaiḥ, by men; havismadbhiḥ, who are possessed of oblations, e.g. ghee, as also possessed of meditation and contemplation;

एतद् वै तत्, तद् एव प्रकृतं ब्रह्म॥
Tat, that Fire; etat vai, is this only – the Brahman that is being discussed.

किञ्च –
yatas, ca, ud-√i, sūrya, astam, yatra, ca, √gam;
tad, deva, sarva, arpita, tad, u, na, ati-√i, ka-cana. etad, vai, tad.

यतस् च सूर्यः उदेति, यत्र च अस्तं गच्छति, तं [प्राण-आत्मानं] सर्वे देवाः अर्पिताः [अराः इव रथ-नाभौ]। न कश्चन उ तद् अत्येति। एतद् वै तद्॥
From whom the sun rises, and into which it sets, is that in which are based all deities. Indeed nothing exceeds that Hiraṇya-garbha – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
From whom the sun rises (यतस् च उदेति सूर्यः),
and into which it sets (अस्तं यत्र च गच्छति),
is that (in which) are based all deities (तं देवाः सर्वे अर्पिताः).
Indeed nothing exceeds that (Prāṇa, Hiraṇya-garbha) (तद् उ न अत्येति कश्चन).
This is the one (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्)
यतश् च यस्मात् प्राणाद् उदेति उत्तिष्ठति सूर्यः, अस्तं निम्लोचनं यत्र यस्मिन्न् एव प्राणे अहन्य् अहनि गच्छति, तं प्राणम् आत्मानं देवाः सर्वे अग्न्य्-आदयः अधि-दैवं, वाग्-आदयश् च अध्य्-आत्मं, सर्वे विश्वे अरा इव रथ-नाभौ अर्पिताः सम्प्रवेशिताः स्थिति-काले। सोऽपि ब्रह्मैव। तद् एतत् सर्वात्मकं ब्रह्म, तद् उ न अत्येति न अतीत्य तद् आत्मकतां तद्-अन्यत्वं गच्छति, कश्चन कश्चिद् अपि।
Yataḥ ca, that from which – from which Prāṇa (i.e. Hiraṇya-garbha); udeti, rises; sūryaḥ, the sun; yatra, where, in which Prāṇa itself; it astam gacchati, sets – day after day; tam, on that – on the Prāṇa which is the Self; sarve devāḥ, all the gods – Fire and others in the divine context, and speech etc. in the personal context; arpitāḥ, are fixed – like spokes on the nave of a chariot wheel – during the period of existence (of the universe). He (that Prāṇa), too, is Brahman. This is that all pervading Brahman. Tat u, that indeed; na kaścana, nobody – whosoever; atyeti, transcends – ceasing to be identified with It, becomes something other than that.

एतद् वै तत्

This indeed is that.

यद् ब्रह्मादि-स्थावरान्तेषु वर्त्तमानं तत्-तद्-उपाधिकत्वाद् अ-ब्रह्मवद् अवभासमानं संसारी अन्यत् परस्माद् ब्रह्मणः, इति मा भूत् कस्यचिद् आशङ्का इतीदम् आह –
The following verse is there to counteract the doubt that may arise in anybody’s mind that the entity which exists in all beings from Brahmā down to the immovable, and appears as non-Brahman owing to those particular limiting adjuncts, is (an individual soul) different from the supreme Brahman, and is subject to birth and death:
yad, eva, iha, tad, amutra, yad, amutra, tad, anu, iha;
mṛtyu, tad, mṛtyu, √āp, yad, iha, nana, iva, √dṛś.

यद् एव इह, तद् अमुत्र। यद् अमुत्र, तद् इह अनु [=सादृशेन]। यः इह नाना इव पश्यति, सः मृत्योः मृत्युम् आप्नोति॥
As it is here in one’s being, so it is there in brahman, the limitless reality. As it is there in brahman, so it is here in one’s being. One goes from death to death, who sees (thinks) as if there is any difference (duality) here.
As it is here (in one’s being) (यद् एव इह), so it is there (in brahman, the limitless reality) (तद् अमुत्र).
As it is there (in brahman) (यद् अमुत्र), so it is here (in one’s being) (तद् अनु इह).
One goes from death to death (मृत्योः सः मृत्युम् आप्नोति),
who sees (thinks) as if there is any difference (duality) here (यः इह नाना इव पश्यति).
यद् एवेह कार्य-करणोपाधि-समन्वितं संसार-धर्मवद् अवभासमानम् अ-विवेकिनाम्, तद् एव स्वात्म-स्थम् अमुत्र नित्य-विज्ञान-घन-स्व-भावं सर्व-संसार-धर्म-वर्जितं ब्रह्म।
Yat eva iha, what, indeed, is here – that entity which, being associated with limiting adjuncts, viz the body and senses (i.e. as existing here in the individual), appears to the ignorant to be possessed of worldly attributes; tat, that – very entity, established in Its own reality, is; amutra, there – (existing in Its causal condition as) Brahman which is by nature a mass of constant consciousness and is devoid of all worldly attributes.

यच्अमुत्र अमुष्मिन् आत्मनि स्थितम्, तद् अनु इह तद् एव इह नाम-रूप-कार्य-करणोपाधिम् अनु-विभाव्यमानं नान्यत्।
And yat amutra, that which is there (in the causal condition), established in Itself; tat, that very thing; iha anu, (is) here likewise – appearing diversely in conformity with the limiting adjuncts such as name and form, body and senses; It is nothing else.

तत्रैवं सति उपाधि-स्व-भाव-भेद-दृष्टि-लक्षणया अ-विद्यया मोहितः सन् य इह ब्रह्मणि अ-नाना-भूते ‘परस्माद् अन्योऽहं, मत्तोऽन्यत् परं ब्रह्म’ इति नाना इव भिन्नम् इव पश्यति उपलभते, स मृत्योर् मरणाद् मरणं मृत्युं पुनः पुनो जन्म-मरण-भावम् आप्नोति प्रतिपद्यते।
This being so, yaḥ, anyone who – being deluded by ignorance that consists in seeing differences that are natural to the limiting adjuncts; paśyati, sees, perceives; iha, here – in Brahman, which is not a plurality; nānā iva, as though there is difference – feels such differences as, ’I am different from the supreme Self, and the supreme Brahman is different from me’; saḥ, he; āpnoti, gets; mṛtyoḥ mṛtyum, death after death, he becomes subject to repeated birth and death.

तस्मात् तथा न पश्येत्। विज्ञानैक-रसं नैर्-अन्तर्येण आकाशवत् ‘परिपूर्णं ब्रह्मैवाहम् अस्मि’ इति पश्येद् इति वाक्यार्थः॥

Therefore, one should not perceive like that; one should perceive thus: ’I am, indeed, Brahman which is homogeneous consciousness and which pervades everything through and through like space.’ This is the meaning of the sentence.

manas, eva, idam, āptavya, na, iha, nānā, √as, ka-cid;
mṛtyu, tad, mṛtyu, √gam, yad, nānā, iva, √dṛś.

इदं [ब्रह्म] मनसा एव आप्तव्यं। किञ्चन नाना इह न अस्ति। यः इह नाना इव पश्यति, सः मृत्योः मृत्युं गच्छति॥
By the intellect alone (clarified by the teaching with a choice teacher) is this brahman to be attained as one’s self. There is no difference (duality) at all here in brahman (in reality). One goes from death to death, who sees (thinks) as if there is any difference here.
By the mind alone (the intellect, clarified by the teaching with a choice teacher) is this (brahman) to be attained (as one’s self) (मनसा एव इदम् आप्तव्यम्).
There is no difference (duality) here (in brahman, in reality) at all (न इह नाना अस्ति किञ्चन).
One goes from death to death (मृत्योः सः मृत्युं गच्छति),
who sees (thinks) as if there is any difference here (यः इह नाना इव पश्यति).
प्राग् एकत्व-विज्ञानाद् आचार्यागम-संस्कृतेन मनसैव इदं ब्रह्म एक-रसम् आप्तव्यम् आत्मैव नान्यद् अस्ति इति।
Before attaining the knowledge of unity, idam, this – Brahman which is homogeneous; āptavyam, is to be attained, as identical with the Self, there being nothing else existing; manasā, through the mind – which is purified by the teacher and the scriptures.

आप्ते च नानात्व-प्रत्युपस्थापिकाया अ-विद्याया निवृत्तत्वाद् इह ब्रह्मणि नाना न अस्ति किञ्चन अणु-मात्रम् अपि।
And since ignorance that presents diversity ceases on this attainment, (therefore) iha, here – in the Brahman; nānā, diversity; kiñcana, even so little; na asti, does not exist.

यः तु पुनर् अ-विद्या-तिमिर-दृष्टिं न मुञ्चति इह ब्रह्मणि नाना इव पश्यति, स मृत्योर् मृत्युं गच्छति एव स्वल्पम् अपि भेदम् अध्यारोपयन्न् इत्य् अर्थः॥

On the other hand, yaḥ, he who – does not give up his vision of ignorance that is comparable to darkness; (and) nānā iva paśyati, sees as though there is diversity; saḥ, he; mṛtyoḥ mṛtyum gacchati, does (indeed) go from death to death, even by superimposing the slightest difference. This is the idea.

पुनर् अपि तद् एव प्रकृतं ब्रह्माह –
The Upaniṣad again speaks of that very Brahman which is being discussed:
aṅguṣṭha-mātra, puruṣa, madhye, ātman, √sthā;
īśāna, bhūta-bhavya, na, tatas, vi-√gup. etad, vai, tad.

अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः पुरुषः आत्मनि [=शरीरे] मध्ये [=अन्तरे, हृदये वा] तिष्ठति। भूत-भव्यस्य ईशानः, ततस् न विजुगुप्सते। एतद् वै तद्॥
The puruṣa who fills everything (KathU.1.3.11) is known in the cave of the heart as the size of the thumb, and dwells there in that intellect in the middle of the body, yet, in fact is the Lord of the past and future. Thereafter one would not think to have to protect oneself (as there is no other) – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
The puruṣa (the one who fills everything, brahman) is (known in the cave of the heart), the size of the thumb (अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः पुरुषः)
(and) dwells there (in that intellect) in the middle of the body (मध्ये आत्मनि तिष्ठति),
(yet, in fact is) the Lord of the past and future (ईशानः भूत-भव्यस्य).
Thereafter one would not think to have to protect (oneself, as there is no other) (न ततस् विजुगुप्सते).
This is the one (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः अङ्गुष्ठ-परिमाणः। अङ्गुष्ठ-परिमाणं हृदय-पुण्डरीकं तच्-छिद्र-वर्त्य्-अन्तः-करणोपाधिः अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः, अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्र-वंश-पर्व-मध्य-वर्त्य्-अम्बरवत्।
Anguṣṭha-mātraḥ, of the size of a thumb: the lotus of the heart is of the size of a thumb; (and) as conditioned by the internal organ existing in the space within the lotus of the heart, (the Self) has the size of a thumb, just like space existing in a section of a bamboo that is of the size of a thumb.

पुरुषः पूर्णम् अनेन सर्वम् इति। मध्ये आत्मनि शरीरे तिष्ठति यस् तम् आत्मानम् ईशानं भूत-भव्यस्य विदित्वा, न ततः इत्य्-आदि पूर्ववत् (KathU.2.1.5)॥

Puruṣaḥ means He by whom everything is filled. Knowing Him, who tiṣṭhati, stays; madhye ātmani, in the body; as the īśānam
[•The alternative reading is īśāno bhūta-bhavyasya.•]
bhūta-bhavyasya, the ruler of the past and the future – of the three times. (The portion) na tataḥ etc. is to be explained as before (KathU.2.1.5).

किञ्च –
aṅguṣṭhamātra, puruṣa, jyotis, iva, a-dhūmaka;
īśāna, bhūta-bhavya, tad, eva, adya, tad, u, śvas. etad, vai, tad.

अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः पुरुषः अ-धूमकः ज्योतिः इव। [सः पुरुषः] भूत-भव्यस्य ईशानः। सः एव अद्य। सः उ श्वस्। एतद् वै तद्॥
The puruṣa (as though) the size of the thumb (may be contemplated there in the intellect) as a flame without smoke (as pure awareness). It is the Lord of the past and future (the source of most of one’s imagined problems). It alone is today. It indeed is (right now) tomorrow (as one’s worries, to be resolved here now) – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
The puruṣa (as though) the size of the thumb (अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः पुरुषः),
(may be contemplated there in the intellect) as a flame without smoke (as pure awareness) (ज्योतिः इव अ-धूमकः).
It is the Lord (master) of the past and future (the source of most of one’s imagined problems) (ईशानः भूत-भव्यस्य).
It alone is today (सः एव अद्य). It indeed is (right now) tomorrow (as one’s worries, to be resolved here now) (सः उ श्वस्).
This is (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः पुरुषः ज्योतिः इव अ-धूमकः, अ-धूमकम् इति युक्तं ज्योतिः-परत्वात्। यस् त्व् एवं लक्षितो योगिभिर् हृदये, ईशानो भूत-भव्यस्य स एव नित्यः कूट-स्थोऽद्य इदानीं प्राणिषु वर्त्तमानः स उ श्वोऽपि वर्तिष्यते।
Anguṣṭha-mātraḥ puruṣaḥ, the Puruṣa (the all-pervasive entity) of the size of a thumb; is jyotiḥ iva a-dhūmakaḥ, like a smokeless light (flame). A-dhūmakaḥ should rather be a-dhūmakam, since it qualifies jyotiḥ (which is neuter). He, who is perceived as such by the Yogīs in their hearts, is the īśānaḥ bhūta-bhavyasya, lord of the past and the future. Saḥ, He, the eternal and unchanging; exists adya, now, in all beings; u, and; saḥ, He; will exist śvaḥ, even tomorrow.

न अन्यस् तत्-समोऽन्यश् च जनिष्यते इत्य् अर्थः। अनेन ‘नायम् अस्तीति चैके’ इत्य् अयं पक्षो न्यायतोऽप्राप्तोऽपि स्व-वचनेन श्रुत्या प्रत्युक्तः। तथा क्षण-भङ्ग-वादश् च॥

The idea is that none equals Him now, nor will any be born in future (to do so). Though one of the alternatives, viz ’Some say that He does not exist (after death)’ (KathU.1.1.20), cannot logically arise, yet hereby it is refuted by the Upaniṣad itself in its own words, and so also is dismissed the theory of momentary existence.

पुनर् अपि भेद-दर्शनापवादं ब्रह्मण आह –
The Upaniṣad again presents a refutation of the perception of difference with regard to Brahman:
yathā, udaka, dus-ga, parvata, vi-√dhāv;
evam, dharma, pṛthak, paśyat, tad, eva, anu-vi-dhāv.

यथा दुस्-गे [पर्वत-अग्रे] वृष्टं उदकं पर्वतेषु विधावति, एवं धर्मान् पृथक् पश्यन्, तान् एव अनुविधावति॥
Just as the one water rained on a mountain runs down separately between the slopes, similarly seeing (thinking) the individual natures of the one brahman as (seemingly) separate, one runs along (lives) as the separated entities only.
Just as (the one water) rained on a mountain (यथा उदकं दुस्-गे वृष्टम्)
runs down (separetely) between the slopes (पर्वतेषु विधावति),
similarly seeing (thinking) the individual natures (of the one brahman) as (seemingly) separate (एवं धर्मान् पृथक् पश्यन्),
runs along (lives) as the separated entities only (तान् एव अनुविधावति).
यथा उदकं दुर्-गे दुर्-गमे देशे उच्छ्रिते वृष्टं सिक्तं पर्वतेषु पर्ववत्सु निम्न-प्रदेशेषु विधावति विकीर्णं सद् विनश्यति, एवं धर्मान् आत्मनो भिन्नान् (ऽभिन्नान्) पृथक् पश्यन् पृथग् एव प्रतिशरीरं पश्यन् तान् एव शरीर-भेदानुवर्तिनोऽनुविधावति – शरीर-भेदम् एव पृथक् पुनः पुनः प्रतिपद्यत इत्य् अर्थः॥
Yathā, as; udakam, water; vṛṣṭam, poured; dur-ge, on an inaccessible place, on a height; vidhāvati, flows – being dispersed becomes dissipated; parvateṣu, over hills, over hilly lower regions; evam, similarly; paśyan, seeing; dharmān, the selves; pṛthak, differently – seeing It as different with respect to everybody; anuvidhāvati, one runs after; tān eva, them only – those souls that confirm to the different bodies. The meaning is that he assumes different bodies again and again.

यस्य पुनर् विद्यावतो विध्वस्तोपाधि-कृत-भेद-दर्शनस्य विशुद्ध-विज्ञान-घनैक-रसम् अ-द्वयम् आत्मानं पश्यतो (विजानतो मुनेर् मनन-शीलस्य) आत्म-स्व-रूपं कथं भवति इत्य् उच्यते –
Now is being stated as to how the nature of the Self is attained by one who is a man of realization, for whom has been destroyed the perception of difference that is created by limiting adjuncts who sees the non-dual Self which is a homogeneous mass of pure consciousness, and who is possessed of knowledge and is engaged in meditation:
yathā, udaka, eka, śuddha, śuddha, āsikta, tā-dṛś, eva, √bhū;
evam, muni, vijānat, ātman, √bhū, gautama.

यथा शुद्धम् उदकं शुद्धे आसिक्तं ता-दृक् [एक-रसं] एव भवति, एवम् [एकत्वं] आत्मा भवति मुनेः विजानतः, गौतम [नचिकेतस्]॥
Just as pure water poured into pure water is but the same one water alone, similarly, for the contemplative one who knows, one is but the one self (in brahman), O Naciketas.
Just as pure water into pure (water) (यथा उदकं शुद्धे शुद्धम्)
poured (आसिक्तं) is but the same (one water) alone (ता-दृक् एव भवति),
similarly, for the contemplative one who knows (एवम् मुनेः विजानतः),
one is but the (one) self (in brahman) (आत्मा भवति), O Naciketas (son of Gautama) (गौतम).
यथा उदकं शुद्धे प्रसन्ने शुद्धं प्रसन्नम् आसिक्तं प्रक्षिप्तम् एक-रसम् एव न अन्यथा ता-दृग् एव भवति, आत्मा अपि एवम् एव भवति एकत्वं विजानतो मुनेर् मनन-शीलस्य हे गौतम
Yathā, as; śuddham udakam, pure water; āsiktam, poured; śuddhe, on pure (water); bhavati, becomes; tā-dṛk eva, of that kind only, of the same quality and not anything else; ātmā, the Self, too; bhavati, becomes; evam, so; vijānataḥ, of one who knows – realizes unity; muneḥ, of one who deliberates, O Gautama (son of your father).

तस्मात् कु-तार्किक-भेद-दृष्टिं नास्तिक-कु-दृष्टिं च उज्झित्वा मातृ-पितृ-सहस्रेभ्योऽपि हितैषिणा वेदेनोपदिष्टम् आत्मैकत्व-दर्शनं शान्त-दर्पैर् आदरणीयम् इत्य् अर्थः॥

Therefore, giving up the perception of duality that bad logicians have and the erroneous notions that the non-believers entertain, the people whose pride has been quelled should eagerly seek after the realization of the unity of the Self, which is inculcated by the Vedas that are more beneficent than thousands of fathers and mothers. This is the idea.

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Dwelling and pervading like sun, fire, air

mn.01 mn.02 mn.03 mn.04 mn.05 mn.06 mn.07 mn.08 mn.09 mn.10 mn.11 mn.12 mn.13 mn.14 mn.15

पुनर् अपि प्रकारान्तरेण ब्रह्म-तत्त्व-निर्धारणार्थोऽयम् आरम्भो, दुर्-विज्ञेयत्वाद् ब्रह्मणः –
As Brahman is difficult to know, this is a fresh commencement for ascertaining in another way the reality that It is:
pura, ekā-daśā-dvāra, a-ja, a-vakra-cetas;
anuṣṭhāya, na, √śuc, vimukta, ca, vi-√muc. etad, vai, tad.

अ-जस्य अ-वक्र-चेतसः [आत्मनः] पुरम् एका-दश-द्वारम्। [तम्] अनुष्ठाय, [सः] न शोचति। विमुक्तः [सन्] च विमुच्यते। एतद् वै तद्॥
(Lord Death said)
Contemplating on this body as a city with eleven gates (three below including the navel, seven on the face, and one at the, soft when young, top of the head) belonging to the indwelling unborn, consciousness not deviated (by a confused intellect), (like a king in the city) one does not grieve. That one (like a king) is completely independent here and now, while in this body – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
(Lord Death said)
As a city (is this body) with eleven gates (three below including the navel, seven on the face, and one at the, soft when young, top of the head, the fontanel) (पुरम् एका-दश-द्वारम्)
belonging to the (indwelling) unborn, consciousness not deviated (by a confused intellect) (अ-जस्य अ-वक्र-चेतसः),
contemplating on this, one (like a king in the city) does not grieve (अनुष्ठाय, न शोचति).
That one (like a king, Īśāna) is completely independent (here and now, while in this body) (विमुक्तः च विमुच्यते).
This is (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
पुरं पुरम् इव पुरम्। द्वार-(द्वार-)पालाधिष्ठात्राद्य्-अन्-एक-पुरोपकरण-सम्पत्ति-दर्शनात् शरीरं पुरम्। पुरं च सोपकरणं स्वात्मना_अ-संहत-स्व-तन्त्र-स्वाम्य्-अर्थं दृष्टम्। तथेदं पुर-सामान्याद् अन्-एकोपकरण-संहतं शरीरं स्वात्मना_अ-संहत-राज-स्थानीय-स्वाम्य्-अर्थं भवितुम् अर्हति।
Puram, a city; i.e. comparable to a city: The body is a city, since in it we find an assemblage of such appendages of a city as gate-keepers, their commanders, etc., and a city, together with its paraphernalia, is seen to be meant for an independent owner (viz the king) who is not a constituent part of it
[•He does not grow or contract even though the city may do so, and his existence can be known independently of the city.•]
Similarly, since this body, consisting of an assemblage of various paraphernalia, has resemblance to a city, in must exist for an owner who takes the position of a king, but does not form a part of it.

तच् चेदं शरीराख्यं पुरम् एका-दश-द्वारम् एका-दश द्वाराण्य् अस्य – सप्त शीर्षण्यानि, नाभ्या सह_अर्वाञ्चि त्रीणि, शिरस्येकम्, तैर् एका-दश-द्वारं पुरम्।
This city then, that is called a body, ekā-daśa-dvāram, is possessed of eleven doors – seven in the head, three, inclusive of the navel, in the lower parts, and one on the (top of the) head; because of these, it is a city possessed of eleven doors.

कस्य? अ-जस्य जन्मादि-विक्रिया-रहितस्य आत्मनो राज-स्थानीयस्य पुर-धर्म-विलक्षणस्य। अ-वक्र-चेतसोऽवक्रम् अ-कुटिलम् आदित्य-प्रकाशवद् नित्यम् एव अवस्थितम् एक-रूपं चेतो विज्ञानम् अस्येति अ-वक्र-चेताः, तस्यावक्र-चेतसः राज-स्थानीयस्य ब्रह्मणः।
Of whom? A-jasya, of the birthless One – of the Self which is free from all modifications, such as birth etc., which occupies the place of the king, and which is dissimilar to the properties of the city; a-vakra-cetasaḥ, of the One whose knowledge is not crooked – whose cetas, consciousness (vijñānam); is a-vakra, straight, verily present for ever like the light of the sun – i.e. of Brahman which is comparable to the king.

यस्येदं पुरं तं परमेश्वरं पुर-स्वामिनम् अनुष्ठाय ध्यात्वा। ध्यानं हि तस्यानुष्ठानं सम्यग्-विज्ञान-पूर्वकं तं, सर्वैषणा-विनिर्मुक्तः सन् समं सर्व-भूत-स्थं ध्यात्वा न शोचति। तद्-विज्ञानाद् अ-भय-प्राप्तेः शोकावसराभावात् कुतो भयेक्षा।
Anuṣṭhāya, by meditating – after becoming entirely free from desires – on Him to whom this city belongs, on the supreme Lord who is the owner of the city – for, his anuṣṭhāna (lit. performance) consists in contemplation with a view to complete knowledge
[•Unobstructed, direct vision. Bala-gopalendra interprets samyag-vijñāna-pūrvakam as ‘meditation’ that has complete realization as its objective.•]
by contemplating on Him as residing equally in all beings, na śocati, one does not grieve. How can there be any vision of fear, since there is no occasion for sorrow after the attainment of fearlessness resulting from His realization?

इहैवाविद्या-कृत-काम-कर्म-बन्धनैर् विमुक्तो भवति। विमुक्तश् च सन् विमुच्यते। पुनः शरीरं न गृह्णातीत्य् अर्थः॥

Even here, (while still living), he becomes vimuktaḥ, free – free from the bondage of desire and duty, created by ignorance; vimuktaḥ ca, and having become free (while still living); vimucyate, he becomes emancipated, i.e. he does not take up a body again.

स तु नैक-शरीर-पुर-वर्त्य् एवात्मा। किं तर्हि? सर्व-पुर-वर्ती। कथम्? –
But He (the Self) does not reside in the city of one body only. What then? He exists in all the cities. How?
haṃsa, śuci-sad, vasu, antarikṣa-sad, hotṛ, vedi-sad, a-tithi, duroṇa-sad;
nṛ-sad, vara-sad, ṛta-sad, vyoma-sad, ap-ja, go-ja, ṛta-ja, adri-ja, ṛta, bṛhat.

[सः परम-ईश्वरः] हंसः शुचि-सद्, वसुः अन्तरिक्ष-सद्, होता वेदि-सद्, अतिथिः दुरोण-सद्, नृ-सद्, वर-सद्, ऋत-सद्, व्योम-सद्, अब्-जाः, गो-जाः, ऋत-जाः, अद्रि-जाः, ऋतं, बृहत् [च]॥
This dwells in the heaven as the sun, in the atmosphere as the wind, on the earth as the fire, and in the house as the guest. It dwells amongst people, amongst the deities, in sacrifice, and in space. It is born in waters, on the earth, in the sacrifice as the accessories, and originates from mountains (as rivers). It is the unchanging brahman.
This (which is everything) dwells in the heaven as the sun (हंसः शुचि-सद्), dwells in the atmosphere as the wind (वसुः अन्तरिक्ष-सद्),
dwells on the earth as the fire (होता वेदि-सद्), (and) dwells in the house as the guest (you) (अतिथिः दुरोण-सद्).
It dwells amongst people (नृ-सद्), dwells amongst the deities (वर-सद्), dwells in sacrifice (ऋत-सद्), (and) dwells in space (व्योम-सद्).
It is born in waters (अब्-जाः), is born on the earth (गो-जाः), is born in the sacrifice (as the accessories) (ऋत-जाः), (and) originates from mountains (as rivers) (अद्रि-जाः). It is the unchanging Big (brahman) (ऋतं बृहत्).
हंसः हन्ति गच्छतीति, शुचि-षत् शुचौ दिवि आदित्यात्मना सीदतीति। वसुर् वासयति सर्वान् इति, वाय्व्-आत्मना अन्तर्-इक्षे सीदतीति अन्तर्-इक्ष-सत्होता अग्निः, अग्निर् वै होता (CitU.3.1) इति श्रुतेः, वेद्यां पृथिव्यां सीदतीति वेदि-षद्, ‘इयं वेदिः परोऽन्तः पृथिव्याः’ इति (RgV.2.3.20) मन्त्र-वर्णात्। अ-तिथिः सोमः सन् दुरोणे कलशे सीदतीति दुरोण-सत्। ब्राह्मणोऽतिथि-रूपेण वा दुरोणेषु गृहेषु सीदतीति।
(As) haṃsaḥ, a mover – derived from the root han, meaning to go; He is śuci-ṣat – derived from śuci, pure, and sad, to live (sīdati) – a dweller, as the sun, in heaven which is pure. Vasuḥ (air), derived from the causative form of the root, vas, means ’one who provides a dwelling (vāsayati) for all’. As air, He is antar-ikṣa-sat, a dweller in the intermediate space. As hotā, (meaning) fire – because of the Veda text, ’Fire, indeed, is hotā’ (Cit. III. 1, VII. 1); (He is) vedi-ṣat – a resider (sat) on the vedi, the earth – because of the mantra which begins with, ’This vedi (sacrificial altar) is the highest state of the earth’ (RgV.2.3.20). A-tithiḥ (san), as the Soma juice; (He is) duroṇa-sat, a dweller in a jar (duroṇa); or as a Brāhmaṇa guest (a-tithi), He dwells in houses (duroṇa).

नृ-षद् नृषु मनुष्येषु सीदतीति नृषत्। वर-सद् वरेषु देवेषु सीदतीति। ऋत-सद् ऋतं सत्यं यज्ञो वा, तस्मिन् सीदतीति। व्योम-सद् व्योम्नि आकाशे सीदतीति व्योम-सत्। अब्-जाः अप्सु शङ्ख-शुक्ति-मकरादि-रूपेण जायत इति। गो-जाः गवि पृथिव्यां व्रीहि-यवादि-रूपेण जायत इति। ऋत-जाः यज्ञाङ्ग-रूपेण जायत इति। अद्रि-जाः पर्वतेभ्यो नद्य्-आदि-रूपेण जायत इति।
(He is) nṛ-ṣat, a dweller among men; vara-sat, a dweller among the adorable ones – the gods; ṛta-sat, a dweller in ṛta, i.e. truth or sacrifice; vyoma-sat, a dweller in the vyoma (space); ab-jāḥ – derived from ap (water) and ja (to be born) – born in water, as conch, mother of pearl, makara (a sea animal); etc.; go-jāḥ, born on earth (go), as paddy, barley, etc.; ṛta-jāḥ, born in the sacrifice (ṛta), a its appendages; adri-jāḥ, born from mountains (adri), as rivers etc.

सर्वात्मापि सन् ऋतम् अ-वि-तथ-स्व-भाव एव। बृहद् महान्, सर्व-कारणत्वात्।
Although He is the Self of all, He is verily ṛtam, unchanging in nature; (and) bṛhat, great – being the cause of all.

यदाप्य् आदित्य एव मन्त्रेणोच्यते तदापि अस्य आत्म-स्व-रूपत्वम् आदित्यस्याङ्गी-कृतत्वाद् ब्राह्मण-व्याख्यानेऽप्य् अ-विरोधः। सर्वथापि एक एवात्मा जगतो, नात्म-भेद इति मन्त्रार्थः॥

Even if it be a fact that the sun is spoken of in this verse (and not the Self), still, as the sun is regarded in reality as the Self, there is no contradiction with the brāhmaṇa which explains that way.
[•‘In the Brāhmaṇa portion of the Veda this verse is explained thus: “That sun is the haṃsaḥ śuci-sat.” But there is a mantra which says. “The sun is the Self of all that moves and does not move.” (R.I. cxv.i; Ai.II.iii.3) from which it is known that the sun symbolizes the all-pervasive Consciousness.’-A.G.•]
The meaning of this verse is that the world has but one Self which is all-pervasive, and that there is no plurality of selves.

आत्मनः स्व-रूपाधिगमे लिङ्गम् उच्यते –
A (logical) basis is being provided for comprehending the nature of the Self:
ūrdhva, prāṇa, ud-√nī, apāna, prayak, √as;
madhya, vāmana, āsīna, viśva, deva, upa-√ās.

[यः आत्मा] प्राणम् ऊर्ध्वं उन्नयति, अपानं प्रत्यक् अस्यति, [यं आत्मानं] मध्ये वामनं [बुद्धौ] आसीनं, [तं] विश्वे देवाः उपासते॥
The self draws upward from the heart the exhalation (prāṇa), and throws downward from the heart the inhalation (apāna). All the sense organ deities worship (by offering their sense object offerings to their king) the adorable one who abides within the heart, the intellect.
The (self) draws upward (from the heart) the prāṇa (exhalation) (ऊर्ध्वं प्राणम् उन्नयति),
(and) throws downward (from the heart) the apāna (inhalation) (अपानं प्रत्यक् अस्यति).
The adorable one who abides within (the heart, the intellect) (मध्ये वामनम् आसीनम्),
all the deities (the sense organs) worship (offering their sense object offerings to their king) (विश्वे देवाः उपासते).
ऊर्ध्वं हृदयात् प्राणं प्राण-वृत्तिं वायुम् उन्नयति ऊर्ध्वं गमयति। तथा अपानं प्रत्यग् अधोऽस्यति क्षिपति, य इति वाक्य-शेषः।
The word yaḥ, he who, is to be supplied. He who unnayati, leads higher up; ūrdhvam, upward – from the heart; prāṇam, the air functioning as exhalation; similarly, pratyak asyati, thrusts inward, downward; apānam, the air functioning as inhalation;

तं मध्ये हृदय-पुण्डरीकाकाशे आसीनं बुद्धाव् अभिव्यक्त-विज्ञान-प्रकाशं वामनं [वननीयं] सम्भजनीयं विश्वे सर्वे देवाश् चक्षुर्-आदयः प्राणा रूपादि-विज्ञानं बलिम् उपाहरन्तो विश इव राजानम् उपासते
That vāmanam, adorable One; madhye āsīnam, sitting in the middle – sitting in the space inside the lotus of the heart, shining in the intellect as revealed knowledge; viśve, all; devāḥ, deities – the organs such as the eye etc.; upāsate, worship – by carrying to Him presents in the from of perception of colour etc., just as the subjects do to a king.

ताद्-अर्थ्येन अन्-उपरत-व्यापारा भवन्तीत्य् अर्थः। यद् अर्था यत् प्रयुक्ताश् च सर्वे वायु-करण-व्यापाराः, सोऽन्यः सिद्ध इति वाक्यार्थः॥

The idea is that they never cease from activity meant for Him. The purport of the sentence is that He for whom, and under whose direction, exist all the activities of the organs and the vital force, is proved to be different from them.

किञ्च –
idam, visraṃsamāna, śarīra-stha, dehin;
deha, vimucyamāna, kim, atra, pari-√śiṣ. etad, vai, tad.

अस्य देहिनः [आत्मानः], शरीर-स्थस्य विस्रंसमानस्य देहात् विमुच्यमानस्य [च], अत्र किं परिशिष्यते? एतद् वै तद्॥
When this self, residing in the body as the embodied one, is getting loosened, being released from the body, then what could possibly remain here alive in the body (after death)? – This is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
When this (self) is getting loosened (अस्य विस्रंसमानस्य),
residing in the body as the embodied one (शरीर-स्थस्य देहिनः),
is being released from the body (देहात् विमुच्यमानस्य),
what (could possibly) remain here (alive in the body after death) (किम् अत्र परिशिष्यते)?
This is (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
अस्य शरीर-स्थस्य आत्मनो विस्रंसमानस्य अवस्रंसमानस्य भ्रंशमानस्य देहिनो देहवतः। विस्रंसन-शब्दार्थम् आह – देहाद् विमुच्यमानस्य इति। किम् अत्र परिशिष्यते प्राणादि-कलापे? न किञ्चन परिशिष्यते।
Asya dehinaḥ śarīra-sthasya, of this embodied one (the Self) that is in the body; visraṃsamānasya, as It gets loosened, detached. The meaning of the word visraṃsana (loosening) is being given: dehād vimucyamānasya, as It gets freed from the body; kim atra pariśiṣyate, what else remains here – in this group of vital force etc.? Nothing remains here (in this body).

अत्र देहे, पुर-स्वामिनो वि-द्रवणे इव पुर-वासिनां, यस्यात्मनोऽपगमे क्षण-मात्रात् कार्य-करण-कलाप-रूपं सर्वम् इदं हत-बलं विध्वस्तं भवति, विनष्टं भवति, सोऽन्यः सिद्ध आत्मा॥

That Self in the body is proved to be different (from the body etc.), on whose departure all this aggregate of body and senses becomes instantaneously powerless, defunct, and destroyed, just as it happens in the case of the citizens when the lord of the city retreats.

स्यान् मतं – प्राणापानाद्य्-अपगमाद् एवेदं विध्वस्तं भवति, न तु तद्-व्यतिरिक्तात्मापगमात्, प्राणादिभिर् एव हि मर्त्यो जीवति इति।
नैतद् अस्ति –

The opinion may be held that this body gets destroyed only on the departure of the prāṇa, apāna, etc., but not owing to the exit of the Self that is distinct from them; for a man lives only by prāṇa and the rest. But this is not so:
na, prāṇa, na apāna, martya, √jīv, ka-cana;
itara, tu, √jīv, yad, etad, upāśrita.

न प्राणेन न अपानेन कश्चन मर्त्यः जीवति। यस्मिन् तु एतौ उपाश्रितौ, इतरेण [आत्मना] जीवन्ति॥
Neither by prāṇa nor by apāna does any mortal live. Whereas, by another, the self, they live, upon which both prāṇa and apāna depend (like the subjects once the king departs).
Neither by prāṇa nor by apāna (न प्राणेन न अपानेन)
does any mortal live (मर्त्यः जीवति कश्चन).
Whereas, by another they live (इतरेण तु जीवन्ति),
upon which they both (prāṇa and apāna) depend (यस्मिन् एतौ उपाश्रितौ).
न प्राणेन नापानेन चक्षुर्-आदिना वा मर्त्यो मनुष्यो देहवान् कश्चन जीवति – न कोऽपि जीवति।
Na prāṇena na apānena, neither through the function of exhaling nor through that of inhaling – nor by the eye and the rest; kaścana martyaḥ, any human being; jīvati, lives; nobody lives.

न हि एषां परार्थानां संहत्य-कारित्वाज् जीवन-हेतुत्वम् उपपद्यते। स्वार्थेन अ-संहतेन परेण केनचिद् अ-प्रयुक्तं संहतानाम् अवस्थानं न दृष्टं यथा गृहादीनां लोके। तथा प्राणादीनाम् अपि संहतत्वाद् भवितुम् अर्हति।
Inasmuch as these are meant for somebody else and act jointly, they cannot be the source of life. Composite things like houses etc. are not seen to exist in this world, unless this existence is brought about by someone for his own benefit, who is not part of the assemblage. This should be so in the case of prāṇa etc. too, since they also form a combination.

अत इतरेण एव संहत-प्राणादि-विलक्षणेन तु सर्वे संहताः सन्तः जीवन्ति प्राणान् धारयन्ति। यस्मिन् संहत-विलक्षणे आत्मनि सति परस्मिन् एतौ प्राणापानौ चक्षुर्-आदिभिः संहतौ उपाश्रितौ। यस्य अ-संहतस्यार्थे प्राणापानादिः स्व-व्यापारं कुर्वन् वर्त्तते संहतः सन्, स ततोऽन्यः सिद्ध इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

Therefore, all these jīvanti, live, maintain life, having been combined; itareṇa, by someone else who is dissimilar to the prāṇa etc. which constitute the group. Yasmin, due to which – due to the existence of which supreme Self that is different from the combination; etau, these two – prāṇa and apāna, in combination with eye etc.; upāśritau, find asylum
[•Or, yasmin (sati), whose existence – the existence of which Self, supreme and distinct from the combination – being taken for granted; etau upāśritau, these two get supported.•]
and for the benefit of which uncombined Self, prāṇa, apāna, etc. exist as a combination, performing their own functions – that Self is established to be distinct from them. This is the purport.

hanta, yuṣmad, idam, pra-√vac, guhya, brahman, sanā-tana;
yathā, ca, maraṇa, prāpya, ātman, √bhū, gautama.

हन्त, इदं गुह्यं सना-तनं ब्रह्म ते प्रवक्ष्यामि, मरणं च प्राप्य यथा आत्मा भवति, गौतम॥
Well now, I will tell you about this secret, ever existent brahman, and also in what way after death of the body, this ātman continues, O Naciketas.
Well now (हन्त), I will tell you about this (ते इदं प्रवक्ष्यामि)
secret, ever existent brahman (गुह्यं ब्रह्म सना-तनम्),
and also in what way after death (of the body) (यथा च मरणं प्राप्य),
this ātman continues, O Naciketas (आत्मा भवति, गौतम).
हन्त इदानीं पुनर् अपि ते तुभ्यम् इदं गुह्यं गोप्यं ब्रह्म सना-तनं चिरन्-तनं प्रवक्ष्यामि। यद्-विज्ञानात् सर्व-संसारोपरमो भवति, अ-विज्ञानाच् यस्य मरणं प्राप्य यथा आत्मा भवति यथा संसरति, तथा श्रृणु हे गौतम
Hanta, well, now again; te, to you; pravakṣyāmi, I shall tell; of idam, this; guhyam, secret; sanā-tanam brahma, everlasting Brahman; through the knowledge of which comes about a cessation of all worldly existence, and through the ignorance of which, yathā, how; ātmā, the soul; bhavati, fares, how it transmigrates; maraṇam prāpya, after death. That you hear, O Gautama.

yoni, anya, pra-√pad, śarīratva, dehin;
sthāṇu, anya, anu-sam-√i, yathā-karman, yathā-śruta.

अन्ये देहिनः शरीरत्वाय योनिं प्रपद्यन्ते, अन्ये स्थाणुं अनुसंयन्ति – यथा-कर्म यथा-श्रुतम्॥
Being previously identified with a body, some enter a womb for acquiring (another human, animal or insect) body, others take on the status of a stationary plant, each one according to (the merit or demerit of) their mental and physical actions and to what (subtlety of) knowledge they have been exposed.
Some enter a womb (योनिं अन्ये प्रपद्यन्ते),
being previously identified with a body, for acquiring (another human, animal or insect) body (शरीरत्वाय देहिनः),
others take on the status of a stationary plant (स्थाणुं अन्ये अनुसंयन्ति),
(each one) according to (the merit or demerit of) their (mental and physical) actions and to what (subtlety of) knowledge they have been exposed (यथा-कर्म यथा-श्रुतम्).
योनिं योनि-द्वारं शुक्र-बीज-समन्विताः सन्तोऽन्ये केचिद् अ-विद्यावन्तो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते शरीरत्वाय शरीर-ग्रहणार्थं देहिनो देहवन्तो योनिं प्रविशन्तीत्य् अर्थः।
Anye dehinaḥ, some souls, some embodied ones – some ignorant fools; yonim prapadyante, enter into the womb; śarīratvāya, for assuming bodies.

स्थाणुं वृक्षादि-स्थावर-भावम् अन्ये अत्य्-अन्ताधमा मरणं प्राप्य अनुसंयन्ति अनुगच्छन्ति।
Anye, others – the extremely inferior ones; after death, anusaṃyanti, follow; sthāṇum, the state of motionless things like trees etc.;

यथा-कर्म यद् यस्य कर्म तद् यथा-कर्म, यैर् या-दृशं कर्म इह जन्मनि कृतं तद्-वशेनेत्य् एतत्। तथा यथा-श्रुतं या-दृशं च विज्ञानम् उपार्जितं तद्-अनु-रूपम् एव शरीरं प्रतिपद्यन्ते इत्य् अर्थः। ‘यथा-प्रज्ञं हि सम्भवाः’ इति (AitAr.2.3.2) श्रुत्य्-अन्तरात् [“स-विज्ञानो भवति। स-विज्ञानम् एव अन्ववक्रामति। तं विद्या-कर्मणी समन्वारभेते पूर्व-प्रज्ञा च” (BrhU.4.4.2)]॥

Yathā-karma, in accordance as each one’s work is – i.e. under the impulsion of the (fruits of) works they have accomplished in this life; similarly, too, yathā-śrutam, in conformity with the nature of knowledge acquired. The idea is that they take bodies accordingly; for another Veda text says: ‘Creatures are born in accordance with their knowledge’ (AitAr.2.3.2).

यत् ‘प्रतिज्ञातं गुह्यं ब्रह्म प्रवक्ष्यामि’ इति (KathU.2.2.6) तद् आह –
The Upaniṣad speaks of the secret Brahman about which it was promised, ’I shall tell’:
yad, etad, supta, √jāgṛ, kāma, kāma, puruṣa, nirmimāṇa;
tad, eva, śukra, tad, brahman, tad, eva, a-mṛta, √vac;
tad, loka, śrita, sarva, tad, u, na, ati-√i, ka-cana. etad, vai, tad.

[प्राण-आदिषु] सुप्तेषु एषः पुरुषः यः कामं कामं निर्मिमाणः जागर्ति, तद् एव शुक्रं, तद् ब्रह्म, तद् एव अ-मृतम् उच्यते। तस्मिन् सर्वे लोकाः श्रिताः। तद् [ब्रह्म] उ न कश्चन अत्येति। एतद् वै तद्॥
When the body and senses are asleep, this puruṣa stays awake, fashioning various (dream) objects. That conscious being indeed is pure (not tainted by experiences). That one is brahman. That one alone is said to be immortal. All the material and subtle worlds are fixed in that one. Nothing indeed exists beyond the extent of that one – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
This puruṣa, when (the body and senses are) asleep, which (सुप्तेषु एषः पुरुषः यः),
stays awake, fashioning various (dream) objects (कामं कामं निर्मिमाणः जागर्ति),
that (conscious being) indeed is pure (not tainted by experiences) (तद् एव शुक्रं). That one is brahman (तद् ब्रह्म).
That one alone is said to be immortal (तद् एव अ-मृतम् उच्यते).
All the (material and subtle) worlds are fixed in that one (तस्मिन् लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे).
Nothing indeed exists beyond (the extent of) that one (तद् उ न अत्येति कश्चन).
This is (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
य एषः सुप्तेषु प्राणादिषु जागर्ति न स्वपिति। कथम्? कामं कामं तं तम् अभिप्रेतं स्त्र्य्-आद्य्-अर्थम् अ-विद्यया निर्मिमाणः निष्पादयन्, जागर्ति पुरुषो यः, तद् एव शुक्रं शुभ्रं शुद्धं तद् ब्रह्म नान्यद् गुह्यं ब्रह्मास्ति। तद् एव अ-मृतम् अ-विनाशी उच्यते सर्व-शास्त्रेषु।
Yaḥ eṣaḥ, He who; jāgarti, keeps awake and does not sleep; supteṣu, when prāṇa etc. are asleep. How? Nirmimāṇaḥ, creating – through ignorance; kāmam kāmam, each of those desirable (dream) things – such desirable things as woman etc. Puruṣaḥ, the Puruṣa (all-pervading Brahman) – who keeps awake while accomplishing these; tat eva, that (Puruṣa) indeed; is śukram, white, pure; tat brahma, that is Brahman – there is no other secret Brahman. Tat eva, that indeed; a-mṛtam ucyate, is called the indestructible – in all the scriptures.

किञ्च, पृथिव्य्-आदयो लोकास् तस्मिन्न् एव सर्वे ब्रह्मणि आश्रिताः, सर्व-लोक-कारणत्वात् तस्य। तद् उ न अत्येति कश्चन इत्य्-आदि पूर्ववद् एव (KathU.2.1.9)॥

Moreover, sarve lokāḥ, all the worlds – such as the earth etc.; tasmin, on It – on Brahman; ā-śritāḥ, are supported – for It is the source of all the worlds. The text tat u na atyeti kaścana etc. is to be explained as before (in KathU.2.1.9).

अन्-अक-तार्किक-कु-बुद्धि-विचालितान्तःकरणानां प्रमाणोपपन्नम् अप्य् आत्मैकत्व-विज्ञानम् अ-स-कृद् उच्यमानम् अपि अन्-ऋजु-बुद्धीनां ब्राह्मणानां चेतसि न अधीयते इति तत्-प्रतिपादने आदरवती पुनः पुनर् आह श्रुतिः –
Since the knowledge of the unity of the Self, though validated by proof and reiterated more than once, does not find a lodging in the hearts of those Brāhmaṇas of insincere intellect, whose minds are swayed by the perverted intellect of numerous logicians, therefore the Upaniṣad, being eager to inculcate it, says again and again:
agni, yathā, eka, bhuvana, praviṣṭha, rūpa, rūpa, prati-rūpa, √bhū;
eka, tathā, sarva-bhūta-antar-ātman, rūpa, rūpa, prati-rūpa, bahis, ca.

यथा एकः अग्निः भुवनं प्रविष्टः रूपं रूपं प्रति-रूपः बभूव, तथा एकः सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा रूपं रूपं प्रति-रूपः, बहिस् च [भवति]॥
Just as the one nature of fire (as heat to touch, and as light and shape to sight), present throughout the universe, assumes every form in keeping with each form, so also the one self within all beings assumes every form in keeping with each form. It is also that which is the formless outside (like space, not divisible as inside or outside).
Just as the one (nature of) fire (as heat to touch, and as light and shape to sight), present (throughout) the universe (अग्निः यथा एकः भुवनं प्रविष्टः),
assumes every form in keeping with each form (रूपं रूपं प्रति-रूपः बभूव),
so also the one self within all beings (एकः तथा सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा)
(assumes) every form in keeping with each form (रूपं रूपं प्रति-रूपः). It is also that which is the (formless) outside (like space) (बहिस् च).
अग्निर् यथा एक एव प्रकाशात्मा सन् भुवनं ‘भवन्त्य् अस्मिन् भूतानि’ इति भुवनम्, अयं लोकः, तम् इमं प्रविष्टोऽनुप्रविष्टो, रूपं रूपं प्रति, दार्व्-आदि-दाह्य-भेदं प्रति इत्यर्थः। प्रति-रूपः तत्र तत्र प्रति-रूपवान् दाह्य-भेदेन बहु-विधो बभूव
Yathā, as; agniḥ, fire; though bright by nature and only ekaḥ, one; praviṣṭaḥ, having entered; bhuvanam – derived from the root bhū (to be), in the sense of a place where creatures come into being, the word means – this world; rūpam rūpam prati, in conformity with each form, i.e. in respect of the difference of combustible substances, such as wood etc.; babhūva, became; prati-rūpaḥ, multiformed, assuming the respective shapes of those different fuels;

एक एव तथा सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा सर्वेषां भूतानाम् अभ्यन्तर आत्मा अति-सूक्ष्मत्वाद् दार्व्-आदिषु इव सर्व-देहं प्रति प्रविष्टत्वात् प्रति-रूपो बभूव, बहिश् च स्वेनाविकृतेन रूपेण आकाशवत्॥

Tathā, similarly; sarva-bhūta-antar-ātmā, the Self that is inside all beings – by virtue of Its subtleness, like fire in fuels etc.; though only ekaḥ, one; has become prati-rūpaḥ, formed in accordance with the individual shapes – in respect of all bodies, owing to Its entry there; bahiḥ ca, and (yet) It is outside – in Its own unmodified form, just like space.

तथान्यो दृष्टान्तः –
Similarly there is another illustration:
agni, yathā, eka, bhuvana, praviṣṭha, rūpa, rūpa, prati-rūpa, √bhū;
eka, tathā, sarva-bhūta-antar-ātman, rūpa, rūpa, prati-rūpa, bahis, ca.

यथा एकः वायुः भूवनं प्रविष्टः रूपं रूपं प्रति-रूपः बभूव, तथा एकः सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा रूपं रूपं प्रति-रूपः, बहिस् च॥
Just as the one nature of air (as motion, and as the vital life force), present throughout the universe, assumes every form in keeping with each form, so also the one self within all beings assumes every form in keeping with each form. It is also that which is the (formless) outside (like the expanding space).
Just as the one (nature of) air (as motion and as the vital life force), present (throughout) the universe (वायुः यथा एकः भूवनं प्रविष्टः),
assumes every form in keeping with each form (रूपं रूपं प्रति-रूपः बभूव),
so also the one self within all beings (एकः तथा सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा)
(assumes) every form in keeping with each form (रूपं रूपं प्रति-रूपः). It is also that which is the (formless) outside (like the expanding space) (बहिस् च).
वायुर् यथैकः इत्य्-आदि। प्राणात्मना देहेष्व् अनुप्रविष्टः ‘रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव’ इत्य्-आदि समानम् (KathU.2.2.9)॥
Yathā, as; vāyuḥ, air – in the form of vital force; ekaḥ, though one; having entered into the bodies; rūpam rūpam prati-rūpaḥ babhūva etc. is to be explained as before (KathU.2.2.9).

एकस्य सर्वात्मत्वे संसार-दुःखित्वं परस्यैव स्याद् इति प्राप्तम्। अत इदम् उच्यते –
Since the contingency arises that if a single entity is the Self of all, then the sorrowfulness of the world will belong to the supreme Brahman Itself, (therefore) this is being said:
sūrya, yathā, sarva-loka, cakṣus, na, √lip, cākṣus, bāhya-doṣa;
eka, tathā, sarva-bhūta-antar-ātman, na, √lip, loka-duḥkha, bāhya.

यथा सूर्यः सर्व-लोकस्य चक्षुर् न चाक्षुषैः बाह्य-दोषैः [च] लिप्यते, तथा एकः सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा न लोक-दुःखेन लिप्यते, बाह्यः [सन्]॥
Just as the sun, which as daylight is like the eye of this entire world, is not tainted by the impurities of our perceptions or by impurities of the outside objects, so also the one self within all beings is not tainted by the problems in the world, because it subtly transcends (the objects, senses, and mind, as pointed out).
Just as the sun, which is (like) the eye of this entire world (as daylight) (सूर्यः यथा सर्व-लोकस्य चक्षुर्),
is not tainted by the (impurities of our) perceptions (or) by impurities of the outside objects (न लिप्यते चाक्षुषैः बाह्य-दोषैः),
so also the one self within all beings (एकः तथा सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा)
is not tainted by the problems in the world (न लिप्यते लोक-दुःखेन), (because) it subtly transcends (the objects, senses and mind, as pointed out) (बाह्यः).
सूर्यो यथा चक्षुष आलोकेनोपकारं कुर्वन् मूत्र-पुरीषाद्य्-अ-शुचि-प्रकाशनेन तद्-दर्शिनः सर्व-लोकस्य चक्षुर् अपि सन् न लिप्यते, चाक्षुषैर् अ-शुच्य्-आदि-दर्शन-निमित्तैर् आध्य्-आत्मिकैः पाप-दोषैर्, बाह्यश् च अ-शुच्य्-आदि-संसर्ग-दोषैः
Yathā, as; sūryaḥ, the sun; even though by virtue of helping the eyes through its light, and illuminating such impure things as urine, ordure, etc., becomes sarva-lokasya cakṣuḥ, the eye of all the people – who see those things; still na lipyate, it is not tainted; cākṣuṣaiḥ bāhya-doṣaiḥ, by the ocular and external blemishes – (by ocular faults), physical lapses amounting to sin, which are caused by the sight of impurity etc.; and by (external faults consisting in) the contact with impurity etc;

एकः सन् तथा सर्व-भूतान्तर्-आत्मा न लिप्यते लोक-दुःखेन बाह्यः
Tathā, similarly; (He who) though ekaḥ, one; is sarva-bhūta-antar-ātmā, the Self inside all; na lipyate loka-duḥkhena, is not tainted by sorrows of the world; (since He is) bāhyaḥ, transcendental.

लोको हि अ-विद्यया स्वात्मन्य् अध्यस्तया काम-कर्मोद्भवं दुःखम् अनुभवति। न तु सा परमार्थतः स्वात्मनि। यथा रज्जु-शुक्तिकोषर-गगनेषु सर्प-रजतोदक-मलानि न रज्ज्व्-आदीनां स्वतो दोष-रूपाणि सन्ति,
For, it is through ignorance superimposed on the Self that people suffer the sorrows arising from desire and work. But that ignorance does not really inhere in one’s Self just as the snake, the silver, the water, and the dirt, superimposed on a rope, a mother of pearl, a desert, and the sky (respectively), do not in reality exist as the distortions of the rope etc.

संसर्गिणि विपरीत-बुद्ध्य्-अध्यास-निमित्तात् तद्-दोषवद् विभाव्यन्ते, न तद्-दोषैस् तेषां लेपः। विपरीत-बुद्ध्य्-अध्यास-बाह्या हि ते।
But they appear as the defects of those things (rope etc.) because of the superimposition of false notions on the substances (rope etc.) that provide the bases for them.
[•Or, ’because of the superimposition of such false notions in the persons who come in contact with them.’•]
They (the substances) are not tainted by those faults, for they are outside the notions thus falsely superimposed.

तथा आत्मनि सर्वो लोकः क्रिया-कारक-फलात्मकं विज्ञानं सर्पादि-स्थानीयं विपरीतम् अध्यस्य तन्-निमित्तं जन्म-मरणादि-दुःखम् अनुभवति। न त्व् आत्मा सर्व-लोकात्मापि सन् विपरीताध्यारोप-निमित्तेन लिप्यते लोक-दुःखेन। कुतो बाह्यो रज्ज्व्-आदिवद् एव विपरीत-बुद्ध्य्-अध्यास-बाह्यो हि स इति॥

Similarly, people, after having superimposed on the Self the false notions of actions, agent, and fruit, like that of a snake (on a rope), experience the misery of birth, death, etc., consequent on that superimposition; but the Self, though It is the Self of all, is not tainted by the sorrow of the world arising from false superimposition. Why? (Because It is) outside. For just like the rope etc., It is extraneous to the superimposition of false notion.

किञ्च –
eka, vaśin, sarva-bhūta-antar-ātman, eka, rūpa, bahudhā, yad, √kṛ;
tad, ātma-stha, yad, anu-√dṛś, dhīra, tad, sukha, śāśvata, na, itara.

यः एकं रूपं बहुधा करोति, [सः] एकः सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा वशी। ये धीराः तं आत्म-स्थं अनुपशन्ति, तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं, न इतरेषाम् [अ-विवेकिनाम्]॥
This ātman is the one non-dual controller (master), as the one self of the all beings. It is but one form, who only appears (by lack of discernment) as many. The discerning in keeping with the teaching see (know) that one dwelling in the body of all. For the discerning alone there is constant joy (freedom from problems, identified with the limitless, untainted self), not so the others (identified with the defective not-self).
This (ātman) is the one (non-dual) controller (master), as the (one) self of the all beings (एकः वशी सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा).
It is but one form (एकं रूपं), who only appears (by lack of discernment) as many (बहुधा यः करोति).
The discerning in keeping (with the teaching) see (know) that one dwelling in the body (of all) (तम् आत्म-स्थं ये अनुपशन्ति धीराः).
For them (alone) there is constant joy (freedom from problems, identified with the limitless, untainted self) (तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं), not so the others (identified with the defective not-self) (न इतरेषाम्).
स हि परमेश्वरः सर्व-गतः स्व-तन्त्र एकः। न तत्-समोऽभ्यधिको वाऽन्योऽस्ति। वशी सर्वं हि अस्य जगद् वशे वर्त्तते। कुतः? सर्व-भूतान्तर्-आत्मा
यत एकम् एव सदैकरसम् आत्मानं विशुद्ध-विज्ञान-रूपं नाम-रूपाद्य्-अ-शुद्धोपाधि-भेद-वशेन बहुधा अन्-एक-प्रकारं यः करोति स्वात्म-सत्ता-मात्रेण अ-चिन्त्य-शक्तित्वात् [“अजायमानो बहुधा विजायते” PurSuk.21]। तम् आत्म-स्थं स्व-शरीर-हृदयाकाशे बुद्धौ चैतन्याकारेण अभिव्यक्तम् इत्य् एतत्। न हि शरीरस्य आधारत्वम् आत्मनः, आकाशवद् अ-मूर्त्तत्वात्। आदर्श-स्थं मुखम् इति यद्वत्।
तम् एतम् ईश्वरम् आत्मानं ये निवृत्त-बाह्य-वृत्तयोऽनुपश्यन्ति आचार्यागमोपदेशम् अनु साक्षाद् अनुभवन्ति धीरा विवेकिनः,
तेषां परमेश्वर-भूतानां शाश्वतं नित्यं सुखम् आत्मानन्द-लक्षणं भवति। _इतरेषां बाह्यासक्त-बुद्धीनाम् अ-विवेकिनां स्वात्म-भूतम् अपि, अ-विद्या-व्यवधानात्॥
He indeed is the supreme Lord, all-pervasive, independent, and ekaḥ, one; there is none equal to or greater than Him. (He is) vaśī, the controller – for the whole universe is under His control. Why? Because (He is) sarva-bhūta-antar-ātmā, the Self in all beings.
Ye dhīraḥ, those discriminating people who – those who have ceased from external activities; anupaśyanti, (who) realize directly – as a result of the pursuance of the instruction of the teacher – realize that God who is the Self;
Yaḥ, who, because of His inscrutable power; karoti, makes – by His mere existence; (His) ekam rūpam, one form – His own Self that is homogeneous and consists of unalloyed consciousness; bahudhā, diverse – through the differences in the impure conditions of name and form; (those who realize) tam ātma-stham, His as residing in the space of the heart within the body, i.e. as manifested as knowledge in the intellect, like a face appearing to exist in a mirror, it being impossible for the body to be the receptacle of the Self that is formless like space;
Teṣām, for them, who have become identified with the supreme Lord; is śāśvatam sukham, eternal happiness – consisting in the blissfulness of the Self; na itareṣām, not for others, for those non-discriminating people whose intellects are attached to external things; because, though Bliss is their very Self, (they do not get it) owing to the obstruction of ignorance.

किञ्च –
nitya, a-nitya, cetana, cetana, eka, bahu, yad, vi-√dhā, kāma;
tad, ātma-stha, yad, anu-√dṛś, dhīra, tad, śānti, śāśvatī, na, itara.

यः अ-नित्यानां नित्यः, चेतनानां चेतनः [च], [सः] एकः बहूनां कामान् विदधाति। तम् आत्म-स्थं ये धीराः अनुपशन्ति, तेषां शान्तिः शाश्वती, न इतरेषाम्॥
The timeless of the time-bound, the consciousness of the conscious. This one non-dual ātman provides (the basis for the existence and knowledge of) the pleasurable objects for all people. The discerning in keeping with the teaching see (know) that one dwelling in the body of all. For them alone there is constant joy (freedom from problems), not so the others (identified with the defective not-self).
The timeless of the time-bound (a-nityas) (नित्यः अ-नित्यानां), the consciousness of the conscious (चेतनः चेतनानाम्).
This one (non-dual) provides (the basis for the existence and knowledge of) the pleasurable objects for all people (एकः बहूनां यः विदधाति कामान्).
The discerning in keeping (with the teaching) see (know) that one dwelling in the body (of all) (तम् आत्म-स्थं ये अनुपशन्ति धीराः).
For them (alone) there is constant joy (freedom from problems) (तेषां सुखं शाश्वतं), not so the others (identified with the defective not-self) (तेषां शान्तिः शाश्वती, न इतरेषाम्).
नित्योऽविनाशी अ-नित्यानां विनाशिनाम्। चेतनश् चेतनानां चेतयितॄणां ब्रह्मादीनां प्राणिनाम्। अग्नि-निमित्तम् इव दाहकत्वम् अन्-अग्नीनाम् उदकादीनाम्, आत्म-चैतन्य-निमित्तम् एव चेतयितृत्वम् अन्येषाम्।
Nityaḥ, indestructible; a-nityānām, among the destructible; cetanaḥ, consciousness; cetanānām, among the conscious – among the manifestors of consciousness (thoughts) such as the living creatures beginning with Brahmā. As it is owing to fire that water etc., that are not fire, come to be possessed of the power to burn, similarly, the power to manifest consciousness that is seen in others is owing to the consciousness of the Self.

किञ्च, स सर्व-ज्ञः सर्वेश्वरः कामिनां संसारिणां कर्मानुरूपं कामान् कर्म-फलानि स्वानुग्रह-निमित्तांश् च कामान् य एको बहूनाम् अन्-एकेषाम् अन्-आयासेन विदधाति प्रयच्छति इत्य् एतत्।
Besides, He (is) the omniscient Lord of all – yaḥ, who; ekaḥ, alone; vidadhāti, ordains diversely, i.e. dispenses without effort; kāmān, the desirable things – the fruits of work according to merit, as also enjoyable things out of His own grace; bahūnām, of many, of the desirous, worldly people.

तम् आत्म-स्थं ये अनुपश्यन्ति धीराः, तेषां शान्तिर् उपरतिः शाश्वती नित्या स्वात्म-भूतैव स्यात्। न इतरेषाम् अन्-एवं-विधानाम्॥

Tam ātma-stham ye anupaśyanti dhīrāḥ, Those discriminating people who realize Him in their hearts – teṣām, for them is śāśvatī, eternal; śāntiḥ, withdrawal – for them accrues peace that is their very Self; and an itareṣām, not for others who are of a different sort.

tad, etad, iti, √man, a-nirdeśya, parama, sukha;
katham, nu, tad, vi-√jñā, kim, u, √bhā, vi-√bhā, vā.

[यद्] तद् परमं सुखम् अ-निर्देश्यं, ‘एतद् [अ-परोक्षतया]’ इति मन्यन्ते। कथं नु तद् [आत्म-सुकं] विजानीयां? किम् उ [स्वयं] भाति, [विस्पष्टं] विभाति [च], [न] वा?
The wise recognize that limitless fulfillment which cannot be pointed to, as “The immediate this (as themselves).” How indeed can I come to know that? Does it alone shine? Does it shine distinctly elsewhere? Or not?
They (the wise) recognize that as “(The immediate) this (as themselves)” (तद् ‘एतद्’ इति मन्यन्ते)
the limitless fulfillment which cannot be pointed to (as a “That”) (अ-निर्देश्यं परमं सुखम्).
How indeed can I come to know that (कथं नु तद् विजानीयाम्)?
Does it (alone) shine (किम् उ भाति)? Does it shine distinctly (elsewhere) विभाति? Or not (वा)?
यत् तद् आत्म-विज्ञानं [आत्म-चैतन्यं] सुखम् अ-निर्देश्यं निर्देष्टुम् अ-शक्यं परमं प्रकृष्टं प्राकृत-पुरुष-वाङ्-मनसयोर् अ-गोचरम् अपि सन् निवृत्तैषणा ये ब्राह्मणास् ते तद् ‘एतत् प्रत्यक्षम् एव’ इति मन्यन्ते
(Yat) tat, that – that knowledge of the Self; that is sukham, bliss; a-nirdeśyam, indescribable; and paramam. super-excellent; (yat tat), that which, though beyond the range of speech and mind of ordinary people, still the Brāhmaṇas, who are free from desires, manyante, consider; etat iti, as ’This’, as something directly known (not remote as a ‘that’);

कथं नु केन प्रकारेण तत् सुखम् अहं विजानीयाम् ‘इदम्’-इत्य्-आत्म-बुद्धि-विषयम् आपादयेयं, यथा निवृत्त-विषयैषणा यतयः?
Katham nu, how indeed; vijānīyām, shall I know; tat, that – happiness; how can I make It an object of my consciousness as ’This’, as do the sannyāsins who are free from desires?

किम् उ तद् भाति दीप्यते – प्रकाशात्मकं तद् यतः, अस्मद्-बुद्धि-गोचरत्वेन विभाति विस्पष्टं दृश्यते, किं वा न इति॥

Kim u tat bhāti, does It shine? – That which is Self effulgent, does It vibhāti, appear, is It see, distinctly as an object of our intellect? , or, is It not? (Or [•The word tat being interpreted as meaning yataḥ ‘since’.•], since It is effulgent, is It perceived clearly as an object of our intellect, or is It not?).

अत्रोत्तरम् इदं – ‘भाति च, विभाति च’ इति। कथम्? –
The answer to this (aforesaid question) is that It is both self-effulgent and shines distinctly (or multifariously). How?
na, tatra, sūrya, √bhā, na, candra-tāraka, na, idam, vidyut, √bhā, kutas, idam, agni;
tad, eva, bhāt, anu-√bhā, sarva, tad, bhās, sarva, idam, vi-√bhā.

तत्र सूर्यः न भाति। न चन्द्र-तारकं, न इमाः विद्युतः भान्ति। कुतस् अयम् अग्निः। तम् एव भान्तं, सर्वं अनुभाति (न स्वतः)। तस्य (स्व-प्रकाश-रूपस्य) भासा इदं सर्वं विभाति (विस्पष्टं दृश्यते, विविधं प्रकाश्यते)। (MunU.2.2.10)॥
The sun does not illumine that ātman, nor the moon or stars. These flashes of lightning do not illumine ātman. What to speak of this small flame. Everything shines after that brahman-ātman alone that has ever been the shinning. By the light of that, all this shines distinctly elsewhere.
The sun does not illumine that (ātman) (न तत्र सूर्यः भाति), nor the moon or stars (न चन्द्र-तारकम्).
These flashes of lightning do not illumine (ātman) (न इमाः विद्युतः भान्ति). What to speak of this (small) flame (कुतस् अयम् अग्निः).
Everything shines after that (brahman, ātman) alone which has ever been the shinning (तम् एव भान्तम्, अनुभाति सर्वम्).
By the light of that (तस्य भासा), all this shines distinctly (elsewhere) (सर्वम् इदं विभाति).
न तत्र तस्मिन् स्वात्म-भूते ब्रह्मणि सर्वावभासकोऽपि सूर्यो भाति तद् ब्रह्म न प्रकाशयतीत्य् अर्थः। तथा न चन्द्र-तारकम्न_इमा विद्युतो भान्तिकुतोऽयम् अस्मद्-दृष्टि-गोचरः अग्निः
Tatra, there – in Brahman which is one’s Self; sūryaḥ, the sun; na bhāti, does not shine, i.e. it does not illuminate that Brahman, though it illumines all. Similarly, na candra-tārakam, na imāḥ vidyutaḥ bhānti, neither the moon and stars nor these flashes of lightning shine; kutaḥ ayam agniḥ, how can this fire (flame) – that is seen by us – (shine, illumine that Brahman)?

किं बहुना? यद् इदम् आदित्यादिकं सर्वं भाति तत् तम् एव परमेश्वरं भान्तं दीप्यमानम् अनुभाति अनुदीप्यते। यथा जलोल्मुकादि अग्नि-संयोगाद् अग्निं दहन्तम् अनु दहति न स्वतः, तद्वत्। तस्य एव भासा दीप्त्या सर्वम् इदं सूर्यादि विभाति
To cut short, all, inclusive of these, that shine, anubhāti, shine according as; tam eva bhāntam, He, the supreme Lord, shines. Just as (hot) water, fire-brand, etc., owing to their contact with fire, burn according as the fire does, but not independently, similarly, it is verily tasya bhāsā, by His effulgence; that sarvam idam, all this – the sun etc.; vibhāti, shine variously.

यत एवं तद् एव ब्रह्म भाति च विभाति च। कार्य-गतेन विविधेन भासा तस्य ब्रह्मणो भा-रूपत्वं स्वतोऽवगम्यते। न हि स्वतोऽविद्यमानं भासनम् अन्यस्य कर्त्तुं शक्यम्। घटादीनाम् अन्यावभासकत्वादर्शनात्। भा-रूपाणां च आदित्यादीनां तद्-दर्शनात्॥

This being so, it is that Brahman Itself that is effulgent and shines variously. Through the various kinds of effulgence in the effects, it is known that the characteristic of luminosity is intrinsic to that Brahman. Indeed, that which does not have intrinsic luminosity cannot impart it to others; for a pot ete. are not seen to illuminate others, whereas luminous things like the sun etc. are seen to do so.

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Brahma-ātma as the superior root of the manifest universe

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तूलावधारणेनैव मूलावधारणं वृक्षस्य यथा क्रियते लोके, एवं संसार-कार्य-वृक्षावधारणेन तन्-मूलस्य ब्रह्मणः स्व-रूपावदिधारयिषया इयं षष्ठी वल्ल्य् आरभ्यते –
As in the world the root of a (silk-cotton) tree can be traced by coming to know its cotton,
[•By seeing the cotton of the silk-cotton tree etc. one can infer that it comes from a tree which, though unseen, is rooted somewhere. Similarly, since the effect, the world, is seen, therefore its cause, Brahman, though unseen, must be there.•]
similarly the sixth canto is commenced in order to ascertain the real nature of Brahman through the determination of the tree which is the effect that the world is, of which Brahman is the root::

ūrdhva-mūla, avāc-śākha, etad, aśva-ttha, sanā-tana;
tad, eva, śukra, tad, brahman, tad, eva, a-mṛta, √vac;
tad, loka, śrita, sarva, tad, u, na, ati-√i, ka-cana. etad, vai, tad.

एषः अ-श्व-त्थः ऊर्ध्व-मूलः अवाक्-शाखः सना-तनः (cf. BhG.15.1)। तद् एव शुक्रं, तद् ब्रह्म, तद् एव अ-मृतं उच्यते। तस्मिन् सर्वे लोकाः श्रिताः। तद् उ न कश्चन अत्येति (KathU.2.2.8)। एतद् वै तद् (KathU.1.2.14)॥
Whose tap-root is superior (in the unmanifest a-vyakta, KathU.1.3.11), whose branches are inferior (in time–space, as this manifest saṃsāra), this is the long-lasting Aśvattha (fig) tree depicting saṃsāra. Its source is that which is pure (whether saṃsāra is there or not). That is brahman. That alone is said to be immortal. In that are fixed all worlds. Nothing indeed exists beyond the extent of that one – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
Whose (tap-)root is superior (in the unmanifest, a-vyakta, KathU.1.3.11) (ऊर्ध्व-मूलः), whose branches are inferior (in time–space, as this manifest saṃsāra) (अवाक्-शाखः),
this is the long-lasting Aśvattha (fig) tree (depicting saṃsāra) (एषः अ-श्व-त्थः सना-तनः).
(Its source is) that which is pure (whether saṃsāra is there or not) (तद् एव शुक्रं). That is brahman (तद् ब्रह्म).
That alone is said to be immortal (तद् एव अ-मृतम् उच्यते).
In that are fixed all worlds (तस्मिन् लोकाः श्रिताः सर्वे).
Nothing indeed exists beyond (the extent of) that one (तद् उ न अत्येति कश्चन).
(And it is) this (the self taught here) which is indeed (all) that (reality which you asked, that brahman) (एतद् वै तद्).
ऊर्ध्व-मूल ऊर्ध्वं मूलं यत् तद् विष्णोः परमं पदम् अस्य इति सोऽयम् अ-व्यक्तादि-स्थावरान्तः संसार-वृक्ष ऊर्ध्व-मूलः। वृक्षश् च व्रश्चनाद् (विनश्वरत्वात्)।
Ūrdhva-mūlaḥ, that which has its roots above – the root that is the state of supreme Viṣṇu
[•So ‘above’ cannot mean only in the air as opposed to below ground, as Viṣṇu is specifically ‘the one who pervades everywhere’. Moreover it will now be said this tree is in fact the entire universe, so physically where is up and down directionally?-Aruna•].

This tree of the world, comprising everything from the Unmanifested to the immovables, has its root above. It is called vṛkṣa (tree) because (of the root-meaning) of being felled (vraścana). It consists of many evils, such as birth, old age, death, sorrow, etc.;

प्रति-क्षणम् अन्यथा-स्व-भावो माया-मरीच्य्-उदक-गन्धर्व-नगरादिवद् दृष्ट-नष्ट-स्व-रूपत्वाद्,
It changes itself every moment, inasmuch as no sooner as it seen than its nature is destroyed like magic, water in a mirage, a city in the sky, etc.;

अवसाने च वृक्षवद् अ-भावात्मकः,
And it ceases to exist ultimately like a tree;

कदली-स्तम्भवन् निः-सारः,
It is without any heart-wood like the stem of a plantain tree;

It is subject to hundreds of doubts in the minds of sceptics;

तत्त्व-विजिज्ञासुभिर् अ-निर्धारितेदं-तत्त्वः,
Its reality is determined in its true colour by the seekers of truth
[•Or, according to another reading, ’Its nature cannot be fixed as such and such by the seekers of truth.’ – the reading we have here.•];

Its essence lies in its root, the supreme Brahman, ascertained in Vedānta;

It grows from out of the seed of ignorance [•Superimposition.•], desire, action, and the unmanifested;

It has for its sprout Hiraṇya-garbha, the inferior Brahman, comprising the two powers of knowledge and action;

It has for its trunk the diverse subtle bodies of all creatures;

Its vigour of growth results from the sprinkling of the water of desire;

It has for its tender sprouts the objects of the senses of knowledge;

Its leaves are the Vedas, the Smṛtis, logic, learning, and instruction;

Its lovely flowers are the many deeds such as sacrifice, charity, austerity, etc.;

Its various tastes are the experience of happiness and sorrow;

Its innumerable fruits are the means of subsistence of beings;

It has its secondary roots well developed, entwined, and firmly fixed through the sprinkling of the water of desire (for those fruits)
[•Desires for works develop from desires for results; they get entwined and mixed up with various dispositions – sāttvika, rājasika, and tāmasika (calm, active, and lazy).•]

It has for its nests the seven worlds beginning from the one called Satya, built by the birds which are the living beings from Brahmā downwards;

It has its uproar, rendered tumultuous through the various sounds arising from dancing singing, instrumental music, disport (play, jest, etc.), chapping on the arms, laughing, pulling, crying, exclaiming ’Alas, alas!,’ ’Leave me, leave me!’, induced by mirth and grief arising from the enjoyment and pain of living beings;

[पर-विद्या-]वेदान्त-विहित-ब्रह्मात्म-दर्शनासङ्ग-शस्त्र-कृतोच्छेद –
And it is felled by the weapon of detachment (a-saṅga) consisting of the realization of the identity of Brahman and the Self as inculcated by Vedānta.

एषः संसार-वृक्षोऽश्व-त्थोऽश्व-त्थवत् काम-कर्म-वातेरित-नित्य-प्रचलित-स्व-भावः।
Eṣaḥ, this tree of the world is an aśva-tthaḥ
[•Lit. a-, not; stha, existing; śvas, tomorrow, impermanent.•]
– its nature is ever unsteady, like the Peepul tree, shaken as it is by the wind of desire and deeds;

स्वर्ग-नरक-तिर्यक्-प्रेतादिभिः शाखाभिर् अवाक्-शाखः (अवाञ्चः शाखा यस्य सः)।
It is avāk-śākhaḥ – downwards [•Inferior to its unmanifest root.-Aruna•] are its branches, consisting of heaven, hell, and states of beasts and ghosts;

सना-तनोऽन्-आदित्वाच् चिर-प्रवृत्तः।
(It is) sanā-tanaḥ, existing from time immemorial, having no beginning.

यद् अस्य संसार-वृक्षस्य मूलं तद् एव शुक्रं शुभ्रं शुद्धं ज्योतिष्मच् चैतन्यात्म-ज्योतिः-स्व-भावं तद् एव ब्रह्म सर्व-महत्त्वात्।
Tat eva, that very thing – which is the root of the tree of the world – is; śukram, white, pure, resplendent – being in reality the light of the Self which is Consciousness; tat brahma, that, indeed, is Brahman, being the greatest of all;

तद् एव अ-मृतम् अ-विनाश-स्व-भावम् उच्यते कथ्यते सत्यत्वात्।
Tat eva, that indeed; ucyate, is called; a-mṛtam, indestructible by nature, being true.

वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयम् (ChanU.6.1.4) अन्-ऋतम् अन्यद् अतो मर्त्यम्।
All else is false, being ’mutable, existing as mere name dependent on speech’ (ChanU.6.1.4), and hence it is mortal.

तस्मिन् परमार्थ-सत्ये ब्रह्मणि लोका गन्धर्व-नगर-मरीच्य्-उदक-माया-समाः परमार्थ-दर्शनाभावावगमनाः श्रिता आश्रिताः सर्वे समस्ता उत्पत्ति-स्थिति-लयेषु।
Tasmin, on him, on Brahman that is absolutely true; sarve, all; lokāḥ, the worlds – which are comparable to a city in the sky, or water in a mirage, or jugglery, and which vanish on the realization of the supreme Truth; śritāḥ, are fixed – during creation, existence, and dissolution.

तद् उ तद् ब्रह्म नात्येति न अतिवर्त्तते मृद्-आदिम् इव घटादि-कार्यं कश्चन कश्चिद् अपि विकारः।
Kaścana na, nothing whatsoever – no modification; atyeti, transcends; tat u, that – that Brahman; just as the products like pot etc. do not transcend (their material) earth etc.

एतद् व तत्

This verily is that (which you inquired).

यद्-विज्ञानाद् अ-मृता भवन्तीत्य् उच्यते, जगतो मूलं तद् एव नास्ति ब्रह्म। अ-सत एवेदं निःसृतम् इति, तन् न –
It may be said that the very root of the world, Brahman, by realizing which it is stated that people become immortal, does not exist, and that this (universe) has emerged out of nothing. But this is wrong:
yad, idam, kim-ca, jagat, sarva, prāṇa, √ej, niḥsṛta;
mahat-bhaya, vajra, udyata, yad, etad, √vid, a-mṛta, tad, √bhū.

यद् किञ्-च इदं सर्वं जगत् निःसृतम् एजति [च], प्राणे [सति]। महत्-भयं [इव], उद्यतं वज्रं [इव]। ये एतद् विदुः, ते अ-मृताः भवन्ति॥
In the presence of prāṇa (here meaning brahman the source of prāṇa, cf. KathU.2.2.10) this entire universe, whatever animate or inanimate arises and moves about. (Because this brahman, like a king) is a great terror with an uplifted thunderbolt (keeping them in their natural jobs, the mandate of their nature, of their role, in this creation, the Lord’s order). Those who know this brahman become timeless.
This entire universe, whatever (animate or inanimate) (यद् इदं किञ्-च जगत् सर्वम्)
in the presence of prāṇa (here meaning brahman the source of prāṇa, cf. KathU.2.2.10) (प्राणे), arises and moves about (एजति निःसृतम्).
(Because this brahman, like a king) is a great terror with an uplifted thunderbolt (keeping them in their natural jobs) (महत्-भयं वज्रम् उद्यतम्).
Those who know this (brahman) become timeless (ये एतद् विदुः, ते अ-मृताः भवन्ति).
यद् इदं किञ्च यत् किञ्चेदं जगत् सर्वं प्राणे परस्मिन् ब्रह्मणि सति एजति कम्पते, तत एव निःसृतं निर्गतं सत् प्रचलति नियमेन चेष्टते।
Prāṇe (sati), the supreme Brahman
[•‘Brahman, being the source of activity of even the vital force (prāṇa), is figuratively referred to by the word prāṇa’-A.G.•]
(being there); yat idam kiñca jagat sarvam, all this universe that there is; niḥsṛtam (sat), having emerged; ejati, moves – acts regularly.

यद् एवं जगद्-उत्पत्त्य्-आदि-कारणं ब्रह्म तद् महद्-भयं महच् च तद् भयं च, बिभेत्य् अस्माद् इति महद्-भयम्। वज्रम् उद्यतम् उद्यतम् इव वज्रम्।
That Brahman which is thus the cause of the origination etc. of the world is mahat bhayam, greatly terrifying – bhayam being derived in the sense of that from which one gets fear; vajram udyatam, like an upraised thunderbolt.

यथा वज्रोद्यत-करं स्वामिनम् अभिमुखी-भूतं दृष्ट्वा भृत्या नियमेन तच्-छासने वर्त्तन्ते, तथेदं चन्द्रादित्य-ग्रह-नक्षत्र-तारकादि-लक्षणं जगत् सेश्वरं [स-देवतं] नियमेन क्षणम् अपि अ-विश्रान्तं वर्त्तते इत्य् उक्तं भवति।
The idea imparted is that just as servants finding their master in front with an uplifted thunderbolt, methodically follow his command, similarly this universe consisting of the sun, the moon, the planets, the constellations, and the stars, continues methodically without even a moment’s respite because it has a God.

ये एतद् विदुः स्वात्म-प्रवृत्ति-साक्षि-भूतम् एकं ब्रह्म अ-मृता अ-मरण-धर्माणः ते भवन्ति

Ye, those who; viduḥ etat, know this – the Brahman as the witness of all the activities of their minds; te, they; bhavanti, become; a-mṛtāḥ, possessed of deathlessness;

कथं तद्-भयाज् जगद् वर्त्तत इति, आह –
The text says how out of fear of Him the world behaves:
bhaya, idam, agni, √tap, bhaya, √tap, sūrya;
bhaya, indra, ca, vāyu, ca, mṛtyu, √dhāv, pañcama.

अस्य भयात् [इव] अग्निः तपति। भयात् सूर्यः तपति। भयात् इन्द्रः च वायुः च मृत्युः पञ्चमः [च] धावति (TaitU.2.8.1)॥
(As though) out of fear of this brahman, fire burns. Out of fear, the sun burns. Out of fear, Lord Indra, Lord Vāyu, and Lord Death as the fifth run (their jobs).
(As though) out of fear of this (brahman), fire burns (भयात् अस्य अग्निः तपति).
Out of fear, the sun burns (भयात् तपति सूर्यः).
Out of fear, Lord Indra and Lord Vāyu (भयात् इन्द्रः च वायुः च),
(and) Lord Death as the fifth run (their jobs) (मृत्युः धावति पञ्चमः).
भयाद् भीत्या अस्य परमेश्वरस्य अग्निस् तपतिभयात् तपति सूर्यःभयाद् इन्द्रश् च वायुश् च, मृत्युर् धावति पञ्चमः। न हि ईश्वराणां लोक-पालानां समर्थानां सतां नियन्ता चेद् वज्रोद्यत-करवन् न स्यात्, स्वामि-भय-भीतानाम् इव भृत्यानां नियता प्रवृत्तिर् उपपद्यते॥
Bhayāt, from fear; asya, of Him – of the supreme Lord; agniḥ tapati, Fire burns; bhayāt, from fear; tapati; shines; sūryaḥ, the Sun; bhayāt indraḥ, from fear, Indra; ca, and; vāyuḥ, Air; mṛtyuḥ ca, and (Me) Death; pañcamaḥ, the fifth; dhāvati, runs. For unless there was a ruler, like one with an uplifted thunderbolt in hand, over these protectors of the world who themselves are lordly and powerful, there would not have been any regulated activity as that of servants trembling out of fear for their master.

iha, ced, √śak, boddhum, prāk, śarīra, visrasa;
tatas, sarga, loka, śarīratva, √kḷp.

इह चेद् शरीरस्य विस्रसः प्राक् बोद्धुं अशकत् [एषः विद्वान् विमुच्यते]। ततः [अ-विदुषः] सर्गेषु लोकेषु शरीरत्वाय कल्पते॥
Unless here one becomes able to know brahman as oneself before the fall of the body, then one is only fit for taking another body in the worlds of creatures.
Unless here one becomes able to know (brahman as oneself) (इह चेद् अशकत् बोद्धुं)
before the fall of the body (प्राक् शरीरस्य विस्रसः),
then in the worlds of creatures (ततः सर्गेषु लोकेषु)
one becomes fit for taking (another) body (शरीरत्वाय कल्पते).
तच् च (–) इह जीवन्न् एव चेद् यदि अशकत् (शक्नोति) शक्तः सन् जानात्य् एतद् भय-कारणं ब्रह्म बोद्धुम् अवगन्तुं प्राक् पूर्वं शरीरस्य विस्रसोऽवस्रंसनात् पतनात्, संसार-बन्धनाद् विमुच्यते।
Cet, if; (one) being competent; aśakat, i.e. śaknoti, succeeds; boddhum, in knowing – knows that Brahman which is the cause of this fear; even iha, here – while still living; prāk śarīrasya visrasaḥ, before the disintegration, falling off, of the body; then one becomes free from the bondage of the world.

न चेद् अशकद् बोद्धुम्, ततोऽन्-अवबोधात् सर्गेषु सृज्यन्ते येषु स्रष्टव्याः प्राणिन इति सर्गाः, पृथिव्य्-आदयो लोकाः, तेषु सर्गेषु लोकेषु शरीरत्वाय शरीर-भावाय कल्पते समर्थो भवति, शरीरं गृह्णातीत्य् अर्थः। तस्माच् छरीर-विस्रंसनात् प्राक् आत्म-बोधाय यत्न आस्थेयः॥

If one does not succeed in knowing, them tataḥ, because of that non-realization; sargeṣu lokeṣu, in the worlds of creatable things – on earth etc., the word sarga being derived from the root sṛj, in the sense of the places where creatable beings are created; kalpate, one becomes fit; śarīratvāya, for embodiment; the idea is that one assumes a body (in those worlds).

यस्माद् इहैवात्मनो दर्शनम् आदर्श-स्थस्य इव मुखस्य स्पष्टम् उपपद्यते, न लोकान्तरेषु ब्रह्म-लोकाद् अन्यत्र – स [ब्रह्म-लोकः] च दुष्प्रापः। कथम् इत्य् उच्यते –
Hence effort is to be made for the realization of the Self before the falling off of the body, for here alone it is possible for the vision of the Self to be as clear as that of a face in a mirror, whereas this is not possible in other worlds apart from that of Brahman, which however, is difficult to attain. How? This is being answered:
yathā, ādarśa, tathā ātman, yathā, svapna, tathā, pitṛ-loka;
yathā, ap, pari, iva, √dṛś, tathā, gandharva-loka, chāyā-ātapa, iva, brahma-loka.

यथा आदर्शे, तथा आत्मनि। यथा स्वप्ने, तथा पितृ-लोके। यथा अप्सु परि ददृशे इव, तथा गन्धर्व-लोके। छाया-आतपयोः इव ब्रह्म-लोके॥
As clearly in (a made spotless) mirror, so in the mind (with the teaching, one can see brahman). As (full of memories) in dream, so in the world of the ancestors (one sees oneself). As was seen (moving) in water so in the (pleasurable) world of the celestial musicians. And clearly like light and shade in (the difficult to attain) brahma-loka (can brahman be taught and known).
As (clearly) in a (made spotless) mirror, so in the mind (with the teaching one can see brahman) (यथा आदर्शे, तथा आत्मनि).
As (full of memories) in dream, so in the world of the ancestors (one sees oneself) (यथा स्वप्ने, तथा पितृ-लोके).
As was seen (moving) in water so in the (dancing) world of the celestial musicians (यथा अप्सु परि ददृशे इव, तथा गन्धर्व-लोके).
(And clearly) like light and shade in (the difficult to attain) brahma-loka (can brahman be taught and known) (छाया-आतपयोः इव ब्रह्म-लोके).
यथा आदर्शे प्रतिबिम्ब-भूतम् आत्मानं पश्यति लोकोऽत्य्-अन्त-विविक्तम्, तथा इह आत्मनि स्व-बुद्धाव् आदर्शवद् निर्-मली-भूतायां विविक्तम् आत्मनो दर्शनं भवतीत्य् अर्थः।
Yathā, as – as one sees oneself very distinctly reflected; ādarśe, in a mirror; tathā, similarly; here ātmani, in one’s own intellect – the idea is that, when the intellect has become spotless like a mirror, there springs a distinct vision of the Self.

यथा स्वप्ने अ-विविक्तं जाग्रद्-वासनोद्भूतम्, तथा पितृ-लोके अ-विविक्तम् एव दर्शनम् आत्मनः, कर्म-फलोपभोगासक्तत्वात्।
Yathā svapne, as in a dream – the vision arising from the impressions of the waking state is indistinct; tathā, similarly; indistinct is the vision of the Self pitṛ-loke, in the world of the manes – because of being entangled in the enjoyment of the results of work.

यथा च अप्सु अ-विविक्तावयवम् आत्म-रूपं परीव ददृशे परिदृश्यत इव, तथा गन्धर्व-लोके अ-विविक्तम् एव दर्शनम् आत्मनः। एवं च लोकान्तरेषु अपि शास्त्र-प्रामाण्याद् अवगम्यते।
Yathā apsu, as in water; one’s form pari iva dadṛśe – is equivalent to paridṛśyate iva – appears to be without clear demarcation of the parts (hazy); tathā, similarly; indistinct is the vision of the Self gandharva-loke, in the world of the Gandharvas (heaven musicians). It is known from the authority of the scriptures that similar (indistinct, hazy) is the case in other worlds as well.

छायातपयोर् इव अत्य्-अन्त-विविक्तं ब्रह्म-लोके एव एकस्मिन्। स च दुष्-प्रापः, अत्य्-अन्त-विशिष्ट-कर्म-ज्ञान-साध्यत्वात्। तस्माद् आत्म-दर्शनाय इहैव यत्नः कर्त्तव्य इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

Only in one, viz brahma-loke, in the world of Brahmā, is the vision very distinct; chāyā-ātapayoḥ iva, as (it is) in the case of shade and light (i.e. black and white). But that world is difficult to attain, being the result of many special kinds of work and knowledge (i.e. of rites and meditation). Therefore, efforts should be made for the realization of the Self here itself. This is the idea.

कथम् असौ बोद्धव्यः किं वा तद्-अवबोधे प्रयोजनम् इत्य् उच्यते –
How is He to be known and what is the need of His knowledge? This is being answered:
indriya, pṛthak bhāva, udaya-astamaya, ca, yad;
pṛthak utpadyamāna, matvā, dhīra, na, √śuc.

यद् [=यस्मात् यं वा] पृथक् उत्पद्यमानानाम् इन्द्रियाणां [आत्मनः] पृथक् भावम्, उदय-अस्तमयौ च मत्वा, धीरः न शोचति॥
Knowing the distinct nature of the sense organs (as not the same as the one, non-composite, witness ātman), knowing both their arising and setting (upon waking and sleep) (as not the unchanging ātman), and knowing the individual manifestation of the sense organs (as simply effects from the subtle elements) – a discerning person does not grieve (that any of their defects and limitations pertains to oneself).
The distinct nature of the sense organs (from the one, non-composite, witness ātman) (इन्द्रियाणां पृथक् भावम्),
both (their) arising and setting (upon waking and sleep) (from the unchanging ātman) (उदय-अस्तमयौ च यद्),
(and their) individual manifestation (as simply effects from the subtle elements), knowing this (पृथक् उत्पद्यमानानाम् मत्वा)
a discerning person does not grieve (that any of their defects and limitations pertains to oneself) (धीरः न शोचति).
इन्द्रियाणां श्रोत्र्-आदीनां स्व-स्व-विषय-ग्रहण-प्रयोजनेन स्व-कारणेभ्य आकाशादिभ्यः पृथग् उत्पद्यमानानाम् अत्य्-अन्त-विशुद्धात् केवलाच् चिन्मात्रात्म-स्व-रूपात् पृथग् भावं स्व-भाव-विलक्षणात्मकतां तथा, तेषाम् एवेन्द्रियाणाम् उदयास्तमयौ च उत्पत्ति-प्रलयौ जाग्रत्-स्वापावस्थापेक्षया न आत्मन इति मत्वा ज्ञात्वा विवेकतो धीरो धीमान् न शोचति। आत्मनो नित्यैक-स्व-भावस्य अ-व्यभिचाराच् छोक-कारणत्वानुपपत्तेः। तथा च श्रुत्य्-अन्तरम् ‘तरति शोकम् आत्म-विद्’ इति (ChanU.7.1.3)॥
Indriyāṇām, of the senses – such as ear etc.; pṛthak utpadyamānānām, that are separately produced – from their sources, ākāśa etc., for the purpose perceiving their own respective objects; matvā, knowing – through discrimination; their pṛthak bhāvam, difference – their nature of being essentially dissimilar to the nature of the Self that is extremely pure, absolute, and consciousness alone; similarly (knowing their) udaya-astamayau, (rising and setting) creation and dissolution – in relation to the waking and sleeping states – as belonging to them only and not to the Self; dhīraḥ, the intelligent man; na śocati, does not grieve; for the constantly uniform nature of the Self being unchangeable, the Self cannot be the cause of sorrow. Similar is another Veda text: ’The knower of the Self crosses over sorrow.’ (ChanU.7.1.3).

यस्माद् आत्मन इन्द्रियाणां पृथग्-भाव उक्तो, न असौ बहिर् अधिगन्तव्यो, यस्मात् प्रत्यग्-आत्मा स सर्वस्य। तत् कथम्? इत्य् उच्यते –
The Self, in relation to which the dissimilarity of the senses has been pointed out, is not to be realized outside, for It is the inmost Self of all. How can that be? This is being said:
indriya, para, manas, manas, sattva, uttama;
sattva, adhi, mahat, ātman, mahat, a-vyakta, uttama.

इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनस्, मनसः उत्तमं सत्त्वं [=बुद्धिः], सत्त्वात् अधि महान् आत्मा [=हिरण्य-गर्भः], महतः उत्तमम् अ-व्यक्तम्॥
The mind (manas) is superior to the sense organs. The intellect is superior to the mind (KathU.1.3.3–13). The total intellect (mahat) is superior to the individual intellect. And the unmanifest is superior to the total intellect.
The mind (manas) is superior to the sense organs (इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनस्).
The intellect (sattva, buddhi) is superior to the mind (manas) (मनसः सत्त्वम् उत्तमम्).
The total intellect (mahat) is superior to the (individual) intellect (सत्त्वात् अधि महान् आत्मा).
(And) the unmanifest is superior to the total intellect (महतः अ-व्यक्तम् उत्तमम्).
इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मन इत्य्-आदि। अर्थानाम् इह इन्द्रिय-समान-जातीयत्वाद् इन्द्रिय-ग्रहणेनैव ग्रहणम्। पूर्ववद् अन्यत् (KathU.1.3.10)। सत्त्व-शब्दाद् बुद्धिर् इह उच्यते॥
The sense-objects, belonging to the same class as the senses, are understood to be enumerated by the mention of the senses. The rest is as before (in KathU.1.3.10). By the word sattva, the intellect (buddhi) is referred to here.

a-vyakta, tu, para, puruṣa, vyāpaka, a-liṅga, eva, ca;
yad, jñātvā, √muc, jantu, a-mṛtatva, ca, √gam.

अ-व्यक्तात् तु परः पुरुषः व्यापकः अ-लिङ्गः एव च। यं ज्ञात्वा, जन्तुः मुच्यते, अ-मृतत्वं च गच्छति॥
The self (puruṣa) is indeed superior to the unmanifest. The puruṣa (oneself) is all-pervasive (as the being and witness of all) and attributeless (as ever the subject and never an object). Knowing this, a mortal is now known to be free, and attains one’s factual nature as timeless.
The self (puruṣa) is indeed superior to the unmanifest (अ-व्यक्तात् तु परः पुरुषः).
It (the puruṣa, oneself) is all-pervasive (as the being and witness of all) (व्यापकः) and attributeless (as ever the subject and never an object) (अ-लिङ्गः एव च).
Knowing this (यं ज्ञात्वा), a mortal is (now known to be) free (मुच्यते जन्तुः),
and attains (one’s factual nature as) timeless (अ-मृतत्वं च गच्छति).
अव्यक्तात् तु परः पुरुषः, व्यापको व्यापकस्य अप्य् आकाशादेः सर्वस्य कारणत्वात्, अ-लिङ्गो लिङ्ग्यते गम्यते येन तल् लिङ्गं बुद्ध्य्-आदि तद् अ-विद्यमानं यस्य सोऽयम् अ-लिङ्ग एव च, सर्व-संसार-धर्म-वर्जित इत्य् एतत्।
A-vyaktāt tu paraḥ, the Puruṣa is superior to the Unmanifested; and he is vyāpakaḥ, pervasive – for He is the source even of all pervasive things such as space etc.; a-liṅgaḥliṅga, derivatively means that sign through which anything is comprehended, i.e. intellect etc. – He who has not that liṅga, intellect etc., is indeed a-liṅgaḥ; that is, He is devoid of all worldly attributes; eva, indeed.

यं ज्ञात्वा आचार्यतः शास्त्रतश् च मुच्यते जन्तुर् अ-विद्यादि-हृदय-ग्रन्थिभिर् जीवन्न् एव,
Yam jñātvā, having known whom – from the teacher and the scriptures; jantuḥ, a man; mucyate, becomes freed – even while living – from the bondages of the heart, such as ignorance etc.;

पतितेऽपि शरीरे अ-मृतत्वं च गच्छति
And when the body falls he gacchati a-mṛtatvam ca, attains immortality as well.

सः ‘अ-लिङ्गः परोऽव्यक्तात् पुरुष’ इति पूर्वेणैव [“यं ज्ञात्वा…” इति] सम्बन्धः॥

This part is to be constructed with the earlier thus: He, the a-liṅgaḥ (incomprehensible) Puruṣa, by knowing whom a man becomes free and attains immortality, is superior to the Unmanifested.

कथं तर्हि अ-लिङ्गस्य दर्शनम् उपपद्यते इत्य् उच्यते –
How can there, then, be any possibility of the vision of the incomprehesible? This is being said:
na, sandṛśa, √sthā, rūpa, idam, na, cakṣus, √dṛś, ka-cana, enad;
hṛd, manīṣ, manas, abhikḷpta, yad, etad, √vid, a-mṛta, tad, √bhū.

अस्य रूपं न सन्दृशे तिष्ठति, न कश्चन एनं चक्षुषा पश्यति। मनीषा हृदा [च, =मनसः नियन्तृत्वेन हृद्-आकाश-स्थया बुद्ध्या च] मनसा [=मनन-रूपेण] अभिकॢप्तः। ये एतद् विदुः, ते अ-मृताः भवन्ति॥
The form of this self does not fall within the purview (of the senses and thus the manas). No one sees this self by the eyes. Only by the intellect (with the teaching) is the nature of the self made firmly known, which, being the master of the manas, the mind follows into contemplation. Those who know this ātman, attain their factual nature as timeless.
The form of this (self) does not fall within the purview (of the senses and thus the manas) (न सन्दृशे तिष्ठति रूपम् अस्य).
No one sees this (self) by the eyes (or other senses) (न चक्षुषा पश्यति कश्चन एनम्).
By the intellect (with the teaching) is the (nature of the self made) firmly known, which being the master of the manas, the mind follows (into contemplation) (हृदा मनीषा मनसा अभिकॢप्तः).
Those who know this (ātman) (ये एतद् विदुः), attain (their factual nature as) timeless (अ-मृताः ते भवन्ति).
न सन्दृशे सन्दर्शन-विषये न तिष्ठति प्रत्यग्-आत्मनोऽस्य रूपम्। अतो न चक्षुषा सर्वेन्द्रियेण, चक्षुर्-ग्रहणस्य उपलक्षणार्थत्वात्, पश्यति नोपलभते कश्चन कश्चिद् अप्य् एनं प्रकृतम् आत्मानम्।
Asya rūpam, His form – the form of this inmost Self; na tiṣṭhati, does not exist; sandṛśe, as an object of vision. Therefore, na kaścana, nobody; paśyati, sees, perceives; enam, this Self – that is being considered; cakṣuṣā, through the eyes – i.e. through any of the senses, for the word cakṣuḥ (eyes) is used here suggestively for all the senses.

कथं तर्हि तं पश्येद् इत्य् उच्यते – हृदा हृत्-स्थया बुद्ध्या। मनीषा मनसः सङ्कल्पादि-रूपस्य ईष्टे नियन्तृत्वेन इति मनीट् तया हृदा मनीषा अ-विकल्पयित्र्या बुद्ध्या।
How, then, He is to be seen is being said: hṛdā, by that which is in the heart; manīṣā, by the intellect (the ruler of the mind) – manīṭ being that which, as the controller, rules (īṣṭe) the mind (manas) characterized by thought.

मनसा मनन-रूपेण सम्यग्-दर्शनेन। अभिकॢप्तोऽभिसमर्थितोऽभि-प्रकाशित इत्य् एतत्। आत्मा ज्ञातुं शक्यते इति वाक्य-शेषः। तम् आत्मानं ब्रह्म एतद् ये विदुर् अ-मृतास् ते भवन्ति

Abhikḷptaḥ, when (It is) confirmed, i.e. revealed; by that (intellect), the ruler of the mind, which is in the heart and is free from occupation with objects; manasā, through the adequate vision consisting in deliberation; then ’the Self can be realized’ – this should be supplied to complete the sentence. Ye, those who; viduḥ, know; etat, this, this fact that the Self is Brahman; te, they; a-mṛtāḥ bhavanti, become immortal

सा हृन्-मनीट् कथं प्राप्यत इति तद्-अर्थो योग उच्यते –
How can the ruler in the heart be attained? For that purpose yoga is being inculcated:
yadā, pañca, ava-√sthā, jñāna, manas, saha;
buddhi, ca, na, vi-ceṣṭ, tad, √ah, paramā, gati.

यदा पञ्च ज्ञानानि [=इन्द्रियाणि] मनसा सह अवतिष्ठन्ते, बुद्धिः च न विचेष्टति, तां परमां गतिं आहुः॥
When the five sense organs along with the (emotive identifying) manas abide in the self, and the intellect does not waiver from this knowledge of the self, that attainment is ultimate, say the wise.
When they abide (in the self), the five (यदा पञ्च अवतिष्ठन्ते)
sense organs along with the (emotive identifying) manas ( ज्ञानानि मनसा सह),
and the intellect does not waiver (from this knowledge of the self) (बुद्धिः च न विचेष्टति),
that attainment (the wise) say is ultimate (ताम् आहुः परमां गतिम्).
यदा यस्मिन् काले स्व-विषयेभ्यो निवर्तितान्य् आत्मन्य् एव पञ्च ज्ञानानि – ज्ञानार्थत्वात् श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाणि ‘ज्ञानान्य्’ उच्यन्ते – अवतिष्ठन्ते सह मनसा यद्-अनुगतानि तेन सङ्कल्पादि-व्यावृत्तेनान्तःकरणेन, बुद्धिश् च अध्यवसाय-लक्षणा न विचेष्टति स्व-व्यापारेषु न विचेष्टते, न व्याप्रियते – ताम् आहुः परमां गतिम्
Yadā, at the time when; pañca jñānāni, the five senses of knowledge – such as ear etc., which are called jñāna (knowledge), being meant for it; saha manasā, together with the mind, which the senses follow – together with the internal organ (mind) which is (now) weaned away from (its functions of) pondering etc. (saṅkalpa, vikalpa); avatiṣṭhante, are at rest – in the Self alon
[•As Brahman, limitless and complete.•],
after desisting from their objects; ca buddhiḥ, and the intellect – characterized by determination; na viceṣṭate,
[•An alternative reading is viceṣṭati.•]
does not engage in its own activities
[•Does not dissect oneself, Brahman into separate ideas.-Aruna•];
tam, that (state); āhuḥ, they call; paramām gatim, the highest state.

tad, yoga, iti, √man, sthira, indriya-dhāraṇā;
a-pramatta, tadā, √bhū, yoga, hi, prabhava-apyaya.

ताम् इन्द्रिय-धारणां स्थिरां ‘योगम्’ इति मन्यन्ते। तदा अ-प्रमत्तः भवति, योगः हि प्रभव-अप्ययौ॥
That steady control of the organs of action and sensing (for allowing the intellect to abide in self-knowledge) is (this ultimate attainment) they call “Yoga.” One should be alert at that time, because yoga is subject to waxing and waning (along with rajas and tamas predominance in the mind).
That (ultimate goal) they call “Yoga” (the means, for allowing the intellect to abide in self-knowledge) ताम् ‘योगम्’ इति मन्यन्ते,
is the steady control of the organs (both of action and sensing) (स्थिराम् इन्द्रिय-धारणाम्).
One (should) be alert at that time (अ-प्रमत्तः तदा भवति),
because yoga is subject to waxing and waning (along with rajas and tamas predominance in the mind) (योगः हि प्रभव-अप्ययौ).
ताम् ईदृशीं तद्-अवस्थां ‘योगम्इति मन्यन्ते, वियोगम् एव सन्तम्। सर्वानर्थ-संयोग-वियोग-लक्षणा हि इयम् अवस्था योगिनः (BhG.6.23)। एतस्यां हि अवस्थायाम् अ-विद्याध्यारोपण-वर्जितः स्व-रूप-प्रतिष्ठ आत्मा। स्थिराम् इन्द्रिय-धारणां स्थिराम् अ-चलाम् इन्द्रिय-धारणां, बाह्यान्तः-करणानां धारणम् इत्य् अर्थः।
Manyante, they consider; tām, that state – which is such; viz sthirām indriya-dhāraṇām, the steady control of the senses, i.e. keeping the inner and outer organs steady; yogam iti, as yoga (joining) – though in reality it is disjunction (viyoga), for this state of the yogī consists in the cessation of the contact with all evils, and in this state, indeed, is the Self established in Its own nature, free from the superimposition of ignorance.

अ-प्रमत्तः प्रमाद-वर्जितः, समाधानं प्रति नित्यं यत्नवान्। तदा तस्मिन् काले, यदैव प्रवृत्त-योगो भवति इति सामर्थ्याद् अवगम्यते। न हि बुद्ध्य्-आदि-चेष्टाभावे प्रमाद-सम्भवोऽस्ति, तस्मात् प्राग् एव बुद्ध्य्-आदि-चेष्टोपरमाद् अ-प्रमादो विधीयते।
Bhavati, one becomes; a-pramattaḥ, unerring – ever careful about the concentration of mind; tadā, at that time – at the very time that one commences yoga, which meaning follows from the implication of the context; for when the intellect etc. cease to function, there can be no possibility of carelessness; therefore, the carefulness is enjoined even before the cessation of the activities of the intellect etc.

अथवा, यदैव इन्द्रियाणां स्थिरा धारणा, तदानीम् एव निर्-अङ्कुशम् अ-प्रमत्तत्वम् इत्य् अतोऽभिधीयते अ-प्रमत्तस् तदा भवतीति। कुतो योगो हि यस्मात् प्रभवाप्ययौ उपजनापाय-धर्मक इत्य् अर्थः।
Or, since unimpeded vigilance is possible only when the senses are kept steady, therefore, it is stated, ’One becomes unerring at that time.’ Why? Yogaḥ hi prabhava-apyayau, for yoga is subject to growth and decay – this is the meaning.

अतोऽपाय-परिहाराय अ-प्रमादः कर्त्तव्य इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

Therefore, vigilance is needed for avoiding decay.
[•The sentence ’Therefore’ etc., follows up the first interpretation, where the Upaniṣad gives an injunction about the need of vigilance, the word ’becomes’ being transformed into ’should become’. The second interpretation, starting with ’Or, since’ is a statement of fact.•]
This is the idea.

बुद्ध्य्-आदि-चेष्टा-विषयं चेद् ब्रह्म ‘इदं तद्’ इति विशेषतो गृह्येत, बुद्ध्य्-आद्य्-उपरमे च ग्रहण-कारणाभावाद् अन्-उपलभ्यमानं न अस्त्य् एव ब्रह्म। यद् धि करण-गोचरं तद् अस्तीति प्रसिद्धं लोके, विपरीतं च अ-सद् इति।
If Brahman be an object of the activities of the intellect etc., then It should be specifically apprehended as ’This is such and such’; and since It cannot be perceived on the cessation of the intellect etc., there being then no instrument for cognition, Brahman should surely have no existence (then). It is a well-known fact in the world that a thing exists so long as it is within the range of an instrument of cognition, and the contrary one is non-existent.

अतश् च अन्-अर्थको योगः, अन्-उपलभ्यमानत्वाद् वा ‘न अस्ति’ इत्य् उपलब्धव्यं ब्रह्म इत्य् एवं प्राप्ते, इदम् उच्यते –

Hence yoga is useless; or Brahman is to be perceived as non-existing inasmuch as It cannot be cognized. This contingency having arisen, this is the reply:
na, eva, vāc, na, manas, prāptum, śakya, na cakṣus;
√as, iti, bruvat, anyatra, katham, tad, upa-√labh.

न एव वाचा, न मनसा, न चक्षुषा प्राप्तुं शक्यः। [जगद्-मूल-सत्ता] अस्ति इति ब्रुवतः अन्यत्र, कथं तद् उपलभ्यते?
Not indeed by speech (the organs of action), nor by the (desire and object identifying) manas, nor by the eye (the sense organs) can this self be grasped. Apart from saying (knowing) “It (deathless brahman) exists, KathU.1.1.20,” and choose it, KathU.1.2.23), how else can that deathless brahman be grasped (by one who clings as oneself to the body and the things that die)?
Not indeed by speech (the organs of action) (न एव वाचा), nor by the (desire and object identifying) manas (न मनसा),
nor by the eye (the sense organs) can (this self) be grasped (प्राप्तुं शक्यः न चक्षुषा).
Apart from from saying (knowing) “It (deathless brahman) exists” (अस्ति इति ब्रुवतः अन्यत्र),
how else can that (deathless brahman) be grasped (by one who clings as oneself to the body and the things that die) (कथं तद् उपलभ्यते)?
सत्यम्। नैव वाचा न मनसा न चक्षुषा न अन्यैर् अपीन्द्रियैः प्राप्तुं शक्यते इत्य् अर्थः।
It is true na eva vācā, neither through speech; na manasā, nor through mind; na cakṣuṣā, nor through eye; nor even through the other senses; prāptum śakyaḥ, can It be attained. This is the idea.

तथापि सर्व-विशेष-रहितोऽपि ‘जगतो मूलम्’ इत्य् अवगतत्वाद् ‘अस्त्य् एव’, कार्य-प्रविलापनस्य अस्तित्व-निष्ठत्वात्। तथा हि इदं कार्यं सूक्ष्म-तारतम्य-पारम्पर्येण अनुगम्यमानं सद्-बुद्धि-निष्ठाम् एव अवगमयति।
Still though It is devoid of all attributes, It does exist, since It is known as the root of the universe; for the denial of effects presupposes some existence as their ultimate, limit. Similarly, this effect (in the form of the universe) when traced back in an ascending order of subtleness, makes one apprised of the idea of existence as its ultimate resort.

यदापि विषय-प्रविलापनेन प्रविलाप्यमाना बुद्धिः, तदापि सा सत्-प्रत्यय-गर्भैव विलीयते। बुद्धिर् हि नः प्रमाणं सद्-अ-सतोर् याथात्म्यावगमे।
Even when the intellect is being attenuated through the sublation of objects, the intellect dissolves only as pregnant with a concept of existence. And reason, indeed, is the proof for us in ascertaining the real nature of the existent and the non-existent.

मूलं चेज् जगतो न स्याद्, अ-सद्-अन्वितम् एवेदं कार्यम् ‘अ-सद् अ-सद्’ इत्य् एव गृह्येत, न त्व् एतद् अस्ति। ‘सत् सद्’ इत्य् एव तु गृह्यते। यथा मृद्-आदि-कार्यं घटादि मृद्-आद्य्-अन्वितम्।
If the world had no root, this creation would be filled with non-existence and would be perceived as non-existent. But in fact, this is not so; it is perceived as ’existing’, just as a pot etc., produced from earth etc., are perceived as permeated with earth.

तस्माज् जगतो मूलम् आत्मा ‘अस्ति’ इत्य् एवोपलब्धव्यः। कस्माद्? अस्तीति ब्रुवतोऽस्तित्व-वादिन आगमार्थानुसारिणः श्रद्-दधानाद् अन्यत्र नास्तिक-वादिनि ‘न अस्ति जगतो मूलम् आत्मा, निर्-अन्वयम् एवेदं कार्यम् अ-भावान्तं प्रविलीयते’ इति मन्यमाने विपरीत-दर्शिनि, कथं तद् ब्रह्म तत्त्वतः उपलभ्यते न कथञ्चनोपलभ्यत इत्य् अर्थः॥

Therefore the Self, the root of the universe, is to be realized as existing. Why? Asti iti bruvataḥ, apart from the faithful one who, following the scriptures, speaks of existence; katham, how; can tat, that Brahman; upalabhyate, be known; anyatra, anywhere else – in the one who holds the theory of non-existence, in the one who thinks perversely in this way: The root of the world, the Self, does not exist; this effect is causeless, and it gets dissolved into non-existence as its end’? The idea is that It is not perceived in any way.

तस्माद् अपोह्य अ-सद्-वादि-पक्षम् आसुरम् –
Therefore, eschewing the devilish company of those who advance the theory of non-existence:
√as, iti, eva, upalabdhavya, tattva-bhāva, ca, ubha;
√as, iti, eva, upalabdha, tattva-bhāva, pra-√sad.

[आत्मा] ‘अस्ति [कारणम्]’ इति एव उपलब्धव्यः, [पश्चात्] तत्त्व-भावेन च [उपलब्धव्यः]। उभयोः, ‘अस्ति’ इति एव उपलब्धस्य तत्त्व-भावः प्रसीदति॥
It is first to be acknowledged as “It (deathless brahman) exists,” and then it is to be known as being the nature of all this. Of these two, for the one who first acknowledges “It (deathless brahman) exists,” then the ātman which already is of this nature will eventually bless (KathU.2.1.10, KathU.1.2.23).
It is (first) to be acknowledged as “It (deathless brahman) exists” (‘अस्ति’ इति एव उपलब्धव्यः),
and (then it is to be known) as being the nature of all this (तत्त्व-भावेन च). Of these two (उभयोः),
for the one who (first) acknowledges “It (deathless brahman) exists” (‘अस्ति’ इति एव उपलब्धस्य),
then (the ātman) which already is of this nature (will eventually) bless (KathU.1.2.23) (तत्त्व-भावः प्रसीदति).
अस्तीत्य् एव आत्मा उपलब्धव्यः सत्-कार्यो बुद्ध्य्-आद्य्-उपाधिः।
Asti iti eva upalabdhavyaḥ, the Self should be realized as existing (i.e. immanent in all) – as productive of effects in which existence inheres, and as having the intellect etc. as Its limiting adjuncts.

यदा तु तद्-रहितोऽविक्रिय आत्मा, कार्यं च कारण-व्यतिरेकेण नास्ति ‘वाच्-आरम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं, मृत्तिका इत्य् एव सत्यम्’ इति (ChanU.6.1.4) श्रुतेः, तदा तस्य निर्-उपाधिकस्य अ-लिङ्गस्य सद्-अ-सद्-आदि-प्रत्यय-विषयत्व-वर्जितस्य आत्मनस् तत्त्व-भाव भवति। तेन रूपेण आत्मा उपलब्धव्य इत्य् अनुवर्त्तते।
But when the Self is devoid of all that and is not subject to changes – and effects do not exist apart from their cause, because of the Veda text, ’All transformation has speech as its basis, and it is name only. Earth as such is the reality’ (ChanU.6.1.4) – then, of that unconditioned, attributeless Self that is free from becoming an object of such concepts as existence and non-existence; tattva-bhāvaḥ, the true (transcendental) nature – (bhavati) is revealed. (Tattva-bhāvena), in that (truly revealed) form too – ‘is the Self to be realized’, this much is to be supplied.

तत्रापि उभयोः सोपाधिक-निर्-उपाधिकयोर् अस्तित्व-तत्त्व-भावयोः – निर्धारणार्था षष्ठी – पूर्वम् अस्तीत्य् एव उपलब्धस्य आत्मनः सत्-कार्योपाधि-कृतास्तित्व-प्रत्ययेन उपलब्धस्येत्य् अर्थः। पश्चात् प्रत्यस्तमित-सर्वोपाधि-रूप आत्मनस् तत्त्व-भावो ‘विदिताविदिताभ्याम् अन्यः’ (KenU.1.4) अ-द्वय-स्व-भावो ‘नेति नेति’ इति (BrhU.4.4.22), ‘अ-स्थूलम् अन्-अण्व्-अ-ह्रस्वम्’ (BrhU.3.8.8) ‘अ-दृश्येऽन्-आत्म्ये निर्-उक्तेऽनिलयने’ (TaitU.2.7.1) इत्य्-आदि-श्रुति-निर्दिष्टः प्रसीदति अभिमुखी-भवति आत्म-प्रकाशनाय, पूर्वम् अस्तीत्य् उपलब्धवत इत्य् एतत्॥
The sixth (genitive) case in ubhayoḥ is used to imply selection. Ubhayoḥ, of the two (aspects), again – of the conditioned and the unconditioned, of the aspects of immanence and transcendence; the tattva-bhāvaḥ, the real (transcendental) aspect; asti iti eva upalabdhasya of that very Self which was earlier realized as existing
[•The Self which was inferred as existing from the fact of Its being the cause of all the effects that are perceived as existing.•]
(as immanent), i.e. which was known through the idea of existence called up by the limiting adjuncts that are themselves the effects of an existing entity; (that real aspect of that very Self) prasīdati, becomes favourably disposed for revealing Itself later on – i.e. to the man who had realized It earlier as existence; the real aspect being that from which all limiting adjuncts have vanished, which is different from the known and unknown, is non-dual by nature, and is ascertained by such Veda text as, ’not this, not this’ (BrhUEng.2.3.6, BrhUEng.3.9.26), ’not gross, not subtle, not short’ (BrhUEng.3.8.8), ’in the changeless, bodiless, inexpressible, unsupporting’ (TaitU.2.7.1), etc.

एवं परमार्थात्म-दर्शिनः –
Thus, of the man who has realized the supreme Reality:
yadā, sarva, pra-√muc, kāma, yad, idam, hṛd, śrita;
atha, martya, a-mṛta, √bhū, atra, brahman, sam-√aś.

यदा ये अस्य हृदि श्रिताः सर्वे कामाः प्रमुच्यन्ते, अथ मर्त्यः अ-मृतः भवति। अत्र ब्रह्म समश्नुते॥
When objectively released from all desires which were previously fixed (clinging) in the heart (in the identifying manas), then a mortal is now known to be the timeless brahman (as alone to be chosen). Here in the heart (the buddhi) one attains brahman (alone as one’s self, and not the once desirable objects).
When (objectively) released (from) all (यदा सर्वे प्रमुच्यन्ते)
desires which (were previously) fixed (clinging) in the heart (in the identifying manas) (कामाः ये अस्य हृदि श्रिताः),
then a mortal is (now known to be) the timeless (brahman, as alone to be chosen) (अथ मर्त्यः अ-मृतः भवति).
Here (in the heart, the buddhi) one attains brahman (alone as one’s self) (अत्र ब्रह्म समश्नुते).
यदा यस्मिन् काले सर्वे कामाः कामयितव्यस्य अन्यस्य अ-भावात् प्रमुच्यन्ते विशीर्यन्ते, ये अस्य प्राक् प्रतिबोधाद् विदुषो हृदि बुद्धौ श्रिता आश्रिताः। बुद्धिर् हि कामानाम् आश्रयो न आत्मा, ‘कामः सङ्कल्पः…[इत्येतत् सर्वं मन एव]’ (BrhU.1.5.3) इत्य्-आदि-श्रुत्य्-अन्तराच् च।
Yadā, when; sarve kāmāḥ, all desires; pramucyante, fall off, are broken to pieces, owning to the absence of anything else to be desired; ye, the desires which; hṛdi śritāḥ, clung to the heart; asya, of that man of knowledge, before his enlightenment – the intellect, and not the Self, being the seat of the desires, which fact is also supported by another Veda text, ’desire; thought, (doubt, etc., all these are but the mind)’ (BrhUEng.1.5.3);

अथ तदा मर्त्यः प्राक् प्रबोधाद् आसीत् स प्रबोधोत्तर-कालम् अ-विद्या-काम-कर्म-लक्षणस्य मृत्योर् विनाशाद् अ-मृतो भवति। गमन-प्रयोजकस्य मृत्योर् विनाशाद् गमनानुपपत्तेः, अत्र इहैव प्रदीप-निर्वाणवत् सर्व-बन्धनोपशमात् ब्रह्म समश्नुते ब्रह्मैव भवतीत्य् अर्थः॥

Atha, then; he who was before enlightenment martyaḥ, mortal; a-mṛtaḥ bhavati, becomes immortal, after enlightenment – by virtue of the elimination of death constituted by ignorance, desire, and deeds; death, which causes departure, having been destroyed, there remains no possibility of departure, and hence atra, here itself; owing to the cessation of all bondage, like the blowing out of a lamp, samaśnute brahma, (he) attains Brahman, i.e. (he) becomes Brahman Itself.

कदा पुनः कामानां मूलतो विनाशः? इत्य् उच्यते –
When again will the desires to totally uprooted? This is being said:
yadā, sarva, pra-√bhid, hṛdaya, iha, grantha;
atha, martya, a-mṛta, √bhū, etāvat, hi, anuśāsana.

यदा सर्वे इह हृदयस्य ग्रन्थयः प्रभिद्यन्ते (MunU.2.2.8), अथ मर्त्यः अ-मृतः भवति। एतावत् हि अनुशासनम्॥
When all the heart’s knots (the endless confusions arising from identifying with the not-self) in this (life itself) are broken (untethered, MunU.2.2.8), then a mortal is now known to be the timeless (brahman). This much alone is the traditional teaching (in keeping with the other Upaniṣad teachings).
When are broken (untethered) all (यदा सर्वे प्रभिद्यन्ते)
the heart’s knots (the endless confusions arising from identifying with the not-self) in this (life itself) (हृदयस्य इह ग्रन्थयः),
then a mortal is (now known to be) the timeless (brahman) (अथ मर्त्यः अ-मृतः भवति).
This much alone is the traditional teaching (in keeping with the other Upaniṣad teachings) (एतावत् हि अनुशासनम्).
यदा सर्वे प्रभिद्यन्ते भेदम् उपयान्ति विनश्यन्ति हृदयस्य बुद्धेः इह जीवत एव ग्रन्थयः ग्रन्थिवद् दृढ-बन्धन-रूपा अ-विद्या-प्रत्यया इत्य् अर्थः – ‘अहम् इदं शरीरं, ममेदं धनं, सुखी दुःखी च अहम्’ इत्य् एवम्-आदि-लक्षणाः, तद्-विपरीत-ब्रह्मात्म-प्रत्ययोपजननाद् ‘ब्रह्मैव अहम् अस्म्य् अ-संसारी’ इति, विनष्टेष्व् अ-विद्या-ग्रन्थिषु तन्-निमित्ताः कामा मूलतो विनश्यन्ति।
Yadā, when; sarve granthayaḥ, all the knots – i.e. all concepts arising from ignorance, that bind one fast like knots; hṛdayasya, of the intellect; prabhidyante, get shattered, are destroyed; iha, here – even while a man is living. The concepts arising from ignorance are, ’I am this body’, ’This wealth is mine’, ’I am happy and unhappy’, etc. When the bondages of ignorance are destroyed by the rise of the opposite knowledge of the identity of the Self and Brahman, in the form, ’I am Brahman indeed, and am not a transmigrating soul’, then the desires originating from the knots become totally eradicated.

अथ मर्त्योऽमृतो भवतिएतावद् धि एतावद् एव एतावन्-मात्रं, न ‘अधिकम् अस्ति’ इत्य् आशङ्का कर्त्तव्या। अनुशासनम् अनुशिष्टिः उपदेशः ‘सर्व-वेदान्तानाम्’ इति वाक्य-शेषः॥

Atha martyaḥ a-mṛtaḥ bhavati, then a mortal becomes immortal. Etāvat hi, this much only is – there should not be any anticipation that there is more; anuśāsanam, the instruction; the expression, ’of all the Upaniṣads’, should be supplied to complete the sentence.

निरस्ताशेष-विशेष-व्यापि-ब्रह्मात्म-प्रतिपत्त्या प्रभिन्न-समस्ताविद्यादि-ग्रन्थेर् जीवत एव ब्रह्म-भूतस्य विदुषो न गतिर् विद्यते, ‘अत्र ब्रह्म समश्नुते’ (KathU.2.3.14) इत्य् उक्तम्। ‘न तस्य प्राणा उत्क्रामन्ति ब्रह्मैव सन् ब्रह्माप्येति’ इति (BrhU.4.4.6) श्रुत्य्-अन्तराच् च।
By asserting ’He attains Brahman here’ (KathU.2.3.14), it has been declared that there is no going for an enlightened man of whom all the knots of ignorance become destroyed on the realization of the identity of the Self with the all-pervading and absolutely attributeless Brahman, and who becomes Brahman even while living, which fact is also supported by another Veda text: ’Of him the organs do not depart. Being but Brahman he is merged in Brahman.’ (BrhUEng.4.4.6).

ये पुनर् मन्द-ब्रह्म-विदो विद्यान्तर-शीलिनश् च ब्रह्म-लोक-भाजो, ये च तद्-विपरीताः संसार-भाजः, तेषाम् एष (एव) गति-विशेष उच्यते प्रकृतोत्कृष्ट-ब्रह्म-विद्या-फल-स्तुतये।
But for those who are not much advanced in the knowledge of Brahman, who are engaged in other kinds of knowledge (i.e. in worship and meditation), and who are fit for the world of Brahmā, as also for those others who are the opposite of these and are fit for worldly existence, this particular kind of path is stated with a view to eulogizing the superior result of the knowledge of Brahman that is being treated here.

किञ्च अन्यत्, अग्नि-विद्या पृष्टा प्रत्युक्ता च, तस्याश् च फल-प्राप्ति-प्रकारो वक्तव्य इति मन्त्रारम्भः। तत्र –

Moreover, the knowledge of Fire had been questioned about and was imparted. The process of the attainment of the fruit of that knowledge has also to be described. Hence this verse is begun. As to that:
śata, ca, ekā, ca, hṛdaya, nāḍī, tad, mūrdhan, abhiniḥsṛtā, ekā;
tad, ūrdhvam, āyat, a-mṛtatva, √i, viṣvac, anyā, utkramaṇa, √bhū.

हृदयस्य नाड्यः शतं च एका च। तासां एका मूर्धानम् अभिनिःसृता। तया ऊर्ध्वम् आयन्, अ-मृतत्वम् एति। [याः] विष्वङ् [=विषूच्यः] अन्याः, [ताः] उत्क्रमणे भवन्ति॥
(The Upaniṣad says)
There are one hundred and one nāḍīs (subtle energy paths) connected to the heart. Of them, one nāḍī reaches to the (soft when young) top of the head (the fontanel). Upon death going up through this nāḍī, the individual (identified with the traveling subtle body, the essence of the mind with its saṃskāras and animating powers) attains (the relative, or postponed) immortality in brahma-loka. The other one hundred nāḍīs branching out become the means for going out (dying) into other possible embodiments.
(The Upaniṣad says)
There are one hundred and one nāḍīs (subtle energy paths) connected to the heart (शतं च एका च हृदयस्य नाड्यः).
Of them, one nāḍī reaches to the (soft when young) top of the head (the fontanel) (तासां मूर्धानम् अभिनिःसृता एका).
(Upon death) going up through this (nāḍī) (तया ऊर्ध्वम् आयन्), the individual (identified with the traveling subtle body, the essence of the mind with its saṃskāras and animating powers) attains (the relative, or postponed) immortality (in brahma-loka) (अ-मृतत्वम् एति).
The other (one hundred nāḍīs) branching out (विष्वङ् अन्याः) become the means for going out (dying into other possible embodiments) (उत्क्रमणे भवन्ति).
शतं च शत-सङ्ख्याकाः एका च सुषुम्ना नाम पुरुषस्य हृदयाद् विनिःसृताः नाड्यः शिराः। तासां मध्ये मूर्धानं भित्त्वा अभिनिःसृता निर्गता सुषुम्ना नाम।
Nāḍyaḥ, the nerves that issue out of hṛdaya, the heart of a man are śatam, a hundred in number; ca ekā, and one – called suṣumnā. Tāsām, of these; ekā, the one – the suṣumnā; abhiniḥsṛtā, goes out; by piercing through mūrdhānam, (the crown of) the head. At the time of death one should bring one’s mind under control through that (suṣumnā) nerve, and get it concentrated in the heart.

तया अन्त-काले हृदये आत्मानं वशी-कृत्य योजयेत्। तया नाड्या ऊर्ध्वम् उपरि आयन् गच्छन् आदित्य-द्वारेण अ-मृतत्वम् अ-मरण-धर्मत्वम् आपेक्षिकम् – ‘आ-भूत-सम्प्लवं स्थानम् अ-मृतत्वं हि भाष्यते’ इति (VisPur.2.8.97) स्मृतेः, ब्रह्मणा वा सह कालान्तरेण मुख्यम् अ-मृतत्वम् – एति भुक्त्वा भोगान् अन्-उपमान् ब्रह्म-लोक-गतान्।
Tayā, through that nerve; ūrdhvam āyan, going up – along the Path of Sun (uttara-mārga); one eti, attains; a-mṛtatvam, immortality – which is relative because of the Smṛti, ’The place (i.e. Brahma-loka) that lasts till the absorption of all the elements (i.e. cosmic dissolution) is called immortality.’ (V. P. II. viii. 97). Or, after having enjoyed incomparable pleasures abounding in the world of Brahmā, he attains immortality, in the primary sense of the word, along with Hiraṇya-garbha (Brahmā), in due course of time.

विष्वङ् नाना-विध-गतयोऽन्या नाड्य उत्क्रमणे निमित्तं भवन्ति। संसार-प्रतिपत्त्य्-अर्था एव भवन्तीत्य् अर्थः॥

Viṣvak anyāḥ, the other nerves that branch out (otherwise), in different directions; bhavanti, become the causes utkramaṇe, of death, i.e. for the attainment of the worldly state alone.

इदानीं सर्व-वल्ल्य्-अर्थोपसंहारार्थम् आह –
Now, with a view to concluding the purport of all the cantos the Upaniṣad says:
aṅguṣṭha-mātra, puruṣa, antar-ātman, sadā, jana, hṛdaya, sanniviṣṭha;
tad, sva, śarīra, pra-√vṛh, muñca, iva, iṣīkā, dhairya;
tad, √vid, śukra, a-mṛta, tad, √vid, śukra, a-mṛta, iti.

अन्तर्-आत्मा पुरुषः अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः, जनानां हृदये सदा सन्निविष्टः। स्वात् शरीरात् तं धैर्येण प्रवृहेत्, मुञ्जात् इषीकां इव। तं शुक्रम् अ-मृतं विद्यात् तं शुक्रम् अ-मृतं विद्यात् इति॥
The subtle puruṣa who fills everything (the brahman), which is known in the cave of the heart as the size of the thumb, is ever present in the heart of people. One should distinguish that self from one’s body, with careful attention and respect, like one separates the stalk from the sharp tipped muñja grass. One should know that self to be pure and timeless. The End.
The subtle puruṣa (the one who fills everything, brahman) which is (known in the cave of the heart) as the size of the thumb (अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः पुरुषः अन्तर्-आत्मा),
is ever present in the heart of people (सदा जनानां हृदये सन्निविष्टः).
One should distinguish that (self) from one’s body (तं स्वात् शरीरात् प्रवृहेत्),
with careful attention (and respect) like (one separates) the internal pith from (the sharp tipped) muñja grass (मुञ्जात् इव इषीकां धैर्येण).
One should know that (self) to be pure and timeless, (repeat…) (तं विद्यात् शुक्रम् अ-मृतम्। तं विद्यात् शुक्रम् अ-मृतम् इति)
अङ्गुष्ठ-मात्रः पुरुषः अन्तर्-आत्मा सदा जनानां सम्बन्धिनि हृदये सन्निविष्टो यथा-व्याख्यातः (KathU.2.1.12)। तं स्वाद् आत्मीयात् शरीरात् प्रवृहेद् उद्यच्छेद् निष्कर्षेत् पृथक् कुर्याद् इत्य् अर्थः।
Aṅguṣṭha-mātraḥ puruṣaḥ antar-ātmā sadā janānām hṛdaye, in the heart as related to men; sanniviṣṭaḥ – all this is an has been already explained (vide KathU.2.1.12-13). Tam, Him; pravṛhet, one should raise, should pull out, i.e. should separate; svāt śarīrāt, from one’s own body.

किम् इव? इत्य् उच्यते – मुञ्जाद् इव इषीकाम् अन्तः-स्थां धैर्येण अ-प्रमादेन (KathU.1.2.6 KathU.2.3.11)।
Like what? That is being said: Dhairyeṇa, unerringly; iṣīkām iva muñjāt, like a stalk from the Muñja grass, that is inside it.

तं शरीरान् निष्कृष्टं चिन्मात्रं विद्याद् विजानीयात् शुक्रम् अ-मृतं यथोक्तं ‘ब्रह्म’ इति (KathU.2.2.8)। द्विर्-वचनम् उपनिषत्-परिसमाप्त्य् अर्थम्, इति-शब्दश् च॥
Vidyāt, one should know; tam, that thing – the absolute Consciousness that has been separated from the body; to be śukram a-mṛtam, pure and immortal – to be the Brahman previously described. The repetition (of ’Him one should......,’ etc.), as also the word iti, is to show that the Upaniṣad is concluded.

विद्या-स्तुत्य्-अर्थोऽयम् आख्यायिकार्थोपसंहारोऽधुनोच्यते –
Now this conclusion of the purport of the story is being stated with a view to eulogizing the knowledge:
mṛtyu-prokta, naciketas, atha, labdhvā, vidyā, etad, yoga-vidhi, ca, kṛtsnam;
brahma-prāpta, vi-rajas, √bhū, vi-mṛtyu, anya, api, evam, yad, vid, adhi-ātma, eva.

अथ एतां मृत्यु-प्रोक्तां [ब्रह्म-]विद्यां योग-विधिं च कृत्स्नं लब्ध्वा, वि-रजस् वि-मृत्युः [सन्] नचिकेतस् [=नाचिकेतः] ब्रह्म-प्राप्तः अभूत्। यः अन्यः अपि अध्यात्मं एव एवं-विद्, [सः अपि ब्रह्म-प्राप्तः भवति]॥
Thereupon, (for) Naciketas, having acquired [through a boon] this knowledge taught by Lord Death, as well as the instruction on yoga complete, [he] attained brahman, and became pure and deathless as brahman. Anyone else too who in this way knows this in regard to ātman becomes that brahman alone.
Thereupon, [for] Naciketas having acquired what was taught by Lord Death (मृत्यु-प्रोक्तां नचिकेतस् अथ लब्ध्वा)
this knowledge as well as the instruction on yoga complete (विद्याम् एतां योग-विधिं च कृत्स्नम्),
[he] attained brahman (and) became pure and deathless (as brahman) (ब्रह्म-प्राप्तः वि-रजस् अभूत् वि-मृत्युः).
Anyone else too (अन्यः अपि) who in this way knows this in regard to ātman becomes that (ātman) alone (एवं यः विद् अध्यात्मम् एव).
मृत्यु-प्रोक्ताम् यथोक्ताम् एतां ब्रह्म-विद्यां योग-विधिं च कृत्स्नं समस्तं सोपकरणं स-फलम् इत्य् एतत्। नचिकेतो वर-प्रदानाद् मृत्योर् लब्ध्वा प्राप्य इत्य् अर्थः।
Naciketas, labdhvā, having attained – from Death, through the granting of boons; mṛtyu-proktām etām vidyām, this knowledge of Brahman imparted by Death – as stated above; yoga-vidhim ca kṛtsnam, and the process of yoga in its entirety, i.e. together with all its accessories and results.

किम्? ब्रह्म-प्राप्तोऽभूद् मुक्तोऽभवद् इत्य् अर्थः। कथम्? विद्या-प्राप्त्या वि-रजो विगत-धर्माधर्मो वि-मृत्युर् विगत-कामाविद्यश् च सन् पूर्वम् इत्य् अर्थः।
What happened to him after that? Brahma-prāptaḥ abhūt, (he) attained Brahman, i.e. became free. How? By having already become, vi-rajaḥ, free from virtue and vice; (and) vi-mṛtyuḥ, free from desire and ignorance, through the acquisition of knowledge.

न केवलं नचिकेता एव, अन्योऽपि नचिकेतोवद् आत्म-विद् अध्य्-आत्मम् एव निर्-उपचरितं प्रत्यक्-स्व-रूपं प्राप्य तत्त्वम् एव इत्य् अभिप्रायः, न अन्यद् रूपम् अ-प्रत्यग् रूपम्, तद् एवम् अध्य्-आत्मम् एवम् उक्त-प्रकारेण यो वेद विजानातीति एवं-वित् – सोऽपि वि-रजः सन् ब्रह्म प्राप्य (प्राप्त्या) वि-मृत्युर् भवति इति वाक्य-शेषः॥

Not only Naciketas, but anyaḥ api, anyone else, too – becomes like Naciketas (a knower of Brahman) by attaining the Self, existing in the context of the body, as one’s own innermost reality in Its absoluteness, and not in any form other than as the indwelling Self. He who knows adhyātmam eva, the Self that exists in the context of the body – in the manner as described; who is an evam-vit, a knower of this kind; ’he, too, having become virajah, (free from virtue and vice); becomes vi-mṛtyuḥ (free from desire and ignorance)
[•In this context some translate vi-mṛtyuḥ as ’immortal’.•]
– by knowing Brahman’ – this (sentence) is to be added to complete the idea.

🔗  Om; tad, ha, asmad, √av. Tad, ha, asmad, √bhuj. Saha, vīrya, √kṛ. Tejasvin, adhīta, √as, mā, vi-√dviṣ. Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.
सः ह नौ अवतु। सः ह नौ भुनक्तु। सह वीर्यं करवावहै। तेजस्विनौ [=तेजस्विनोः आवयोः] अधीतं अस्तु (अथवा, नौ अधीतं तेजस्वि अस्तु)। मा विद्विषावहै। ओम् शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥
स ह (सह) नौ आवाम् अवतु पालयतु विद्या-स्व-रूप-प्रकाशनेन। कः? स एव परमेश्वर उपनिषत्-प्रकाशितः। किञ्च स ह (सह) नौ भुनक्तु तत्-फल-प्रकाशनेन नौ पालयतु। सह एव आवां विद्या-कृतं वीर्यं सामर्थ्यं करवावहै निष्पादयावहै। किञ्च तेजस्विनौ तेजस्विनोर् आवयोर् यद् अधीतं तत् स्व्-अधीतम् अस्तु। अथवा तेजस्वि नौ आवाभ्यां यद् अधीतं तद् अतीव तेजस्वि वीर्यवद् अस्तु इत्य् अर्थः। मा विद्विषावहै शिष्याचार्यौ अन्योन्यं प्रमाद-कृतान्यायाध्ययनाध्यापन-दोष-निमित्तं द्वेषं मा करवावहै इत्य् अर्थः। शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः इति त्रिर्-वचनं सर्व-दोषोपशमनार्थम् इति ओम् इति (KathU.1.2.15)॥
Saḥ ha nau avatu May He (together) protect us both by revealing the nature of knowledge! Who? He, the supreme Lord Himself who is revealed by the Upaniṣads. Further, saḥ ha nau bhunaktu may He sustain us both (together) by revealing the fruits of knowledge! Saha vīryam karavāvahai may we together attain the vigour originating from knowledge! Again, tejasvinau adhītam astu what has been studied by us, who are bright, be studied well. Or what has been studied by us may become most powerful. Mā vidiṣāvahai may we not cavil at each other, i.e. may we, disciple and preceptor, not possess hatred for each other due to the short-comings that might arise from the study or instruction deviating from the principles, owing to inadvertence! Śāntiś śānthiś śāntiḥ The repetition of Peace thrice is to get rid of all evils. Om.
[•This translation from V. Panoli.•]

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🔗  ओं, पूर्ण॒म् अदः॒ पूर्ण॒म् इदं॒ पूर्णा॒त् पूर्ण॒म् उद॒च्यते।
पूर्ण॒स्य पूर्ण॒म् आदा॒य पूर्ण॒म् एवावशि॒ष्यते।
ओं शा॒न्तिः शा॒न्तिः शा॒न्तिः॥

Om; pūrṇa, adas, pūrṇa, idam, pūrna, pūrṇa, ud-√añc.
pūrṇa, pūrṇa, ādāya, pūrṇa, eva, ava-√śiṣ.
Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

॥इति कठ-उपनिषद् समाप्ता॥
॥इति श्रीमत्-परम-हंस-परिव्राजकाचार्यस्य श्री-गोविन्द-भगवत्-पूज्य-पाद-शिष्यस्य श्रीमच्-छंकर-भगवतः कृतौ कठोपनिषद्-भाष्यम् सम्पूर्णम्॥