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मुण्डक उपनिषद्
Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad
with शाङ्कर-भाष्यम्

English translation by A.K. Aruna
Translation of Bhāṣyam by Swami Gambhirananda

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Khaṇḍa 1.1 Khaṇḍa 1.2 Khaṇḍa 2.1 Khaṇḍa 2.2 Khaṇḍa 3.1 Khaṇḍa 3.2

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Muṇḍaka-Upaniṣad, from the Atharva Veda, presents the nature and limits of rituals. It expressly calls Brahma VidyāVedānta’ and the ultimate knowledge, emphasizing the need for finding a qualified teacher.

by A.K. Aruna
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(Guru Vandanam)


ओम्, भ॒द्रं कर्णे॑भिः शृणु॒याम॑ देवाः। भ॒द्रं प॑श्येमा॒क्षभि॒र् यज॑त्राः।
स्थि॒रैर् अङ्गै᳚स् तुष्टु॒वाग्ँस॑स् त॒नूभिः॑ व्यशे॑म दे॒व-हि॑तं॒ यद् आयुः॑॥
स्व्-अ॒स्ति न॒ इन्द्रो॑ वृ॒द्ध-श्र॑वाः। स्व्-अ॒स्ति नः॑ पू॒षा वि॒श्व-वे॑दाः।
स्व्-अ॒स्ति न॒स् तार्क्ष्यो॒ अरि॑ष्ट-नेमिः। स्व्-अ॒स्ति नो॒ बृह॒स्-पति॑र् दधातु॥
ओं शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॑॥

Om, bhadra, karṇa, √śṛ, deva. bhadra, √dṛś, akṣa, yajatra.
sthira, aṅga, tuṣṭuvas, tanū, vi-√aś, deva-hita, yad, āyus.
su-asti, asmad, indra, vṛddha-śravas. su-asti, asmad, pūṣan, viśva-deva.
su-asti, asmad, tārkṣya, a-riṣṭa-nemi. su-asti, asmad, bṛhas-pati, √dhā.
om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

ओम्, “ब्रह्मा देवानाम्” (MunU.1.1.01) इत्याद्य्-आथर्वणोपनिषद्, अस्याश्च विद्या-सम्प्रदाय-कर्तृ-पारम्पर्य-लक्षणं सम्बन्धम् आदाव् एवाह स्वयम् एव स्तुत्यर्थम् – एवं हि महद्भिः परम-पुरुषार्थ-साधनत्वेन गुरुणा_आयासेन लब्धा विद्या_इति, श्रोतृ-बुद्धि-प्ररोचनाय विद्यां मही-करोति। स्तुत्या प्ररोचितायां हि विद्यायां सादराः प्रवर्तेरन्न् इति।
The Upaniṣad, commencing with ‘Om brahmā devānām’ etc. belongs to the Atharva-Veda, (and it is being explained). By way of eulogy, the Upaniṣad itself reveals at the very beginning the connection, forged by a succession of teachers of the knowledge, that this Upaniṣad has (with the knowledge of Brahman). with a view to arousing the interest of the hearers, the knowledge itself is being extolled by showing that this knowledge, as a means for the highest human goal, was acquired thus indeed, with strenuous effort by great people. For, when this knowledge is made attractive by praise, they will surely engage in it.

प्रयोजनेन तु विद्यायाः साध्य-साधन-लक्षणं सम्बन्धम् उत्तरत्र प्रवक्ष्यति “भिद्यते हृदय-ग्रन्थिः” (MunU.2.2.08) इत्यादिना।
As to how this knowledge is related to its purpose (or goal), like a means to its end, will be spoken later on in ‘the knot of the hearts gets united’ etc. (MunU.2.2.08).
[•The purpose of knowledge being shown thus, the purpose of the Upaniṣad is shown pari passu.•]

अत्र च अपर-शब्द-वाच्यायाम् ऋग्-वेदादि-लक्षणायां विधि-प्रतिषेधमात्र-परायां विद्यायां संसार-कारणाविद्यादि-दोष-निवर्तकत्वं नास्तीति स्वयम् एवोक्त्वा परापर-विद्या-भेद-करण-पूर्वकम् (MunU.1.2.04) “अ-विद्यायाम् अन्तरे वर्तमानाः” (MunU.1.2.08) इत्यादिना, तथा पर-प्राप्ति-साधनं सर्व-साधन-साध्य-विषय-वैराग्य-पूर्वकं गुरु-प्रसाद-लभ्यां ब्रह्म-विद्याम् आह “परीक्ष्य लोकान्” (MunU.1.2.12) इत्यादिना।
And here, too, the Upaniṣad itself first distinguishes between the superior and inferior knowledge and then, through the text beginning with ‘Remaining within the fold of ignorance’ etc. (MunU.1.2.08), declares that the knowledge, called the inferior one, comprising the Ṛg-Veda etc. and devoted merely to injunction and prohibition, does not possess the power of removing the defects of ignorance etc. which are the causes of the worldly state; and then in the text beginning with ‘After examining the worlds’ etc. (MunU.1.2.12), it speaks of the knowledge of Brahman that is the means for the highest goal and is achievable through the grace of the teacher after renouncing everything whether it be an end or means.

प्रयोजनं च_अ-सकृद् ब्रवीति “ब्रह्म वेद ब्रह्मैव भवति” (MunU.3.2.09) इति “परामृताः परिमुच्यन्ति सर्वे” (MunU.3.2.06) इति च।
And of the purpose (i.e. the goal aimed at) it speaks more than once thus: ‘Anyone who knows Brahman becomes Brahman’ (MunU.3.2.09), and ‘become identified with the supreme Immortality, and they become freed on every side’ (MunU.3.2.06).

ज्ञानमात्रे यद्यपि [उपनिषद्-सहित-वेद-अध्ययनेन] सर्वाश्रमिणाम् अधिकारः, तथापि संन्यास-निष्ठैव ब्रह्म-विद्या मोक्ष-साधनं न कर्म-सहितेति “भैक्ष-चर्यां चरन्तः” (MunU.1.2.11) “संन्यास-योगाद्” (MunU.3.2.06) इति च ब्रुवन् दर्शयति।
And by mentioning ‘while begging for alms’ (MunU.1.2.11), and ‘through the Yoga of monasticism’ (MunU.3.2.06), the Upaniṣad shows that though people in all stages of life have a right to knowledge as such,
[•According to the injunction, ‘The Vedas are to be studied’, the three castes have a right to read the Upaniṣads and grasp their meaning-A.G.•]
still the knowledge of Brahman, founded on monasticism only and not as associated with karma, is the means for emancipation.

विद्या-कर्म-विरोधाच्च – न हि ब्रह्मात्मैकत्व-दर्शनेन सह कर्म स्वप्नेऽपि संपादयितुं शक्यं, विद्यायाः काल-विशेषाभावाद् अ-नियत-निमित्तत्वाच् च काल-संकोचानुपपत्तेः।
And this follows from the opposition between knowledge and karma; verily, not even in dream can karma proceed side by side with the vision of identity of the Self and Brahman. Knowledge brooks no temporal limitation, as it has no association with any specific time and is not dependent on definite causes.

यत् तु गृह-स्थेषु ब्रह्म-विद्या-सम्प्रदाय-कर्तृत्वादि लिङ्गं [भवेत्?] – न तत् [लिङ्गं] स्थितं न्यायं [‘विद्या-कर्म-विरोधात्’] बाधितुम् उत्सहते, न हि विधि-शतेनापि तमः-प्रकाशयोर् एकत्र सद्-भावः शक्यते कर्तुम्, किम्-उत लिङ्गैः केवलैर् इति।
As for the indirect indications (suggesting that knowledge and karma can co-exist), to wit, the fact that among the householders are found some with whom started the traditional lines of the knowers of Brahman, (See MunU.1.1.1-3) that cannot override the established rule. For when the co-existence of light and darkness cannot be brought about even by a hundred injunctions, much less can it be done so by mere indications.

एवम् उक्त-सम्बन्ध-प्रयोजनाया उपनिषदोऽल्पाक्षरं ग्रन्थ-विवरणम् आरभ्यते। य इमां ब्रह्म-विद्याम् उप-यन्त्य् आत्म-भावेन श्रद्धा-भक्ति-पुरःसराः सन्तः, तेषां गर्भ-जन्म-जरा-रोगाद्य्-अनर्थ-पूगं नि-शातयति परं वा ब्रह्म गमयत्य्, अ-विद्यादि-संसार-कारणं च अत्यन्तम् अवसादयति विनाशयति – इत्य् उपनिषद् उप-नि-पूर्वस्य सदेर् एवम् अर्थ-स्मरणात्॥

Of the text of the Upaniṣad, whose connection and goal have thus been shown, a brief explanation is begun. This is called an Upaniṣad, because it mitigates (vināśayati) such numerous evils as birth in a womb, old age, disease, etc., for those who approach this knowledge of Brahman with loving eagerness that is preceded by faith and devotion; or it is called so, since it leads to the supreme Brahman, and completely weakens or destroys (avasādayati) the ignorance etc. that are the causes of the world; for traditionally, the meaning of the root sad, preceded by upa and ni, is shown to be so. [•See KathU Bhāṣya Intro.•]

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The lower and higher knowledge

mn.01 mn.02 mn.03 mn.04 mn.05 mn.06 mn.07 mn.08 mn.09


brahman, deva, prathama, sam-√bhū, viśva, kartṛ, bhuvana, goptṛ;
tad, brahma-vidyā, sarva-vidyā-pratiṣṭhā, atharva[n], jyeṣṭha-putra, pra-√ah.

विश्वस्य कर्ता, भुवनस्य गोप्ता, ब्रह्मा देवानां प्रथमः सम्बभव। सः [ब्रह्मा] सर्व-विद्या-प्रतिष्ठां ब्रह्म-विद्यां अथर्वाय ज्येठ-पुत्राय प्राह॥
Among the gods, Lord Brahmā (Īśvara in the role of the manifester of all this at the beginning of each creation cycle, and described as having four heads, each being a Veda, so He is all-knowledge) came into being first. He is the creator of this current universe and (like a father) the protector of all creatures (in which role Lord Īśvara is then called Lord Viṣṇu). He taught the knowledge (vidyā) of brahman (reality), which is most exalted among all forms of knowledge, to Atharvan, His eldest son.
● Among the gods, Lord Brahmā (Īśvara as manifester) (ब्रह्मा देवानाम्) came into being first (प्रथमः संबभूव).
○ He is the creator of this (current) universe (विश्वस्य कर्ता) and the protector of all creatures (भुवनस्य गोप्ता).
● The knowledge (Vidyā) of brahman (reality), which is most exalted among all forms of knowledge, He (Saḥ) (सः ब्रह्म-विद्यां सर्व-विद्या-प्रतिष्ठाम्)
○ taught to Atharva, His eldest son (अथर्वाय ज्येष्ठ-पुत्राय प्राह).
ब्रह्मा परिबृढो महान् धर्म-ज्ञान-वैराग्यैश्वर्यैः सर्वान् अन्यान् अतिशेत इति, देवानां द्योतनवताम् इन्द्रादीनां प्रथमः गुणैः प्रधानः सन्, प्रथमः अग्रे वा सम्बभूव अभिव्यक्तः सम्यक् स्वा-तन्त्र्येण इत्यभिप्रायः।
The word brahmā means One who is all-surpassing, great, i.e. excels all others in virtue, knowledge, detachment, and splendour; (He) prathamaḥ (san), as the foremost in quality, or the first in precedence; devānām, among the shining ones, such as Indra and others; sambabhūva, became perfectly manifest, that is to say, He was born independently,

न तथा यथा धर्माधर्म-वशात् संसारिणोऽन्ये जायन्ते, “योऽसाव् अतीन्द्रियोऽग्राह्यः…[स्वयम् उद्बभौ]” (ManSmrt.1.7) इत्यादि-स्मृतेः।
Unlike other worldly creatures who take birth under the impulsion of virtue and vice. This agrees with the Smṛti, ‘He that is super-sensuous, and cannot be grasped, (subtle, unmanifested, eternal, existing in all beings, and beyond thought – is this One who was born independently)’ (ManSmrt.1.7).

विश्वस्य सर्वस्य जगतः कर्ता उत्पादयिता, भुवनस्य उत्पन्नस्य गोप्ता पालयिता_इति विशेषणं ब्रह्मणो विद्या-स्तुतये।
Kartā, the creator; viśvasya, of the whole Universe; goptā, the protector; bhuvanasya, of the world, after it is created. This description of Brahma is meant as an eulogy of the knowledge (in this way):

सः एवं-प्रख्यात-महत्त्वो ब्रह्मा ब्रह्म-विद्यां ब्रह्मणः परमात्मनो विद्यां ब्रह्म-विद्याम्, “येनाक्षरं पुरुषं वेद सत्यम्” (MunU.1.2.13) इति विशेषणात्। परमात्म-विषया हि सा। ब्रह्मणा वा_अग्रजेनोक्ता_इति ब्रह्म-विद्या। तां (ब्रह्म-विद्यां) सर्व-विद्या-प्रतिष्ठां सर्व-विद्याभिव्यक्ति-हेतुत्वात् सर्व-विद्याश्रयाम् इत्यर्थः।
Saḥ, He, Brahmā, whose fame is so well known; (prāha) the brahma-vidyām: the vidyā or knowledge of Brahman, the supreme Self, is brahma-vidyā, for it relates to the supreme Self, inasmuch as it is described as ‘that by which one realizes the true and imperishable Puruṣa’ (MunU.1.2.13); or it is called brahma-vidyā because the knowledge was imparted by Brahmā, the First Born. (He imparted) that knowledge that is sarva-vidyā-pratiṣṭhām, the basis of all knowledge, i.e. the support of all kinds of knowledge, since it is the source of manifestation of them all;

सर्व-विद्यावेद्यं वा वस्त्व् अनया_एव ज्ञायत इति, “येनाश्रुतं श्रुतं भवति अ-मतं मतम् अ-विज्ञातं विज्ञातम्” (ChanU.6.1.3) इति श्रुतेः। “सर्व-विद्या-प्रतिष्ठाम्” इति च स्तौति विद्याम्। अथर्वाय ज्येष्ठ-पुत्राय ज्येष्ठश् च असौ पुत्रश् च, अनेकेषु ब्रह्मणः सृष्टि-प्रकारेष्व् अन्यतमस्य सृष्टि-प्रकारस्य प्रमुखे पूर्वम् अथर्वा सृष्ट इति ज्येष्ठः, तस्मै ज्येष्ठ-पुत्राय प्राह प्रोक्तवान्॥

Or since through it alone is known that which all kinds of knowledge aim at, in accordance with the Veda text, 'Through which the unheard of becomes heard, the unthought of becomes thought of, the unknown becomes known' (ChanU.6.1.3). By the phrase ‘basis of all kinds of knowledge’, the knowledge is again being praised. (He) prāha, imparted, that knowledge ; atharvāya jyeṣṭha-putrāya, to Atharvan, His eldest son. He is the eldest and he is also one among the many sons of Brahmā. Atharvan is the eldest in the sense that he was born at the beginning of one of the many cycles of Brahmā’s creation. To that eldest son He imparted.


atharva[n], yad, pra-√vad, brahman, atharva[n], tad, purā, √vac, aṅgir, brahma-vidyā;
tad, bhārad-vāja, satya-vaha, pra-√ah, bhārad-vāja, aṅgiras, para-avaram.

ब्रह्मा यां [ब्रह्म-विद्याम्] अथर्वणे प्रवदेत। अथर्वा तां ब्रह्म-विद्याम् अङ्गिरे पुरा उवाच। सः [अङ्गीर्/अङ्गिराः] सत्य-वहाय भारद्-वाजाय प्राह। भारद्-वाजः अङ्गिरसे परावरां [परम्-परया प्राप्तां ब्रह्म-विद्याम् उवाच]॥
That same brahma-vidyā which Lord Brahmā taught to Atharvan, Atharvan taught long ago to his son, Aṅgir. Then Aṅgir taught Satya-vaha, who was born in the family of Bharad-vāja. Bhārad-vāja successively taught Aṅgiras (this same knowledge which has been handed down since the beginning of each manifestation cycle).
● That same which Lord Brahmā taught to Atharvan (अथर्वणे यां प्रवदेत ब्रह्मा),
Atharvan taught long ago to (his son) Aṅgir this (अथर्वा तां पुरा उवाच अङ्गिरे) Brahma-vidyā (ब्रह्म-विद्याम्).
● (Then Aṅgir) taught Satya-vaha, who was born in the family of Bharad-vāja (सः भारद्-वाजाय सत्य-वहाय प्राह).
Bhārad-vāja successively (Para-avaram, from the preceding to the following) taught Aṅgiras) (भारद्-वाजः अङ्गिरसे पर-अवराम्).
याम् एताम् अथर्वणे प्रवदेत प्रावदद् ब्रह्म-विद्यां ब्रह्मा,
Yām brahma-vidyām, that knowledge of Brahman, which; brahmā, Brahmā; pravadeta, imparted; atharvaṇe, to Atharvan;

ताम् एव ब्रह्मणः प्राप्ताम् अथर्वा पुरा पूर्वम्, उवाच उक्तवान् अङ्गिरे अङ्गिर्-नाम्ने ब्रह्म-विद्याम्
Tām, that very knowledge of Brahman, received from Brahmā; atharvā, Atharvan; purā, in days of yore; uvāca, transmitted; aṅgire, to one named Aṅgir.

चाङ्गीः भारद्-वाजाय भरद्-वाज-गोत्राय सत्य-वहाय सत्य-वह-नाम्ने प्राह प्रोक्तवान्।
And saḥ, he, Aṅgir; prāha, passed it on; satya-vahāya bhārad-vājāya, to one named Satya-vāha of the line of Bharad-vāja.

भारद्-वाजः अङ्गिरसे स्व-शिष्याय पुत्राय वा परावरां परस्मात् परस्माद् अवरेण (अवरेण) प्राप्तेति परावरा परावर-सर्व-विद्या-विषय-व्याप्तेर् वा, तां परावराम् अङ्गिरसे ‘प्राह’ इत्य् अनुषङ्गः॥

Bhārad-vājaḥ, he of the line of Bharad-vāja; (imparted) aṅgirase, to Aṅgiras, who was either his son or disciple; para-avaram, (the knowledge) that had been received from the higher (para) by the lower (avara), in succession; (I.e. ran through a line of masters and disciples.) or it is so called because it embraces all things that come within the scope of the higher (para) or lower (avara) knowledge. He imparted to Aṅgiras this knowledge that had been received from the higher by the lower in succession, the verb ‘imparted’ being understood.


Śaunaka, ha, vai, mahā-śāla, aṅgiras, vidhivat, upasanna, √pṛch. Kim, nu, bhagavan, vijñāta, sarva, idam, vijñāta, √bhū, iti.
शौनकः ह वै महा-शालः अङ्गिरसं विधिवत् उपसन्नः पप्रच्छ। कस्मिन् नु भगवः* विज्ञाते सर्वम् इदं विज्ञातं भवति इति॥
(* In Veda, stems ending in -mat, -vat, -vas, -yas regularly form their vocative singular in -as, A.A. MacDonell, Sanskrit Grammar, Appendix III.)

Saunaka, a famous householder, appropriately approached Aṅgiras and asked.
“Venerable sir, upon having known what (kasmin vijñāte) all this is (as well) known (sarvam idaṃ vijñātaṃ bhavati)?”
Saunaka, a famous householder (शौनकः ह वै महा-शालः), appropriately approached Aṅgiras and asked (अङ्गिरसं विदिवत् उपसन्नः पप्रच्छ).
“Venerable sir, upon having known what (कस्मिन् नु भगवः विज्ञाते) all this is (as well) known” (सर्वम् इदं विज्ञातं भवति इति)?
शौनकः शुनकस्यापत्यं महा-शालः महा-गृह-स्थः अङ्गिरसं भारद्-वाज-शिष्यम् आचार्यं विधिवद् यथा-शास्त्रम् इत्येतद्, उपसन्नः उपगतः सन् पप्रच्छ पृष्टवान्।
Śaunakaḥ, the son of Śunaka; mahā-śālaḥ, a great householder; upasannaḥ (san), having approached; vidhivat, duly, that is say, in accordance with the scriptures; the teacher aṅgirasam, Aṅgiras, disciple of Bhārad-vāja; papraccha, asked.

शौनकाङ्गिरसोः सम्बन्धाद् अर्वाग् विधिवद्-विशेषणाद् उपसदन-विधेः ‘पूर्वेषाम् अ-नियम’ इति गम्यते। मर्यादा-करणार्थं विशेषणम्। मध्य-दीपिका-न्यायार्थं वा विशेषणम्। अस्मद्-आदिष्व् अप्य् उपसदन-विधेर् इष्टत्वात्।
Because of the use of the adverb ‘duly’ from the time of contact between Śaunaka and Aṅgiras, it is understood that for their predecessors there was no established rule about the method of approach. The adverb is used by way of delimitation, or it is used on the analogy of a lamp placed in a house,
[•The lamp placed on the threshold of a house illuminates the inside as well as the outside. The rule may thus relate both to those who preceded and succeeded Aṅgiras and Śaunaka.•]
for the rule regarding the manner of approach is intended for us as well.

किम्? इत्याह – कस्मिन् नु भगवो विज्ञाते, “नु” इति वितर्के, भगवः हे भगवन्, सर्वं यद् इदं विज्ञेयं विज्ञातं विशेषेण ज्ञातम् अवगतं भवति_इति। ‘एकस्मिन् ज्ञाते सर्व-विद् भवति’ इति शिष्ट-प्रवादं श्रुतवाञ् शौनकः तद् विशेषं विज्ञातु-कामः सन् “कस्मिन् नु?” इति वितर्कयन् पप्रच्छ। अथवा, लोक-सामान्य-दृष्ट्या ज्ञात्वा_एव पप्रच्छ। सन्ति (हि) लोके सुवर्णादि-शकल-भेदाः सुवर्णत्वाद्य्-एकत्व-विज्ञानेन विज्ञायमाना लौकिकैः, तथा किं न्व् अस्ति? सर्वस्य जगद्-भेदस्य_एकं कारणम् यद्-एकस्मिन् विज्ञाते सर्वं विज्ञातं भवतीति।
What (did he ask)? That is being stated: ‘Bhagavaḥ kasmin nu vijñāte, O adorable sir, (which is that thing) which having been known indeed; sarvam idam, all that there is, that is to be known; bhavati, becomes; vijñātam iti, well known?’ The particle nu is used to express reflection. Śaunaka had heard the traditional utterance of the good people that there is something by knowing which one becomes omniscient. Being desirous of knowing that thing specifically, he asks thoughtfully, ‘which (having been known)?’ Or by following the common sense view, he puts this question knowingly: ‘There are in the world varieties of pieces of gold etc. which are known by ordinary people from the recognized fact of the substantial oneness of gold etc. Similarly does there exist a single (substance that is the) cause of the whole Universe of diversity, by knowing which one (substance) all things become known?’

नन्व् अ-विदिते हि ‘कस्मिन्?’ इति प्रश्नोऽनुपपन्नः, ‘किम् अस्ति तद्?’ इति तदा प्रश्नो युक्तः, सिद्धे ह्य् अस्तित्वे ‘कस्मिन्?’ इति स्याद्, यथा ‘कस्मिन् निधेयम्?’ इति।
Objection: The question with the word ‘which’ is improper with regard to a totally unknown thing. In that case the reasonable form of the question is: ‘Does such a thing exist?’ ‘Which’ can occur only when the existence is already established, as in ‘Into which is it to be deposited?’

न, अ-क्षर-बाहुल्याद् आयास-भीरुत्वात् प्रश्नः सम्भवत्य् एव – ‘किं न्व् एकस्मिन् विज्ञाते सर्व-वित् स्याद्’ इति॥

Answer: No, for the question ‘Which is that thing which having been known, one becomes all-knowing?’ is admissible from the standpoint of avoiding trouble arising from verbosity.


Tad, tad, ha, √vac. Dvi, vidyā, veditavya, iti, ha, sma, yad, brahma-vid, √vad, parā, ca, eva, a-parā, ca.
तस्मै [शौनकाय] सः ह उवाच। ‘द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये’ इति ह स्म यद् ब्रह्म-विदः वदन्ति परा च एव अ-परा च॥
To Śaunaka, Aṅgiras replied.
“There are two types of knowledge (vidyā) to be known, say those who know scripture (Brahman, Veda) – unlimited (para) and limited (a-para).”
To Śaunaka, Aṅgiras replied (तस्मै सः ह उवाच).
“There are two types of knowledge (Vidyā) to be known (द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये), say those who know scripture (इति ह स्म यद् ब्रह्म-विदः वदन्ति) – unlimited and limited” (परा च एव अ-परा च).
तस्मै शौनकाय (सः) अङ्गिराः किल उवाच। किम्? इति उच्यते – द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये ज्ञातव्ये इति एवं ह स्म किल, यद् ब्रह्म-विदः वेदार्थाभिज्ञाः परमार्थ-दर्शिनः वदन्ति। के ते? इत्य् आह – परा च परमात्म-विद्या, अपरा च धर्माधर्म-साधन-तत्-फल-विषया।
Tasmai, to him, to Śaunaka; (saḥ) Aṅgiras uvāca ha, did say. What did he say? That is being stated: “Dve vidye veditavye, two kinds of knowledge are to be acquired” – iti, this, is ; ha sma, as the tradition goes; yat, what; brahma-vidaḥ, the knowers of the import of the Vedas, those who have realized the supreme Truth; vadanti, say. ‘Which are the two?’ That is being said: ‘Parā ca, the higher, the knowledge of the supreme Self; aparā ca, and the lower, the knowledge of the virtue and vice and their means and ends.’

ननु ‘कस्मिन् विदिते सर्व-विद् भवति’_इति शौनकेन पृष्टम्। तस्मिन् वक्तव्ये_अ-पृष्टम् आह_अङ्गिराः ‘द्वे विद्ये’ इत्यादिना।
Objection: The question put by Śaunaka was, ‘which is it which having been known one becomes all-knowing?’ the answer should have related to that, whereas Aṅgiras says in his answer, ‘There are two kinds of knowledge’ etc. – something beside the question.

न_एष दोषः, क्रमापेक्षत्वात् प्रतिवचनस्य। अपरा हि विद्या अ-विद्या, सा निराकर्तव्या तद्-विषये हि (अ-)विदिते न किञ्चित् तत्त्वतो विदितं स्याद् इति, ‘निराकृत्य हि पूर्व-पक्षं, पश्चात् सिद्धान्तो वक्तव्यो भवति’ इति न्यायात्॥

Answer: That is nothing wrong, for the answer requires an order of procedure. The lower knowledge is, indeed, ignorance. It has to be eradicated, inasmuch as nothing in reality is known by knowing the objects of ignorance. And the rule is that the conclusion should be stated after refuting the opposite standpoints.


Tatra, a-parā, ṛc-veda, yajus-veda, sāma-veda, atharva-veda, śikṣā, kalpa, vyākaraṇa, nirukta, chandas, jyotisa, iti. Atha, parā, yad, tad, a-kṣara, adhi-√gam.
तत्र अ-परा [विद्या] – ऋग्-वेदः, यजुर्-वेदः, साम-वेदः, अथर्व-वेदः, शिक्षा, कल्पः, व्याकरणं, निरुक्तं, छन्दस्, ज्योतिषं [च] इति। अथ परा [विद्या] – यया तद् अ-क्षरं [ब्रह्म] अधिगम्यते॥
(Aṅgiras continues)
Concerning these two, the limited (a-para) is the Ṛc Veda, Yajus Veda, Sāman Veda, and Atharva-Veda; and the sciences of pronunciation, rituals, grammar, etymology, prosody, and (Veda) astrology.
Then, the unlimited (para) is by which (brahma-vidyā, knowledge of limitless reality) one attains that imperishable (brahman).
(Aṅgiras continues) Concerning these two, the limited (तत्र अ-परा) is the Ṛc Veda, Yajus Veda, Sāman Veda, and Atharva-Veda (ऋग्-वेदः यजुर्-वेदः साम-वेदः अथेर्व-वेदः); and the sciences of pronunciation, rituals, grammar, etymology, prosody, and (Veda) astrology (शिक्षा कल्पः व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दः ज्योतिषम् इति).
Then, the unlimited (अथ परा) is by which one attains that imperishable (Brahman) (यया तद् अ-क्षरम् अधिगम्यते).
तत्र का अपरा? इत्य् उच्यते – ऋग्-वेदो यजुर्-वेदः साम-वेदोऽथर्व-वेदः इत्य् एते चत्वारो वेदाः। शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दो ज्योतिषम् इत्य् अङ्गानि षट्। एषा अपरा विद्या।
[•Which of these two is the lower knowledge? The answer is:•]
Ṛg-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sāma-Veda, Atharva-Veda – these are the four Vedas. Śikṣā, the science of pronunciation etc.; kalpaḥ, the code of rituals; vyākaraṇam, grammar; nir-uktam, etymology; chandas, meter; jyotiṣam iti, astrology – these are six auxiliary parts (of the Vedas). These constitute the aparā (lower) knowledge.

अथ इदानीम् इयं परा विद्या_उच्यते यया तद् वक्ष्यमाण-विशेषणम् अ-क्षरम् अधिगम्यते प्राप्यते। अधि-पूर्वस्य गमेः प्रायशः प्राप्त्य्-अर्थत्वाद्, न च पर-प्राप्तेर् अवगमार्थस्य भेदोऽस्ति, अ-विद्याया अपाय एव हि पर-प्राप्तिर् न_अर्थान्तरम्।
Atha, now is being stated; this parā, higher knowledge yayā, by which; tat, that ; a-kṣaram, the Imperishable, whose attributes will be stated hereafter; adhigamyate, is (realized, i.e.) attained – for (the root) gam, preceded by (the prefix) adhi-, generally means attainment. Besides, the sense of realization does not differ from that of attainment in the case of the Highest; indeed, the attainment of the Highest consists merely in removing ignorance, and nothing more.

ननु ऋग्-वेदादि-बाह्या तर्हि सा, कथं परा विद्या स्याद् मोक्ष-साधनं च? “या वेद-बाह्याः स्मृतयो याश् च काश् च कु-दृष्टयः। सर्वास् ता निष्फलाः प्रेत्य तमो-निष्ठा हि ताः स्मृताः” (ManSmrt.12.95) इति हि स्मरन्ति। कु-दृष्टित्वान् निष्फलत्वाद् अन्-आदेया स्याद्, उपनिषदां च ऋग्-वेदादि-बाह्यत्वं स्यात्, ऋग्-वेदादित्वे तु पृथक्-करणम् अन्-अर्थकम् “अथ परा”_इति।
Objection: In that case, the knowledge (of Brahman) is outside the Ṛg-Veda etc.; (so) how can it be the higher knowledge and the means for emancipation? The view accepted traditionally is this: ‘The Smṛtis that are outside the Veda pale and those that propound perverted views are all useless in the next world; and they are counted as occupied with dark things’ (M. XII. 9); therefore it will be unacceptable as its outlook is perverted and it is useless. Moreover, the Upaniṣads will become excluded from the Ṛg-Veda etc. Again, if they are included in the Ṛg-Veda etc., it is illogical to distinguish them by saying, ‘Then the higher’ and so on.
[•In some editions there is an additional sentence here: ‘Atha katham parā iti, how then is it called the higher?’

न, वेद्य-विषय-विज्ञानस्य विवक्षितत्वात्। उपनिषद्-वेद्याक्षर-विषयं हि विज्ञानम् इह ‘परा विद्या’_इति प्राधान्येन विवक्षितम्, न_उपनिषच्-छब्द-राशिः। वेद-शब्देन तु सर्वत्र शब्द-राशिर् विवक्षितः। शब्द-राश्य्-अधिगमेऽपि यत्नान्तरम् अन्तरेण गुर्व्-अभिगमनादि-लक्षणं वैराग्यं च न_अ-क्षराधिगमः सम्भवति_इति पृथक्-करणं ब्रह्म-विद्याया ‘अथ परा विद्या’_इति कथनं च_इति॥

Answer: No, since (by the word vidyā) is implied the realization of the thing to be known. What is primarily meant in this context by the term ‘higher knowledge’, is that knowledge of the Imperishable which is imparted only by the Upaniṣads (i.e. revealed knowledge), and not merely the assemblage of words found in the (books called) Upaniṣads. But by the word Veda the meaning implied everywhere is the assemblage of words. The knowledge of Brahman is distinctively mentioned and it is called the higher knowledge since, even after the mastery of the assemblage of words, the realization of the Imperishable is not possible without some other effort consisting in approaching the teacher and so on, as well as detachment.


यथा विधि-विषये कर्त्राद्य्-अनेक-कारकोपसंहार-द्वारेण वाक्यार्थ-ज्ञान-कालाद् अन्यत्र_अनुष्ठेयोऽर्थोऽस्त्य् अग्नि-होत्रादि-लक्षणः, न तथा_इह पर-विद्या-विषये वाक्यार्थ-ज्ञान-सम-काल एव तु पर्यवसितो भवति, केवल-शब्द-प्रकाशितार्थ-ज्ञानमात्र-निष्ठा-व्यतिरिक्ताभावात्।
In connection with the subject matter of injunctions are to be found certain acts which are like the Agni-hotra (sacrifice), to be performed subsequent to the understanding of the meaning of the text, through a combination of numerous accessories, to wit, the agent etc. Unlike this, nothing remains to be performed here within the domain of the higher knowledge; but all actions cease simultaneously with the comprehension of the meaning of the sentences, inasmuch as nothing remains to be done apart from steadfastness only in the knowledge revealed by the words.

तस्माद् इह परां विद्यां स-विशेषणेन_अ-क्षरेण विशिनष्टि “यत् तद् अ-द्रेश्यम्” इत्य्-आदिना –

Therefore the higher knowledge is being specified here by referring to the Imperishable possessed of attributes stated in ‘(The wise realize....) that which cannot be perceived’ etc.:
yad, tad, a-dreśya, a-grāhya, a-gotra, a-varṇa, a-cakṣus-śrotra, tad, a-pāṇi-pāda;
nitya, vibhu, sarva-gata, su-sūkṣma, tad, a-vyaya, yad, bhūta-yoni, pari-√dṛś, dhīra.

यद् तद् [अ-क्षरं ब्रह्म] अ-द्रेश्यम्, अ-ग्राह्य, अ-गोत्रम्, अ-वर्णम्, अ-चक्षुः-श्रोत्रम्, अ-पाणि-पादं, नित्यं, विभुं, सर्व-गतं, सु-सूक्ष्मं, तद् अ-व्ययं, यद् भूत-योनिं [च] – धीराः तद् [अ-क्षरं] परिपश्यन्ति॥
That (imperishable brahman, reality) is not the object of the sense organs, nor the object of the organs of action, nor the object of a name (any word); it has no attributes, has no eyes or ears, and has no hands or legs; it is timeless, has become everything (vibhu), is all-pervasive, and is the most subtle; it is the imperishable (a-vyaya) which is the source of all beings, and that which the wise know clearly (as well as seeing).
● That which is not the object of the sense organs (यद् तद् अ-द्रेश्यम्), nor the object of the organs of action (अ-ग्राह्यम्), nor the object of a name (अ-गोत्रम्),
○ which has no attributes (अ-वर्णम्), has no eyes or ears (अ-चक्षुः-श्रोत्रं), and has no hands or legs (तद् अ-पाणि-पादम्),
● that is timeless (नित्यं), has become everything (विभुं), is all-pervasive (सर्व-गतं), and is the most subtle (सु-सूक्ष्मं तद्),
○ which is imperishable (अव्ययं यद्), is the source of all beings (भूत-योनिं), (and) which the wise know clearly (as well as seeing, through this unlimited knowledge, Para-vidyā) (परिपश्यन्ति धीराः).
वक्ष्यमाणं बुद्धौ संहृत्य सिद्धवत् [=सिद्धम् इव] परामृश्यते (परामृशति) “यत् तद्” इति। अ-द्रेश्यम् अ-दृश्यं सर्वेषां बुद्धीन्द्रियाणाम् अ-गम्यम् इत्येतत्। दृशेर् बहिः-प्रवृत्तस्य पञ्चेन्द्रिय-द्वारकत्वात्।
By the expression ‘yat tat – that which’, is called up to memory – as though it were a realized entity – something that is still to be explained. (They realize that which is) a-dreśyam (should rather be a-dṛśyam), not visible (or not perceptible), i.e. beyond the range of all the organs of knowledge, for the power of perception, as directed outward, has the five senses as its gates.

अ-ग्राह्यं कर्मेन्द्रियाविषयम् इत्येतत्।
A-grāhyam, beyond one’s grasp, i.e. beyond the range of the organs of action.

अ-गोत्रम्, गोत्रम् अन्वयो मूलम् इत्य् अन्-अर्थान्तरम्, अ-गोत्रम् अन्-अन्वयम् इत्यर्थः, न हि तस्य मूलम् अस्ति येन_अन्वितं स्यात्।
A-gotram: gotra is synonymous with connection or root; so a-gotram means unconnected, for It has no root with which It can get connected.

(अ-वर्णं) वर्ण्यन्त इति वर्णा द्रव्य-धर्माः स्थूलत्वादयः शुक्लत्वादयो वा, अ-विद्यमाना वर्णा यस्य तद् अ-वर्णम् अ-क्षरम्।
Varṇaḥ, (features), are those that can be described; they are qualities of a thing, such as grossness etc. or whiteness etc. That Imperishable which is devoid of varṇah is the a-varṇam, featureless.

अ-चक्षुः-श्रोत्रं चक्षुश् च श्रोत्रं च नाम-रूप-विषये करणे सर्व-जन्तूनाम्, ते अ-विद्यमाने यस्य तद् अ-चक्षुः-श्रोत्रम्।
A-cakṣuḥ-śrotram: the cakṣuḥ, eye, and śrotram, ear, are the organs in all beings for perceiving forms and names; that in which these two do not exist is a-cakṣuḥ-śrotram, without eye and ear.

“यः सर्व-ज्ञः सर्व-विद्” (MunU.1.1.9) इति चेतनावत्त्व-विशेषणात् प्राप्तं संसारिणाम् इव चक्षुः-श्रोत्रादिभिः करणैर् अर्थ-साधकत्वम्, तद् इह “अ-चक्षुः-श्रोत्रम्” इति वार्यते, “पश्यत्य् अ-चक्षुः स शृणोत्य् अ-कर्णः” (SvetU.3.19) इत्यादि-दर्शनात्।
From the ascription of sentience in the text: ‘He who is omniscient in general and all-knowing in detail’ (MunU.1.1.9), it may follow that, just like ordinary beings, the Imperishable too, achieves Its purpose with the help of such organs as eyes, ears, etc. The supposition is refuted here by ‘without ear and eyes’; for this accords with what is found (elsewhere): ‘He sees without eyes, and He hears without ears’ (SvetU.3.19).

किञ्च, तद् अ-पाणि-पादं कर्मेन्द्रिय-रहितम् इत्येतत्।
Moreover, that Imperishable is a-pāṇi-pādam, without hands and feet, that is to say, devoid of the organs of action.

यत एवम् अ-ग्राह्यम् अ-ग्राहकं च, अतो नित्यम् अ-विनाशि।
Since It cannot thus be seized, nor does it seize, therefore It is nityam (eternal), indestructible.

विभुं विविधं ब्रह्मादि-स्थावरान्त-प्राणि-भेदैर् भवति_इति विभुम्।
It is vibhum, multiformed, because of assuming diverse forms in all the different creatures from Brahmā to a motionless thing.

सर्व-गतं व्यापकम् आकाशवत्।
Sarva-gatam, all-pervasive, like space.

सु-सूक्ष्मम् शब्दादि-स्थूलत्व-कारण-रहितत्वात्। शब्दादयो ह्य् आकाश-वाय्व्-आदीनाम् उत्तरोत्तरं स्थूलत्व-कारणानि, तद्-अभावात् सु-सूक्ष्मम्।
Su-sukṣmam, extremely subtle, being devoid of such causes of grossness as sound etc. Sound etc. are verily the causes of the progressive grossness of space, air, etc. Being free from these, It is extremely subtle.

किञ्च, तद् अ-व्ययम् उक्त-धर्मत्वाद् एव न व्येति_इत्य् अ-व्ययम्। न ह्य् अन्-अङ्गस्य स्वाङ्गापचय-लक्षणो व्ययः सम्भवति शरीरस्य_इव। न_अपि कोशापचय-लक्षणो व्ययः सम्भवति राज्ञ इव। न_अपि गुण-द्वारको व्ययः सम्भवति, अ-गुणत्वात् सर्वात्मकत्वाच् च।
Furthermore tat, that; is a-vyayam, undiminishing, one that does not decrease, because of the very characteristics stated earlier. For, the partless thing cannot have any diminution by way of loss of Its parts as in the case of a body; nor can It sustain any loss by way of decrease of treasure as in the case of a king; nor even can there be any shrinkage through loss of equalities, since It is attributeless and all-pervasive.

यद् एवं-लक्षणं भूत-योनिं भूतानां कारणं पृथिवी_इव स्थावर-जङ्गमानां परिपश्यन्ति सर्वत आत्म-भूतं सर्वस्य अ-क्षरं पश्यन्ति धीराः धीमन्तो विवेकिनः।
Yat, that, which is possessed of such characteristic; bhūta-yonim, the source of all creation, just as the earth is of all moving and unmoving things; that Imperishable, dhīrāḥ, the intelligent, the discriminating ones; paripaśyanti, see everywhere, as the Self of all.

ईदृशम् अ-क्षरं यया विद्यया अधिगम्यते सा परा विद्या_इति समुदायार्थः॥

The purport of the whole verse is this: ‘That is the higher knowledge by which the Imperishable of this kind is realized.’


भूत-योनिर् अ-क्षरम् इत्युक्तम्। तत् कथं भूत-योनित्वम्? इत्य् उच्यते (प्रसिद्ध-)दृष्टान्तैः –
It has been said that the Imperishable is the source of all creation. Now is being shown with the help of familiar illustrations how It is the source of all creation:
yathā, ūrṇa-nābhi, √sṛj, √grah, ca, yathā, pṛthivī, oṣadhi, sam-√bhū;
yathā, sat, puruṣa, keśa-loman, tathā, a-kṣara, sam-√bhū, iha, viśva.

यथा ऊर्ण-नाभिः सृजते गृह्णते च, यथा पृथिव्याम् ओषधयः सम्भवन्ति, यथा सतः [=जीवतः] पुरुषात् केश-लोमानि [प्रभवन्ति], तथा अ-क्षरात् इह विश्वं [सम्भवति]॥
Just as a ceiling spider strings out (from itself alone) and consumes back (into itself alone its single thread), just as plants come into being from the earth, and just as hair grows from a living person, similarly (as the material and intelligent cause, as from the insentient the sentient, and as from the sentient the insentient, respectively) from that undiminishing (a-kṣara, brahman, without change to itself) comes into being all this varied universe here (within itself alone).
● Just as a ceiling spider strings out (from itself alone) and consumes back (into itself alone its single thread) (यथा ऊर्ण-नाभिः सृजते गृह्णते च),
○ just as (conscious) plants come into being from the (unconscious) earth (यथा पृथिव्याम् ओषधयः संभवन्ति)
● (and) just as (unconscious) hair (grows) from a (conscious) living person (यथा सतः पुरुषात् केश-लोमानि),
○ similarly from that undiminishing (A-kṣara, Brahman) (तथा अ-क्षरात्) comes into being all this varied (conscious and unconscious) universe here (संभवति इह विश्वम्).
यथा लोके प्रसिद्धम् ऊर्ण-नाभिः लूता-कीटः किञ्चित् कारणान्तरम् अन्-अपेक्ष्य स्वयम् एव सृजते, स्व-शरीराव्यतिरिक्तान् एव तन्तून् बहिः प्रसारयति, पुनस् तान् एव गृह्णते च गृह्णाति स्वात्म-भावम् एव_आपादयति।
Yathā, as it is a familiar fact, in the world; that the ūrṇa-nābhiḥ, spider, by itself and independently of any other auxiliary; sṛjate, spreads out, the threads that are indeed non-different from its own body; ca, and, again; gṛhṇate (should rather be gṛhṇāti), withdraws, those very threads – makes them one with itself; ca,

यथापृथिव्याम् ओषधयः, व्रीह्य्-आदि-स्थावराणि_इत्यर्थः, स्वात्माव्यतिरिक्ता एव प्रभवन्ति।
And; yathā, as; pṛthivyām, on the earth; (grow) oṣadhayaḥ, the herbs, that is to say, plants ranging from corn to trees – as they grow inseparably from the earth;

यथासतः विद्यमानाज् जीवतः पुरुषात् केश-लोमानि केशाश् च लोमानि च संभवन्ति विलक्षणानि (BrS.2.1.7)।
And yathā, as; sataḥ puruṣāt, from an existing, living man; sambhavanti, grow; keśa-lomāni, hair on the head and other parts of the body, that is dissimilar (to the body) in nature;

यथा_एते दृष्टान्ताः, तथा वि-लक्षणं स-लक्षणं च निमित्तान्तरानपेक्षाद् यथोक्त-लक्षणाद् अ-क्षरात् सम्भवति समुत्पद्यते इह संसार-मण्डले विश्वं समस्तं जगत्। अनेक-दृष्टान्तोपादानं तु सुखार्थ-प्रबोधनार्थम्॥

Just as it is in these cases, so a-kṣarāt, from the Imperishable, of the foregoing characteristics, that does not depend on any other auxiliary; sambhavati, originates; iha, here, in this phenomenal creation; viśvam, the entire Universe – both similar and dissimilar. as for the citing of many illustrations, it is meant for easy comprehension.


यद् ब्रह्मण उत्पद्यमानं विश्वं तद् अनेन क्रमेण_उत्पद्यते, न युगपद् बदर-मुष्टि-प्रक्षेपवद् इति क्रम-नियम-विवक्षार्थोऽयं मन्त्र आरभ्यते –
This (next) verse is begun in order to show a fixed order of creation, viz that the Universe, while emerging out of Brahman, does so in this order of succession and not simultaneously like a handful of jujubes thrown down:
tapas, √ci, brahman, tatas, anna, abhi-√jan;
anna, prāṇa, manas, satya, loka, karman, ca , a-mṛta.

[भूत-योनिं] ब्रह्म तपसा चीयते [इव]। ततस् अन्नम् [=अ-व्याकृतम्] अभिजायते, अन्नात् प्राणः [=हिरण्य-गर्भः], [प्राणात् समष्ठि-]मनस्, [मनसः] सत्यम् [स्थूल-भूत-पञ्चकं], [सत्यात्] लोकाः [अभिजायन्ते]। [तेषु लोकेषु], कर्मसु [सन्ति] अ-मृतं [कर्म-फलं] च [अभिजायते]॥
Through tapas (knowledge MunU.1.1.9, of what was in the prior creation and will be in the next creation) brahman expands (as this universe).
From that brahman is food (the eaten, the cosmic unmanifest potential).
From (unmanifest) food comes the (manifest) subtle being (prāṇa, Hiraṇya-garbha, the eater PrasU.1.5, the common power of knowledge and action).
(From that) comes (all these) minds (capable of naming and distinguishing forms).
(From that are perceived) the gross and subtle elements (satya, what we “take as separately real” from our projections).
(From that) comes the worlds and heavens, (on which) when actions (karma) are performed by us, there arises a lasting result (a-mṛta, their karma-phalas which can take many of our rebirths before fructifying in these worlds and heavens).
● Through Tapas (knowledge, of what was and will be) (तपसा) Brahman expands (as this universe) (चीयते ब्रह्म).
○ From that Brahman is food (the eaten, the cosmic unmanifest potential) (ततः अन्नम् अभिजायते).
● From (unmanifest) food comes the (manifest) subtle being (Prāṇa, Hiraṇya-garbha, the eater PrasU.1.5, the common power of knowledge and action) (अन्नात् प्राणः), (from that) comes (all these) minds (capable of naming and distinguishing forms) (मनः), (from that are perceived) the gross and subtle elements (Satya, what we “take as separately real” from our projections) (सत्यम्).
○ (From that) comes the worlds and heavens (लोकाः) (on which) when actions (Karma) (are performed by us) (कर्मसु) there arises a lasting result (A-mṛta, their Karma-phalas which can take many rebirths before fructifying in these worlds and heavens) (अ-मृतम्).
तपसा ज्ञानेन उत्पत्ति-विधि-ज्ञतया भूत-योन्य्-अ-क्षरं ब्रह्म चीयते उपचीयते उत्पिपादयिष्यद् इदं जगद् अङ्कुरम् इव बीजम् उच्छूनतां गच्छति पुत्रम् इव पिता हर्षेण।
Tapasā, through knowledge, by virtue of possessing the knowledge of the process of creation; brahma, Brahman
[•‘Brahma’ is the declined neuter form and the initial compound member form of the Sanskrit word ‘brahman’. The declined form in masculine, as the Lord – Creator of worlds – is ‘Brahmā’; my teacher made it easy by always saying ‘Brahmā-ji’. Commentators and translators use original (prātipadika) form ‘Brahman’ for the very Reality itself of ‘Brahmā’ onwards.-Aruna•],
the Imperishable, the source of creation; when desirous of creating this world, cīyate, increases in size – like a seed sending out its sprout, or as a father procreating a son does out of elation.

एवं सर्व-ज्ञतया सृष्टि-स्थिति-संहार-शक्ति-विज्ञानवत्तया_उपचितात् ततः ब्रह्मणः अन्नम् अद्यते भुज्यत इत्य् अन्नम् अ-व्याकृतं साधारणं कारणं संसारिणां व्याचिकीर्षितावस्था-रूपेण अभिजायते उत्पद्यते।
Tataḥ from that Brahman, thus become inflated because of Its possession, through Its omniscience, of the power and knowledge of creation, preservation, and dissolution; abhijāyate, originates (grows); annam, food – the word, derived from the root ad in the sense of that which is eaten, i.e. enjoyed, means the Unmanifested (Māyā) that is common to all creatures. (That food originates or) gets evolved into the state of imminent manifestation.
[•The beginningless Māyā is the unmanifested food; the Upaniṣad speaks of its origin in the sense of its becoming ready for evolution. Otherwise Māyā has no beginning.•]

ततश् च अ-व्याकृताद् व्याचिकीर्षितावस्थातः अन्नात् प्राणः हिरण्य-गर्भो ब्रह्मणो ज्ञान-क्रिया-शक्त्यधिष्ठितो जगत्-साधारणोऽविद्या-काम-कर्म-भूत-समुदाय-बीजाङ्कुरो जगद्-आत्मा ‘अभिजायत’ इत्यनुषङ्गः।
From that Unmanifested, i.e. annāt from that food in a state of imminent manifestation, (was born) prāṇaḥ, Hiraṇya-garbha, who is common
[•He is the sum total of all the individuals. Being common to all, He is called Sūtra, the thread (running through all).•]
to all the beings in the Universe that are endued with (a part of His) power of knowledge and action, who sprouts from that seed of all beings which is constituted by ignorance, desire, and action, and who identifies Himself with the Universe; ‘was born’ – this is to be supplied.

तस्माच् च प्राणाद् मनः मन-आख्यं सङ्कल्प-विकल्प-संशय-निर्णयाद्य्-आत्मकम् अभिजायते।
And from that Hiraṇya-garbha evolved manaḥ, that which is called the (cosmic) mind, comprising volition, deliberation, doubt, determination, etc.

ततोऽपि सङ्कल्पाद्य्-आत्मकान् मनसः सत्यं सत्याख्यम् आकाशादि-भूत-पञ्चकम् अभिजायते।
From that mind, again, as characterized by volition etc., evolved satyam, the five elements, such as space etc. which are called satya (i.e. the gross, sat-, and the subtle, -tyat).

तस्मात् सत्याख्याद् भूत-पञ्चकाद् अण्ड-क्रमेण सप्त लोकाः भूर्-आदयः।
From those five elements, called satya, evolved the lokāḥ, the seven worlds, such as the earth etc., in succession, after the creation of the cosmic egg.

तेषु मनुष्यादि-प्राणि-वर्णाश्रम-क्रमेण कर्माणि। कर्मसु च निमित्त-भूतेषु अ-मृतं कर्म-जं फलम्। यावय् कर्माणि कल्प-कोटि-शतैर् अपि न विनश्यन्ति, तावत् फलं न विनश्यति_इत्य् अ-मृतम्॥

Following the order of the evolution of creatures – beginning with men – there evolved on these (worlds) karmas, [•Rituals etc.•] castes, and stages of life. And karmasu ca, in the karmas, that acted as the cause; (there evolved) a-mṛtam, immortality, the fruit of karmas. It is called immortality, since it is not destroyed as long as karma is not eliminated even in billions of kalpas (universe-cycles).


उक्तम् एवार्थम् उपसञ्जिहीर्षुर् मन्त्रो वक्ष्यमाणार्थम् आह –
With a view to concluding the subject matter dealt with above, the verse states what follows:
yad, sarva-jña, sarva-vid, yad, jñānamaya, tapas;
tad, etad, brahman, nāman, rūpa, anna, ca, √jan.

यः [अ-क्षरः] [सामान्येन] सर्व-ज्ञः [विशेषेण] सर्व-विद् [च], यस्य तपस् ज्ञानमयम्। तस्माद् [तपसः] एतद् ब्रह्म [उपचित-ब्रह्म], [सूक्ष्मं] नाम [स्थूलं] रूपं च अन्नं जायते॥
The one who knows the all (the essential reality, MunU.1.1.3) and knows everything (the details to manifest), whose tapas is nothing but that knowledge, from that (jñāna-tapas) this (Hiraṇya-garbha) brahman is manifest as this name and form food (consisting of our experiences).
● The one who knows the all (यः सर्व-ज्ञः) (and) knows everything (सर्व-विद्),
○ whose Tapas is nothing but knowledge (यस्य ज्ञानमयं तपः),
● from that (Jñāna-tapas) this (Hiraṇya-garbha) Brahman (तस्माद् एतद् ब्रह्म)
○ is manifest as this name and form food (consisting of our experiences) (नाम रूपम् अन्नं च जायते).
यः उक्त-लक्षणोऽक्षराख्यः सर्व-ज्ञः सामान्येन सर्वं जानाति_इति सर्व-ज्ञः। विशेषेण सर्वं वेत्ति_इति सर्व-वित्यस्य ज्ञानमयं ज्ञान-विकारम् एव सार्वज्ञ्य-लक्षणं तपः अन्-आयास-लक्षणम्।
Yaḥ, He, the One called the Imperishable, and answering to the foregoing definition; is sarva-jñaḥ, a knower of all things in general; (and) sarva-vit, a knower of all things in detail; yasya, whose; tapas, austerity; is jñānamayam, made up of knowledge – consists in omniscience, and not in effort.

तस्माद् यथोक्तात् सर्व-ज्ञाद् एतद् उक्तं कार्य-लक्षणं ब्रह्म हिरण्य-गर्भाख्यं जायते
Tasmāt, from that, from that omniscient Entity, as described; jāyate, is born; etat brahma, this, the derivative, Brahman, referred to before, who is called Hiraṇya-garbha, Prāṇa.

किञ्च, नाम असौ देव-दत्तो यज्ञ-दत्त इत्यादि-लक्षणम्, रूपम् इदं शुक्लं नीलम् इत्यादि, अन्नं च व्रीहि-यवादि-लक्षणम्, जायते पूर्व-मन्त्रोक्त-क्रमेण_इत्य् अ-विरोधो द्रष्टव्यः॥

Besides, (from It) evolve nāman, name, such as ‘That one is Deva-datta or Yajña-datta’ etc.; rūpam, colour, such as ‘This is white or blue’ etc.; ca annam, and food, such as paddy, barely, etc. They evolve in the order shown in the preceding verse, and hence it is to be understood that there is no contradiction
[•For annam to have two different connotations.•].

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The karma and knowledge paths

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साङ्गा वेदा अपरा विद्या [सन्ति], [सा] उक्ता “ऋग्-वेदो यजुर्-र्वदः” (MunU.1.1.5) इत्य्-आदिना। “यत् तद् अ-द्रेश्यम्” (MunU.1.1.6) इत्य्-आदिना “नाम रूपम् अन्नं च जायते” (MunU.1.1.9) इत्य्-अन्तेन ग्रन्थेन_उक्त-लक्षणम् अ-क्षरं यया विद्यया_अधिगम्यत इति परा विद्या स-विशेषणा_उक्ता।
By the text starting with ‘Ṛg-Veda, Yajur-Veda’ (MunU.1.1.5), it has been said that the Vedas, with their appendages, constitute the lower knowledge. And the higher knowledge, with its attributes, has been defined as that knowledge through which is realized the Immutable whose characteristics have been set forth in the text beginning with ‘(The wise realize...) that which cannot be perceived’ etc. (MunU.1.1.6) and ending with ‘....evolve name, colour, and food’ (MunU.1.1.9).

अतः परम्, अनयोर् विद्ययोर् विषयौ विवेक्तव्यौ संसार-मोक्षाव् इत्य् उत्तरो ग्रन्थ आरभ्यते।
The following text starts by setting before it the task of distinguishing hereafter the subject matters – the states of bondage and freedom – of these two kinds of knowledge.

तत्र [विवेक्तव्यौ] – अपर-विद्या-विषयः कर्त्रादि-साधन-क्रिया-फल-भेद-रूपः संसारोऽन्-आदिर् अन्-अन्तो दुःख-स्वरूपत्वाद् धातव्यः प्रत्य्-एकं शरीरिभिः सामस्त्येन नदी-स्रोतोवद् अ-व्यवच्छेद-रूप-सम्बन्धः,
Of these, the sphere of the lower knowledge is the state of transmigration which involves a distinction of accessories like agent etc., and actions and results. This state has no beginning and no end; it has to be eradicated wholly
[•The world of diversity is not eradicated wholly in deep sleep; but on the rise of realization, when nescience is destroyed, its effect, the world, also is eliminated entirely and for ever.•]
and individually by each embodied being, because it consists of sorrow; and its interrelation is like the unbroken current of a river.

तद्-उपशम-लक्षणो मोक्षः पर-विद्या-विषयोऽन्-आद्य्-अन्-अन्तोऽजरोऽमरोऽमृतोऽभयः शुद्धः प्रसन्नः स्वात्म-प्रतिष्ठा-लक्षणः परमानन्दोऽद्वय [विवेक्तव्यौ] इति।
And the subject matter of the higher knowledge is freedom – which consists in the elimination of that (state) and is beginningless, endless, ageless, deathless, immortal, fearless, pure, and placid, and it is supreme bliss that is without a second and is nothing but remaining established in one’s own Self.

पूर्वं तावद् अपर-विद्याया विषय-प्रदर्शनार्थम् आरम्भः, तद्-दर्शने हि तन्-निर्वेदोपपत्तेः। तथा च वक्ष्यति – “परीक्ष्य लोकान् कर्म-चितान्” (MunU.1.2.12) इत्य्-आदिना। न ह्य् अ-प्रदर्शिते परीक्षोपपद्यत इति तत् प्रदर्शयन्न् आह –

That being so, the text commences first to show the content of the lower knowledge; for detachment from it follows only as a consequence of recognizing it. It will be said accordingly in ‘After examining the worlds acquired through karma’ etc. (MunU.1.2.12). And inasmuch as examination is not possible unless something is in view, the text says by way of presenting it:


tad, etad, satya. mantra, karman, kavi, yad, √dṛś, tad, tretā, bahudhā, santata;
tad, ā-√car, niyatam, satya-kāma, etad, yuṣmad, panthan, su-kṛta, loka.

तद् एतद् [अग्नि-होत्रादि-कर्म] सत्यम् – यानि कर्माणि कवयः मन्त्रेषु अपश्यन्, तानि त्रेतायां [=त्रि-वेद-कर्म-प्रकार-त्रये, त्रेता-युगे वा] बहुधा सन्ततानि, [अतस्] सत्यकामाः [सन्तः] तानि नियतम् आचरथ। सु-कृतस्य [=स्वयं-कृतस्य] लोके वः [=युष्माकम्] एषः पन्थाः॥
The truth is this:
May all you who desire the lasting results of karma regularly perform those rituals which the seers (kavis) saw in the Veda mantras and were spread out in the three (Vedas) in many ways. This is the means to a well-earned realm.
The truth is this (तद् एतद् सत्यम्):
● These rituals which the seers (Kavis) saw in the Veda mantras (मन्त्रेषु कर्माणि कवयः यानि अपश्यन्),
○ and were spread out in the three (Vedas) in many ways (तानि त्रेतायां बहुधा सन्ततानि),
● may all you who desire the lasting results of Karma regularly (Nitya) perform these (rituals) (तानि आचरथ नियतं सत्य-कामाः).
○ This is the means to a well-earned realm (एषः वः पन्थाः सु-कृतस्य लोके).
तद् एतत् सत्यम् अ-वि-तथम्। किं तद्? मन्त्रेषु ऋग्-वेदाद्य्-आख्येषु कर्माणि अग्नि-होत्रादीनि मन्त्रैर् एव प्रकाशितानि कवयः मेधाविनो वसिष्ठादयः यानि अपश्यन् दृष्टवन्तः।
Tat etat, that thing that is such; is satyam, true. Which is that? The karmāṇi, karmas, Agni-hotra etc.; yāni, which, kavayaḥ, the wise – Vasiṣṭha and others; apaśyam, saw; mantreṣu, in the mantras, known as the Ṛg-Veda etc. – these karmas having been revealed by the mantras themselves.

यत् तद् एतत् सत्यम् एकान्त-पुरुषार्थ-साधनत्वात्, तानि च वेद-विहितानि ऋषि-दृष्टानि कर्माणि त्रेतायां त्रयी-संयोग-लक्षणायां हौत्राध्वर्यवौद्गात्र-प्रकारायाम् अधिकरण-भूतायां बहुधा बहु-प्रकारं संततानि प्रवृत्तानि कर्मिभिः क्रियमाणानि। त्रेतायां वा युगे प्रायशः प्रवृत्तानि।
Those that were (seen thus) are satyam, true, they being unfailing in ensuring human goals. And tāni, these, the karmas enjoined by the Vedas and visualized by the seers; santatāni, are in vogue, are accomplished; bahudhā, in various ways; by the people steeped in karma; tretāyām, where the three get united, in the context of the (sacrifice consisting of) three kinds of duties prescribed by the Ṛg-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Sāma-Veda; or the meaning is that the karmas are very much in vogue tretāyām, in the Tretā Age.

अतो यूयं तानि_आचरथ निर्वर्तयत नियतं नित्यं सत्य-कामा यथा-भूत-कर्म-फल-कामाः सन्तः। एषः वः युष्माकं पन्थाः मार्गः सु-कृतस्य स्वयं निर्वर्तितस्य कर्मणः लोके फल-निमित्तं लोक्यते दृश्यते भुज्यत इति कर्म-फलं लोक उच्यते तद्-अर्थं तत्-प्राप्तये_एष मार्ग इत्यर्थः।
Therefore you ācaratha tāni, accomplish them; niyatam, for ever; satya-kāmāḥ, with a desire for the true results of karma. Esaḥ, this; is vaḥ, your; panthāḥ, path; su-kṛtasya loke, for the result of karma accomplished by yourselves. The result of karma is called loka, the word being derived from the root luk in the sense of that which is looked at or enjoyed (lokyate) as a result. This is the path leading to it, or ensuring its achievement – this is the idea.

यान्य् एतान्य् अग्नि-होत्रादीनि त्रय्यां विहितानि कर्माणि, तान्य् एष पन्था अ-वश्य-फल-प्राप्ति-साधनम् इत्यर्थः॥
These karmas, viz Agni-hotra etc., that are enjoined in the Vedas, constitute this path, i.e. the means meant for the achievement of inevitable results.


तत्र_अग्नि-होत्रम् एव तावत् प्रथमं प्रदर्शनार्थम् उच्यते, सर्व-कर्मणां प्राथम्यात्। तत् कथम्?
As to that, the next verse proceeds now to present Agni-hotra first, out of all these karmas, since it precedes all others. How is that presented?
yadā, √lī, hi, arci, samiddha, havya-vāhana;
tadā, ājya-bhāga, antareṇa, āhuti, prati-√pad.

यदा हि हव्य-वाहने [अग्नौ] समिद्धे अर्चिः लेलायते, तदा आज्य-भागौ अन्तरेण [=मध्ये] आहुतीः प्रतिपादयेत्॥
When the flame dances in the well lit (agni-hotra) fire, then in the middle between the left and right side may one offer the oblations (throughout your life).
● When the flame dances (यदा लेलायते हि अर्चिः)
○ in the well lit (समिद्धे) (Agni-hotra) fire (हव्य-वाहने),
● then in the middle of the left and right side (तदा आज्य-भागौ अन्तरेण)
○ may one offer the oblations (throughout your life) (आहुतीः प्रतिपादयेत्).
यदा_एव इन्धनैर् अभ्याहितैः सम्यग्-इद्धे समिद्धे हव्य-वाहने लेलायते चलति अर्चिः, तदा तस्मिन् काले लेलायमाने चलत्य् अर्चिषि आज्य-भागौ_आज्य-भागयोः अन्तरेण मध्ये आवाप-स्थाने आहुतीः प्रतिपादयेत् प्रक्षिपेद् देवताम् उद्दिश्य। अन्-एकाहः-प्रयोगापेक्षया आहुतीर् इति बहु-वचनम्॥
Yadā, at the (very) time when; samiddhe havya-vāhane, on the fire being set ablaze, by a good supply of fuel; arciḥ, the flame; lelāyate, shoots up; tadā, then; into the blazing, dancing flame, ājya-bhāgau (should be rather ājya-bhāgayoḥ) antareṇa, in the midst of the two places where oblations are poured, and which is called the āvāpa-sthāna; one pratipādayet, should offer;
[•In the Dārśa and Paurṇa-māsa ceremonials, performed on the new-moon and the full-moon days respectively, two oblations are offered in the right and left sides of the fire in honour of Fire and Soma respectively, the other oblations are offered in the middle portion called the āvāpa-sthāna.•]
āhutīḥ, the oblations, in honour of gods. The word āhutīḥ occurs in the plural number, since the offerings have to be made for many days.
[•The Agni-hotra sacrifice is performed twice a day – in the morning and the evening. But this is a daily duty to be followed throughout a man’s whole life. And hence the plural, instead of the dual, number.•]


एष सम्यग्-आहुति-प्रक्षेपादि-लक्षणः कर्म-मार्गो लोक-प्राप्तये पन्थाः। तस्य च सम्यक्-करणं दुष्-करम्, विपत्तयस् त्व् अन्-एका भवन्ति। कथम्?
This path of karma, that consists in the adequate offering of oblations etc., is the road to the attainment of the results of karma. But it is difficult to follow it properly, and there crop up impediments galore. How?
yad, agni-hotra, a-darśa, a-paurṇa-māsa, a-cātur-māsya, an-āgrayaṇa, a-tithi-varjita, ca;
a-huta, a-vaiśva-deva, a-vidhi, huta, ā, saptama, tad, loka, √hiṃs.

यस्य [अग्नि-होत्रिणः] अग्नि-होत्रम् [अ-सम्पादितं दुस्-सम्पादितं वा] – अ-दर्शम्, अ-पौर्ण-मासम्, अ-चातुर्-मास्यम्, अन्-आग्रयणम्, अ-तिथि-वर्जितम्, [काले] अ-हुतम्, अ-वैश्व-देवम्, अ-विधिना हुतं [करोति] च, तस्य [अग्नि-होत्रिणः] आ सप्तमान् लोकान् हिनस्ति [इव]॥
But for the one whom the agni-hotra ritual is done, if not accompanied with the darśya ritual nor paurṇamāsya ritual, without cāturmāsya ritual nor āgrayaṇa ritual, nor blessed with guests, or not offered daily, without viśva-deva ritual, or offered without following stipulations, then all up to the seven heavens are lost to that person.
● (But) for the one whom the Agni-hotra ritual is done (यस्य अग्नि-होत्रम्), (if) not accompanied with the Darśya ritual nor Paurṇamāsya ritual (अ-दर्शम्, अ-पौर्ण-मासम्),
○ without Cāturmāsya ritual nor Āgrayaṇa ritual (अ-चातुर्-मास्यम्, अन्-आग्रयणम्), nor blessed with guests (अतिथि-वर्जितं च),
● or not offered (daily) (अ-हुतम्), without Viśvadeva ritual (अ-वैश्व-देवम्), offered without following stipulations (अ-विधिना हुतम्),
○ then all up to the seven heavens are lost to that person (आ सप्तमान् तस्य लोकान् हिनस्ति).
यस्य अग्नि-होत्रिणः अग्नि-होत्रम् अ-दर्शं दर्शाख्येन कर्मणा वर्जितम्, अग्नि-होत्रिणः अ-वश्य-कर्तव्यत्वाद् दर्शस्य, अग्नि-होत्र-सम्बन्ध्य् अग्नि-होत्र-विशेषणम् इव भवति, तद् अ-क्रियमाणम् इत्येतत्।
Yasya, of him, of that performer of the Agni-hotra (sacrifice; whose agni-hotram, Agni-hotra; is a-darśam, devoid of the sacrifice called Darśa. The performance of the Darśa (sacrifice) being a necessary duty for the undertaker of Agni-hotra, it becomes an adjective of Agni-hotra, as it were, owing to its concomitance with the latter. The sense is that, it is an Agni-hotra in which the Darśa is not accomplished.

तथा अ-पौर्ण-मासम् इत्यादिष्व् अप्य् अग्नि-होत्र-विशेषणत्वं द्रष्टव्यम्, अग्नि-होत्राङ्गत्वस्य_अ-विशिष्टत्वात्, अ-पौर्ण-मासं पौर्ण-मास-कर्म-वर्जितम्।
Similarly are to be understood the adjectival use of the words, a-paurṇa-māsam etc. in relation to Agni-hotra, for they equally form parts of the Agni-hotra. A-paurṇa-māsam, without the Pūrṇa-māsa sacrifice.

अ-चातुर्-मास्यं चातुर्-मास्य-कर्म-वर्जितम्।
A-cātur-māsyam, devoid of the Cātur-māsya ritual.
[•The three sacrifices performed at the beginning of each season of four months, viz Vaiśva-devam, Varuṇa-praghāsāḥ and Sāka-medhāḥ.•]

अन्-आग्रयणम् आग्रयणं शरद्-आदिषु कर्तव्यम्, तच् च न क्रियते यस्य।
Āgrayaṇa rituals
[•The Āgrayaṇa rituals are performed in autumn and spring with newly harvested corn•]
are to be undertaken in autumn etc.; that Agni-hotra in which these are not accomplished is an-āgrayaṇam.

तथा अ-तिथि-वर्जितं च अ-तिथि-पूजनं च_अहन्य्-अहन्य् अ-क्रियमाणं यस्य।
So also a-tithi-varjitam, that in which guests are not served, day in and day out.

स्वयं सम्यग्-अग्नि-होत्र-काले अ-हुतम्
A-hutam that in which the Agni-hotra itself remains unperformed at the proper time.

अ-दर्शादिवद् अ-वैश्व-देवं वैश्व-देव-कर्म-वर्जितम्।
Just like a-darśa etc., a-vaiśva-devam means that in which the Vaiśva-deva rite remains unaccomplished.

हूयमानम् अप्य् अ-विधिना हुतम् न यथा-हुतम् इत्येतत्।
And although the Agni-hotra is performed, it is a-vidhinā hutam, performed unduly, that is to say, not performed in the proper way.

एवं दुः-संपादितम् अ-संपादितम् अग्नि-होत्राद्य्-उपलक्षितं कर्म किं करोति? इत्य् उच्यते।
What these rites, viz Agni-hotra and the rest, lead to, when they are thus accomplished perfunctorily or left undone, is being stated:

आ सप्तमान् सप्तम-सहितान् तस्य कर्तु-र्लोकान् हिनस्ति हिनस्ति_इव आयासमात्र-फलत्वात्। सम्यक्-क्रियमाणेषु हि कर्मसु कर्म-परिणामानुरूप्येण भूर्-आदयः सत्यान्ताः सप्त लोकाः फलं प्राप्यन्ते। ते लोकाः एवं-भूतेन_अग्नि-होत्रादि-कर्मणा त्व् अ-प्राप्यत्वाद् धिंस्यन्त इव, आयासमात्रं त्व् अ-व्यभिचारीत्यतो हिनस्ति_इत्य् उच्यते।
(That rite) hinasti, destroys; ā saptamān lokān, the worlds up to and inclusive of the seventh; tasya, of him, of the performer. It destroys, as it were, for the only fruit is the trouble undergone. Inasmuch as the seven worlds counting from the earth to Satya
[•Bhūr, Bhuvas, Svar, Mahar, Janar, Tapas and Satya.•]
are acquired as a result in accordance with the fruition of the rites, only when the rites are duly performed, and inasmuch as those worlds are not achievable through rituals like the Agni-hotra etc. of the above description, they are, so to say, destroyed. Since the mere trouble is a constant factor, it is said that such a rite is destructive.

पिण्ड-दानाद्य्-अनुग्रहेण वा सम्बध्यमानाः पितृ-पितामह-प्रपितामहाः पुत्र-पौत्र-प्रपौत्राः स्वात्मोपकाराः सप्त लोका उक्त-प्रकारेण_अग्नि-होत्रादिना न भवन्ति_इति हिंस्यन्त इत्युच्यते॥

Or the meaning is this: The seven generations, viz father, grandfather, great-grandfather, son, grandson, great-grandson, (and the sacrificer); who become connected through the favourable influence of such services as the offering of lumps of food etc.
[•The sacrificer serves the three past generations by offering piṇḍa (flour-ball), water, etc., and the three living generations by feeding them. Thus the six generations get connected with himself as the seventh.•]
do not confer any benefit on oneself as a result of this kind of Agni-hotra etc.; and this is affirmed by saying that they are destroyed.


kālī, karālī, ca, manas-javā, ca, su-lohitā, yad, ca, su-dhūmra-varṇā;
sphul-iṅginī, viśva-rucī, ca, devī, lelāyamānā, iti, saptan, jihvā.

या काली, कराली च, मनो-जवा च, सु-लोहिता च, सु-धूम्र-वर्णा, स्फुल्-इङ्गिनी, देवी विश्व-रुची च इति [अग्नेः] सप्त लेलायमानाः जिह्वाः॥
The black, the terrible, the swift-as-mind, the crimson, the gray, the sparkling, and the shinning-all-over are the seven tongues of the “dancing flames” (lelāyamānas).
● The black, the terrible, the swift-as-mind (काली कराली च मनो-जवा च),
○ the crimson (सु-लोहिता या च), the gray (सु-धूम्र-वर्णा),
● the sparkling (स्फुल्-इङ्गनी), and the shinning-all-over (विश्व-रुची च देवी),
○ are the seven tongues of the “dancing flames” (Lelāyamānāḥ) (लेलायमाना इति सप्त जिह्वाः).
काली कराली च मनो-जवा च सु-लोहिता या च सु-धूम्र-वर्णास्फुल्-इङ्गिनी विश्व-रुची च देवी लेलायमाना इति सप्त जिह्वाः। काल्य्-आद्या विश्व-रुच्य्-अन्ता लेलायमानाः अग्नेर् हविर्-आहुति-ग्रसनार्था एताः सप्त जिह्वाः
These, beginning from kālī and ending with viśva-rucī are the lelāyamānāḥ, flaming; sapta jihvāḥ, seven tongues, of fire, meant for devouring the clarified butter offered as oblation.


etad, yad, √car, bhrājamāna, yathā-kālam, ca, āhuti, hi, ādadāyat;
tad, √nī, etad, sūrya, raśmi, yatra, deva, pati, eka, adhivāsa.

यः [अग्नि-होत्री] [अग्नि-होत्र-आदि] चरते, यथा-कालं च एतेषु भ्राजमानेषु आहुतयः हि आददायन् [=आददानाः], एताः [आहुतयः] सूर्यस्य रश्मयः [भूत्वा] तम् [अग्नि-होत्रिं] नयन्ति यत्र देवानां पतिः [इन्द्रः] एकः अधिवासः॥
For the one who offers at the appropriate times into these shinning flames, these very oblations along the rays of the sun take and lead the ritualist to where (Lord Indra) the Lord of devas alone presides.
● Into these shinning flames the one who offers (एतेषु यः चरते भ्राजमानेषु)
○ at the appropriate times (यथा-कालं च), these very oblations take (आहुतयः हि आददायन्)
● these (oblations along) the rays of the sun lead the sacrificer (तं नयन्ति एताः सूर्यस्य रश्मयः)
○ to where (Lord Indra) the Lord of Devas alone presides (यत्र देवानां पतिः एकः अधिवासः).
एतेषु अग्नि-जिह्वा-भेदेषु यः अग्नि-होत्री चरते कर्माचरत्य् अग्नि-होत्रादि भ्राजमानेषु दीप्यमानेषु। यथा-कालं च यस्य कर्मणो यः कालस् तत् कालं यथा-कालं यजमानम् आददायन् आददाना आहुतयः यजमानेन निर्वर्तिनास् तं नयन्ति प्रापयन्ति। एताः आहुतयो या इमा अनेन निर्वर्तिताः सूर्यस्य रश्मयः भूत्वा, रश्मि-द्वारैर् इत्यर्थः। यत्र यस्मिन् स्वर्गे देवानां पतिः इन्द्रः एकः सर्वान् उपरि अधि वसति_इति अधिवासः
Etāḥ, these āhutayaḥ, offerings of oblation, undertaken by the sacrificer, these libations that had been poured by him; ādadāyan, having taken him up; (carry him) by having become sūryasya raśmayaḥ, the rays of the sun, that is to say, along the course of the sun’s rays; (and) they tam nayanti, lead him – that performer of Agni-hotra; yaḥ, who; carate, performs the rites, e.g. Agni-hotra etc.; eteṣu bhrājamāneṣu, in these different shining tongues of fire; yathā-kālam, at the proper time, at the time fit for each rite; (they lead him) to heaven yatra, where; patiḥ, the lord Indra; devānām, of the gods; ekaḥ, alone; adhivāsaḥ (i.e. adhivasati), dwells (presides), above all.


ā-√i, ā-√i, iti, tad, āhuti, su-varcas, sūrya, raśmi, yajamāna, √vah;
priyā, vāc, abhivadantī, arcayantī, etad, yuṣmad, puṇya, su-kṛta, brahma-loka.

‘एहि एहि, एषः वः [=युष्माकं] पुण्यः सु-कृतः ब्रह्म-लोकः’ इति प्रियां वाचम् अभिवदन्त्यः अर्चयन्त्यः [च एताः] सु-वर्चसः आहुतयः तं यजमानं सूर्यस्य रश्मिभिः वहन्ति [स्वर्गं प्रापयन्ति]॥
“Come, Come” – with these words the brilliant offerings lead and honor the sacrificer along the rays of the sun, speaking pleasing words, “This is your well-earned, sacred realm in brahman.”
● “Come, Come” – with these words the brilliant offerings (एहि एहि इति तम् आहुतयः सु-वर्चसः)
○ lead the sacrificer along the rays of the sun (सूर्यस्य रश्मिभिः यजमानं वहन्ति),
● honoring and speaking pleasing words (प्रियां वाचम् अभिवदन्त्यः अर्चयन्त्यः),
○ “This is your well-earned, sacred realm in Brahman” (एषः वः पुण्यः सु-कृतः ब्रह्म-लोकः).
सूर्यस्य रश्मिभिर् यजमानं वहन्ति इत्युच्यते –
It is stated they carry the yajamānam, sacrificer; raśmibhiḥ, along the rays; sūryasya, of the sun:

एहि एहिइति आह्वयन्त्यः (तं यजमानम् आहुतयः) सु-वर्चसः दीप्तिमत्यः, किञ्च, प्रियाम् इष्टां वाचं स्तुत्य्-आदि-लक्षणाम् अभिवदन्त्यः उच्चारयन्त्यः अर्चयन्त्यः पूजयन्त्यश् च_“एषः वः युष्माकं पुण्यः सु-कृतः पन्था ब्रह्म-लोकः” फल-रूपः, एवं प्रियां वाचम् अभिवदन्त्यो वहन्ति_इत्यर्थः। ब्रह्म-लोकः स्वर्गः प्रकरणात्॥

The su-varcasaḥ, scintillating (oblations); welcoming (him) ehi ehi iti, with the words ‘Come, come’; and abhivadantyāḥ, uttering; priyām vācam, pleasant words, in the form of praise etc.; and arcayantyaḥ, adoring; vahanti, carry him, that is to say, they carry him while uttering such pleasant words as, ‘Eṣaḥ, this; is vaḥ, your; puṇyaḥ, virtuous; su-kṛtaḥ, well-earned; road to brahma-lokaḥ, heaven, which is your result.’ From the context it follows that brahma-loka (lit. the world of Brahma-) means heaven [Indra-loka (MunU.1.2.5).-Aruna].


एतच् च ज्ञान-रहितं कर्म_एतावत् फलम् अ-विद्या-काम-कर्म-कार्यम् अतोऽसारं दुःख-मूलम् इति निन्द्यते –
This karma, unassociated with knowledge (upāsanā, meditation), is being decried by showing that it has only this limited result; that it is the product of ignorance, desire and action; and that it is for this reason unsubstantial and the source of misery:
plava, hi, etad, a-dṛḍha, yajña-rūpa, aṣṭā-daśan, ukta, avara, yad, karman;
etad, śreyas, yad, abhi-√nand, mūḍha, jarā-mṛtyu, tad, punar, eva, api, √i.

एते अष्टा-दश [षो-डश-ऋत्विजः यजमानः च भार्या च] यज्ञ-रूपाः, येषु हि [=यस्मात्] अवरं कर्म उक्तम्, अ-दृढाः प्लवाः [इव भवन्ति]। ये मूढाः एतद् [उपासना-रहितं कर्म] श्रेयस् [इति] अभिनन्दति, ते जरा-मृत्युं पुनर् एव अपि यन्ति॥
The constituents of the ritual are like fragile rafts. They are said to be eighteen in number (the sixteen priests, the sacrificer and spouse), upon which inferior acts (are laid). The immature (mūḍhas, the short-sighted), who believe this is śreyas (our good), again and again only gain old age and death (with occasional vacations in the heavens).
● These forms of the ritual are like fragile rafts (प्लवाः हि एते अ-दृढा यज्ञ-रूपाः).
○ They are said to be eighteen in number (अष्टा-दश उक्तम्), upon which inferior acts (are laid) (अवरं येषु कर्म).
● The immature (Mūḍhāḥ, the short-sighted) who believe this is śreyas (our good) (एतद् श्रेयः ये अभिनन्दन्ति मूढाः),
○ they again and again only gain old age and death (जरा-मृत्युं ते पुनः एव अपि यन्ति).
प्लवाः विनाशिन इत्यर्थः, हि यस्माद् एते अ-दृढाः अ-स्थिराः यज्ञ-रूपाः यज्ञस्य रूपाणि यज्ञ-रूपाः यज्ञ-निर्वर्तकाः अष्टा-दश अष्टा-दश-संख्याकाः षोडश-ऋत्विजः पत्नी यजमानश् च_इत्य् अष्टा-दश। एतद् आश्रयं कर्म उक्तं कथितं शास्त्रेण येषु अष्टा-दशसु अवरं केवलं ज्ञान-वर्जितं कर्म
Plavāh means perishable. Hi, since; ete, these; yajña-rūpāḥ, constituents of the sacrifice, the accomplishers of the sacrifice; (who are) aṣṭā-daśa, eighteen in number, viz the sixteen priests, the sacrificer, and his wife; yeṣu, on whom, on which eighteen of these; the avaram karma, inferior karma, mere karma without knowledge; uktam, has been said, by the scripture, to be resting; are a-dṛḍhāḥ, fragile, impermanent;

अतस् तेषाम् अवर-कर्माश्रयाणाम् अष्टा-दशानाम् अ-दृढतया प्लवत्वात् प्लवते सह फलेन तत्-साध्यं कर्म, कुण्ड-विनाशाद् इव क्षीर-दध्य्-आदीनां तत्-स्थानां नाशः।
Therefore, the inferior karma accomplished by those eighteen factors, gets destroyed, along with its result, owing to the fragility of the eighteen factors on which it rests, just as milk or curd held in a vessel is destroyed on the destruction of the latter.

यत एवम् एतत् कर्म श्रेयः श्रेयः-करणम् इति ये अभिनन्दन्ति अभिहृष्यन्ति अ-विवेकिनः मूढाः, अतः ते जरां च मृत्युं च जरा-मृत्युं किंचित्-कालं स्वर्गे स्थित्वा पुनर् एव_अपि यन्ति भूयोऽपि गच्छन्ति॥

Since ye, those mūḍhāḥ, the non-discerning, ignorant people; abhinandanti, delight in this way; thinking, ‘Etat, this karma; śreyas, is good – the cause of bliss’; therefore, te, they; after staying in heaven for some time, yanti, undergo; jarā-mṛtyum, old age and death; punar eva api, over again.


किञ्च –
a-vidyā, antare, vartamāna, svayam, dhīra, paṇḍita, manyamāna;
jaṅghanyamāna, pari-√i, mūḍha, andha, eva, nīyamāna, yathā, andha.

अ-विद्यायाम् अन्तरे [=मध्ये] वर्तमानाः, ‘स्वयं धीराः पण्डितं’ मन्यमानाः, [ते] मूढाः जङ्घन्यमानाः परियन्ति, यथा अन्धाः अन्धेन एव नीयमानाः॥
Revolving in ignorance (of real śreyas), thinking themselves to be discerning and learned, these immature ones go round and round hurting themselves, like the blind being lead by the blind alone.
● Revolving in ignorance (of real śreyas) (अविद्यायाम् अन्तरे वर्तमानाः),
○ thinking themselves to be discerning and learned (स्वयं धीराः पण्डितं मन्यमानाः),
● these immature ones go round and round (hurting themselves) (जङ्घन्यमानाः परियन्ति मूढाः),
○ like the blind being lead by the blind alone (अन्धेन एव नीयमानाः यथा अन्धाः).
अ-विद्यायाम् अन्तरे मध्ये वर्तमानाः अ-विवेक-प्रायाः, ‘स्वयं वयम् एव धीराः धीमन्तः [पण्डितं] पण्डिता विदित-वेदितव्याश् च’_इति मन्यमाना आत्मानं संभावयन्तः।
Vartamānāḥ, existing; a-vidyāyām antare, within the fold of ignorance – being steeped in non-discrimination; (and) manyamānāḥ, thinking; ‘Svayam dhīrāḥ, we ourselves are intelligent; and paṇḍitam, learned, conversant with all that is to be learnt’ – flattering themselves in this way;

ते च जङ्घन्यमानाः जरा-रोगाद्य्-अनेकानर्थ-व्रातैर् हन्यमाना भृशं पीड्यमानाः परियन्ति विभ्रमन्ति मूढाः दर्शन-वर्जितत्वाद् अन्धेन_एव_अ-चक्षुष्केण_एव नीयमानाः प्रदर्श्यमान-मार्गाः, यथा लोके अन्धाः अक्षि-रहिता गर्त-कण्टकादौ पतन्ति, तद्वत्॥

Those mūḍhāḥ, fools; jaṅghanyamānāḥ, while being buffeted, hurt very much, by hosts of evils like old age, disease, etc.; pariyanti, ramble about, because of their loss of vision; just as in the world andhāḥ, the blind, deprived of eyes; fall into pits or brambles, nīyamānāḥ, while being led, being shown their way; andhena eva, by the blind alone, by one who is himself without eyes.


किञ्च –
a-vidyā, bahudhā, vartamāna, asmad, kṛta-artha, iti, abhi-√man, bāla;
yad, karmin, na, pra-√vid, rāga, tad, ātura, kṣīṇa-loka, √cyu.

अ-विद्यायां बहुधा वर्तमानाः, ‘वयं एव कृत-अर्थाः’ इति अभिमन्यन्ति। यद् [यस्मात् ते] बालाः रागात् कर्मिणः [सन्तः] [आत्म-तत्त्वं] न प्रवेदयन्ति, तेन [अ-ज्ञानेन] क्षीण-लोकाः [सन्तः ते] आतुराः [दुःखिनः भवन्ति], [स्वर्ग-लोकात्] च्यवन्ते [च]॥
Revolving variously in ignorance, the immature boast, “We have attained the goal.” Since engaged in activities out of attachment (rāga, to short-term ends), they do not try to gain knowledge. Suffering afflictions because of that, when (what it took to gain) their world (loka) is exhausted, they fall back.
● Revolving variously in ignorance (अविद्यायां बहधा वर्तमानाः),
○ the immature boast, “We have attained the goal” (वयं कृतार्थाः इति अभिमन्यन्ति बालाः).
● Since engaged in activities (यद् कर्मिणः) out of attachment (Rāga, to short-term ends), they do not try to gain knowledge (न प्रवेदयन्ति रागात्).
○ Suffering afflictions because of that (तेन आतुराः), when (what it took to gain) their world (loka) is exhausted, they fall back (क्षीण-लोकाः च्यवन्ते).
अविद्यायां बहुधा बहु-प्रकारं वर्तमानाः, ‘वयम् एव कृतार्थाः कृत-प्रयोजनाः’ इति एवम् अभिमन्यन्ति अभिमानं कुर्वन्ति बालाः अ-ज्ञानिनः। यद् यस्माद् एवं कर्मिणः न प्रवेदयन्ति तत्त्वं न जानन्ति रागात् कर्म-फल-रागाभिभव-निमित्तम्, तेन कारणेन आतुराः दुःखार्ताः सन्तः क्षीण-लोकाः क्षीण-कर्म-फलाः स्वर्ग-लोकात् च्यवन्ते
Vartamānāḥ, continuing; a-vidyāyām, in the midst of ignorance; bahudhā, in diverse ways; bālāḥ, the unenlightened; abhimanyanti, take airs; by thinking, ‘Vayam kṛta-arthāḥ, we alone have attained the goal.’ Yat, since, in this manner; karmiṇaḥ, the men engaged in karma; na pravedayanti, do not understand the truth; rāgāt, under the influence of attachment – to the results of karma; tena, thereby; āturāḥ (santaḥ), (becoming) afflicted with sorrow; they cyavante, get deprived, of heaven; kṣīṇa-lokāḥ, on the exhaustion of their results of karma.


iṣṭā-pūrta, manyamāna, variṣṭha, na, anya, śreyas, √vid, pramūḍha;
na-a-ka, pṛṣṭha, tad, su-kṛta, anubhūtvā, idam, lokam hīnatara, vā, √viś.

‘इष्टा-पूर्तं [कर्म एव] वरिष्ठं’ मन्यमानाः, [ते] प्रमूढाः अन्यद् [किञ्चिद्] श्रेयस् न वेदयन्ते। न-अ-कस्य [स्वर्गस्य] पृष्ठे [उपरि-भागे] सु-कृते [पुण्य-भूते] अनुभूत्वा, ते इमं लोकं हीनतरं [निकृष्टं लोकं] वा विशन्ति॥
Thinking rituals and charities are the best they can do, proclaiming there is no other good (śreyas), these deluded (and deluders), after their experience at the well-earned top of heaven, (re)enter this human embodiment (loka), or lower than that.
● Thinking rituals and charities are the best (they can do) (इष्टा-पूर्तं मन्यमानाः वरिष्ठम्),
○ proclaiming there is no other good (Śreyas) (न अन्यद् श्रेयः वेदयन्ते) these deluded (and deluders) (प्रमूढाः)
● after their experience at the well-earned top of heaven (नाकस्य पृष्ठे ते सु-कृते अनुभूत्वा),
○ they (re)enter this (human) embodiment (Loka), or lower than that (इमं लोकं हीनतरं वा विशन्ति).
इष्टा-पूर्तम् इष्टं यागादि श्रौतं कर्म पूर्तं वापी-कूप-तडागादि स्मार्तं मन्यमानाः एतद् एव_अतिशयेन पुरुषार्थ-साधनं वरिष्ठं प्रधानम् इति चिन्तयन्तः, अन्यद् आत्म-ज्ञानाख्यं श्रेयः-साधनं न वेदयन्ते न जानन्ति प्रमूढाः पुत्र-पशु-बान्धवादिषु प्रमत्ततया मूढाः।
Manyamānāḥ, thinking; iṣṭā-pūrtamiṣṭam, sacrifice and other rites, enjoined by the Vedas; pūrtam, (construction of) pools, wells, tanks, etc. inculcated by the Smṛtis; thinking only these to be the variṣṭham, best means the chief thing, for the achievement of human objectives; thinking thus, the pramūḍhāḥ, deluded fools, who are so because of their infatuation for sons, cattle, friends, etc.; na vedayante, do not understand; anyat, the other thing, called the knowledge of the Self; which is the means for the achievement of śreyas, the highest goal (liberation).

तेनाकस्य स्वर्गस्य पृष्ठे उपरि-स्थाने सु-कृते भोगायतने अनुभूत्वा अनुभूय कर्म-फलं पुनः इमं लोकं मानुषम्, अस्माद् हीनतरं वा तिर्यङ्-नरकादि-लक्षणं, यथा-कर्म-शेषं विशन्ति

And te, they; anubhūtvā (should rather be anubhūya), having enjoyed, the fruits of their karma; su-kṛte, in the abode of pleasure; nākasya pṛṣṭhe, on the heights of heaven; again viśanti, enter; into imam lokam, this, human, world; vā hīnataram, or a world inferior to it, e.g. that of the beasts, or hell, etc., in accordance with the residual results of karma.


tapas-śrad-dhā, yad, hi, upa-√vas, araṇya, śānta, vidvas, bhaikṣya-carya, carat;
sūrya-dvāra, tad, vi-rajas, pra-√yā, yatra, a-mṛta, tad, puruṣa, hi, a-vyaya-ātman.

ये हि [एव] अरण्ये भैक्ष्य-चर्यां चरन्तः [ये च] शान्ताः विद्वांसः [उपासक-अन्य-आश्रमिनः], [ते] तपस्-श्रद्धे उपवसन्ति। ते वि-रजाः [सन्तः] सूर्य-द्वारेण प्रयान्ति यत्र सः हि [आपेक्षिकः] अ-मृतः अ-व्यय-आत्मा पुरुषः [हिरण्य-गर्भः वर्तते]॥
Those who (leave the household to) enter a disciplined life of trust (in their meditations) in the forest (as vana-prasthas), and those learned meditators (vidvats) who have gained a peace of mind (even while remaining in the household), and those learned meditators who have taken to a wandering life of alms, they, being freed of rajas (and tamas), all enter by the solar path, where is the immortal and imperishable* person (puruṣa, called Hiraṇya-garbha).
(* Until the end of this brahma-loka, said to be a bit over 311 trillion human years, see BhG-Dic Pralaya, during which the universe itself resolves every one of His nights until Hiraṇya-garbha, sometimes also named through its source as ‘Lord Brahmā’, reaches one-hundred of His ageless years span.)
● Those who (leave the household to) enter a disciplined life of trust (in their meditations) in the forest (as Vana-prasthas) (तपः-श्रद्धे ये हि उपवसन्ति अरण्ये),
○ (and) those learned meditators (Vidvats) who have gained a peace of mind (even while remaining in the household) (शान्ताः विद्वासः), and those (learned meditators) who have taken to a wandering life of alms (भैक्ष्य-चर्यां चरन्तः),
● being freed of Rajas (and Tamas) they all enter by the solar path (सूर्य-द्वारेण ते वि-रजाः प्रयान्ति),
○ where is the immortal and imperishable person (Puruṣa, called Hiraṇya-garbha) (यत्र अ-मृतः सः पु॒रुषः हि अव्यय-आत्मा).
ये पुनस् तद्-विपरीताः ज्ञान-युक्ता वान-प्रस्थाः संन्यासिनश् च, तपः-श्रद्धे हि तपः स्वाश्रम-विहितं कर्म, श्रद्धा हिरण्य-गर्भादि-विषया विद्या, ते तपः-श्रद्धे उपवसन्ति सेवन्तेऽरण्ये वर्तमानाः सन्तः। शान्ताः उपरत-करण-ग्रामाः विद्वांसः गृह-स्थाश् च ज्ञान-प्रधाना इत्यर्थः। भैक्ष-चर्यां चरन्तः परिग्रहाभावाद् उपवसन्त्य् अरण्ये इति सम्बन्धः।
On the other hand, as opposed to the former, ye, those – the forest-dwellers and the hermits engaged in meditation (upāsanā), who; while staying araṇye, in the forest; upavasanti, resort to; tapaḥ-śraddhe hitapas, the duties pertaining to their own stage of life, and śraddhā, meditation on Hiraṇya-garbha and others; and the śāntāḥ, self-controlled, who have their senses under control; vidvāṃsaḥ, the learned, that is to say, the householders, too, who are devoted chiefly to meditation; (upavasanti araṇye) bhaikṣya-caryām carantaḥ, (live in the forest) while begging for alms, since they do not accept the customary gifts – this is how the sentence is to be construed.

सूर्य-द्वारेण सूर्योपलक्षितेन_उत्तरायणेन पथा ते वि-रजाः वि-रजसः, क्षीण-पुण्य-पाप-कर्माणः सन्त इत्यर्थः। प्रयान्ति प्रकर्षेण यान्ति यत्र यस्मिन् सत्य-लोकादौ अ-मृतः स पुरुषः प्रथम-जो हिरण्य-गर्भः हि अ-व्ययात्मा अ-व्यय-स्वभावो यावत् संसार-स्थायी। एतद्-अन्तास् तु संसार-गतयोऽपर-विद्या-गम्याः।
Te, they; vi-rajāḥ, freed from dirt, becoming freed from rajas, that is to say, having got their righteousness and unrighteousness attenuated; prayānti, move superbly; sūrya-dvāreṇa, along the path of the sun, along the Northern Path, indicated by the word sun; to the world called Satya etc., yatra, where (lives); saḥ a-mṛtah puruṣaḥ, that immortal Puruṣa, the first-born Hiraṇya-garbha; hi a-vyaya-ātmā, who is by nature undecaying, who lives as long as the world endures. The courses of transmigratory existence that are attainable through the lower knowledge, culminate here alone.

नन्व् एतं मोक्षम् इच्छन्ति केचित्।
Objection: Is not this state considered to be liberation by some?

न, “इहैव सर्वे प्रविलीयन्ति कामाः” (MunU.3.2.2) “ते सर्व-गं सर्वतः प्राप्य धीरा युक्तात्मानः सर्वम् एव_आविशन्ति” (MunU.3.2.5) इत्यादि-श्रुतिभ्यः। अ-प्रकरणाच् च, अपर-विद्या-प्रकरणे हि प्रवृत्ते न ह्य् अ-कस्मान् मोक्ष-प्रसङ्गोऽस्ति। वि-रजस्त्वं त्व् आपेक्षिकम्।
Answer: Theirs is not a correct view in accordance with such Veda texts as: ‘All the desires vanish even here’ (MunU.3.2.2); ‘These discriminating people, ever merged in contemplation, attain the all-pervasive (Brahman) everywhere, and enter into the all’ (MunU.3.2.5), etc.
[•These texts deny any course to be followed by the liberated soul after the death of the body.•]
Besides, that is not the topic here. Since the topic under discussion is that of the lower knowledge, the consideration of liberation cannot crop up all of a sudden. As for freedom from dirt, it is only relatively so.

समस्तम् अपर-विद्या-कार्यं साध्य-साधन-लक्षणं क्रिया-कारक-फल-भेद-भिन्नं द्वैतम् एतावद् एव यद् धिरण्य-गर्भ-प्राप्त्य्-अवसानम्। तथा च मनुना_उक्तं स्थावराद्यां संसार-गतिम् अनुक्रामता – “ब्रह्मा विश्व-सृजो धर्मो महान् अ-व्यक्तम् एव च। उत्तमां सात्त्विकीम् एतां गतिम् आहुर् मनीषिणः” (ManSmrt.12.50) इति॥

All the results of the lower knowledge, comprising ends and means, and diversified into varieties of action, accessories and fruits, and consisting in duality, extend up to this only, or in other words, terminate with the realization of Hiraṇya-garbha. So also it has been said by Manu, while recounting successively the courses of transmigratory existence starting with that of the motionless things: ‘The wise men say, that is the highest goal of holiness that consists in the attainment of (of state of) Hiraṇya-garbha, the Prajā-patis (lords of creatures, such as Marīci), Dharma (Death), (the principle called) Mahat, and the Unmanifested’ (ManSmrt.12.50).


अथ_इदानीम् अस्मात् साध्य-साधन-रूपात् सर्वस्मात् संसाराद् विरक्तस्य परस्यां विद्यायाम् अधिकार-प्रदर्शनार्थम् इदम् उच्यते –
Thereafter, this verse is now being stated in order to show that one who becomes detached from this whole world of ends and means has competence for the higher knowledge:
parīkṣya, loka, karma-cita, brāhmaṇa, nirveda, ā-√yā, na, √as, a-kṛta, kṛta;
tad-vijñāna-artha, tad, guru, eva, abhi-√gam, samit-pāṇa, śrotriya, brahma-niṣṭha.

कर्म-चितान् लोकान् परीक्ष्य, [गुणतः] ब्राह्मणः निर्वेदं [=वैराग्यं] आयात् ‘कृतेन अ-कृतः [मोक्षः] न अस्ति’ [इति]। [अतः] तद्-विज्ञान-अर्थं सः समित्-पाणिः श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्म-निष्ठं गुरुम् एव अभिगच्छेत्॥
Examining the worlds gained by action (including meditation), the one who has been initiated in the scripture (brāhmaṇa), and being dispassionate (nirvedam āyān) by thinking, “the uncreated (reality) is not by action,” should, for clearly knowing that (brahman, reality), approach with sacrificial sticks in hand a teacher who indeed is both steeped in the scriptures (śrotriya) and established in brahman (brahma-niṣṭha) (i.e., who both knows how to teach and knows what to teach).
● Examining the worlds gained by action (परीक्ष्य लोकान् कर्म-चितान्) the one who has been initiated in the scripture (ब्राह्मणः),
○ being dispassionate (निर्वे॑दम् आयात्), (thinking) the uncreated (reality) is not by action (न अस्ति अ-कृतः कृतेन)
● should, for clearly knowing that (brahman, reality) approach a teacher (तद्-विज्ञान-अर्थं सः गुरुम् एव अभिगच्छेत्)
○ with sacrificial sticks in hand (समित्-पाणिः), one who indeed is steeped in the scriptures (श्रोत्रियं) and established in Brahman (ब्रह्म-निष्ठम्).
परीक्ष्य यद् एतद् ऋग्-वेदाद्य्-अपर-विद्या-विषयं स्वा-भाविक्य्-अविद्या-काम-कर्म-दोषवत्-पुरुषानुष्ठेयम् अ-विद्यादि-दोषवन्तम् एव पुरुषं प्रति विहितत्वात्, तद्-अनुष्ठान-कार्य-भूताश् च लोका ये दक्षिणोत्तर-मार्ग-लक्षणाः फल-भूताः, ये च विहिताकरण-प्रतिषेधातिक्रम-दोष-साध्या नरक-तिर्यक्-प्रेत-लक्षणाः, तान् एतान् परीक्ष्य प्रत्यक्षानुमानोपमानागमैः सर्वतो याथात्म्येन_अवधार्य,
Parīkṣya, examining – all these (rites) that are included within the scope of the lower knowledge constituted by the Ṛg-Veda etc., that are to be undertaken by persons subject to natural ignorance, desire, and action, they having been inculcated only for the man swayed by the defects of ignorance etc. – and (examining) the worlds that are their results and are indicated by the Northern and Southern Paths, and the worlds of the beasts and ghouls that follow as a result from the guilt of omission of obligatory duties and commission of prohibited ones – having examined all these, with the help of direct perception, inference, analogy, and scriptures; i.e. having ascertained,

लोकान् संसार-गति-भूतान् अ-व्यक्तादि-स्थावरान्तान् व्याकृताव्याकृत-लक्षणान् बीजाङ्कुरवद्-इतरेतरोत्पत्ति-निमित्तान् अन्-एकानार्थ-शत-सहस्र-संकुलान् कदली-गर्भवद्-अ-सारान् माया-मरीच्य्-उदक-गन्धर्व-नगराकार-स्वप्न-जल-बुद्बुद-फेन-समान् प्रतिक्षण-प्रध्वंसान् –
Lokān, the worlds – in their essence from every point of view – the worlds that exist as the goals of transmigration, ranging from the Unmanifested to a motionless thing, whether evolved or involved; that are productive of one another like the seed and the sprout; that are assailed with multifarious troubles in their hundreds and thousands; that are devoid of substance like the interior of a plantain tree; that appear like magic, water in a mirage, or a city in space; and that are comparable to dream, water-bubbles, and foam, that get destroyed at every turn –

पृष्ठतः कृत्वा_अ-विद्या-काम-दोष-प्रवर्तित-कर्म-चितान् धर्माधर्म-निर्वर्तितान् इत्येतत्।
That is to say, turning one’s back on the worlds karma-citān earned through merit and demerit accumulated through karma instigated by the defects of ignorance and desire,

ब्राह्मणः, ब्राह्मणस्य_एव विशेषतोऽधिकारः सर्व-त्यागेन ब्रह्म-विद्यायाम् इति ब्राह्मण-ग्रहणम्। परीक्ष्य लोकान् किं कुर्याद्? इत्युच्यते – निर्वेदम् ‘निः’-पूर्वो विदिर् अत्र वैराग्यार्थे वैराग्यम् आयात् कुर्याद् इत्येतत्।
(A Brāhmaṇa should renounce). The Brahmana is mentioned because he alone is specially qualified for the acquisition of knowledge of Brahman by renouncing everything. What should one do after examining the worlds? This is being said: Nirvedam āyāt, one should arrive at detachment, that is to say, should renounce – the root vid with the prefix nis being used here in the sense of renunciation.

स वैराग्य-प्रकारः प्रदर्श्यते – इह संसारे न_अस्ति कश्चिद् अपि अ-कृतः पदार्थः। सर्व एव हि लोकाः कर्म-चिताः कर्म-कृतत्वाच् च_अ-नित्याः। न नित्यं किञ्चिद् अस्ति_इत्यभिप्रायः।
That process of renunciation is being shown: ‘In this universe na asti, there is nothing; that is a-kṛta, a non-product; for all the worlds are effects of karma; and being products of action, they are impermanent. The idea is that there is nothing that is eternal.

सर्वं तु कर्मानित्यस्य_एव साधनम्। यस्माच् चतुर्-विधम् एव हि सर्वं कर्म कार्यम् – उत्पाद्यम् आप्यं संस्कार्यं विकार्यं वा। न_अतः परं कर्मणो विषयोऽस्ति। ‘अहं च नित्येन_अ-मृतेन_अ-भयेन कूट-स्थेन_अ-चलेन ध्रुवेण_अर्थेन_अर्थी, न तद्-विपरीतेन,
All actions are productive of mere transitory things, since all effects of actions are only of four kinds – they can be produced, acquired, purified, or modified; over and above these, action has no other distinction. But I am desirous of the eternal, immortal, fearless, unchanging, unmoving, absolute Entity, and not of its opposite.

अतः किं कृतेन कर्मणा आयास-बहुलेन_अन्-अर्थ-साधनेन?’ इत्य् एवं निर्विण्णः।
Therefore kṛtena (kim), what is the need of (accomplishing) any task, which involves great trouble and leads to evil?’
[•Some annotators explain this portion thus: That (which is) a-kṛtaḥ, not a product, na asti, does not come to exist, is not produced, kṛtena, as a result of action. Liberation is not a product of karma.•]
Having become detached in this way,

अ-भयं शिवम् अ-कृतं नित्यं पदं यत्, तद्-विज्ञानार्थं विशेषेण_अधिगमार्थं निर्विण्णो ब्राह्मणः गुरुम् एव आचार्यं शम-दम-दयादि-सम्पन्नम् अभिगच्छेत्। शास्त्र-ज्ञोऽपि स्वा-तन्त्र्येण ब्रह्म-ज्ञानान्वेषणं न कुर्याद् इत्य् एतद् गुरुम् ‘एव’_इत्य् अवधारण-फलम्।
Saḥ, he, the dispassionate Brāhmaṇa; abhigacchet, should go; gurum eva, only to a teacher, who is blessed with mental and physical self-control, mercy, etc.; tad-vijñāna-artham, for the sake of fully understanding that State which is fearless, auspicious, unproduced and eternal. The emphasis in ‘only to a teacher’ implies that he should not seek for the knowledge of Brahman independently, even though he is versed in the scriptures.

समित्-पाणिः समिद्-भार-गृहीत-हस्तः श्रोत्रियम् अध्ययन-श्रुतार्थ-सम्पन्नं ब्रह्म-निष्ठं हित्वा सर्व-कर्माणि केवलेऽद्वये ब्रह्मणि निष्ठा यस्य सोऽयं ब्रह्म-निष्ठः, जप-निष्ठस् तपो-निष्ठ इति यद्वत्।
(He will go) samit-pāṇiḥ, with a load of (sacrificial) faggots in hand; (to) śrotriyam brahma-niṣṭham, (a teacher) who is versed in the meaning of the Vedas (Śruti) that he recites and hears, and who is absorbed in Brahman. One who renounces all activities and remains absorbed in the non-dual Brahman only is a brahma-niṣṭhaḥ, just as it is in the case of the words japa-niṣṭhaḥ, absorbed in self-repetition, tapo-niṣṭhaḥ, absorbed in austerity.

न हि कर्मिणो ब्रह्म-निष्ठता सम्भवति, कर्मात्म-ज्ञानयोर् विरोधात्। स तं गुरुं विधिवद् उपसन्नः प्रसाद्य पृच्छेद् अ-क्षरं पुरुषं सत्यम्॥

For one engrossed in karma cannot have absorption in Brahman, karma and the knowledge of the Self being contradictory. Having approached that teacher in the proper way, and having pleased him, he should ask about the true and imperishable Puruṣa (all-pervasive Reality).


tad, tad, vidvas, upasanna, samyak, praśānta-citta, śama-anvita;
yad, a-kṣara, puruṣa, √vid, satya, pra-√vac, tad, tattvatas, brahma-vidyā.

तस्मै सम्यक् उपसन्नाय, प्रशान्त-चित्ताय, शम-अन्विताय [च] [अधिकारिणे] सः विद्वान् [गुरुः] तां ब्रह्म-विद्यां तत्वतः प्रोवाच [प्रब्रूयाद्], येन [सः मुमुक्षुः] अ-क्षरं सत्यं पुरुषं वेद [विजानाति]॥
To that student who has properly approached, whose mind is peacefully settled (to seek an appropriate teacher through sufficient discernment and dispassion, viveka, vairāgya, TatB.2), and is qualified with discipline of mind (śama, dama, etcetera, to learn from that teacher), may the wise guru thoroughly (tattvatas) teach the brahman-vidyā, by which one comes to know the imperishable puruṣa that is the reality and truth (satya, of even the Hiraṇya-garbha puruṣa).
● The wise person to that (student) who has properly approached (तस्मै सः विद्वान् उपसन्नाय सम्यक्),
○ whose mind is peacefully settled (to seek an appropriate teacher through sufficient discernment and dispassion) (प्रशान्त-चित्ताय) (and) is qualified with discipline of mind (Śama, Dama, etcetera, to learn from that teacher) (शम-अन्विताय),
● (the knowledge) by which one comes to know the imperishable (A-kṣara) Puruṣa that is the reality and truth (Satya, of even Hiraṇya-garbha) (येन अ-क्षरं पुरुषं वेद सत्यं)
○ may thoroughly (Tattvataḥ) teach the knowledge to gain Brahman (प्रोवाच तां तत्त्वतः ब्रह्म-विद्याम्).
तस्मै सः विद्वान् गुरुर् ब्रह्म-विद्, उपसन्नाय उपगताय सम्यक् यथा-शास्त्रम् इत्येतत्। प्रशान्त-चित्ताय उपरत-दर्पादि-दोषाय शमान्विताय बाह्येन्द्रियोपरमेण च युक्ताय, सर्वतो विरक्ताय_इत्येतत्।
Tasmai, to him; upasannāya, who has approached; samyak, duly, that is to say, in accordance with the scriptures; praśānta-cittāya, whose heart is calm, who has become free from such faults as pride; and śama-anvitāya, who is endued with control over the outer organs, i.e. who has become detached from everything; saḥ vidvān, that enlightened one, the teacher who has realized Brahman;;

येन विज्ञानेन यया विद्यया परया अ-क्षरम् अ-द्रेश्यादि-विशेषणं (MunU.1.1.6) तद् एव_अ-क्षरं पुरुष-शब्द-वाच्यं पूर्णत्वात् पुरि शयनाच् च, सत्यं तद् एव परमार्थ-स्वा-भाव्याद्, अ-क्षरं च_अ-क्षरणाद् अ-क्षतत्वाद् अ-क्षयत्वाच् च, वेद विजानाति तां ब्रह्म-विद्यां तत्त्वतः यथावत् प्रोवाच प्रब्रूयाद् इत्यर्थः।
Provāca, said, or rather, should say; tam Brahma-vidyām, that knowledge of Brahman; tattvataḥ, adequately yena, by which, by which higher knowledge; veda, one realizes; a-kṣaram, the Imperishable, that is possessed of such attributes as being imperceptible etc. (MunU.1.1.6). That very Imperishable is referred to by the word Puruṣa, because of Its all-pervasiveness and existence in the heart; and that again is satyam, true, because of being essentially the supreme Reality; and It is a-kṣaram because of the absence of mutation, injury and decay.

आचार्यस्य_अप्य् अयं नियमो यन्-न्याय-प्राप्त-सच्-छिष्य-निस्तारणम् अ-विद्या-महोदधेः॥

For a teacher, too, this is imperative that he should save from the ocean of ignorance any good disciple that apporaches him duly.

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Everything is the puruṣa

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अपर-विद्यायाः सर्वं कार्यम् उक्तम्। स च संसारो यत्-सारो यस्मान् मूलाद् अ-क्षरात् संभवति, यस्मिंश् च प्रलीयते, तद् अ-क्षरं पुरुषाख्यं सत्यम्।
All the effects of the lower knowledge have been stated. And that Imperishable is the Truth called Puruṣa (the all pervasive Reality), and That is the essence of this phenomenal existence, the source from which it springs, and the place where it gets dissolved.

यस्मिन् “विज्ञाते सर्वम् इदं विज्ञातं भवति” (MunU.1.1.3), तत्-परस्या ब्रह्म-विद्याया विषयः। स वक्तव्य इत्य् उत्तरो ग्रन्थ आरभ्यते –

That (Reality), after knowing which all this becomes known, is the subject matter of the higher knowledge of Brahman. That has to be stated. Hence commences the subsequent text:


tad, etad, satya. yathā, su-dīpta, pāvaka, visphul-iṅga, sahasraśas, pra-√bhū, sa-rūpa;
tathā, a-kṣara, vividha, somya, bhāva, pra-√jan, tatra, ca, eva, api, √i.

तद् एतद् [इह] सत्यम् [अ-वि-तथम् अस्ति] – सोम्य, यथा सु-दीप्तात् पावकात् [महा-उपाधिकात् अग्नेः] सहस्रशः [अन्-एकशः] स-रूपाः [अग्नि-स-लक्षणाः] विस्फुल्-इङ्गाः [अल्प-उपाधिकाः अग्नि-अवयवाः] प्रभवन्ते, तथा अ-क्षरात् [ब्रह्मणः] विविधाः [नाना-देह-उपाधि-भेदाः] भावाः [जीवाः] प्रजायन्ते, तत्र एव [अ-क्षरे] च अपि यन्ति॥
The truth is this:
Just as from a well lit fire, sparks (“outward expansions”) by the thousands arise, having the very same nature (as nothing but fire itself, KathU.2.2.9), similarly from the imperishable (a-kṣara, puruṣa), O pleasing one, varieties of entities (having the very same nature) (appear as though to) arise and (eventually) go back only into it (yet there is nothing but the imperishable puruṣa alone. Similar to the universal element called fire which can be visually separated as light here and there, yet is present everywhere as heat, above absolute zero).
The truth is this (तद् एतद् सत्यम्):
● Just as from a well lit fire (यथा सु-दीप्तात् पावकात्) sparks (“outward expansions”) (विस्फुल्-इङ्गाः)
○ by the thousands arise (सहस्रशः प्रभवन्ते) having the very same nature (they are both nothing but fire itself) (स-रूपाः),
● similarly from the imperishable (A-kṣara, Puruṣa) (तथा अ-क्षरात्), O pleasing one, varieties of entities (having the very same nature) (विविधाः, सोम्य, भावाः)
○ (appear as though to) arise (प्रजायन्ते), and go back only into it (तत्र च एव अपि यन्ति).
यद् अपर-विद्या-विषयं कर्म-फल-लक्षणम्, “सत्यं” (MunU.1.2.1) तद् आपेक्षिकम्। इदं तु पर-विद्या-विषयम्, परमार्थ-सल्-लक्षणत्वात्।
That truth (vide MunU.1.2.1) which is constituted by the results of karma, the subject matter of the lower knowledge, is only relatively so. But this truth is the subject matter of the higher knowledge, since it is possessed of the characteristics of the supreme Reality.
[•I.e. since it can never be sublated.•]

तद् एतत् सत्यं यथा-भूतं विद्या-विषयम्, अ-विद्या-विषयत्वाच् च अन्-ऋतम् इतरत्। अत्यन्त-परोक्षत्वात् कथं नाम प्रत्यक्षवत् सत्यम् अ-क्षरं प्रतिपद्येरन्? इति दृष्टान्तम् आह –
Tat etat, that thing, which is the subject matter of (higher) knowledge; is satyam, true, just as it is, whereas the other is unreal, being within the domain of ignorance. Since the True and Imperishable is altogether beyond direct cognition, an illustration is being cited with a view to making people somehow directly realize It:

यथा सु-दीप्तात् सुष्ठु दीप्ताद् इद्धात् पावकाद् अग्नेः विस्फुल्-इङ्गाः अग्न्य्-अवयवाः सहस्रशः अन्-एकशः प्रभवन्ते निर्गच्छन्ति स-रूपाः अग्नि-स-लक्षणा एव,
Yathā, as; su-dīptāt pāvakāt, from a fire well lighted up; visphul-iṅgāḥ, sparks, parts of the fire; sa-rūpāḥ, that are verily akin to the fire; prabhavante, fly off; sahasraśaḥ, in their thousands, innumerably;

तथा उक्त-लक्षणाद् (MunU.1.1.5) अ-क्षराद् विविधाः नाना-देहोपाधि-भेदम् अनु विधीयमानत्वाद् विविधाः, हे सोम्य, भावाः जीवाः आकाशादिवद् घटादि-परिच्छिन्नाः सु-षिर-भेदा घटाद्य्-उपाधि-प्रभेदम् अनु भवन्ति, एवं नाना-नाम-रूप-कृत-देहोपाधि-प्रभवम् अनु प्रजायन्ते, तत्र च_एव तस्मिन्न् एव च_अ-क्षरे अपियन्ति (अपि यन्ति) देहोपाधि-विलयम् अनु विलीयन्ते घटादि-विलयम् अन्व् इव सु-षिर-भेदाः।
Tathā, similarly; somya, O good-looking (or amiable) one!; a-kṣarāt, from the Imperishable, of the foregoing characteristics; (originate) vividhāḥ bhāvāḥ, different kinds of creatures – different because of conformity with the various bodies that form the limiting adjuncts. The different (small) empty spaces, circumscribed by pots etc., seem to spring from space in conformity with the differences in the limiting adjuncts viz the pots etc.; just in this way the creatures prajāyante, originate,in accordance with the creation, under various names and forms, of the bodies that are their limiting adjuncts; tatra ca eva, and into that again, into that very Imperishable; they apiyanti, merge, following the dissolution of the bodies that are their limiting adjuncts, just as the different empty spaces do on the disintegration of the pots etc.

यथा_आकाशस्य सु-षिर-भेदोत्पत्ति-प्रलय-निमित्तत्वं घटाद्य्-उपाधि-कृतम् एव, तद्वद् अ-क्षरस्य_अपि नाम-रूप-कृत-देहोपाधि-निमित्तम् एव जीवोत्पत्ति-प्रलय-निमित्तत्वम्॥

As in the origin and dissolution of the different cavities, space appears as a (material) cause owing to the presence of the limiting adjuncts, viz pots etc., so also in the matter of the birth and death of the individuals, the Imperishable appears as a cause only owing to the presence of the limiting adjuncts, viz the bodies created by name and form.


नाम-रूप-बीज-भूताद् अ-व्याकृताख्यात् स्व-विकारापेक्षया पराद् अ-क्षरात् परं यत् सर्वोपाधि-भेद-वर्जितम् अ-क्षरस्य_एव स्व-रूपम् आकाशस्य_इव सर्व-मूर्ति-वर्जितं ‘न_इति न_इति’_इत्य्-आदि-विशेषणं (BrhU.2.3.6) विवक्षन्न् आह –
The text now proceeds to speak of the Imperishable that is higher than the (other) imperishable which is the seed of name and form, which is called the Unmanifested (Māyā), and which is itself higher than its own modifications; this (absolute) Imperishable which is devoid of all differences created by limiting adjuncts, which is the very essence of the (other) immutable, which like space is free from all forms, and is describable by such expressions as ‘Not this, not this’:
divya, hi, a-mūrta, puruṣa, sa-bāhya-abhyantara, hi, a-ja;
a-prāṇa, hi, a-manas, śubhra, hi, a-kṣara, paratas, para.

पुरूषः दिव्यः हि [यस्मात्] अ-मूर्तः, स-बाह्य-अभ्यन्तरः हि [यस्मात्] अ-जः [स्थूल-षड्-भाव-विकार-वर्जितः], अ-प्राणः हि अ-मनाः [सूक्ष्म-शरीर-वर्जितः], शुभ्रः हि, परतस् अ-क्षरात् [अ-व्ययात् मायायाः] परः [निर्-उपाधिक-पुरूषः]॥
That (imperishable) puruṣa is shinning (divya, revealing), therefore is formless (a-mūrta, not the revealed). Therefore, it is indeed both outside and inside (all forms). Therefore, is unborn (as a particular form). Therefore, is free from an individual prāṇa and mind, and is pure (nothing but itself alone). It is ultimate to the other a-kṣara (called a-vyakta, the beginningless Lord Brahmā, as the unmanifest potential for every manifestation cycle of the universe, KathU.1.2.16).
● That (imperishable) Puruṣa is shinning (Divya, revealing), therefore is formless (A-mūrta, not the revealed) (दिव्यः हि अ-मूर्तः पुरुषः).
○ Therefore, it is indeed both outside and inside (all forms) (स-बाह्य-अभ्यन्तरः हि), (therefore) it is unborn (as a particular form) (अ-जः).
● Therefore, it is free from (an individual) Prāṇa and mind (अ-प्राणः हि अ-मनाः), (and) is pure (nothing but itself alone) (शुभ्रः हि).
○ It is superior to the other A-kṣara (called A-vyakta, the beginningless, the Lord Brahmā, as the unmanifest potential for every manifestation cycle of the universe, KathU.1.2.16) (अ-क्षरात् परतः परः).
दिव्यः द्योतनवान् स्वयं-ज्योतिष्ट्वात्, दिवि वा स्वात्मनि भवः, अ-लौकिको वा, हि यस्माद् अ-मूर्तः सर्व-मूर्ति-वर्जितः, पुरुषः पूर्णः पुरि-शयो वा, स-बाह्याभ्यन्तरः सह बाह्याभ्यन्तरेण वर्तत इति।
Puruṣaḥ, the Puruṣa, who is so called because of (the derivative meaning of) all-pervasiveness or residence in the heart; is divyaḥ, resplendent – by virtue of self-effulgence or residence in His own resplendent Self – or transcendental; hi, because; He is a-mūrtaḥ, devoid of all forms. The self-effulgent Puruṣa, being formless and all-pervasive, is sa-bāhya-abhyantaraḥ, coextensive with all that is external or internal;

अ-जः न जायते कुतश्चित्, स्वतोऽन्यस्य जन्म-निमित्तस्य च_अ-भावाद्, यथा जल-बुद्बुद्-आदेर् वाय्व्-आदिः, यथा नभः-सुषिर-भेदानां घटादिः।
A-jaḥ, birthless, not born of anything, since there is nothing else but Himself which can be His cause of birth, in the sense that air is the cause of water-bubbles etc., or pots etc. are the causes of the different kinds of cavities of space.

सर्व-भाव-विकाराणां जनि-मूलत्वात् तत्-प्रतिषेधेन सर्वे प्रतिषिद्धा भवन्ति। स-बाह्याभ्यन्तरो ह्य् अ-जः अतोऽजरोऽमृतोऽक्षरो ध्रुवोऽभय इत्यर्थः।
As all modifications of positive entities are preceded by their births, the denial of birth is tantamount to the denial of all modifications. Hi, as – as that Being, coeval with all that is external or internal, is unborn, hence it is ageless, deathless and imperishable, constant and fearless. This is the idea.

यद्यपि देहाद्य्-उपाधि-भेद-दृष्टीनाम् अ-विद्यावशाद् देह-भेदेषु स-प्राणः स-मनाः सेन्द्रियः स-विषय इव प्रत्यवभासते तल-मलादिमद् इव_आकाशम्, तथापि तु स्वतः परमार्थ-दृष्टीनाम् अ-प्राणः अ-विद्यमानः क्रिया-शक्ति-भेदवान् चलनात्मको वायुर् यस्मिन्न् असौ अ-प्राणः।
Although like the sky, appearing as possessed of surface and taints, It appears in the context of the different bodies to be possessed of vital force, mind, senses, and objects, in the eyes of those people whose vision, owing to their ignorance, is fixed on the multiplicity of the limiting adjuncts, e.g. the bodies etc., yet from Its own point of view It is a-prāṇaḥ, without the vital force, to those whose eyes are fixed on the supreme Reality. That is called a-prāṇaḥ in which air, the principle of motion, does not exist in its diversity of the power of action.

तथा अ-मनाः अन्-एक-ज्ञान-शक्ति-भेदवत् संकल्पाद्य्-आत्मकं मनोऽप्य् अ-विद्यमानं यस्मिन् सोऽयम् अ-मनाः। अ-प्राणो ह्य् अ-मनाश् च_इति प्राणादि-वायु-भेदाः कर्मेन्द्रियाणि तद्-विषयाश् च तथा बुद्धि-मनसी बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि तद्-विषयाश् च प्रतिषिद्धा वेदितव्याः,
Similarly, It is a-manāḥ, without mind, that in which even the mind, consisting of thinking etc. and possessing diverse powers of knowledge does not exist. By the expressions ‘without vital force’ and ‘without mind’, it is to be understood that all the different vital forces, viz Prāṇa, (Apāna, etc.), the organs of action, and the objects of those organs, as also the intellect and the mind, the senses of perception and their objects are denied.

यथा श्रुत्य्-अन्तरे – “ध्यायति_इव लेलायति_इव”_ इति (BrhU.4.3.7)।
In support of this, there occurs this passage in another Upaniṣad: ‘It thinks, as it were, and It shakes, as it were’ (BrhUEng.4.3.7).

यस्माच् च_एवं प्रतिषिद्धोपाधि-द्वयस्, तस्मात् शुभ्रः शुद्धः। अतो अ-क्षरान् नाम-रूप-बीजोपाधि-लक्षित-स्वरूपात्, सर्व-कार्य-करण-बीजत्वेन_उपलक्ष्यमाणत्वात् परं तद्-उपाधि-लक्षणम् अ-व्याकृताख्यम् अ-क्षरं सर्व-विकारेभ्यस् तस्मात् परतोऽक्षरात् परः निर्-उपाधिकः पुरुष इत्यर्थः।
As the two limiting adjuncts are denied in It, so It is śubhraḥ, pure. And hence It is paraḥ, higher; parataḥ a-kṣarāt, as compared with the (other) higher imperishable called the Unmanifested (i. e. Māyā). And the nature of this Māyā is inferred from the fact of its being the limiting adjunct of Brahman that appears to be the seed of name and form.
[•In such manifestations of consciousness as memory, doubt, etc., the power of Brahman remains ingrained, and thus Brahman appears to be the cause of name and form; but in reality the transcendental Brahman cannot be so; and accordingly Māyā has to be assumed to be the limiting adjunct of Brahman, causing this appearance of causality in Brahman.•]
And that (other) imperishable, called the Unmanifested, that is inferred as the limiting adjunct of that (higher) Imperishable, is itself higher than all the modifications, because by implication it is the seed of all the effects and accessories.
[•Effects are known to be inferior to the cause; so the principle of Māyā, which is known as the cause, must be superior to its effects.•]
The unconditioned, all pervasive entity is paraḥ, higher; a-kṣarāt parataḥ, than that imperishable (Māyā) which is superior (to its effects). This is the idea.

यस्मिंस् तद् आकाशाख्यम् (BrhU.3.7.5) अ-क्षरं संव्यवहार-(स-व्यवहार-)विषयम् ओतं प्रोतं च। कथं पुनर् अ-प्राणादिमत्त्वं तस्य? इत्य् उच्यते। यदि हि प्राणादयः प्राग् उत्पत्तेः पुरुष इव स्वेन_आत्मना सन्ति, तदा पुरुषस्य प्राणदिना विद्यमानेन प्राणादिमत्त्वं भवेन्,
It is being show how, again, can that Entity in which is interwoven the (other, lower) imperishable, called ākāśa, that enters as an object into all empirical dealings, be without the vital force etc. If, like the Puruṣa (the all-pervasive Entity), the vital force etc. exist as such before creation, then, by virtue of their coexistence (with It), the all-pervasive Entity will be possessed of the vital force etc.

न तु ते प्राणादयः प्राग् उत्पत्तेः पुरुष इव स्वेन आत्मना सन्ति तदा। अतोऽप्राणादिमान् परः पुरुषः, यथा_अन्-उत्पन्ने पुत्रे अ-पुत्रो देव-दत्तः॥

But as a fact, unlike the all-pervasive Entity, the vital forces etc. do not exist then, as such, before creation; therefore the supremely all-pervasive Entity is without vital forces, just as Deva-datta is said to be without a son so long as a son is not born.


कथं ते न सन्ति प्राणादय? इति उच्यते यस्मात् –
As to how those vital forces etc. do not exist is being stated:
etad, √jan, prāṇa, manas, sarva-indriya, ca;
kha, vāyu, jyotis, ap, pṛthivī, viśva, dhāriṇī.

एतस्मात् [निर्-उपाधिक-पुरुषात् एव मायया] जायते – खम्, वायुः, ज्योतिस् [अग्निः], आपः, विश्वस्य धारिणी पृथिवी, [यतः] प्राणः, मनः, सर्वाणि इन्द्रियाणि, [विषयाः] च॥
From this (a-kṣara, para brahman), (like from the fire, without being of a different nature) arises prāṇa, mind, and all the organs of knowledge and action, as well as the elements space, air, fire, water, and earth which sustains all the life forms.
● From this (A-kṣara, Para Brahman) (एतस्मात्) (like from the fire) arises Prāṇa (जायते प्राणः),
○ mind and all the organs (of knowledge and action) (मनः, सर्व-इन्द्रियाणि च),
● (the subtle and physical elements) space, air, fire, water (खं, वायुः, ज्योतिः, आपः),
○ (and) earth (पृथिवी) which sustains all (the life forms) (विश्वस्य धारिणी).
एतस्माद् एव पुरुषान् नाम-रूप-बीजोपाधि-लक्षिताज् जायते उत्पद्यतेऽविद्या-विषयो विकार-भूतो नामधेयोऽन्-ऋतात्मकः प्राणः, “वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयम्” (ChanU.6.1.4) ‘अन्-ऋतम्’ इति श्रुत्य्-अन्तरात्।
Etasmāt, from this, this very Puruṣa that is indicated by the limiting adjunct which is the seed of name and form; jāyate, originates; prāṇaḥ, the vital force, that is an object and a modification of nescience, exists only in name, and is essentially unreal in accordance with another Veda text, ‘All modification has speech only as its support (vācā-ārambhaṇam nāma-dheyam); it is unreal’ (ChanU.6.1.4).

न हि तेन_अ-विद्या-विषयेण_अन्-ऋतेन प्राणेन स-प्राणत्वं परस्य स्याद्, अ-पुत्रस्य स्वप्न-दृष्टेन_इव पुत्रेण स-पुत्रत्वम्।
For just as a man, who has no son, does not become possessed of one by seeing him in dream, similarly, the supreme Reality cannot become possessed of the vital force by being endued with that vital force which is included in ignorance and is unreal.

एवं मनः [सर्व-इन्द्रियाणि] सर्वाणि च_इन्द्रियाणि विषयाश् _एतस्माद् एव जायन्ते। तस्मात् सिद्धम् अस्य निर्-उपचरितम् अ-प्राणादिमत्त्वम् इत्यर्थः। यथा च प्राग् उत्पत्तेः परमार्थतोऽसन्तः, तथा [ऊर्ध्वम् उत्पत्तेः] प्रलीनाश् च_इति द्रष्टव्याः।
In this way, manas, the mind; and sarva-indriyāṇi, all the senses; as well as the objects, originate from this One. Therefore it is proved that the Puruṣa is devoid of the vital force etc. in the real sense of the term. This is the import and it is to be understood that just as these did not exist in reality before origination, so also they become non-existent after dissolution.

यथा करणानि मनश् च_इन्द्रियाणि, तथा शरीर-विषय-कारणानि भूतानि खम् आकाशं, वायुः अन्तर् बाह्य आवहादि-भेदः, ज्योतिः अग्निः, आपः उदकं, पृथिवी धरित्री विश्वस्य सर्वस्य धारिणी, एतानि च शब्द-स्पर्श-रूप-रस-गन्धोत्तरोत्तर-गुणानि पूर्व-पूर्व-गुण-सहितान्य् एतस्माद् एव जायन्ते॥

And as is the case with the organs, senses, and mind, so also is the case with the elements that are the causes of the bodies and the objects – the elements that are kham, space; vāyuḥ, the air inside and outside, differentiated as āvaha (moving towards), pravaha (moving away from), etc.; jyotiḥ, fire; āpaḥ, water; pṛthivī, earth; which is viśvasya dhāriṇī, the support of all. All these elements that possess seriatim the qualities of sound, touch, colour, taste, and smell, together with all the qualities that belong to the predecessors of each, (all these) originate from this very Puruṣa.


संक्षेपतः पर-विद्या-विषयम् अ-क्षरं निर्-विशेषं पुरुषं सत्यम् “दिव्यो ह्य् अ-मूर्तः” (MunU.2.1.2) इत्यादिना मन्त्रेण_उक्त्वा, पुनस् तद् एव स-विशेषं विस्तरेण वक्तव्यम् इति प्रववृते,
After the brief presentation in the verse, ‘The Puruṣa is transcendental, since He is formless’ etc., of he Imperishable, the unqualified Puruṣa, that is the Truth and forms the subject matter of the higher knowledge, He has again to be presented in detail in His conditioned state; and hence the following text.

संक्षेप-विस्तरोक्तो हि पदार्थः सुखाधिगम्यो भवति सूत्र-भाष्योक्तिवद् इति।
For, when a subject matter is stated in brief and in extenso like an aphorism and its commentary, it becomes easy of comprehension.

यो हि प्रथम-जात् प्राणाद् धिरण्य-गर्भाज् जायतेऽण्डस्य_अन्तर्-विराट्, स तत्त्वान्तरितत्त्वेन लक्ष्यमाणोऽप्य् एतस्माद् एव पुरुषाज् जायत एतन्मयश् च_इत्य् एतद् अर्थम् आह, तं च विशिनष्टि –

As for that Virāṭ within the cosmic egg who takes His birth from the first born Prāṇa, i.e. from Hiraṇya-garbha, He (Virāṭ), too, though apparently seen as separated from the Puruṣa by another intervening principle (viz Hiraṇya-garbha), is born of this very Puruṣa and remains permeated by Him. This fact is being stated, and He (Virāṭ) is being described:
agni, mūrdhan, cakṣus, candra-sūrya, diś, śrotra, vāc, vivṛta, ca, veda;
vāyu, prāṇa, hṛdaya, viśva, idam, pad, pṛthivī, hi, etad, sarva-bhūta-antar-ātman.

अस्य [यस्य विराट्-आत्मनः पुरुषस्य] मूर्धा अग्निः [द्यु-लोक-रूपः], चक्षुषी चन्द्र-सूर्यौ, श्रोत्रे [कर्णौ] दिशः, वाच् विवृताः वेदाः, प्राणः वायुः, हृदयं विश्वं, पद्भ्यां पृथिवी [जाता] च – एषः [पुरुषः] हि सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा॥
(Physically this a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ, the universal person has) the bright heavens as His head, moon and sun as eyes, space (the directions) as ears, the well known Vedas as His organ of speech, air as His life-breath, the universe as His heart, and earth as His feet – this is the self in relation to all beings (within).
● (Physically as Virāṭ, the universal person has) the bright heavens (Agni) as the head (अग्निः मूर्धा), the moon and sun as eyes (चक्षुषी चन्द्र-सूर्यौ),
○ the space (directions) as ears (दिशः श्रोत्रे), the well known Vedas as the organ of speech (वाच् विवृताः च वेदाः),
● the air as the life-breath (वायुः प्राणः), the universe as the heart (हृदयं विश्वम्),
○ and earth as His feet (अस्य पद्भ्यां पृथिवी हि) – this is the (one) self in relation to all beings (within) (एषः सर्व-भूतान्तर्-आत्मा).
अग्निः द्यु-लोकः, “असौ वाव लोको [हे] गौतम_अग्निः” (ChanU.5.4.1) इति श्रुतेः, मूर्धा यस्य_उत्तमाङ्गं शिरः।
Of whom the mūrdhan, head, the best limb; is agniḥ, (lit. fire, means here) heaven, in accordance with the Veda text, ‘O Gautama, that world is surely the fire’ (ChanU.5.4.1).

चक्षुषी चन्द्रश् च सूर्यश् च_इति चन्द्र-सूर्यौ, यस्य_इति सर्वत्र_अनुषङ्गः कर्तव्यः “अस्य”_इत्य् अस्य पदस्य वक्ष्यमाणस्य यस्य_इति विपरिणामं कृत्वा।
Of whom cakṣuṣī, the two eyes; are candra-sūryau, the moon and the sun. The words ‘Of whom’ are to be supplied everywhere, by transforming the word ‘asya, of Him’, that follows (in the third line), to ‘yasya, of whom’.

दिशः श्रोत्रे यस्य। वाक् विवृताः उद्घाटिताः प्रसिद्धा वेदाः यस्य। वायुः प्राणो यस्य।
Of whom diśaḥ śrotre, the directions are the two ears; of whom vivṛtāh vedāḥ, the revealed, well-known, Vedas; are the vāk, speech; of whom vāyuḥ prāṇaḥ, air is the vital force;

हृदयम् अन्तःकरणं विश्वं समस्तं जगद् अस्य ‘यस्य’_इत्य् एतत्। सर्वं ह्य् अन्तःकरण-विकारम् एव जगद्, मनस्य् एव सुषुप्ते प्रलय-दर्शनाज्, जागरितेऽपि तत एव_अग्नि-विस्फुल्-इङ्गवद् विप्रतिष्ठानात्।
Asya, i.e. yasya, of whom; viśvam, the whole Universe; is hṛdayam, the heart; for the entire world is a modification of the mind, inasmuch as it is seen to merge in the mind during deep sleep, and even during the waking state it is seen to emerge out of it to exist divergently, like sparks out of fire.

यस्य च पद्भ्यां जाता पृथिवी, एष देवो विष्णुर् अन्-अन्तः प्रथम-शरीरी त्रै-लोक्य-देहोपाधिः सर्वेषां भूतानाम् अन्तर्-आत्मा [सर्व-भूत-अन्तर्-आत्मा]।
And padbhyām, from whose two feet; pṛthivī, the earth, is born. Esaḥ, this one – the deity who is Viṣṇu (the all-pervading), or An-anta (the infinite), the first embodied Being who has the three worlds as his physical limiting adjunct – is sarva-bhūta-antar-ātmā, the indwelling Self of all.

स हि सर्व-भूतेषु द्रष्टा श्रोता मन्ता विज्ञाता सर्व-करणात्मा॥

He is in fact the seer, hearer, thinker, knower, and the reality of all the senses
[•Another reading is ‘sarva-karaṇa-ātmā, the reality that is the cause of all’.•]
in all beings.


पञ्चाग्नि-द्वारेण च याः संसरन्ति प्रजाः, ता अपि तस्माद् एव पुरुषात् प्रजायन्त इत्य् उच्यते –
And the creatures, too, that transmigrate through the five fires,
[•Heaven, cloud, earth, father and mother (ChanU.5.4–8).•]
are born from that very Puruṣa. This is being said:

tad, agni, samidha, yad, sūrya, soma, parjanya, oṣadhi, pṛthivī;
pumaṃs, retas, √sic, yoṣitā, bahu, prajā, puruṣa, samprasūta.

तस्माद् [अ-क्षर-पुरुषात्] अग्निः [द्यु-लोक-रूपः प्रथम-अग्निः सम्भवति], यस्य सूर्यः समिधः [समिन्धनम् इव]। [तत्र सोम-रूप-जीवः संसरति (ChanU.5.4, BrS.3.1.1)]। सोमात् [=चन्द्रात्] पर्जन्यः [द्वितीय-अग्नौ जल-रूप-जीवः संसरति]। [पर्जन्यात्] पृथिव्यां ओषधयः [तृतीय-अग्नौ ओषधि-रूप-जीवः संसरति]। पुमान् रेतस् [चतुर्थ-अग्नौ रेत-रूप-जीवः संसरति] योषितायां सिञ्चति [पञ्च-अग्नौ प्रजा-रूप-जीवः संसरति]। [एवं क्रमेण] पुरुषात् बह्वीः [बह्व्यः] प्रजाः सम्प्रसूताः॥
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ) arises (samprasūta) the heavens of which the fuel is the sun. From the moon arises the rain clouds. From the plants on earth arises the male seed which is planted into the female womb. In this way, all the varieties of living beings arise from this (one) puruṣa (alone).
● From that (A-kṣara, Para Brahman, as Virāṭ) (तस्मात्) (arises) the heavens of which the fuel is the sun (अग्निः समिधः यस्य सूर्यः).
○ From the moon (arises) the rain clouds (सोमात् पर्जन्यः). From the plants on earth (ओषधयः पृथिव्याम्)
● (arises) the male seed (पुमान् रेतस्) which is planted into the female womb (सिञ्चति योषितायाम्).
○ (In this way) all the varieties of living beings (बह्वीः प्रजाः) arise from this (one) Puruṣa (alone) (पुरुषात् संप्रसूताः).
तस्मात् परस्मात् पुरुषात् प्रजावस्थान-विशेष-रूपः अग्निः। स विशेष्यते – समिधो यस्य सूर्यः, समिध इव समिधः, सूर्येण हि द्यु-लोकः समिध्यते। ततो हि द्यु-लोकान् निष्पन्नात् सोमात् पर्जन्यः द्वितीयोऽग्निः सम्भवति। तस्माच् च पर्जन्याद् ओषधयः पृथिव्यां सम्भवन्ति। ओषधिभ्यः पुरुषाग्नौ हुताभ्य उपादान-भूताभ्यः पुमान् अग्निः रेतः सिञ्चति योषितायां योषिति योषाग्नौ स्त्रियाम् इति। एवं क्रमेण बह्वीः बह्व्यः प्रजाः ब्राह्मणाद्याः पुरुषात् परस्मात् सम्प्रसूताः समुत्पन्नाः॥
Tasmāt, from that supreme Puruṣa; (originates) agniḥ, fire which is a particular abode (or state) or creatures – that (fire) is being specified – yasya, of which; sūryaḥ, the sun; is samidhaḥ, the fuel, as it were; for heaven is lighted up by the sun. Somāt, from the moon, that evolves out of heaven; originates parjanyaḥ, cloud, which is the second fire. From that cloud originate oṣadhayaḥ, the herbs and corns; pṛthivyām, on the earth (the third fire). Pumān, man, who is the (fourth) fire; siñcati, sheds; the retas, semen, that originates from the herbs and corns when poured as an oblation into the fire that is man; yoṣitāyām, (should rather be yoṣiti), into a woman that is (the fifth) fire. In this order bahvīh (rather bahvyaḥ), many; prajāḥ, creatures; samprasūtāḥ, have originated; puruṣāt, from the supreme Puruṣa.


किञ्च, कर्म-साधनानि फलानि च तस्माद् एव_इत्य् आह – कथम्?
Moreover, it is being said that the auxiliaries of karmas, as well as their fruits, emerge verily from Him. How?
tad, ṛc, sāman, yajus, dīkṣā, yajña, ca, sarva, kratu, dakṣiṇā, ca;
saṃvat-sara, ca, yajamāna, ca, loka, soma, yatra, √pū, yatra, sūrya.

तस्मात् [पुरुषात्] ऋचः, साम, यजूंषि, दीक्षाः [कर्तृ-नियम-विशेषाः], सर्वे यज्ञाः च, क्रतवः, दक्षिणाः च, संवत्-सरः [कालः] च, यजमानः [कर्ता] च, लोकाः [दक्षिण-उत्तर-अयण-मार्ग-गम्याः] च यत्र [येषु लोकेषु] सोमः [चन्द्रः] पवते यत्र सूर्यः [च]॥
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ), the Ṛc, Sāman and Yajus (mantras), the consecration rituals, all yajñas (which would not have an animal sacrifice) and rituals which do (called kratus, involving a sacrificial post, yūpa), the ritual gifts, the year, the sacrificer, and the all the worlds and heavens, where the moon and the sun sanctify the way.
● From that (A-kṣara, Para Brahman, as Virāṭ) (तस्मात्) the Ṛc, Sāman, and Yajus (Mantras) (ऋचः साम यजूंषि), the consecration rituals (दीक्षाः),
○ all Yajñas (which would not have an animal sacrifice) (यज्ञाः च सर्वे) and rituals which do (called Kratus, involving a sacrificial post, Yūpa) (क्रतवः), the ritual gifts (दक्षिणाः च),
● the year (संवत्-सरः च), the sacrificer (यजमानः च), and the all the worlds and heavens (लोकाः),
○ where the moon (सोमः यत्र) and the sun sanctify the way (पवते यत्र सूर्यः).
तस्मात् पुरुषाद् ऋचः नियताक्षर-पादावसानाः गायत्र्य्-आदि-च्छन्दो-विशिष्टा मन्त्राः, साम पाञ्च-भक्तिकं साप्त-भक्तिकं च स्तोभादि-गीत-विशिष्टम्, यजूंषि अ-नियताक्षर-पादावसानानि वाक्य-रूपाणि, एवं त्रि-विधा मन्त्राः।
Tasmāt, from Him, from the Puruṣa; (emerge) ṛcaḥ, the (metrical) mantras that have their letters, feet, and length well regulated, and have such metres as he Gāyatrī and so on. Sāma is that which is divided into five parts or seven parts, and is embellished with stobha etc. and tune.
[•Consisting of five parts – hiṅ-kāra, prastāva, udgātha, pratihāra, and nidhāna; of the seven parts – the foregoing five and upadrava and ādi. Stobhas are chanted interjections in a Sāma song, such as hum, ho (vide ChanU.1.13 – 2.21).•]
Yajūṃṣi are the mantras whose letters, feet, and length are not fixed, and which merely take the form of sentences. These are the three kinds of mantras.

दीक्षाः मौञ्ज्य्-आदि-लक्षणाः कर्तृ-नियम-विशेषाः।
Dīkṣāḥ, initiation, consisting in wearing a girdle etc. made of Muñja grass – that is to say, the different observances to be followed by the sacrificer (preparatory to the actual rite).

यज्ञाश् च सर्वे अग्नि-होत्रादयः। क्रतवः स-यूपाः।
Ca sarve yajñāḥ, and all the sacrifices – Agni-hotra etc. – (in which animals are not sacrificed). Kratavaḥ, the sacrifices involving the use of a sacrificial stake.

दक्षिणाश् च एक-गवाद्य्-अ-परिमित-सर्वस्वान्ताः।
Ca dakṣiṇāḥ, and the offerings to priests and Brāhmaṇas, ranging from the giving of a cow to all one possesses.

संवत्-सरश् च कालः कर्माङ्गः।
Ca saṃvat-saraḥ, and the year, which, as time, forms a factor in a rite.

यजमानश् च कर्ता।
Ca yajamānaḥ, and the sacrificer, the performer (of a sacrifice).

लोकाः तस्य कर्म-फल-भूताः, ते विशेष्यन्ते – सोमः यत्र येषु लोकेषु पवते पुनाति लोकान् यत्र येषु सूर्यस् तपति च। ते च दक्षिणायनोत्तरायण-मार्ग-द्वय-गम्या विद्वद्-अ-विद्वत्-कर्तृ-फल-भूताः॥

Lokāḥ, the worlds, which are the results of that (sacrifice). Those (results) are being specified: Yatra, where, in which worlds; somaḥ pavate, the moon sanctifies the creatures; and yatra, where; sūryaḥ, the sun shines. These (worlds) are attainable through the two paths, called the Southern Path and the Northern Path; and they are the results of the rites performed by the ignorant and those who are possessed of knowledge (upāsanā).


tad, ca, deva, bahudhā, samprasūta, sādhya, manuṣya, paśu, vayas;
prāṇa-apāna, vrīhi-yava, tapas, ca, śrad-dhā, satya, brahma-carya, vidhi, ca.

तस्मात् [पुरुषात्] च देवाः बहुधा सम्प्रसूताः – [तस्माद् बहुधा] साध्याः [देव-विशेषाः], मनुष्याः, पशवः, वयांसि, प्राणापानौ, व्रीहि-यवौ [हविस्-अर्थौ], तपस् च, शद्धा, सत्यं, ब्रह्म-चर्यं, विधिः [कर्तव्यता] च॥
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ) arise the variety of deities, the sādhya class of celestials, humans, animals and birds, the out and in life-breaths, rice and barley, religious discipline, trust (śraddhā), truth (satya), the sole pursuit in the Vedas (brahma-carya), and religious methods and mandates.
● From that (A-kṣara, Para Brahman, as Virāṭ) (तस्मात् च) arise the variety of deities (देवाः बहुधा संप्रसूताः),
○ the Sādhyas class of celestials, humans, animals and birds (साध्याः, मनुष्याः, पशवः, वयासि),
● the out and in life-breaths (प्राण-अपानौ), rice and barley (व्रीहि-यवौ), religious discipline (तपस् च),
○ trust (श्रद्धा), truth (सत्यं), the sole pursuit in the Vedas (ब्रह्म-चर्यं), and religious methods and mandates (विधिः च).
तस्माच् च पुरुषात् कर्माङ्ग-भूता देवाः बहुधा वस्व्-आदि-गण-भेदेन संप्रसूताः सम्यक् प्रसूताः – साध्याः देव-विशेषाः, मनुष्याः कर्माधिकृताः, पशवः ग्राम्यारण्याः, वयांसि पक्षिणः, जीवनं च मनुष्यादीनां प्राणापानौ, व्रीहि-यवौ हविर्-अर्थौ,
Ca, and; tasmāt, from that Puruṣa; samprasūtāḥ, duly issued out; devāḥ, the gods, who are ancillary to rites bahudhā, variously, in different groups of Vasus and others;
[•Eight vasus, twelve Ādityas, eleven Rudras, and others.•]
sādhyāḥ, Sādhyas, a particular class of gods; manuṣyāḥ, human beings, who are entitled to undertake rites; paśavaḥ, beasts – both domestic and wild; vayāṃsi, birds; and prāṇa-apānau, breathing in and out, constituting life; vrīhi-yavau, rice and barley, meant for sacrificial offering;

तपश् च कर्माङ्गं पुरुष-संस्कार-लक्षणं स्व-तन्त्रं च फल-साधनं, श्रद्धा यत्-पूर्वकः सर्व-पुरुषार्थ-साधन-प्रयोगश् चित्त-प्रसाद आस्तिक्य-बुद्धिः, तथा सत्यम् अन्-ऋत-वर्जनं यथा-भूतार्थ-वचनं च_अ-पीडा-करम्, ब्रह्म-चर्यं मैथुनासमाचारः, विधिश् च इति-कर्तव्यता॥

Ca tapas, and austerity, either as a part of a rite meant for personal sanctification, or as an independent act leading to some result; śraddhā, faith – mental tranquillity and belief in the truth of things (taught by the scriptures and the teacher) – which is precondition for the application of all the the means that are productive of human objectives; so also satyam, truth – avoidance of falsehood as well as speaking of facts as they are, without causing injury; brahma-caryam, avoidance of sexual relation; ca vidhiḥ, and dutifulness.


किञ्च –
saptan, prāṇa, pra-√bhū, tad, saptan, arcis, samidh, saptan, homa;
saptan, idam, loka, yad, √car, prāṇa, guhā-āśaya, nihita, saptan, saptan.

तस्मात् [पुरुषात्] प्रभवन्ति – सप्त प्राणाः [इन्द्रियाणि द्वे श्रोत्रे द्वे चक्षुषी द्वे घ्राणे एका वाच्], [तेषां] सप्त अर्चिषः [सप्त-वृत्तयः], सप्त समिधः [विषयाः] होमाः [विषय-विज्ञानानि च], इमे सप्त लोकाः [इन्द्रिय-गोलकाः] [च] येषु प्राणाः चरन्ति। सप्त सप्त [इन्द्रियाणि] गुहा-आशयाः निहिताः [स्थापिताः, हृदये शेरते इति]॥
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ) arise the seven (apertures in the head for) prāṇas (two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and one mouth, PrasU.3.5), their seven prāṇa flame-like (vṛttis of vision, hearing, smelling, and tasting), their fuel-like (sense objects: sights, sounds, smells and tastes, which incite the senses) and the seven oblations (sense objects which again are offered into these sensory flames).
These aperatures and paths are the worlds in which these sensory flames operate.
(In sleep) all these seven by seven sensory prāṇas (aperatures, etcetera) rest in the cave of the heart (the intellect alone, where they can experience dream, and still further resolve in deep sleep).
● From that (A-kṣara, Para Brahman, as Virāṭ) arise the seven (apertures in the head for) Prāṇas (two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and one mouth) (सप्त प्राणाः प्रभवन्ति तस्मात्),
○ their seven (Prāṇa) flame-like (Vṛttis, functions, of vision, hearing, smelling, and tasting) (सप्त अर्चिषः), their fuel-like (sense objects: sights, sounds, smells and tastes, which incite the senses) and the seven oblations (sense objects which again are offered into these sensory flames) (समिधः सप्त होमाः).
● These apertures and paths are the worlds in which these sensory flames operate (सप्त इमे लोकाः येषु चरन्ति).
○ (In sleep) all these seven by seven sensory Prāṇas (apertures, etcetera) rest in the cave of the heart (the intellect alone) (प्राणाः गुहाशयाः निहिताः सप्त सप्त).
सप्त शीर्षण्याः प्राणाः तस्माद् एव पुरुषात् प्रभवन्ति। तेषां च सप्त अर्चिषः दीप्तयः स्व-स्व-विषयावद्योतनानि। तथा सप्त समिधः सप्त-विषयाः, विषयैर् हि समिध्यन्ते प्राणाः। सप्त होमाः, तद्-विषय-विज्ञानानि, “यद् अस्य विज्ञानं तज् जुहोति” (MahU.80) इति श्रुत्य्-अन्तरात्।
Tasmāt, from that very Puruṣa; prabhavanti, originate; sapta prāṇāḥ, the seven sense-organs, which are in the head;
[•Two, eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and tongue.•]
and (so do) their sapta arciṣaḥ, seven flames – the illumination of their objects; similarly the sapta samidhaḥ, seven kinds of fuel – seven sense-objects, for the sense-organs are kindled by their objects, sapta homāḥ, seven oblations – the perception of those sense objects, for another Veda text says, ‘That which is his sense-perception is what he offers as an oblation’ (MahU.80).

किञ्च, सप्त इमे लोकाः इन्द्रिय-स्थानानि, येषु चरन्ति संचरन्ति प्राणाः। प्राणा येषु चरन्ति_इति प्राणानां विशेषणम् इदं प्राणापानादि-निवृत्त्य्-अर्थम्। गुहायां शरीरे हृदये वा स्वाप-काले शेरत इति गुहाशयाःनिहिताः स्थापिता धात्रा सप्त सप्त प्रति-प्राणि-भेदम्।
Besides, ime sapta lokāḥ, these seven seats of the senses; yeṣu, in which; caranti, move about; prāṇāḥ, the sense-organs. The expression ‘where move the sense-organs (prāṇāḥ)’ is an attribute of the prāṇas, so as to exclude Prāṇa, Apāna (the functions of exhaling and inhaling), etc. (They are) guhā-śayāḥ; derived from the word guhā (cavity) and the root śi (to sleep), guhā-śayāḥ, means those that sleep in (the cavity of) the body or the heart, during slumber. Nihitāḥ, (they have been) deposited – by the Ordainer; sapta sapta, in groups of seven, in each living being.

यानि च आत्म-याजिनां (ManSmrt.12.91) विदुषां कर्माणि कर्म-फलानि च, अ-विदुषां च, कर्माणि तत्-साधनानि कर्म-फलानि च सर्वं च_एतत् परस्माद् एव पुरुषात् सर्व-ज्ञात् प्रसूतम् इति प्रकरणार्थः॥

The purport of the topic is that from the supreme, omniscient Puruṣa Himself emerge all that are the karmas or the fruits of karmas of those men of knowledge who sacrifice to the Self,
[•Those who perform sacrifices as a worship of the supreme Lord with this idea: ‘All this as well as myself is but the supreme Self.’-A.G.•]
as well as all that are the karmas and the auxiliaries and results of karmas of the ignorant people.


atas, samudra, giri, ca, sarva, idam, √syand, sindhu, sarva-rūpā;
atas, ca, sarva, oṣadhi, rasa, ca, yad, etad, bhuta, √sthā, hi, antar-ātman.

अतः [पुरुषात्] सर्वे समुद्राः गिरयः च [प्रभवन्ति]। अस्मात् [पुरुषात्] सर्व-रूपाः सिन्धवः [नद्याः] स्यन्दन्ते। अतः [पुरुषात्] च सर्वाः ओषधयः [षड्-विधः जातः] [तेषां] रसः च, येन [रसेन] एष अन्तर्-आत्मा [लिङ्ग-शरीरं] भूतैः [स्थूल-भूतैः सह] तिष्ठते हि॥
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ) arise all the oceans and mountains. From this one (through those), flow all the varieties of rivers. From this one (through those), arise all the plants and their sap (rasa), by which (nourishing juice) the subtle body (antar-ātman) indeed remains (here on earth) amongst the (physical) elements.
● From that (A-kṣara, Para Brahman, as Virāṭ) (अतः) (arise) all the oceans and mountains (समुद्राः गिरयः च सर्वे).
○ From this one (through those) (अस्मात्), flow all the varieties of rivers (स्यन्दन्ते सिन्धवः सर्व-रूपाः).
● From this one (through those) (अतः च), (arise) all the plants and their sap (rasa) (सर्वाः ओषधयः रसः च),
○ by which (nourishing juice) (येन) the subtle body (Antar-ātman) indeed remains (here on earth) amongst the (physical) elements (एषः भूतैः तिष्ठते हि अन्तर्-आत्मा).
अतः पुरुषात् समुद्राः सर्वे क्षाराद्याः गिरयश् च हिमवद्-आदयः। अस्माद् एव पुरुषात् सर्वे स्यन्दन्ते स्रवन्ति गङ्गाद्याः सिन्धवः नद्यः सर्व-रूपाः बहु-रूपाः। [अतः] अस्माद् एव पुरुषात् सर्वाः ओषधयः व्रीहि-यवाद्याः। रसश् च मधुरादिः षड्-विधः, येन रसेन भूतैः पञ्चभिः स्थूलैः परिवेष्टितः एष तिष्ठते तिष्ठति ह्य् अन्तर्-आत्मा लिङ्गं सूक्ष्मं शरीरम्। तद् ह्य् अन्तराले शरीरस्य_आत्मनश् च_आत्मविद् वर्तत इत्य् अन्तर्-आत्मा॥
Ataḥ, from this Puruṣa; issue sarve, all; samudrāḥ, the oceans, of salt etc.; ca girayaḥ, and the mountains – Hima-ālaya etc. Asmāt, from this Puruṣa Himself; syandante, flow out; sindhavaḥ, the rivers – Gaṅgā etc.; sarva-rūpāḥ, of various forms. Ca ataḥ, and from Him, verily; (issue) sarvāh oṣadhayaḥ, all the corns – rice, barely, etc.; ca rasaḥ, and the juice – of six kinds, viz sweet etc.;
[•Sweet, sour, bitter, pungent, astringent, saline.•]
yena, by virtue of which juice; eṣaḥ antar-ātmā, this internal self, the subtle body; hi, verily; tiṣṭhate, (rather tiṣṭhati), exists; bhūtaiḥ, surrounded by the elements, that are gross and five in number. It is called antar-ātmā because of its existence, like a self, in between the (gross) body and the Self.


एवं पुरुषात् सर्वम् इदं सम्प्रसूतम्। अतो “वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयम्” (ChanU.6.1.4) ‘अन्-ऋतं’, पुरुष “इत्य् एव सत्यम्” (ChanU.6.1.4), अतः –
Thus from the Puruṣa emerged all this, Therefore, ‘All modification is supported by speech and it is name only’ (ChanU.6.1.4-6), and it is a false; but only that which is the Puruṣa is true. Hence:
puruṣa, eva, idam, viśva, karman, tapas, brahman, para-a-mṛta;
etad, yad, √vid, nihita, guhā, tad, a-vidyā-granthi, vi-√kṝ, iha, somya.

पुरुषः एव इदं विश्वम्। कर्म तपस् [कर्म-उपासनाभ्यां कार्यं] एतद् [सर्वं] ब्रह्म पर-अ-मृतम् [एव]। सोम्य, यः [एतद् पर-अ-मृतं] गुहायां [हृदि ‘अहम् एव’ इति] निहितं वेद, सः इह [जीवन् एव] अ-विद्या-ग्रन्थिं विकिरति [नाशयति]॥
That puruṣa alone is all this (given world). (Also what you may choose to do, such as) ritual and religious discipline, as well as (the means to know these) the Veda (a-para Brahman, MunU.1.1.5 & MunU.2.1.4) is the ultimate (para), imperishable brahman. The one who knows (all) this as fixed (nihita, present) within the cave of the heart (within the intellect, as oneself, “All this is myself alone”), that one cuts the knot of ignorance here itself (while still living), O pleasing one (MunU.1.1.3).
● That Puruṣa alone is all this (given world) (पुरुषः एव इदं विश्वम्).
○ (Also what you may choose to do, such as) ritual (and) religious discipline (कर्म तपस्), (as well as the means to know these) the Veda (A-para Brahman) is the ultimate (Para), imperishable Brahman (ब्रह्म पर-अ-मृतम्).
● The one who knows (all) this (एतद् यः वेद) as fixed (Nihita, present) within the cave of the heart (within the intellect, as oneself) (निहितं गुहायाम्),
○ that one cuts the knot of ignorance (सः अ-विद्या-ग्रन्थिं विकिरति) here itself (while still living), O pleasing one (MunU.1.1.3) (इह, सोम्य).
पुरुष एव इदं विश्वं सर्वम्। न ‘विश्वं’ नाम पुरुषाद् अन्यत् किंचिद् अस्ति। अतो यद् उक्तं तद् एतद् अभिहितम् “कस्मिन् नु भगवो विज्ञाते सर्वम् इदं विज्ञातं भवति” (MunU.1.1.3) इति, एतस्मिन् हि परस्मिन्न् आत्मनि सर्व-कारणे पुरुषे विज्ञाते, ‘पुरुष एव_इदं विश्वं न_अन्यद् अस्ति’_इति विज्ञातं भवति_इति।
Puruṣaḥ eva, the Puruṣa alone; is viśvam idam, all this. There is no such thing as the Universe apart from the Puruṣa. Therefore the very thing that was asked in the question, ‘O adorable sir, (which is that thing) which having been known, all this becomes known?’ (MunU.1.1.3), has been declared here thus: On knowing this Puruṣa alone, the supreme Self, the source of everything, there arises the realization, ‘Puruṣa alone is all this – there is nothing besides.’

किं पुनर् इदं विश्वम्? इत्य् उच्यते – कर्म अग्नि-होत्रादि-लक्षणं, तपः ज्ञानं, तत्-कृतं फलम् अन्यद् – एतावद् धि_इदं सर्वम्। तच् च एतद् ब्रह्मणः कार्यम्, तस्मात् सर्वं ब्रह्म परामृतम्। परम् अ-मृतम् ‘अहम् एव’ इति यो वेद निहितं स्थितं गुहायां हृदि सर्व-प्राणिनां, सः एवं विज्ञानाद् अ-विद्या-ग्रन्थिं ग्रन्थिम् इव दृढी-भूताम् अ-विद्या-वासनां विकिरति विक्षिपति विनाशयति इह जीवन्न् एव न मृतः सन्, हे सोम्य प्रिय-दर्शन॥

It is being explained as to what, again, this ‘all’ means: Karma, such as Agni-hotra; tapas, knowledge and the separate fruit accruing from it – all these constitute this ‘all’. And all etat, that; is but the product of Brahman. Therefore, yaḥ, he who; veda, knows; thus – ‘I indeed am the Brahma para-a-mṛtam, supreme, immortal Brahman, which is everything; (and which) in nihitam guhāyām, exists in the heart of every being; saḥ, he, by virtue of such realization; vikirati, throws away, destroys; a-vidyā-granthim, the knot of ignorance, the tendencies and impressions created by ignorance that are hard to unite like knots; iha, here, even while living, and not after death, somya, O good-looking (amiable) one!’

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Omkāra contemplation

mn.01 mn.02 mn.03 mn.04 mn.05 mn.06 mn.07 mn.08 mn.09 mn.10 mn.11


अ-रूपं सद् अ-क्षरं केन प्रकारेण विज्ञेयम् इत्य् उच्यते –
It is being stated how the Immutable can be known, though It is formless:
āvis, sannihita, guhā-cara, nāman, mahat, pada, atra, etad, samarpita;
ejat, prāṇat, nimiṣat, ca, yad, etad, √jñā, sat, a-sat, vareṇya;
para, vijñāna, yad, variṣṭha, prajā.

आविस् संनिहितम् [आत्म-चैतन्यं] ‘गुहा-चरं’ नाम महत् पदं [सत्-ब्रह्म]। यद् [किंचिद्] एजत् [चलत्], प्राणत्, निमिषत् च अत्र [ब्र्रह्मणि] समर्पितम्। एतद् [ब्रह्म] जानथ – यद् सद् अ-सद् [मूर्तम् अ-मूर्तं पद-अर्थं], वरेण्यं [प्रार्थनीयम्], वरिष्ठं, प्ररजानां विज्ञानात् परं [च]॥
The shinning one, present here itself as the well known active one in the cave of the heart (the “I”) is in fact the limitless abode in which all this is fixed – anything that moves, breathes, or winks.
May you know this which is at once formed and formless, the most desirable, and, for all people, is beyond (their own) various means of knowing, yet is what they all choose (as ānanda-rūpa, MunU.2.2.7).
● The shinning one, present here itself (आविः सन्निहितम्) as the well known active one in the cave of the heart (the “I”) (गुहा-चरं नाम)
○ is (in fact) the limitless abode (महत् पदम्) in which (all) this is fixed (अत्र एतद् समर्पितम्),
● anything that moves (एजत्), breathes (प्राणत्), or winks (निमिषत् च),
○ May you know this which (यद् एतद् जानथ) is (at once) formed and formless (सद् अ-सद्), the most desirable (वरेण्यम्),
● and, for all people, is beyond (their own) various means of knowing, yet is what they all choose (परं विज्ञानात् यद् वरिष्ठं प्रजानाम्).
आविः प्रकाशं संनिहितं वाग्-आद्य्-उपाधिभिः – ‘ज्वलति भ्राजति’_इति श्रुत्य्-अन्तरात् – शब्दादीन् उपलभमानवद् अवभासते, दर्शन-श्रवण-मनन-विज्ञानाद्य्-उपाधि-धर्मैर् आविर्-भूतं सल् लक्ष्यते हृदि सर्व-प्राणिनाम्। यद् एतद् आविर् ब्रह्म संनिहितं सम्यक् स्थितं हृदि, तद् गुहा-चरं नाम गुहायां चरति_इति दर्शन-श्रवणादि-प्रकारैर् ‘गुहा-चरम्’ इति प्रख्यातम्। महत् सर्व-महत्त्वात्, पदं पद्यते सर्वेण_इति, सर्व-पदार्थास्पदत्वात्।
It is āviḥ, effulgent; (and) sannihitam, near at hand; appearing as though perceiving words etc. through the limiting adjuncts, viz the organs of speech etc.; in accordance with anther Veda text, ‘It shines, It blazes up’, It is cognized in the hearts of all beings as revealing Itself through such functions of the conditioning factors as seeing, hearing, thinking, knowing. That Brahman that is āviḥ, effulgent; and sannihitam, near at hand, in the heart; is guhā-caram nāma, well known as moving in the cavity of the heart, through such modes as seeing and hearing. (It is) mahat, great, because It is the greatest of all; (It is) padam, the goal, since It is the resort of all beings, the word being derived from the root pad in the sense of that which is reached by all.

कथं तन् महत् पदम्? इति_उच्यते। यतः अत्र अस्मिन् ब्रह्मणि एतत् सर्वं समर्पितं प्रवेशितं रथ-नाभाव् इव_अराः – एजच् चलत् पक्ष्य्-आदि, प्राणत् प्राणिति_इति प्राणापानादिमन्-मनुष्य-पश्वादि, निमिषच् च यन् निमेषादि-क्रियावद्, यच् च_अ-निमिषच् च-शब्दात्, समस्तम् एतद् अत्र_एव ब्रह्मणि समर्पितम्।
Now is beng stated how It is the great goal. Since atra, on this Brahman; samarpitam, are fixed all these – like the spokes to the nave of a chariot wheel; ejat, the moving, birds etc.; prāṇat, (all) that breathe – men, animals, etc. who inhale and exhale; yat nimiṣat, all that has such activities as winking; ca, and – which word suggests all that does not wink; etat, all this, is fixed on this very Brahman.

एतद् यद्-आस्पदं सर्वं जानथ, हे शिष्याः, अवगच्छत तद् आत्म-भूतं भवताम्। [सद् असत्] सद्-असत्-स्व-रूपं, सद्-असतोर् मूर्तामूर्तयोः स्थूल-सूक्ष्मयोः (BrhU.2.3.01), तद्-व्यतिरेकेण_अ-भावात्। वरेण्यं वरणीयम्, तद् एव हि सर्वस्य नित्यत्वात् प्रार्थनीयम्, परं व्यतिरिक्तं विज्ञानात् प्रजानाम् इति व्यवहितेन सम्बन्धः, यल् लौकिक-विज्ञानागोचरम् इत्यर्थः। यद् वरिष्ठं वरतमं सर्व-पदार्थेषु वरेषु, तद् ध्य् एकं ब्रह्म अतिशयेन वरं सर्व-दोष-रहितत्वात्॥

Etat, this One, on which all things rest; jānatha, you know, O disciples! That which comprises that sat, and the a-sat is what has become your Self; for the sat, formed, gross, and the a-sat, formless, subtle, do not exist apart from It. (Know) that very Entity alone which is surely the vareṇyam, eligible, most desirable, worthy of being prayed for by all – because of Its eternality; (and which is) param, distinct; vijñānāt, from the knowledge; prajānām, of beings – this is how vijñānāt is connected with the remote prajānām, that is to say, It is beyond the range of ordinary knowledge. (Know) yat variṣṭham, that which is the highest; for that Brahman alone is the highest of all high things, by virtue of Its freedom from all defects.


किञ्च –
yad, arcimat, yad, aṇu, aṇu, ca, yad, loka, nihita, lokin, ca;
tad, etad, a-kṣara, brahman, tad, prāṇa, tad, u, vāc, manas;
tad, etad, satya, tad, a-mṛta, tad, veddhavya, somya, √vid.

यद् अर्चिमत्, यद् अणुभ्यः अणु, [महतः महत् (KathU.1.2.8)] च, यस्मिन् [ब्रह्मणि] लोकाः लोकिनः च निहिताः, तद् एतद् अ-क्षरं ब्रह्म। [तद्] सः प्राणः। तद् उ वाक् मनस् [च]। तद् एतद् सत्यम्। तद् अ-मृतम्। सोम्य, तद् एतद् [ब्रह्म] वेद्धव्यं विद्धि [=ब्रह्म-विज्ञान-अर्थे श्रवण-मनन-निदिध्यासनं कुरु]॥
What is shining and is the subtle among the subtle, and in which are fixed (present) all the worlds and dwellers in these worlds, that is this immutable (a-kṣara) brahman (reality, the abode of all).
That is prāṇa, and that is speech and mind. That is the truth (satya) here. That is the immortal. That which is to be known, O pleasing one, please know (as your limitless self).
● What is shining (यद् अर्चिमत्) and is the subtle among the subtle (यद् अणुभ्यः अणु च),
○ and in which are fixed (present) all the worlds (यस्मिन् लोकाः निहिताः) and dwellers in these worlds (लोकिनः च),
● that is this very (तद् एतद्) immutable (A-kṣara) Brahman (reality, the abode of all) (अ-क्षरं ब्रह्म).
○ That is Prāṇa (सः प्राणः), and that is speech and mind (तद् उ वाक् मनः).
● That is the truth (Satya) here (तद् एतद् सत्यं). That is the immortal (तद् अ-मृतम्).
○ That which is to be known (तद् वेद्धव्यम्), O pleasing one, please know (as yourself) (सोम्य, विद्धि).
यद् अर्चिमद् दीप्तिमत्, तद्-दीप्त्या ह्य् आदित्यादि दीप्यत इति दीप्तिमद् ब्रह्म। किञ्च, यद् अणुभ्यः श्यामाकादिभ्योऽपि अणु च सूक्ष्मम्। ‘च’-शब्दात् स्थूलेभ्योऽप्य् अतिशयेन स्थूलं पृथिव्य्-आदिभ्यः।
Yat, that which is; arcimat, bright. Brahman is bright, because by Its light the sun etc. shine. Furthermore, yat, that which is; aṇu, subtle; aṇubhyaḥ, as compared with minute things, e.g. even the grain called śyamākā. From the use of the word ca (and), it is implied that it is immensely bigger than the big earth etc.

यस्मिन् लोकाः भूर्-आदयः निहिताः स्थिताः, ये च लोकिनः लोक-निवासिनः मनुष्यादयः, चैतन्याश्रया हि सर्वे प्रसिद्धाः, तद् एतत् सर्वाश्रयम् अ-क्षरम् ब्रह्म, स प्राणः, तद् उ वाङ् मनः वाक् च मनश् च सर्वाणि च करणानि तद् उ अन्तश्-चैतन्यम्, चैतन्याश्रयो हि प्राणेन्द्रियादि-सर्व-संघातः, “प्राणस्य प्राणम्” (BrhU.4.4.18) इति श्रुत्य्-अन्तरात्।
Yasmin, on which; nihitāḥ, are fixed; lokāḥ, the worlds – earth etc.; ca lokinaḥ, and the dwellers of the worlds – men and others; for all are known as dependent on Consciousness. Tat etat a-kṣaram brahma, It is this imperishable Brahman that is the support of all; saḥ prāṇaḥ, that is the familiar vital force; tat u, that again; is the vāñ-manaḥ, speech and mind – as well as all the senses (of perception) and organs (of action). That Entity, again is the inner Consciousness, for the whole assemblage of life and senses is dependent on Consciousness, as is shown in another Veda text: ‘The Vital Force of the vital force’ (BrhUEng.6.4.18; KenU.1.2).

यत् प्राणादीनाम् अन्तश्-चैतन्यम् अ-क्षरं तद् एतत् सत्यम् अ-वि-तथम्, अतः अ-मृतम् अ-विनाशि, तद् वेद्धव्यं मनसा ताडयितव्यं तस्मिन् मनः-समाधानं कर्तव्यम् इत्यर्थः। यस्माद् एवं हे सोम्य, विद्धि अ-क्षरे चेतः समाधत्स्व॥

Tat etat, that Entity, the Imperishable, that is thus the Consciousness within life etc.; is satyam, true; and therefore tat a-mṛtam, It is immortal, indestructible. Tat veddhavyam, that is to be penetrated, to be shot at, by the mind; the idea is that the mind is to be concentrated on It. Since this is so, therefore somya, O good-looking one, viddhi, shoot – fix your mind on the Imperishable.


कथं वेद्धव्यम्? इति, उच्यते –
It is being shown how It is to be shot at:
dhanus, gṛhītvā, aupaniṣada, mahā-astra, śara, hi, upāsā-niśita, sam-√dhā;
āyamya, tad-bhāva-gata, cetas, lakṣya, tad, eva, a-kṣara, somya, √vid.

औपनिषदं महा-अस्त्रं धनुस् गृहित्वा, [तस्मिन् धनुषि] उपासा-निशितं शरं [बाणं] हि सन्धयीत। तद्-भाव-गतेन चेतसा [लक्ष्ये एव] आयम्य, तद् एव अ-क्षरं [ब्रह्म] लक्ष्यं विद्धि [=समाधत्स्व], सोम्य॥
Taking hold of the bow, the great (final) “weapon” (astra, which is wielded at a distance) gained from this teaching (Upaniṣad), one should fix on it an arrow sharpened through upāsā (meditation). Drawing it back by means of a mind totally intent on that (target, not anything else), one should hit that target alone which is the immutable one, O pleasing one.
● Taking hold of the bow (धनुः गृहीत्वा), the great “weapon” (Astra, which is wielded at a distance) gained from this teaching (Upaniṣad) (उपनिषदं महा-अस्त्रम्),
○ one should fix on it (Sandhayīta) an arrow sharpened through Upāsā (meditation) (शरं हि उपासा-निशितं सन्धयीत).
● Drawing it back (आयम्य) by means of a mind totally intent on that (target) (तद्-भाव-गतेन चेतसा),
○ one should hit (Viddhi) that target alone which is the immutable one, O pleasing one (लक्ष्यं तद् एव अ-क्षरं, सोम्य, विद्धि).
धनुः इष्व्-आसनं गृहीत्वा आदाय औपनिषदम् उपनिषत्सु भवं प्रसिद्धं महा-स्त्रं महच् च तद् अस्त्रं च महा-स्त्रं धनुः तस्मिन्, शरम् किं-विशिष्टम्? इत्य् आह – उपासा-निशितं संतताभिध्यानेन तनू-कृतं संस्कृतम् इत्येतत्, संधयीत संधानं कुर्यात्। संधाय च आयम्य आकृष्य सेन्द्रियम् अन्तःकरणं स्व-विषयाद् विनिवर्त्य लक्ष्य एव_अ-वर्जितं कृत्वा_इत्यर्थः। न हि हस्तेन_इव धनुष आयमनम् इह सम्भवति। तद्-भाव-गतेन तस्मिन् ब्रह्मण्य् अ-क्षरे लक्ष्ये भावना भावः तद्-गतेन चेतसा, लक्ष्यं तद् एव यथोक्त-लक्षणम् अ-क्षरं सोम्य विद्धि
Gṛhītva, taking up; the dhanuḥ, bow; the mahā-stram aupaniṣadam, the great weapon that is found, i.e. is well known, in the Upaniṣads; on that bow sandhayīta, one should fix; the śaram, arrow. What kind of arrow? That is being stated: Upāsā-niśitam, sharpened, that is to say, purified by constant meditation. And after fixing the arrow, and āyamya, having drawn the string, that is to say, having withdrawn the inner organ together with the senses from the objects, and concentrating it on the target alone – for the literal meaning of drawing the string with the hand is not admissible here; somya, O good-looking one; viddhi, hit; tat eva lakṣyam a-kṣaram, that very target that is the Imperishable, described earlier; cetasā tad-bhava-gatena, with the mind absorbed in the bhava or bhavanā, thought of that Brahman.


यद् उक्तं धनुर्-आदि, तद् उच्यते –
The bow etc. that have been mentioned are being specified:
praṇava, dhanus, śara, hi, ātman, brahman, tad-lakṣya, √vac;
a-pramatta, veddhavya, śaravad, tanmaya, √bhū.

प्रणवः धनुस्। शरः हि [मनस्-उपाधि-]आत्मा। ब्रह्म ‘तद्-लक्ष्यं’ [जीव-आत्मनः लक्ष्यं] उच्यते। अ-प्रमत्तेन [तद् लक्ष्यं] वेद्धव्यं। शरवत् तन्मयः भवेत्॥
Om (Oṃ-kāra, praṇava) is the bow. Ātman is the arrow. Brahman is said to (as though) be its target (lakṣya, the implied meaning of Om). Without indifference it is to be understood. Like the arrow, one should become one with that (like the arrow with the target, the ātman with brahman).
Om (Oṃ-kāra, Praṇava) is the bow (प्रणवः धनुः). Ātman is the arrow (शरः हि आत्मा).
Brahman is said to (as though) be its target (Lakṣya, the implied meaning of Om) (ब्रह्म तल्-लक्ष्यम् उच्यते).
● Without indifference it is to be understood (अ-प्रमत्तेन वेद्धव्यम्).
○ Like the arrow (शरवत्), one should become one with that (like the arrow with the target, the Ātman with Brahman) (तन्मयः भवेत्).
प्रणवः ओङ्कारः धनुः यथा इष्व्-आसनं लक्ष्ये शरस्य प्रवेश-कारणम्, तथा आत्म-शरस्य_अ-क्षरे लक्ष्ये प्रवेश-कारणम् ओंकारः। प्रणवेन ह्य् अभ्यस्यमानेन संस्क्रियमाणस् तद्-आलंबनोऽप्रतिबन्धेन_अ-क्षरेऽवतिष्ठते। यथा धनुषा अस्त इषुर् लक्ष्ये। अतः प्रणवो धनुर् इव धनुः।
Praṇavaḥ, the syllable Om; is dhanuḥ, the bow. Just as the bow is the cause of the arrow’s hitting the target, so Om is the bow that brings about the soul’s entry into the Imperishable; for the soul when purified by the repetition of Om, gets fixed in the Imperishable with the help of Om without any hindrance, just as an arrow shot from a bow gets transfixed in the target. Therefore Om is a bow, being comparable to a bow.

शरो ह्य् आत्मा उपाधि-लक्षणः पर एव जले सूर्यादिवद् इह प्रविष्टो देहे सर्व-बौद्ध-प्रत्यय-साक्षितया, स शर इव स्वात्मन्य् एव_अर्पितोऽक्षरे ब्रह्मणि, अतः ब्रह्म तल्-लक्ष्यम् उच्यते, लक्ष्य इव मनः-समाधित्सुभिर् आत्म-भावेन लक्ष्यमाणत्वात्।
Ātmā hi śaraḥ, the soul is surely the arrow – the soul which is but the supreme Self in Its conditioned state, that has entered here into the body as the witness of all the modes of the intellect, like the sun etc. in water. That soul, like an arrow, is shot at the Self Itself which is the Imperishable Brahman. Therefore brahma, Brahman; ucyate, is said to be; tal-lakṣyam, its (the soul’s) target. It is called the target since, just as in the case of a mark, It is aimed at with self-absorption by those who want to concentrate their minds.

तत्र_एवं सति अ-प्रमत्तेन बाह्य-विषयोपलब्धि-तृष्णाप्रमाद-वर्जितेन सर्वतो विरक्तेन जितेन्द्रियेण_एकाग्र-चित्तेन वेद्धव्यं ब्रह्म लक्ष्यम्। ततस् तद्-वेधनाद् ऊर्ध्वं शरवत् तन्मयः भवेद्। यथा शरस्य लक्ष्यैकात्मत्वं फलं भवति, तथा देहाद्य्-आत्मता-प्रत्यय-तिरस्करणेन_अ-क्षरैकात्मत्वं फलम् आपादयेद् इत्यर्थः॥

That being so, the target that is Brahman, veddhavyam, should be shot at; a-pramattena, by one who is unerring, who is free from the error of desiring to enjoy external objects, who is detached from everything, who has control over his senses and has concentration of mind. After that, after hitting the mark, tanmayah bhavet, one should remain identified with Brahman; śarvat, like an arrow. The idea is this: Just as the success of the arrow consists in its becoming one with the target, similarly one should bring about the result, consisting in becoming one with the Imperishable, by eliminating the ideas of the body etc. being the Self.


अ-क्षरस्य_एव दुर्-लक्ष्यत्वात् पुनः पुनर् वचनं सु-लक्षणार्थम् –
As the Imperishable is hard to grasp, It is being presented over and over again so as to make It easily comprehensible:
yad, dyu, pṛthivī, ca, antarikṣa, ota, manas, saha, prāṇa, ca, sarva;
tad, eva, eka, √jñā, ātman, anya, vāc, vi-√muc, a-mṛta, etad, setu.

यस्मिन् [अ-क्षरे] द्यौः पृथिवी अन्तर्-इक्षं च [समष्टितः] ओतं [समर्पितम्], सर्वैः प्राणैः [करणैः] सह मनस् च [व्यष्टितः ओतम्] – तम् एव [सर्व-आश्रयम्] एकं आत्मानं जानथ। [ज्ञात्वा] अन्याः [अ-पर-विद्या-रूपाः] वाचः विमुञ्चथ। [यतः] एषः अ-मृतस्य सेतुः [इव]॥
The heavens, the earth and the space between are woven in this brahman (as an expanded form that is only the thread which is its reality), along with the mind and all the prāṇas. May you know that non-dual (eka) to be oneself. Any words or ideas that differ, give them up. This alone is the bridge (setu, across the ocean of saṃsāra) to the immortal.
● The heavens, the earth and the space between are in this (Brahman) (यस्मिन् द्यौः पृथिवी च अन्तरिक्षम्)
○ woven (as an expanded form that is only the thread which is its reality) (ओतम्), along with the mind and all the Prāṇas (मनः सह प्राणैः च सर्वैः).
● May you know that non-dual (Eka) (तम् एव एकं जानथ) to be oneself (आत्मानम्).
○ Any words (or ideas) that differ (अन्याः वाचः) give them up (विमुञ्चथ). This alone is the bridge (Setu, across the ocean of Saṃsāra) to the immortal (अ-मृतस्य एषः सेतुः).
यस्मिन् अ-क्षरे पुरुषे द्यौः पृथिवी च अन्तर्-इक्षंओतं समर्पितं मनश् च सह प्राणैः करणैः अन्यैः सर्वैः, तम् एव सर्वाश्रयम् एकम् अ-द्वितीयं जानथ जानीत, हे शिष्याः, आत्मानं प्रत्यक्-स्व-रूपं युष्माकं सर्व-प्राणिनां च। ज्ञात्वा च अन्याः वाचः अपर-विद्या-रूपाः विमुञ्चथ विमुञ्चत परित्यजत। तत्-प्रकाश्यं च सर्वं कर्म स-साधनम्।
Yasmin, that, the imperishable Puruṣa, on whom; dyauḥ, heaven; pṛthivī, the earth; ca antar-ikṣam, and intermediate space; otam, are strung; ca, as also; manas, the mind; saha sarvaiḥ prāṇaiḥ, together with all the other organs; tam eva, Him alone – the support of all; the ekam, one without a second; jānatha (is the same as jānīta), (you) know, O disciples; and having known, ātmānam, the Self, the inmost reality of yourselves and all beings; vimuñcatha (is the same as vimuñcata), discard; anyāḥ vācaḥ, other talks, that constitute the lower knowledge; and give up also all karmas together with their fruits that are presented by the lower knowledge;

यतः अ-मृतस्य एष सेतुः, एतद् आत्म-ज्ञानम् अ-मृतस्य_अ-मृतत्वस्य मोक्षस्य प्राप्तये सेतुर् इव सेतुः, संसार-महोदधेर् उत्तरण-हेतुत्वात्, तथा च श्रुत्य्-अन्तरम् – “तम् एव विदित्वा_अति मृत्युम् एति न_अन्यः पन्था विद्यतेऽयनाय” (SvetU.3.8) इति॥

Because eṣaḥ, this, this knowledge of the Self; is the setuḥ, bridge, the means of achievement; a-mṛtasya, of immortality, of liberation. It is comparable to a bridge, since It is the means for getting across the great sea to the world. In support of this here is another Veda text: ‘Knowing Him alone, one goes beyond death; there is no other path to proceed by’ (SvetU.3.8, 6.15)
[•Or, ‘there is no other path for reaching (the goal)’•].


किञ्च –
ara, iva, ratha-nābhi, saṃhata, yatra, nāḍī, tad, etad, antar, √car, bahudhā, jāyamāna;
om, iti, evam, √dhyai, ātman, su-asti, yuṣmad, pāra, tamas, para.

यत्र नाड्यः संहताः [समर्पिताः] अराः इव रथ-नाभौ, [तत्र हृदये] अन्तर् [मध्ये] सः एषः [आत्मा] बहुधा जायमानः [इव सन्] चरते। [तम्] आत्मानम् ओम् इति एवं [प्रणव-आलम्बेन] ध्यायथ। [अ-विद्या-]तमसः परस्तात् पाराय [पर-कूलाय] वः [युष्माकं] स्वस्ति॥
Where (in the heart, the intellect) all the nāḍīs (energy pathways, PrasU.3.6) are fixed, like spokes in the hub of a chariot wheel, where this very (ātman seemly) moves about as all these becoming forms, may you meditate upon this ātman in this way (as explained here) using “Om.” May this be auspicious to all of you for reaching the far shore beyond the darkness (ignorance).
● Where (Yatra, in the heart, the intellect) all the Nāḍīs (energy pathways, PrasU.3.6) are fixed, like spokes in the hub of a chariot wheel (अराः इव रथ-नाभौ संहताः यत्र नाड्यः),
○ (where) this very (Ātman seemly) moves about (सः एषः अन्तः चरते) as all these becoming forms (बहुधा जायमानः),
● may you meditate upon this Ātman in this way (as explained here) using “Om” (ओम् इति एवं ध्यायथ आत्मानम्).
○ May this be auspicious to all of you (सु-अस्ति वः) for (reaching) the far shore (पाराय) beyond the darkness (ignorance) (तमसः परस्तात्).
अरा इव यथा रथ-नाभौ समर्पिता अराः, एवं संहताः सम्प्रविष्टाः यत्र यस्मिन् हृदये सर्वतो देह-व्यापिन्यः नाड्यः, तस्मिन् हृदये बुद्धि-प्रत्यय-साक्षि-भूतः स एषः प्रकृत आत्मा अन्तर् मध्ये चरते चरति वर्तते। पश्यन् शृण्वन् मन्वानो विजानन् बहुधा अन्-एकधा क्रोध-हर्षादि-प्रत्ययैर् जायमान इव जायमानः अन्तःकरणोपाध्य्-अनुविधायित्वाद्, वदन्ति हि लौकिका ‘हृष्टो जातः क्रुद्धो जात’ इति। तम् आत्मानम् ओम् इत्य् एवम् ओङ्कारालम्बनाः सन्तः यथोक्त-कल्पनया ध्यायथ चिन्तयत।
Yatra, where, in the heart in which; arāḥ iva, like the spokes; ratha-nābhau, fixed on the hub of a chariot wheel; saṃhatāḥ, are pinned; nāḍyaḥ, the nerves, that spread over the whole body; in that heart, saḥ eṣaḥ, this aforesaid One, the Self under discussion that is the witness of all the ideas occurring to the intellect; antar carate (i.e. carati), moves, exists, within; (It exists) as though seeing, hearing, thinking, and knowing, and as though seeing, bahudhā jāyamānaḥ, becoming multiformed, in accordance with the mental states of anger, joy, etc., on account of Its conformity with the limiting adjunct, the mind. Common people accordingly say, ‘He has become joyous’, ‘He has become angry’. Evam, thus, resorting to the imagination stated above; you dhyāyatha, think; of that ātmānam, Self; om iti, with the help of Om.

उक्तं च वक्तव्यं शिष्येभ्य आचार्येण जानता। शिष्याश् च ब्रह्म-विद्या-विविदिषुत्वान् निवृत्त-कर्माणो मोक्ष-पथे प्रवृत्ताः। तेषां निर्-विघ्नतया ब्रह्म-प्राप्तिम् आशास्त्य् आचार्यः – स्व्-अस्ति निर्-विघ्नम् अस्तु वः युष्माकं पाराय पर-कूलाय। परस्ताद् कस्मात्? अ-विद्या-तमसः, अ-विद्या-रहित-ब्रह्मात्म-स्व-रूप-गमनाय_इत्यर्थः॥

This is said, and has to be said, to the disciples by a teacher possessed of this knowledge. And the disciples have stepped on to the path of liberation after discarding all karmas, for they hanker after the knowledge of Brahman. The teacher utters his benediction so that they may realize Brahman without any obstacle:
Svasti (astu), let there be no hindrance; vaḥ, for you; pārāya,
[•Another reading is ‘parāya(?), for crossing over (to the shore)’.•]
for (reaching) the other shore; parastāt, beyond. Beyond what? Tamasaḥ, the darkness ignorance; that is to say for the realization of the true nature of the Self as Brahman that is free from ignorance.


योऽसौ तमसः परस्तात् संसार-महोदधिं तीर्त्वा गन्तव्यः पर-विद्या-विषयः, स कस्मिन् वर्तत इत्य् आह –
It is being shown as to where He exists who forms the subject matter of the superior knowledge, who is beyond darkness, and who has to be reached after crossing the ocean of the world:
yad, sarva-jña, sarva-vid, yad, etad, mahiman, bhū;
divya, brahma-pura, hi, etad, vyoman, ātman, pratiṣṭhita.
manomaya, prāṇa-śarīra-netṛ, pratiṣṭhita, anna, hṛdaya, sannidhāya;
tad, vijñāna, pari-√dṛś, dhīra, ānanda-rūpa, a-mṛta, yad, vi-√bhā.

यः [परम-आत्मा] सर्व-ज्ञः सर्व-विद् (MunU.1.1.9), यस्य भुवि एषः महिमा, [सः] एषः आत्मा दिव्ये ब्रह्म-पुरे [हृदये] हि व्योम्नि प्रतिष्ठितः [उपलभ्यते]। [तत्र-स्थ-आत्मा] मनोमयः प्राण-शरीर-नेता [च] हृदयं सन्निधाय [हृदि समवस्थाप्य], अन्ने [अन्नमय-शरीरे] प्रतिष्ठितः। यद् [आत्म-तत्त्वम्] आनन्द-रूपम् अ-मृतं विभाति, तद् धीराः विज्ञानेन परिपश्यन्ति॥
This (ātman, brahman) is (by nature) knowing the all (sarva-jña) and knowing everything (sarva-vid), in detail). All this on earth is its glory. This ātman abides in the shining “city of brahman” (the place where brahman can be known), in this space (vyoman, in the heart, in the intellect).
The individual (jīva) who has the mind as a limiting adjunct), who is the leader of the subtle body, abides in this food-body providing the basis (existence-consciousness) for the heart (intellect). By assimilated knowledge of that (brahman), the discerning clearly see that immortal one as the nature of ānanda (fulfillment) which always shines.
● This (Ātman, Brahman) is (by nature) knowing the all (यः सर्व-ज्ञः) and knowing everything (in detail) (सर्व-विद्).
○ All this on earth is its glory (यस्य एषः महिमा भुवि),
● In the shining “city of Brahman” (the place where Brahman can be known) (दिव्ये ब्रह्म-पुरे हि),
○ in this space (Vyoman, in the heart, in the intellect) this Ātman abides (एषः व्योम्नि आत्मा प्रतिष्ठितः).

● The individual (Jīva) who has the mind as a limiting adjunct) (मनोमयः) who is the leader of the subtle body (प्राण-शरीर-नेता),
○ abides in this food-body (प्रतिष्ठितः अन्ने) providing the basis (existence-consciousness) for the heart (intellect) (हृदयं सन्निधाय).
● By assimilated knowledge of that (Brahman) (तद् विज्ञानेन), the discerning clearly see (परिपश्यन्ति धीराः)
○ that immortal one as the nature of Ānanda (fulfillment) (आनन्द-रूपम् अ-मृतम्) which always shines (यद् विभाति).
यः सर्व-ज्ञः सर्व-विद् व्याख्यातः। तं पुनर् विशिनष्टि – यस्य_एष प्रसिद्धो महिमा विभूतिः। कोऽसौ महिमा? यस्य_इमे द्यावा-पृथिव्यौ शासने विधृते तिष्ठतः, सूर्या-चन्द्रमसौ यस्य शासनेऽलात-चक्रवद् अ-जस्रं भ्रमतः, यस्य शासने सरितः सागराश् च स्व-गोचरं न_अतिक्रामन्ति, तथा स्थावरं जङ्गमं च यस्य शासने नियतम्, तथा चर्तवोऽयने अब्दाश् च यस्य शासनं न_अतिक्रामन्ति, तथा कर्तारः कर्माणि फलं च यच् छासनात् स्वं स्वं कालं न_अतिवर्तन्ते,
The portion yah sarva-jñaḥ sarva-vit was explained earlier (MunU.1.1.9). He is being distinguished again: Yasya eṣaḥ mahimā bhuvi, He who has this well-known splendour in the world. What is this splendour? He under whose sway these heaven and earth are held in position; under whose rule the sun and moon rotate interminably like firebrands; under whose command the rivers and seas do not overflow their boundaries; similarly under whose authority are directed the moving and the unmoving; in the same way, whose command the seasons, half-years, and years do not transgress; and so also under whose rule the agents, karmas, and fruits do not violate their appointed hours;

एष महिमा, भुवि लोके यस्य स एष सर्व-ज्ञ एवं-महिमा देवः। दिव्ये द्योतनवति सर्व-बौद्ध-प्रत्यय-कृत-द्योतने ब्रह्म-पुरे। ब्रह्मणो अत्र चैतन्य-स्व-रूपेण नित्याभिव्यक्तत्वाद्, ब्रह्मणः पुरं हृदय-पुण्डरीकं तस्मिन् यद् व्योम, तस्मिन् व्योम्नि आकाशे हृत्-पुण्डरीक-मध्य-स्थे प्रतिष्ठित इव_उपलभ्यते, न ह्य् आकाशवत् सर्व-गतस्य गतिर् आगतिः प्रतिष्ठा वा_अन्यथा सम्भवति॥
Yasya, he whose; mahimā, glory; is eṣaḥ, such; bhuvi, in the world; eṣaḥ, that One; the sarva-jñaḥ, omniscient (in general), the effulgent One of such glory; is pratiṣṭhitaḥ, seated; in the divye, luminous – illuminated by all the states of the intellect; brahma-pure, city of Brahman – this being the place where Brahman is ever manifest, in Its nature of Consciousness; so ‘the city of Brahman’ means the lotus of the heart. Vyomni, in the space that is within that heart; Brahman is perceived as though seated there in that space within the lotus of the heart; for, any going, coming, or staying, in any other sense is impossible for one who is all-pervasive like space.

ह्य् आत्मा तत्र-स्थो मनो-वृत्तिभिर् एव विभाव्यत इति मनोमयः, मन-उपाधित्वात्। प्राण-शरीर-नेता प्राणश् च शरीरं च तत् प्राण-शरीरं तस्य_अयं नेता। स्थूलाच् छरीराच् छरीरान्तरं प्रति प्रतिष्ठितः अवस्थितः अन्ने भुज्यमानान्न-विपरिणामे प्रतिदिनम् उपचीयमाने अपचीयमाने च पिण्ड-रूपेऽन्ने हृदयं बुद्धिं पुण्डरीक-च्छिद्रे संनिधाय समवस्थाप्य, हृदयावस्थानम् एव ह्य् आत्मनः स्थितिः, न ह्य् आत्मनः स्थितिर् अन्ने।
Saḥ hi, He; ātmā, the Self; as seated there is verily revealed variously through the mental states; and hence He is manomayaḥ, associated with the mind, being conditioned by it. He is prāṇa-śarīra-netā, the carrier of the vital forces and the body, in the matter of transferring them from the gross body to the other (gross or finer
[•According to one reading, the finer body is meant•]) body. He is pratiṣṭhitaḥ anne, seated in the food that takes the shape of a body – which is a modification of the food eaten and is subject to growth and decay day by day; sannidhāya, by depositing; the hṛdayam, intellect, in the cavity of the lotus (of the heart). The presence of the Self in the heart is what is meant by Its being seated in food (i.e. in the body), for the Self is not really seated in food.

तद् आत्म-तत्त्वं विज्ञानेन विशिष्टेन शास्त्राचार्योपदेश-जनितेन ज्ञानेन शम-दम-ध्यान-सर्व-त्याग-वैराग्योद्भूतेन परिपश्यन्ति सर्वतः पूर्णं पश्यन्ति उपलभन्ते धीराः विवेकिनः। आनन्द-रूपं सर्वानर्थ-दुःखायास-प्रहीणम् अ-मृतं यद् विभाति विशेषेण स्वात्मन्य् एव भाति सर्वदा॥

Vijñānena, through special knowledge, emerging from the instruction of scriptures and the teacher, and arising from the control of the inner and outer organs, renunciation of everything, and detachment; dhīrāḥ, the discrimination people; paripaśyanti, realize as existing in Its fullness everywhere; tat, that, that reality of the Self; yat, which; vibhāti, shines surpassingly for ever in one’s own Self; as ānanda-rūpam, blissfulness; and as a-mṛtam, immortality, freed from all evil, miseries and troubles.


अस्य परमात्म-ज्ञानस्य फलम् इदम् अभिधीयते –
The result of this knowledge of this supreme Self is being stated:
√bhid, hṛdaya-granthi, √chid, sarva-saṃśaya;
√kṣi, ca, idam, karman, tad, dṛṣṭa, para-avara.

तस्मिन् पर-अवरे [कारण-कार्य-आत्मनि] दृष्टे, अस्य [धीरस्य] हृदय-ग्रन्थिः [अ-विद्या-कामः] भिद्यते, सर्व-संशयाः छिद्यन्ते, कर्माणि च क्षीयन्ते॥
The knots of the heart (the endless confusions arising from identifying with the not-self) are broken (untethered, KathU.2.3.15), and all doubts (regarding the meaning and implications of the teaching) are removed, and one’s karma wastes away (unclaimed as being only “mine”) (can only happen) once one knows as clear as seeing this (brahman) as both the para (the one and only ultimate reality, which has to include me) and the apara (the lower effects as nothing but that same para, therefore, the clouds of ignorance and doubts gone, “I clearly see am all this”).
● The knots of the heart (the endless confusions arising from identifying with the not-self) are broken (untethered) (भिद्यते हृदय-ग्रन्थिः),
○ all doubts (regarding the meaning and implications of the teaching) are removed (छिद्यन्ते सर्व-संशयाः),
● and one’s Karma wastes away (unclaimed as being only “mine”) (क्षीयन्ते च अस्य कर्माणि),
○ (can only happen) once one knows as clear as seeing (तस्मिन् दृष्टे) this (Brahman) as both the Para (the one and only ultimate reality) and the Apara (the lower effects as nothing but that same Para) (पर-अवरे).
भिद्यते हृदय-ग्रन्थिः अ-विद्यावासना-प्रचयो बुद्ध्य्-आश्रयः कामः, “कामा येऽस्य हृदि श्रिताः” (BrhU.4.4.07), (KathU.2.3.14) इति श्रुत्य्_अन्तरात्। हृदयाश्रयोऽसौ, न_आत्माश्रयः। भिद्यते भेदं विनाशम् आयाति। छिद्यन्ते [सर्व-संशयाः] सर्वे ज्ञेय-विषयाः संशयाः लौकिकानाम् आ मरणात् तु गङ्गा-स्रोतोवत् प्रवृत्ता विच्छेदम् आयान्ति।
(When that which is both the high and the low is realized, then) bhidyate, is united, is destroyed; hṛdaya-granthiḥ, the knot of the heart – the host of tendencies and impressions of ignorance in the form of desires that hang on to the intellect, as is declared in another Veda text, ‘desires clinging to one’s heart’ (BrhUEng.4.4.7; KathU.2.3.14). They exist in one’s heart and not in the Self. Sarva-saṃśayāḥ, all doubts, with regard to all objects of cognition, that persist in ordinary men continuously till death, like the current of the Gaṅgā; chidyante, are dispelled.

अस्य विच्छिन्न-संशयस्य निवृत्ताविद्यस्य यानि विज्ञानोत्पत्तेः प्राक्-तनानि जन्मान्तरे च_अ-प्रवृत्त-फलानि ज्ञानोत्पत्ति-सह-भावीनि च क्षीयन्ते कर्माणि, न त्व् एतज् जन्मारम्भकाणि, प्रवृत्त-फलत्वात्।
Ca, and; asya, one’s of the man whose doubts have been solved, whose ignorance has been removed; karmāṇi, the actions – that preceded the rise of illumination but had not yielded results in earlier lives, as also those actions that accompany the rise of illumination; kṣīyante, get dissipated; but not so the actions that produced the present life, since they have already begun to bear their fruits.

तस्मिन् सर्व-ज्ञेऽसंसारिणि परावरे परं च कारणात्मना अवरं च कार्यात्मना ‘तस्मिन् परावरे साक्षाद् अहम् अम्मि’_इति दृष्टे, संसार-कारणोच्छेदान् मुच्यत इत्यर्थः॥

(All this happens) tasmin dṛṣṭe para-avare, when that One, the omniscient and transcendent – who is both para, the high, as the cause, and avara, the low, as the effect – is seen directly as ‘I am this’. The idea is that one becomes free on the eradication of the causes of the worldly state.


उक्तस्य_एव_अर्थस्य संक्षेपाभिधायका उत्तरे मन्त्रास् त्रयोऽपि –
The following three verses sum up briefly all that has been stated earlier:
hiraṇmaya, para, kośa, vi-raja, brahman, nis-kala;
tad, śubhra, jyotis, jyotis, tad, yad, ātma-vid, √vid.

तद् ब्रह्म हिरण्मये परे कोशे [हृद्याकाशे (BrhU.2.5.10) बुद्धौ] वि-रजं निस्-कलं [च] [अतः] शुभ्रम्। तद् ज्योतिषां ज्योतिः, यद् आत्म-विदः विदुः॥
In the shinning (hiraṇyamaya), most (interior) kośa (location, the ānandamaya-kośa, PrasU.4.6 & TaitU.2.5.1) is that free from impurities and partless brahman. It is pure, the light of lights. Those who know ātman, they know that (brahman).
● In the shinning (हिरण्मये), most (interior) Kośa (location, the Ānandamaya-kośa, PrasU.4.6 & TaitU.2.5.1) (परे कोशे)
○ is that free from impurities (वि-रजम्) and partless Brahman (ब्रह्म निष्-कलम्).
● It is pure (तद् शुभ्रम्), the light of lights (ज्योतिषां ज्योतिः).
○ Those who know Ātman, they know that (Brahman) (तद् यद् आत्म-विदः विदुः).
हिरण्मये ज्योतिर्मये बुद्धि-विज्ञान-प्रकाशे परे कोशे, कोश इव_असेः, आत्म-स्वरूपोपलब्धि-स्थानत्वात्, परं तत् सर्वाभ्यन्तरत्वात् तस्मिन्, वि-रजम् अ-विद्याद्य्-अशेष-दोष-रजो-मल-वर्जितं ब्रह्म सर्व-महत्त्वात् सर्वात्मत्वाच् च निष्-कलं निर्गताः कला यस्मात् तन् निष्-कलं निर्-अवयवम् इत्यर्थः। यस्माद् वि-रजं निष्-कलं च, अतः तच् छुभ्रं शुद्धम्।
Pare hiraṇmaye kośe, in the supreme, bright sheath
[•The lotus of the heart – Nārāyaṇa-Dīpikā.•];
it is called a sheath (kośa) because of its being the place for the realization of the nature of the Self, just as a scabbard is in the case of a sword; it is para, supreme, being the inmost of all; and hiraṇmaya, shining, being illumined with the intellectual perceptions. There exists brahma, Brahman, so called because of being the greatest as well as the Self of all; (the Brahman that is) vi-rajam, free from taints, from all taints of rajas, defects, such as ignorance; niṣ-kalam, without any connection with parts, that is to say, partless. Since It is taintless and partless, therefore tat, It; is śubhram, pure.

ज्योतिषां सर्व-प्रकाशात्मनाम् अग्न्य्-आदीनाम् अपि तज् ज्योतिः अवभासकम्। अग्न्य्-आदीनाम् अपि ज्योतिष्ट्वम् अन्तर्-गत-ब्रह्मात्म-चैतन्य-ज्योतिर्-निमित्तम् इत्यर्थः। तद् धि परं ज्योतिर् यद् अन्यानवभास्यम् आत्म-ज्योतिः। तद् यद् आत्म-विदः आत्मानं स्वं शब्दादि-विषय-बुद्धि-प्रत्यय-साक्षिणं ये विवेकिनो विदुः विजानन्ति, ते आत्म-विदः तद् विदुः, आत्म-प्रत्ययानुसारिणः। यस्मात् परं ज्योतिस्, तस्मात् त एव तद् विदुः, न_इतरे बाह्यार्थ-प्रत्ययानुसारिणः॥

Tat, It; is jyotiḥ, the illuminator; jyotiṣām, off all lights, of even fire etc. that are inherently bright. The purport is this: the brightness of even fire etc. is caused by the internal light of consciousness of their Self which is identical with Brahman. That light of the Self is the highest light which is not lit by anything else. It is tat, that; yat, which; they viduḥ, know; who are ātma-vidaḥ, knowers of the Self – the discriminating people who know their own Self as the witness of all intellectual modifications with regard to such objects as sound etc. People engaged in the pursuit of the realization of the Self, tat viduḥ, know It. Since It is the highest light, therefore they alone know It, and not the others who are steeped in the pursuit of external perceptions.


कथं तज् “ज्योतिषां ज्योतिः” इति, उच्यते –
It is being shown how It is the light of lights:
na, tatra, sūrya, √bhā, na, candra-tāraka, na, idam, vidyut, √bhā, kutas, idam, agni;
tad, eva, bhāt, anu-√bhā, sarva, tad, bhās, sarva, idam, vi-√bhā.

तत्र [ब्रह्मणि] सूर्यः न भाति, न चन्द्र-तारकं, न इमाः विद्युतः भान्ति। कुतः अयम् अग्निः। तं [स्वतः भा-रूपम्] एव भान्तं [दीप्यमानं], सर्वम् अनुभाति [न स्वतः]। तस्य [स्व-प्रकाश-रूपस्य] भासा [दीप्त्या एव] इदं सर्वं विभाति। (KathU.2.2.15)॥
The sun does not illumine that ātman, nor does the moon or stars. These flashes of lightning do not illumine ātman. What to speak of this small flame. Everything shines after that brahman-ātman alone that has ever been the shinning. By the light of that, all this shines distinctly elsewhere.
● The sun does not illumine that (Ātman) (न तत्र सूर्यः भाति), nor does the moon or stars (न चन्द्र-तारकम्).
○ These flashes of lightning do not illumine (Ātman) (न इमाः विद्युतः भान्ति). What to speak of this (small) flame (कुतस् अयम् अग्निः).
● Everything shines after that (Brahman, ātman) alone which has ever been the shinning (Bhāntam) (तम् एव भान्तम्, अनुभाति सर्वम्).
○ By the light of that (तस्य भासा), all this shines distinctly (elsewhere) (सर्वम् इदं विभाति).
न तत्र तस्मिन् स्वात्म-भूते ब्रह्मणि सर्वावभासकोऽपि सूर्यो भाति, तद् ब्रह्म न प्रकाशयति_इत्यर्थः। स हि तस्य_एव भासा सर्वम् अन्यद् अन्-आत्म-जातं प्रकाशयति_इत्यर्थः, न तु तस्य स्वतः प्रकाशन-सामर्थ्यम्। तथा न चन्द्र-तारकम्, न इमाः विद्युतः भान्ति, कुतोऽयम् अग्निः अस्मद् गोचरः।
Tatra, there in Brahman that is the Self of the sun itself; sūryaḥ, the sun, which illuminates everything; na bhāti, does not shine. The purport is that the sun does not illuminate that Brahman. Indeed, it is by the light of Brahman that the sun lights up all that is not the Self. This is the idea. Not that the sun is intrinsically possessed of the power of illuminating. Similarly, na candra-tārakam, neither the moon nor the stars; na imāḥ vidyutaḥ, nor these lightning flashes; bhānti, shine; kutaḥ ayam agniḥ, how can this (here) fire that is known to us (shine)?

किं बहुना। यद् इदं जगद् भाति, तत् तम् एव परमेश्वरं स्वतो भा-रूपत्वाद् भान्तं दीप्यमानम् अनुभाति अनुदीप्यते। यथा जलोल्मुकादि वा अग्नि-संयोगाद् अग्निं दहन्तम् अनुदहति, न स्वतः, तद्वत् तस्य_एव भासा दीप्त्या सर्वम् इदं सूर्यादि जगद् विभाति
To cut short, the fact that this Universe shines, anubhāti, it shines in accordance; tam eva bhāntam, as He, the supreme Lord, shines, because of the fact that He is naturally effulgent. Just as water, firebrand, etc. burn according as the fire does so, owing to their contact with fire, but not by themselves, similarly, only tasya bhāsā, by His light; sarvam idam, all this – the Universe constituted by the sun etc.; vibhāti, shines diversely.

यत एवं तद् एव ब्रह्म भाति च विभाति च कार्य-गतेन विविधेन भासा, अतस् तस्य ब्रह्मणो भा-रूपत्वं स्वतोऽवगम्यते। न हि स्वतोऽविद्यमानं भासनम् अन्यस्य कर्तुं शक्नोति। घटादीनाम् अन्यावभासकत्वादर्शनाद् भा-रूपाणां च_आदित्यादीनां तद्-दर्शनात्॥

Since in this way it is that very Brahman that illuminates and shines through the different lights in the manifested Universe, therefore it is inferred that Brahman has Its light by Its own right. Verily, anything that is not possessed of natural luminosity cannot enkindle others, for pots etc. are not seen to illuminate others, whereas luminous things like the sun etc, are seen to do so.


यत् तज् ज्योतिषां ज्योतिर् ब्रह्म, तद् एव सत्यम्, सर्वं तद्-विकारं (तद्-विकारः) वाचारम्भणं विकारो नामधेयमात्रम् अन्-ऋतम् इतरद्, इत्य् एतम् अर्थं विस्तरेण हेतुतः प्रतिपादितं निगमन-स्थानीयेन मन्त्रेण पुनर् उपसंहरति –
This fact that has been established elaborately with the help of reasoning that Brahman, which is the Light of lights, is alone true, and that everything else is Its modification – a modification that exists only in name, having speech alone as its support – is being restated at the end by this mantra which is a sort of concluding reaffirmation of the foregoing:
brahman, eva, idam, a-mṛta, purastāt, brahman, paścāt, brahman, dakṣiṇatas, ca, uttareṇa;
adhas, ca, ūrdhvam, ca, prasṛta, brahman, eva, idam, viśva, idam, variṣṭha.

अ-मृतं ब्रह्म एव इद्ं पुरस्तात् [अग्रे जगत्]। ब्रह्म [एव] पश्चात् [पृष्ठतः अपि]। ब्रह्म [एव] दक्षिणतः उत्तरेण च, अधः च उर्ध्वं च प्रसृतं [जगत्]। ब्रह्म एव इदं [जगत्], विश्वं इदं [समस्तं जगत्]। [ब्रह्म एव] वरिष्ठम्॥
The immortal Brahman alone is all this in front (purastāt). Brahman alone is all this in back (paścsāt). Brahman alone is all this to the right (dakṣiṇatas) and to the left (uttareṇa). Brahman alone pervades all this below (adhas) and above (urdhva). This (brahman) universe is the (reality ānanda, MunU.2.2.7) which everyone chooses (variṣṭha, MunU.2.2.1).
● The immortal Brahman alone is (all) this in front (Purastāt) (ब्रह्म एव इदम् अ-मृतं पुरस्तात्).
Brahman (alone) is (all) this in back (Paścsāt) (ब्रह्म पश्चात्). Brahman (alone) is (all) this to the right (Dakṣiṇataḥ) (ब्रह्म दक्षिणतः च) and to the left (Uttareṇa) (उत्तरेण).
Brahman alone pervades (all) this below (Adhas) and above (Urdhva) (अधः च उर्ध्वं च प्रसृतं ब्रह्म एव इदम्).
○ This (Brahman) universe is the (reality Ānanda) (विश्वम् इदम्) which everyone chooses (वरिष्ठम्).
ब्रह्म_एव उक्त-लक्षणम् [अ-मृतम् (MunU.2.2.7)] इदं यत् पुरस्ताद् अग्रेऽब्रह्म_इव_अ-विद्या-दृष्टीनां प्रत्यवभासमानं, तथा पश्चाद् ब्रह्म तथा दक्षिणतश् च तथा उत्तरेण, तथा_एव_अधस्ताद् ऊर्ध्वं च सर्वतोऽन्यद् इव कार्याकारेण प्रसृतं प्रगतं नाम-रूपवद् अवभासमानम्।
Idam brahma eva, this is but Brahman, as defined earlier; that is purastāt, in front; that which appears (as an object) in front of people whose vision is affected by ignorance, is Brahman alone. Similarly, brahma paścāt, Brahman is at the back; so also dakṣiṇataḥ, on the right; ca uttareṇa, and on the left. Similarly, adhaḥ, below; ca ūrdhvam, and above; whatever is prasṛtam, extended everywhere, in the shape of manifestations is falsely appearing as though different from Brahman and possessed of name and form.

किं बहुना? ब्रह्म_एव_इदं विश्वं समस्तम् इदं जगद् वरिष्ठं वरतमम्। अ-ब्रह्म-प्रत्ययः सर्वोऽविद्यामात्रो रज्ज्वाम् इव सर्प-प्रत्ययः। ब्रह्म_एव_एकं परमार्थ-सत्यम् इति वेदानुशासनम्॥

To be brief, idam, this; viśvam, Universe, this whole creation; is variṣṭham, the most high; brahma eva, Brahman alone.
[•The identity of Brahman and the Universe, implied by the sentence, is by way of denying the latter. We say, ‘That ghost is but a stump’, meaning thereby that the stump alone exists, the idea of the ghost being false. So, when we say, ‘The Universe is but Brahman’, we mean that Brahman alone exists, and nothing else.•]
All ideas of non-Brahman are but ignorance like the idea of the snake superimposed on a rope. Brahman alone is the supreme Truth. This is the declaration of the Vedas.

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Like two birds, the jiva and puruṣa

mn.01 mn.02 mn.03 mn.04 mn.05 mn.06 mn.07 mn.08 mn.09 mn.10

परा विद्या_उक्ता यया तद् अ-क्षरं पुरुषाख्यं सत्यम् अधिगम्यते, यद्-अधिगमे हृदय-ग्रन्थ्य्-आदि-संसार-कारणस्य_आत्यन्तिको विनाशः स्यात्।
That higher knowledge has been presented, by which is attained that imperishable Truth, called Puruṣa, from whose realization follows the total eradication of such causes of the worldly state as the knots of the heart.

तद्-दर्शनोपायश् च योगो धनुर्-आद्य्-उपादान-कल्पनया_उक्तः।
And Yoga, as the means for this realization, has also been stated with the help of such imagery as the taking up of a bow.

अथ_इदानीं तत्-सह-कारीणि सत्यादि-साधनानि वक्तव्यानि_इति तद्-अर्थम् उत्तर-ग्रन्थारम्भः। प्राधान्येन तत्त्व-निर्धारणं च प्रकारान्तरेण क्रियते, अत्यन्त-दुर्-अवगाहत्वात् कृतम् अपि।
Now have to be presented truth and the rest that are helpful auxiliaries to that Yoga; therefore the subsequent text is begun. And though Reality was determined earlier, It, too, is being principally ascertained in a different way; for It is very inscrutable.

तत्र सूत्र-भूतो मन्त्रः परमार्थ-वस्त्व्-अवधारणार्थम् उपन्यस्यते –

While on this subject, a mantra, which takes the place of a brief enunciation, is being introduced as a help to the comprehension of the supreme Reality:


dvi, su-parṇa, sa-yuj, sakhi, samāna, vṛkṣa, pari-√svaj;
tad, anya, pippala, svādu, √ad, an-aśnat, anya, abhi, √kāś.

द्वा* [द्वौ] स-युजा सखाया [समानाख्यानौ] सु-पर्णा [एवं-भूतौ पक्षिनौ इव] समानं [देह-आदि-संसार-]वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते। तयोः [जीव-ईशयोः] अन्यः [जीवः] स्वादु पिप्पलं अत्ति। अन्यः [ईश्वरः] अन्-अश्नन्, अभिचाकशीति [केवलं पश्यति]॥
(* In Veda, nom. acc. voc. dual take ā more usually than au, A.A. MacDonell, Sanskrit Grammar, Appendix III.)

Two beautifully winged birds (RigV.1.164.19-21) are (always born) together as companions (and as having the same name, “I,” sa-khāya, samāna-ākhyāna). Both are perched on the same tree (of saṃsāra, depicted as the Peepal tree, the aśvattha tree). Of the two, one enjoys the pleasant fruit (of action) of the Peepal tree. The other simply witnesses without experiencing.
● Two beautifully winged birds (द्वा सु-पर्णा) are (always born) together (स-युजा) as companions (and as having the same name, “I,” Sa-khāya, Samāna-ākhyāna) (सखाया).
○ Both are perched on the same tree (of Saṃsāra, depicted as the Peepal tree) (समानं वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते).
● Of the two (तयोः), one enjoys the pleasant fruit (of action) of the Peepal tree (अन्यः पिप्पलं स्वादु अत्ति).
○ The other simply witnesses without experiencing (अन्-अश्नन् अन्यः अभि चाकशीति).
द्वा द्वौ, सु-पर्णा सु-पर्णौ शोभन-पतनौ सु-पर्णौ, पक्षि-सामान्याद् वा सु-पर्णौ, स-युजा स-युजौ सह_एव सर्वदा युक्तौ, स-खाया स-खायौ समानाख्यानौ समानाभिव्यक्ति-कारणौ, एवं-भूतौ सन्तौ समानम् अ-विशेषम् उपलब्ध्य्-अधिष्ठानतया_एकं वृक्षं वृक्षम् इव_उच्छेद-सामान्याच् छरीरं वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते परिष्वक्तवन्तौ। सु-पर्णाव् इवैकं वृक्षं फलोपभोगार्थम्।
Dvā (i.e. dvau), two; su-parṇā (i.e. su-parṇau), entities who are well related
[•The individual soul, with its limited knowledge, is under the control of God who is omniscient. Through this commendable dependence the former is related with the latter.•]
– or so called because of their analogy with birds – (which are) sa-yujā (i.e. sa-yujau), ever associated together; sa-khāyā (i.e. sa-khāyau), bear the same names, and have the same cause of manifestation. Being of such characteristics, these two pari-ṣasvajāte, hug (cling to, pari-ṣvaktavantau [from pari-svaj), like two birds; samānam vṛkṣam, the same single tree, for enjoying the fruits. It is the ‘same’ in the sense of the identity of the place of their perception; and ‘tree’ means the body because of its being demolished like a tree.

अयं हि वृक्ष ऊर्ध्व-मूलोऽवाक्-शाखोऽश्वत्थोऽव्यक्त-मूल-प्रभवः (KathU.2.3.1) क्षेत्र-संज्ञकः (BhG.13.2) सर्व-प्राणि-कर्म-फलाश्रयः, तं परिष्वक्तौ सु-पर्णाव् इव अ-विद्या-काम-कर्म-वासनाश्रय-लिङ्गोपाध्य्-आत्मेश्वरौ।
This is the banyan tree
[•A-śva-ttha, means a banyan; but derivatively it means transitory – whose existence tomorrow (śvaḥ) is unpredictable (a-sthā).•]
that has its roots upward [•Or, superior.-Aruna•] and branches downward [•Inferior.-Aruna•] (KathU.2.3.1; BhG.15.1), that sprouts up from its materials cause, the Unmanifested (Māyā), and is called the field (BhG.13.1-3), and provides a support for all the results of karmas of all beings. God and the soul – as conditioned by the subtle body which holds in itself the tendencies and impressions created by ignorance, desire, and action – cling to it like birds.

तयोः परिष्वक्तयोः अन्यः एकः क्षेत्र-ज्ञो लिङ्गोपाधिः वृक्षम् आश्रितः पिप्पलं कर्म-निष्पन्नं सुख-दुःख-लक्षणं फलं स्वादु अनेक-विचित्र-वेदनास्वाद-रूपं स्वादु अत्ति भक्षयत्य् उपभुङ्क्ते अ-विवेकतः। अन्-अश्नन् अन्यः इतरः ईश्वरो नित्य-शुद्ध-बुद्ध-मुक्त-स्वभावः सर्व-ज्ञः सत्त्वोपाधिर् (सर्वोपाधिर्) ईश्वरो न_अश्नाति। प्रेरयिता ह्य् असाव् उभयोर् भोज्य-भोक्त्रोर् नित्य-साक्षित्व-सत्तामात्रेण। स तु अन्-अश्नन् अन्यः अभिचाकशीति पश्यत्य् एव केवलम्। दर्शनमात्रं हि तस्य प्रेरयितृत्वं, राजवत्॥

Tayoḥ, of these two who hug this tree; anyaḥ, the one (the individual soul,) the knower of the field who clings to the tree of the subtle body that is its limiting adjunct; atti, eats, enjoys, owing to non-discrimination; pippalam, the fruit, consisting of happiness and misery brought about by action; which is svādu, full of tastes, consisting in the experience of multifarious mental reactions. An-aśnan, without tasting; anyaḥ, the other, God (Īśvara) who is by nature eternal, pure, wise, and free, who is omniscient and has the totality of Māyā as His limiting adjunct – that God does not taste; for merely by His presence as the eternal witness, He is the director of both the enjoyer and the enjoyed. He, the other one, merely abhicākaśīti, looks on, without enjoying; for His directorship consists in mere observation, as in the case of a king.


तत्रैवं सति –
Facts being as they are:
samāna, vṛkṣa, puruṣa, nimagna, an-īśā, √śuc, muhyamāna;
juṣṭa, yadā, √dṛś, anya, īśa, idam, mahimāna, iti, vīta-śoka.

समाने वृक्षे निमग्नः पुरुषः [अतः] मुह्यमानः अन्-ईशया शोचति। यदा [सः धीरः] ‘अन्यं जुष्टम् ईशम् [अहम् अस्मि]’ ‘अस्य महिमानं [मम]’ [च] इति पश्यति, [तदा] वीत-शोकः [भवति]॥
On the same tree, one person is depressed (nimagna), and without lordship (over hardly anything), this deluded one grieves. When this one knows as clear as seeing the other one, the worshipful Lord (Īśa) as “the one who has (all) the glory,” this one becomes free from grief (replacing the misplaced “I” from the individual to the total).
● On the same tree (समाने वृक्षे), one person is depressed (Nimagna) (पुरुषः निमग्नः),
○ (and) without lordship (over hardly anything) (अन्-ईशया), this deluded one grieves (शोचति मुह्यमानः).
● When this one knows as clear as seeing the other one, the worshipful (Juṣṭa) Lord (Īsa) (जुष्टं यदा पश्यति अन्यम् ईशम्)
○ as “the one who has (all) the glory,” (अस्य महिमानम् इति), this one becomes free from grief (वीत-शोकः).
समाने वृक्षे यथोक्ते शरीरे पुरुषः भोक्ता जीवोऽविद्या-काम-कर्म-फल-रागादि-गुरु-भाराक्रान्तोऽलाबुर् इव सामुद्रे जले निमग्नः निश्चयेन देहात्म-भावम् आपन्नः, ‘अयम् एव_अहम्, अमुष्य पुत्रः, अस्य नप्ता, कृशः स्थूलो, गुणवान् निर्-गुणः, सुखी दुःखी’ इत्य् एवं-प्रत्ययो, ‘न_अस्त्य् अन्योऽस्माद्’ इति, जायते म्रियते, संयुज्यते वियुज्यते च सम्बन्धि-बान्धवैः।
Samāne vṛkṣe, in the same tree, in the body mentioned earlier; (there moans) puruṣaḥ, the enjoying individual soul; being nimagnaḥ, sunken. Drowned in the water of the sea (of the world) like a bottle gourd, under the heavy weight of ignorance, desire, attachment etc. to the fruits of action, owing to complete identification with the body, this very being has such ideas as, ‘I am the son of such a one and the grandson of that one; I am lean, I am stout; I have qualities, I am devoid of qualities; I am happy, I am miserable’; and he thinks that apart from that personality of his there is no other; and so he takes birth and dies, and gets united with or separated from friends and relatives.

अतः अन्-ईशया, ‘न कस्यचित् समर्थोऽहं, पुत्रो मम विनष्टो, मृता मे भार्या, किं मे जीवितेन’ इत्य् एवं दीन-भावोऽन्-ईशा, तया शोचति संतप्यते, मुह्यमानः अन्-एकैर् अन्-अर्थ-प्रकारैर् अ-विवेकितया चिन्ताम् आपद्यमानः।
And therefore an-īśayā, through impotence, consisting in such moods of despondency as, ‘I am good for nothing’, ‘My son is lost, and my wife is dead; what avails my life?’ – with such moods he śocati, grieves, is smitten; muhyamānaḥ, being worried, by various kinds of troubles because of his ignorance.

स एवं प्रेत-तिर्यङ्-मनुष्यादि-योनिष्व् आजवं जवी-भावम् आपन्नः, कदाचिद् अन्-एक-जन्मसु शुद्ध-धर्म-संचित-निमित्ततः, केनचित् परम-कारुणिकेन दर्शित-योग-मार्गः, अ-हिंसा-सत्य-ब्रह्मचर्य-सर्व-त्याग-शम-दमादि-सम्पन्नः, समाहितात्मा सन्,
That soul, while constantly undergoing the degradation of being born among ghosts, beasts, men and others, is, in the course of multifarious births, perchance shown the path of Yoga, as a result of his accumulation of good deeds, by some very compassionate person; and then becoming endowed with non-injury, truth, continence, renunciation of everything, control of internal and external organs, and concentration of mind,

जुष्टं सेवितम् अन्-एकैर् योग-मार्गैः कर्मिभिश् च यदा यस्मिन् काले पश्यति ध्यायमानः (MunU.3.1.8) अन्यं वृक्षोपाधि-लक्षणाद् वि-लक्षणम् ईशम् अ-संसारिणम् अशनाया-पिपासाशोक-मोह-जरा-मृत्य्व्-अतीतम् ईशं सर्वस्य जगतो, ‘अयम् अहम् अस्मि_आत्मा सर्वस्य समः सर्व-भूत-स्थो, न_इतरो अ-विद्या-जनितोपाधि-परिच्छिन्नो मायात्मा’ इति, विभूतिं महिमानं च जगद्-रूपम् अस्य_एव मम परमेश्वरस्य इति यदा_एवं द्रष्टा [=द्रक्ष्यति], तदा वीत-शोकः भवति सर्वस्माच् छोक-सागराद् विप्रमुच्यते, कृत-कृत्यो भवति_इत्यर्थः॥

Yadā, when, while engaged in meditation; (it) paśyati, sees; juṣṭam, the One who is adored – through diverse paths of Yoga and through karmasanyam, the One who is other – other than the one conditioned by the limiting adjunct of the tree (of the world); īśam, the Lord – who is supramundane, beyond hunger, thirst, sorrow, delusion, decrepitude and death, the Lord of the whole Universe; (sees thus): ‘I am this One who is the Self of all, the same (in all) and existing in every being; and I am not the other illusory self delimited by conditions conjured up by ignorance’; and when he [•The individual.•] sees, asya mahimānam, His glory, splendour, in the form of the Universe; iti, thus: ‘This (glory) is indeed mine, who am the supreme Lord’; tadā, then; he becomes vīta-śokaḥ, liberated from grief, becomes saved from the whole ocean of sorrow, that is to say, he reaches the end of all desires.


अन्योऽपि मन्त्र इमम् एवार्थम् आह स-विस्तरम् –
Another verse also presents this very idea elaborately:
yadā, paśya, √dṛś, rukma-varṇa, kartṛ, īśa, puruṣa, brahma-yoni;
tadā, vidvas, puṇya-pāpa, vidhūya, nis-añjana, parama, sāmya, upa-√i.

यदा पश्यः [=विद्वान्] रुक्म-वर्णं [सर्वस्य] कर्तारम् ईशं ब्रह्म-योनिं पुरुषं पश्यते, तदा [सः] विद्वान् पुण्य-पापे विधूय, निस्-अञ्जनः परमं साम्यम् उपैति॥
When the experiencer (the individual) knows as clear as seeing the shinning person (puruṣa, him or herself as the) Lord who is the (only) doer and as the source of even Lord Brahmā, then this wise one, shaking off (as “mine”) all karma merit and demerit, is freed of impurities, and attains ultimate sameness (oneness).
● When the experiencer (the individual) (यदा पश्यः) knows as clear as seeing (पश्यते) the shinning (रुक्म-वर्णम्)
○ person (Puruṣa, him or herself as the) Lord who is the (only) doer (कर्तारम् ईशं पुरुषं) (and) as the source of even Lord Brahmā (ब्रह्म-योनिम्),
● then this wise one (तदा विद्वान्), shaking off (as “mine”) (all) Karma merit and demerit (पुण्य-पापे विधूय),
○ is freed of impurities (निर्-अञ्जनः), (and) attains ultimate sameness (oneness) (परमं साम्यम् उपैति).
यदा यस्मिन् काले पश्यः पश्यति_इति विद्वान् साधक इत्यर्थः। पश्यते पश्यति पूर्ववद्, रुक्म-वर्णं स्वयं-ज्योतिः-स्वभावं रुक्म्स्य_इव वा ज्योतिर् अस्य_अ-विनाशि, कर्तारं सर्वस्य जगतः ईशं पुरुषं ब्रह्म-योनिं ब्रह्म च तद् योनिश् च_असौ ब्रह्म-योनिस् तं ब्रह्म-योनिं ब्रह्मणो वा अपरस्य योनिं,
Yadā, when; the paśyaḥ, seer – the word, derived in the sense of one who sees, means the illumined aspirants; paśyate, (i.e. paśyati), sees, in the manner described earlier; rukma-varṇam, the naturally self-effulgent One, or the (golden-hued) One whose light is indestructible like that of gold; kartāram, the creator; īśam, the lord of the whole universe; puruṣam, the Puruṣa; brahma-yonim, the Brahman that is the source, or (the phrase means) the source of the inferior Brahman;

स यदा च_एवं पश्यति, तदाविद्वान् पश्यः पुण्य-पापे बन्धन-भूते कर्मणी स-मूले विधूय निरस्य दग्ध्वा निर्-अञ्जनः निर्-लेपो विगत-क्लेशः परमं प्रकृष्टं निर्-अतिशयं साम्यं समताम् अ-द्वय-लक्षणं, द्वैत-विषयाणि साम्यान्य् अतः अर्वाञ्च्य्_एव, अतोऽद्वय-लक्षणम् एतत् परमं साम्यम् उपैति प्रतिपद्यते॥

When he sees thus, tadā, then; that vidvān, illumined one, the seer; vidhūya, having completely shaken off, burnt away, together with their roots; both puṇya-pāpe, merit and demerit – the two kinds of action that constitute bondage; and having become nir-añjanaḥ, free from taint, free from suffering; upaiti, achieves; paramam sāmyam, absolute equality, consisting in non-duality. The equality within the range of duality is indeed inferior to it. As compared with this, he attains this highest equipoise that is the same as non-duality.


किञ्च –
prāṇa, hi, etad, yad, sarva-bhūta, vi-√bhā, vijānat, vidvas, √bhū, na, ati-vādin;
ātma-krīḍa, ātma-rati, kriyāvat (ātma-rati-kriyāvat), etad, brahma-vid, variṣṭha.

एषः [ईश्वरः] प्राणः हि, सर्व-भूतैः विभाति। यः [एवं] विजानन्, एषः विद्वान्। [एषः विद्वान्] अति-वादी [=वाचालः] न भवते। [एषः] आत्म-क्रीडः [बाह्यतः], आत्म-रतिः [अन्तरे], [ब्रह्म-ज्ञानादौ एव] क्रियावान् [अपि] (आत्म-रति-क्रियावान् [आत्म-आनन्दः एव क्रिया यस्य सः])। [एषः] ब्रह्मविदां [वेद-विदां मध्ये] वरिष्ठः॥
This (Lord) indeed is prāṇa (the life-energy) which sustains all life forms. Clearly knowing this, the wise person no longer is one who speaks or thinks differently (ati-vādin, MunU.2.2.5). This one in the self only (physically) plays, in the self only (mentally) revels, while (the body and mind are) engaged (in the Lord’s manifestation, this one “has action,” the body and mind act, but I am not “the doer”). This is the one to choose (as a teacher, MunU.1.2.12) among those who know the Veda.
● This (Lord) indeed is Prāṇa (the life-energy) (प्राणः हि एषः) which sustains all life forms (यः सर्व-भूतैः विभाति).
○ Clearly knowing this (विजानन्), the wise person no longer is one who speaks (or thinks) differently (Ati-vādin) (विद्वान् भवते न अति-वादी).
● This one in the self only (physically) plays (आत्म-क्रीडः), in the self only (mentally) revels (आत्म-रतिः), while (the body and mind are) engaged (in the Lord’s manifestation) (क्रियावान्).
○ This is the one to choose (as a teacher) among those who know the Veda (एषः ब्रह्म-विदां वरिष्ठः).
योऽयं प्राणस्य प्राणः पर ईश्वरः हि एषः प्रकृतः [सर्व-भूतैः] सर्वैर् भूतैः ब्रह्मादि-स्तम्ब-पर्यन्तैः, इत्थं-भूत-लक्षणे तृतीया, सर्व-भूत-स्थः सर्वात्मा सन्न् इत्यर्थः, विभाति विविधं दीप्यते।
He; yaḥ, who is; prāṇaḥ, the Vital Force – of the vital forces; he eṣaḥ hi, is verily this One, the supreme Lord under discussion; who vibhāti, shines divergently; sarva-bhūtaiḥ, through all beings, ranging from Brahmā to a clump of grass; the third (instrumental) case is used here to indicate the state of the thing; and so the phrase means, ‘as existing among all beings as the Self of all’.

एवं सर्व-भूत-स्थं यः साक्षाद् आत्म-भावेन ‘अयम् अहम् अस्मि’ इति विजानन् विद्वान् वाक्यार्थ-ज्ञानमात्रेण स भवते भवति भवति_इत्येतत्, किम्? – अति-वादी अतीत्य सर्वान् अन्यान् वदितुं शीलम् अस्य_इत्य् अति-वादी।
He who becomes vidvān, an illumined soul; vijānan, after having known, this all-pervasive One as his own Self, directly through the experience, ‘I am this’; (he) na, does not; bhavate (i.e. bhavati), become. What (does he not become)? Ati-vādī, a tall talker.

यस् त्व् एवं साक्षाद् आत्मानं प्राणस्य प्राणं विद्वान्, अति-वादी स न भवति_इत्यर्थः। सर्वं यदा आत्मा_एव न_अन्यद् अस्ति_इति दृष्टम्। तदा किं ह्य् असाव् अतीत्य वदेत्? यस्य त्व् अपरम् अन्यद् दृष्टम् अस्ति, स तद्-अतीत्य वदति। अयं तु विद्वान् आत्मनोऽन्यन् न पश्यति, न_अन्यच् छृणोति, न_अन्यद् विजानाति। अतो न_अति-वदति।
An ati-vādī is what one becomes by virtue of mere understanding of the meaning of (scriptural) texts; one who is apt to go beyond all others in his talk. But the one who has become enlightened by realizing directly the Self that is the Vital Force of the vital forces does not become a tall talker. This is the purport. For, when the realization comes that everything is the Self and there is nothing besides, then beyond what will he go is his speech? But the man for whom there is the vision of something different (from the Self), talks by overriding that. This enlightened man, however, does not see anything, does not hear anything, does not cognize anything apart from the Self; therefore he does not go beyond anything in his talk.

किञ्च, आत्म-क्रीडः आत्मन्य् एव च क्रीडा क्रीडनं यस्य न_अन्यत्र पुत्र-दारादिषु, स आत्म-क्रीडः। तथा आत्म-रतिः आत्मन्य् एव च रती रमणं प्रीतिर् यस्य, स आत्म-रतिः। क्रीडा बाह्य-साधन-सापेक्षा, रतिस् तु साधन-निर्-अपेक्षा बाह्य-विषय-प्रीतिमात्रम् इति विशेषः। तथा क्रियावान् ज्ञान-ध्यान-वैराग्यादि-क्रिया यस्य सोऽयं क्रियावान्। समास-पाठे आत्म-रतिर् एव क्रिया_अस्य विद्यत इति बहु-व्रीहि-मतुब्-अर्थयोर् अन्यतरोऽतिरिच्यते।
Moreover, (he becomes) ātma-krīḍaḥ, disporter in the Self alone, and in nothing else, e.g. his sons, wife, and others. Similarly, (he is) ātma-ratiḥ, he has his enjoyment, pleasure, in the Self alone. The distinction between the two is that krīḍā (disport) is dependent on external accessories, whereas ratiḥ (pleasure) is independent of auxiliaries, and consists in a mere pleasurable feeling concerning external objects. So also he becomes kriyāvān, one who is possessed of, i.e. devoted to, (spiritual) practices like knowledge, meditation, detachment, and so on. If the reading be taken in the form of a (bahu-vrīhi) compound (as ātma-rati-kriyāvān), then the meaning will be ‘he becomes possessed of having the activity consisting in his pleasure in the Self’, in which case either the implication of the bahu-vrīhi compound or the meaning of the suffix matup (i.e. -vān, i.e. -vat, in kriyā-vān), (both indicating possession), becomes redundant.
[•The bahu-vrīhi form should be simply ātma-rati-kriyaḥ, which conveys the same meaning as what is tried to be implied by ātma-rati-kriyāvān, so that the suffix -vān becomes redundant (i.e. possessing of possessing). Or, if the suffix is retained, the bahu-vrīhi loses its import.•]

केचित् त्व् अग्नि-होत्रादि-कर्म-ब्रह्म-विद्ययोः समुच्चयार्थम् इच्छन्ति। तच् च_एष ब्रह्म-विदां वरिष्ठ इत्य् अनेन मुख्यार्थ-वचनेन विरुध्यते। न हि बाह्य-क्रियावान् आत्म-क्रीड आत्म-रतिश् च भवितुं शक्तः, क्वचिद् बाह्य-क्रिया-विनिवृत्तो ह्य् आत्म-क्रीडो भवति, बाह्य-क्रियात्म-क्रीडयोर् विरोधात्। न हि तमः-प्रकाशयोर् युगपद् एकत्र स्थितिः सम्भवति।
(From this single compound) some, however, aim at deriving a meaning
[•Viz ‘disports in the Self and performs karma’•]
conductive to the combination of karma like Agni-hotra etc., with the knowledge of Brahman. But this runs counter to the statement of the primary idea in ‘eṣaḥ brahma-vidām variṣṭhaḥ’, this one is the highest of those who know Brahman.’ For none who is steeped in external actions one can disport in the Self and delight in the Self, inasmuch as one can disport in the Self only on ceasing from external activity – external activity and disport in the Self being opposed to each other, for light and darkness cannot possibly exist simultaneously at the same place.

तस्माद् अ-सत् प्रलपितम् एव_एतद् अनेन ज्ञान-कर्म-समुच्चय-प्रतिपादनम्। “अन्या वाचो विमुञ्चथ” (MunU.2.2.5) “संन्यास-योगाद्” (MunU.3.2.6) इत्य्-आदि-श्रुतिभ्यश् च। तस्माद् अयम् एव_इह ‘क्रियावान्’ यो ज्ञान-ध्यानादि-क्रियावान्, सः अ-संभिन्नार्थ-मर्यादः संन्यासी। य एवं-लक्षणो न_अतिवाद्य् आत्म-क्रीड आत्म-रतिः क्रियावान् ब्रह्म-निष्ठः, स ब्रह्म-विदां सर्वेषां वरिष्ठः प्रधानः॥

Therefore the assertion that by this (compound) is established the combination of knowledge and karma is surely a vain rigmarole. And this is borne out by the Veda texts: ‘Give up all other talks’ (MunU.2.2.5), ‘Through the Yoga of monasticism’ (MunU.3.2.6), and so on. Therefore he alone is here the ‘man of action’ (kriyāvān) who is engaged in the practice of knowledge, meditation, and so on, and who is a monk who does not transgress the limits of moral propriety. He who conforms to this description, who has nothing to transcend in his talk, who disports in his Self and delights in his Self, who is given to spiritual practices, and who is fixed in Brahman, is brahma-vidām variṣṭhaḥ, the chief among all the knowers of Brahman.


अधुना सत्यादीनि भिक्षोः सम्यग्-ज्ञान-सह-कारीणि साधनानि विधीयन्ते निवृत्ति-प्रधानानि –
Now are being enjoined for the monk such disciplines as truth and the rest that are predominately characterized by detachment, and that are helpful to the fullest knowledge:
satya, labhya, tapas, hi, etad, ātman, samyak-jñāna, brahma-carya, nityam;
antar-śarīra, jyotirmaya, hi, śubhra, yad, √dṛś, yati, kṣīṇa-doṣa.

एषः हि आत्मा नित्यं सत्येन, तपसा, सम्यक्-ज्ञानेन, ब्रह्म-चर्येण लभ्यः। [एषः] अन्तर्-शरीरे [हृदय-आकाशे] ज्योतिर्मयः हि शुभ्रः, यम् [आत्मानं] क्षीण-दोषाः यतयः [संन्यासिनः] पश्यन्ति॥
This ātman (self) is indeed attained by satya (truthfulness, to this teaching mentally and vocally), by tapas (religious discipline), as well as by samyak jñāna (clear knowledge) and brahma-carya (pursuit solely for the teaching), nitya (all of these with persistence). Indeed, as the light in the heart, those who can know this as clear as seeing would be those who put in the effort (yatis) and free themselves from defects (that keep them from seeing this truth).
● This Ātman (self) is indeed attained by Satya (truthfulness, to this teaching mentally and vocally), by Tapas (religious discipline) (सत्येन लभ्यः तपसा हि एषः आत्मा),
○ as well as by Samyak jñāna (clear knowledge) (सम्यग्-ज्ञानेन) and Brahma-carya (pursuit solely for the teaching) (ब्रह्म-चर्येण), Nitya (all of these with persistence) (नित्यम्).
● Indeed, as the light in the heart (अन्तः-शरीरे ज्योतिर्मयः हि शुभ्रः),
○ those who can know this as clear as seeing (यं पश्यन्ति) would be those who put in the effort (Yatis) and free themselves from defects (यतयः क्षीण-दोषाः).
सत्येन अन्-ऋत-त्यागेन मृषा-वदन-त्यागेन लभ्यः प्राप्तव्यः। किञ्च, तपसा हि_इन्द्रिय-मन-एकाग्रतया। “मनसश् च_इन्द्रियाणां च ह्य् ऐकाग्र्यं परमं तपः” (MBhSan.250.4) इति स्मरणात्। तद् ध्य् अनुकूलम् आत्म-दर्शनाभिमुखी-भावात् परमं साधनं तपो न_इतरच् चान्द्रायणादि। एष आत्मा लभ्य इत्य् अनुषङ्गः सर्वत्र। सम्यग्-ज्ञानेन यथा-भूतात्म-दर्शनेन ब्रह्म-चर्येण मैथुनासमाचारेण। नित्यं सर्वदा, नित्यं सत्येन नित्यं तपसा नित्यं सम्यग्-ज्ञानेन_इति सर्वत्र नित्य-शब्दोऽन्तर्-दीपिका-न्यायेन_अनुषक्तव्यः। वक्ष्यति च “न येषु जिह्मम् अन्-ऋतं न माया च” (PrasU.1.16) इति।
(The Self is) labhyaḥ, attainable; satyena, through truth, through the rejection of untruth; and further, tapasā hi, verily through the concentration, of the mind and the senses, which meaning (of tapas) follows from the Smṛti, ‘The highest tapas (lit. austerity) consists in the concentration of the mind and senses’ (MBhSan.250.4). That kind of tapas is indeed the greatest favourable discipline because of its natural tendency towards a vision of the Self, but not so the other kind of tapas (austerity), e.g. cāndra-ayaṇa and the rest. The expression, ‘eṣaḥ ātmā labhyaḥ – this Self is attainable’, is understood everywhere. (This Self is attainable) samyag-jñānena, by complete knowledge, by the vision of the Self in Its reality;
[•By samyak jñāna, here, is to be understand such immature but adequate knowledge of the meaning of the text which matures into the knowledge of the thing itself. The mature knowledge, productive of direct perception, does not depend on other factors for bringing about its results, viz the cessation of ignorance. So it is immature knowledge that alone can be combined with such disciplines as truth etc. for the acquisition of mature knowledge.•]
brahma-caryeṇa, by continence, through avoidance of sexual relationship. By following the analogy of the lamp placed in the middle (which lights up everything on all sides), the word, nityam – (practised for) ever, should be supplied everywhere thus; by truth practised for ever; by concentration (practised for) ever; by complete knowledge (practised for) ever. And it will be said later on, ‘those in whom there is no crookedness, no falsehood, and no dissimulation’ (PrasU.1.16).

कोऽसाव् आत्मा य एतैः साधनैर् लभ्य इत्य् उच्यते – अन्तः-शरीरेऽन्तः मध्ये शरीरस्य पुण्डरीकाकाशे ज्योतिर्मयो हि रुक्म-वर्णः शुभ्रः शुद्धो यम् आत्मानं पश्यन्ति उपलभन्ते यतयः यतन-शीलाः संन्यासिनः क्षीण-दोषाः क्षीण-क्रोधादि-चित्त-मलाः, स आत्मा नित्यं सत्यादि-साधनैः संन्यासिभिर् लभ्यत इत्यर्थः। न कादाचित् कैः सत्यादिभिर् लभ्यते॥

Which is this Self that is attainable through these disciplines? The answer is being given: (That Self is) antaḥ-śarīre, inside the body, in the space within the lotus of the heart; (which Self is) jyotirmayaḥ, golden-hued (MunU.3.1.3); and śubhraḥ, holy; yam, which, which Self; yatayaḥ, the monks who habitually strive for It; kṣīṇa-doṣāḥ, whose mental defects – anger etc. – have become attenuated; paśyanti, see, realize. The Self is attained by the monks through the disciplines of truth etc. constantly practised, but not through inconstant truth etc.


सत्यादि(सत्य)-साधन-स्तुत्य्-अर्थोऽयम् अर्थ-वादः –
This is eulogy for commending the discipline of truth and the rest:
satya, eva, √ji, na, an-ṛta, satya, panthan, vitata, deva-yāna;
yad, ā-√kram, ṛśi, hi, āpta-kāma, yatra, tad, satya, parama, nidhāna.

सत्यम् एव जयति, न अनृतम् [सत्यवान् एव न अन्-ऋतवान् इत्यर्थः]। सत्येन [सः] पन्थाः देव-यानः विततः, येन [पथा] आप्त-कामाः ऋषयः हि [उपासकाः] आक्रमन्ति, यत्र [पथि] तद् परमं सत्यस्य निधानम् [निधिः]॥
(Even relatively) by truth alone one wins, never by untruth (short of the truth, factually or absolutely). The path leading to the celestials is covered by satya (truthfulness). By this satya, the wise who complete their desires ascend to whatever is the final goal of that truth.
● (Even relatively) (by) truth alone one wins (सत्यम् एव जयते), never (by) untruth (short of the truth, factually or absolutely) (न अन्-ऋतम्).
○ The path leading to the celestials is covered by Satya (truthfulness) (सत्येन पन्थाः विततः देव-यानः).
● By this (Satya) (येन) the wise who complete their desires ascend (आक्रमन्ति ऋषयः हि आप्त-कामाः)
○ to wherever is the final goal of that truth (यत्र तद् सत्यस्य परमं निधानम्).
सत्यम् एव सत्यवान् एव जयते जयति, न_अन्-ऋतं न_अन्-ऋत-वादी_इत्यर्थः। न हि सत्यानृतयोः केवलयोः पुरुषानाश्रितयोः जयः परा-जयो वा सम्भवति। प्रसिद्धं लोके सत्य-वादिना_अन्-ऋत-वाद्य् अभिभूयते, न विपर्ययः। अतः सिद्धं सत्यस्य बलवत्-साधनत्वम्।
Satyam eva, truth indeed, the truthful man; jayate, [•Another reading is jayati•] wins; na an-ṛtam, not untruthfulness, i.e. not the untruthful man; for truth or untruth, by itself, without being practised by men, can have neither victory nor defeat. It is a familiar fact in the world that an untruthful man is defeated by a truthful one, but not contrariwise. Therefore truth is proved to be a powerful discipline.

किञ्च, शास्त्रतोऽप्य् अवगम्यते सत्यस्य साधनातिशयत्वम्। कथम्? सत्येन यथा-भूत-वाद-व्यवस्थया पन्थाः देव-यानख्यः विततो विस्तीर्णः सातत्येन प्रवृत्तः। येन पथा ह्य् आक्रमन्ति (आ)क्रमन्ते ऋषयः दर्शनवन्तः कुहक-माया-शाठ्याहंकार-दम्भानृत-वर्जिता ह्य् आप्त-कामाः विगत-तृष्णाः सर्वतो, यत्र यस्मिन् तत् परमार्थ-तत्त्वं सत्यस्य उत्तम-साधनस्य सम्बन्धि साध्यं परमं प्रकृष्टं निधानं पुरुषार्थ-रूपेण निधीयत इति निधानं वर्तते। तत्र च येन पथा आक्रमन्ति, स सत्येन वितत इति पूर्वेण सम्बन्धः॥

Besides, from the scripture also it is known that truth is a superior discipline. How? Satyena, by truth, through the settled rule of speaking of things as they are; the panthāḥ, path; called deva-yānaḥ, Deva-yāna, the Path of gods; is vitataḥ, laid, spread, determined for ever; yena, by which path alone; ākramanti, ascend; the ṛṣayaḥ, seers, who are free from deceit, diplomacy, want of charity, pride, and falsehood; who are hi āpta-kāmāḥ, free from desires for everything. (They ascend there) yatra, where; exists tat, that; paramam, best; nidhānam, treasure, the highest Reality, standing deposited as a human goal; satyasya, related, by way of being its result, with truth, the highest discipline. The path, too, by which they ascend there, is laid with truth – this is how this portion is to be construed with the earlier.


किं तत्? किं-धर्मकं च तद्? इत्य् उच्यते –
It is being said what It is and what Its attributes are:
bṛhat, ca, tad, divya, a-cintya-rūpa, sūkṣma, ca, tad, sūkmatara, vi-√bhā;
dūra, su-dūra, tad, iha, antika, ca, paśyat, iha, eva, nihita, guhā.

तद् [ब्रह्म] च बृहत्, दिव्यम्, अ-चिन्त्य-रूपं, सूक्ष्मात् च सुक्ष्मतरम् [अपि] तद् विभाति। [अ-विदुषां] तद् [ब्रह्म] दूरात् सु-दूरे [अपि], [विदुषाम्] इह [शरीरे] अन्तिके च [वर्तते]। इह एव पश्यत्सु [प्राणिषु] गुहायां [बुद्धौ] निहितम्॥
That limitless (brahman) is the shining one (in the intellect, MunU.3.1.5), not available as a form of thought (to be lit up), yet variously reveals (itself) as the subtlest of the subtle (in each and every thought). Existing very far from what is remote (in distance or time) and close to (i.e., closer than) here (than every thought right now), it exists (as though) hidden here itself in the conscious intellect.
● That limitless (Brahman) is the shining one (in the intellect, MunU.3.1.5) (बृहत् च तद् दिव्यम्), not available as a form of thought (to be lit up) (अ-चिन्त्य-रूपम्),
○ yet variously reveals (itself) (Vibhāti) as the subtlest of the subtle (in each and every thought) (सूक्ष्मात् च तद् सूक्ष्मतरं विभाति).
● Existing very far from what is remote (in distance or time) (दूरात् सु-दूरे तद्) and close to (i.e., closer than) here (than every thought right now) (इह अन्तिके च).
○ it exists (as though) hidden here itself in the conscious intellect (पश्यत्सु इह एव निहितं गुहायाम्).
बृहद् महच् च तत् प्रकृतं ब्रह्म सत्यादि-साधनं, सर्वतो व्याप्तत्वात्। दिव्यं स्वयं-प्रभम् अन्-इन्द्रिय-गोचरम्, अत एव न चिन्तयितुं शक्यतेऽस्य रूपम् इति अ-चिन्त्य-रूपम्सूक्ष्माद् आकाशादेर् अपि तत् सूक्ष्मतरम्, निर्-अतिशयं हि सौक्ष्म्यम् अस्य सर्व-कारणत्वाद्, विभाति विविधम् आदित्य-चन्द्राद्य्-आकारेण भाति दीप्यते।
Tat, that Brahman under consideration, which is attainable through the disciplines of truth and the rest; is bṛhat, great, because of Its all-pervasiveness; divyam, self-effulgent, super-sensuous; and therefore a-cintya-rūpam, unthinkable – such as Its features cannot be thought of; It is sūkṣmataram, subtler, than the subtle things like space, for Its subtleness is unsurpassing, It being the cause of all; It vibhāti, shines variously as sun, moon, and the rest.

किञ्च, दूराद् विप्रकृष्ट-देशात् सु-दूरे विप्रकृष्टतरे देशे वर्ततेऽविदुषाम् अत्यन्तागम्यत्वात् तद् ब्रह्म। इह देहे अन्तिके समीपे , विदुषाम् आत्मत्वात्। सर्वान्तरत्वाच् च_‘आकाशस्य_अप्य्’ अन्तर-श्रुतेः (BrhU.3.7.12)।
Besides, tat, that Brahman; exists su-dūre, still farther away; dūrāt, that a far-off place; for it is extremely unattainable to the ignorant; ca, and; (It is) iha, here, in the body; antike, near, close at hand, to the enlightened, because It is the Self and It permeates all; for the Veda declares that it is inside even space.

इह पश्यत्सु चेतनावत्स्व् इत्येतद्, निहितं स्थितं दर्शनादि-क्रियावत्त्वेन योगिभिर् लक्ष्यमाणम्। क्व? गुहायां बुद्धि-लक्षणायाम्। तत्र हि निगूढं लक्ष्यते विद्वद्भिः। तथा_अप्य् अ-विद्यया संवृतं सन् न लक्ष्यते तत्र-स्थम् एव_अ-विद्वद्भिः॥

As engaged in such activities as seeing etc., It is perceived by the Yogīs as nihitam, seated; iha, in this body; paśyatsu, amongst those who see, i.e. among sentient beings. Where is It perceived? Guhāyām, in the cavity (of the heart), called the intellect; for by the enlightened It is perceived as hidden there; and yet, even though existing there, It is not perceived by the ignorant because of Its being covered by ignorance.


पुनर् अप्य् अ-साधारणं तद्-उपलब्धि-साधनम् उच्यते –
A unique means for Its realization is being stated again:
na, cakṣus, √grah, na, api, vāc, na, anya, deva, tapas, karman, vā;
jñāna-prasāda, viśuddha-sattva, tatas, tu, tad, √dṛś, nis-kala, dhyāyamāna.

न चक्षुषा, न अपि वाचा, न अन्यैः देवैः [इन्द्रियैः], [न] तपसा कर्मणा वा [आत्म-तत्त्वं] गृह्यते। [यतः] ज्ञान-प्रसादेन विशुद्ध-सत्वः, ततः तु [एव] ध्यायमानः [साधकः] तं निस्-कलम् [अवयव-वर्जितम् आत्मानं] पश्यत॥
It is not attained by the eye, nor by speech, nor by the other devas (senses), nor by prayerful discipline or ritual. By the blessing that is knowledge (alone) does one become free from the clouds (of doubts) in the mind (sattva). From that (clarity in knowledge), contemplating (if necessary to further subside unconscious sources of doubts), one comes to know as clear as seeing that partless one (brahman, MunU.2.2.9).
● It is not attained by the eye (न चक्षुषा गृह्यते), nor by speech (न अपि वाचा),
○ nor by the other Devas (senses) (न अन्यैः देवैः), nor by prayerful discipline or ritual (तपसा कर्मणा वा).
● By the blessing that is knowledge (alone) (ज्ञान-प्रसादेन) does one become free from the clouds (of doubts) in the mind (Sattva) (विशुद्ध-सत्त्वः).
○ From that (clarity in knowledge) (ततः तु), contemplating (if necessary to further subside unconscious sources of doubts), one comes to know as clear as seeing that partless one (Brahman, MunU.2.2.9) (तं पश्यते निष्-कलं ध्यायमानः).
यस्माद् न चक्षुषा गृह्यते केनचिद् अप्य् अ-रूपत्वाद्, न_अपि गृह्यते वाचा अन्-अभिधेयत्वाद्, च_अन्यैर् देवैः इतरेन्द्रियैः। तपसः सर्व-प्राप्ति-साधनत्वेऽपि न तपसा गृह्यते। तथा वैदिकेन_अग्नि-होत्रादि-कर्मणा प्रसिद्ध-महत्त्वेन_अपि न गृह्यते। किं पुनस् तस्य ग्रहणे साधनम्? इत्य् आह ज्ञान-प्रसादेन
As na gṛhyate, (It is) not comprehended; cakṣuṣā, with the eye, by anybody, because of Its formlessness; na api, nor even; is It encompassed vācā, by speech, because of Its unutterability; na anyaiḥ devaiḥ, nor by the other senses; na tapasā, nor by austerity, is It grasped, though tapas is the means for the achievement of everything, similarly na, nor, it It attained; karmaṇā, by Veda karma, to wit, Agni-hotra etc. which are celebrated for their great efficacy. What then is the means for Its attainment? That is being said jñāna-prasādena, through the favourableness of knowledge (i.e. the intellect).
[•The word jñāna, here derived in the sense of that by which one knows. It means the intellect, the instrument of knowledge-A.G.•]

आत्मावबोधन-समर्थम् अपि स्व-भावेन सर्व-प्राणिनां ज्ञानं बाह्य-विषय-रागादि-दोष-कलुषितम् अ-प्रसन्नम् अ-शुद्धं सन् न_अवबोधयति नित्य-संनिहितम् अप्य् आत्म-तत्त्वं, मलावनद्धम् इव_आदर्शनम्, विलुलितम् इव सलिलम्। तद् यदा_इन्द्रिय-विषय-संसर्ग-जनित-रागादि-मल-कालुष्यापनयनाद् आदर्श-सलिलादिवत् प्रसादितं स्व्-अच्छं शान्तम् अवतिष्ठते, तदा ज्ञानस्य प्रसादः स्यात्।
Though the intellect in all beings is intrinsically able to make the Self known, still being polluted by such blemishes as attachment to external objects etc., it becomes non-transparent and impure, and does not, like a stained mirror or ruffled water, make the reality of the Self known, though It is ever at hand. The favourableness of the intellect comes about when it continues to be transparent and tranquil on having been made clean like a mirror, water, etc, by the removal of the pollution caused by the dirt of attachment that brings from the contact of the senses and sense-objects.

तेन ज्ञान-प्रसादेन, विशुद्ध-सत्त्वः विशुद्धान्तःकरणः योग्यो ब्रह्म द्रष्टुं यस्मात्, ततः तस्मात् तु तम् आत्मानं पश्यते पश्यति उपलभते निष्-कलं सर्वावयव-भेद-वर्जितं ध्यायमानः सत्यादि-साधनवान् उपसंहृत-करण एकाग्रेण मनसा ध्यायमानः चिन्तयन्॥

Since viśuddha-sattvaḥ, one who has become pure in mind, through that favourableness of the intellect, is fit for seeing Brahman; tataḥ tu, therefore; one possessed of such spiritual disciplines as truth etc. and having the senses withdrawn (from objects), paśyate (is the same as paśyati), sees, realizes; tam, that Self; (which is) niṣ-kalam, indivisible, devoid of all differentiation of limbs; dhyāyamānaḥ, while (he is) engaged in meditation – thinking of It with a concentrated mind.
[•Through meditation is attained the favourableness of the intellect, which leads to the seeing of the Self. It is the Upaniṣad knowledge, freed from doubt etc., that leads to the realization of truth; mere meditation has no such ability-A.G.•]


यम् आत्मानम् एवं पश्यति –
The Self which one sees thus:
etad, aṇu, ātman, cetas, veditavya, yad, prāṇa, pañcadhā, sam-√viś;
prāṇa, citta, sarva, ota, prajā, yad, viśuddha, vi-√bhū, etad, ātman.

यस्मिन् [शरीरे] प्राणः पञ्चधा [पञ्च-भदेन] संविवेश, [तस्मिन् एव] एषः अणुः आत्मा चेतसा [मनसा] वेदितव्यः [ज्ञेयः]। प्रजानां सर्वं चित्तं प्राणैः [इन्द्रियैः सह] [चैतयेन] ओतम्। यस्मिन् [चित्ते] विशुद्धे [सति], एषः आत्मा विभवति॥
This subtle Ātman has to be understood only by the mind (Cetas), while one is (alive) in this (body) where the Prāṇa has entered fivefold. The entire mind along with the Prāṇas of living beings is woven (Ota, MunU.2.2.5, in this subtle Ātman, in consciousness). When this mind is free of confusions and doubts (Viśuddha, free of obstacles to knowledge, MunU.2.2.8), this Ātman reveals itself.
(There is no need to travel to some heaven to find Ātman.)
● This subtle Ātman has to be understood (only) by the mind (Cetas) (एषः अणुः आत्मा चेतसा वेदितव्यः),
○ while one is (alive) in this (body) where (यस्मिन्) the Prāṇa has entered fivefold (प्राणः पञ्चधा संविवेश).
● The entire mind along with the Prāṇas (प्राणैः चित्तं सर्वम्) of living beings is woven (Ota, MunU.2.2.5) (in this subtle Ātman, in consciousness) (ओतं प्रजानाम्).
○ When this mind is free of confusions and doubts (Viśuddha, free of obstacles to knowledge, MunU.2.2.8) (यस्मिन् विशुद्धे), this Ātman reveals itself (विभवति एषः आत्मा).
एषः अणुः सूक्ष्मः (आत्मा) चेतसा विशुद्ध-ज्ञानेन केवलेन वेदितव्यः। क्व_असौ? यस्मिन् शरीरे प्राणः वायुः पञ्चधा प्राणापानादि-भेदेन संविवेश सम्यक् प्रविष्टः, तस्मिन्न् एव शरीरे हृदये चेतसा ज्ञेय इत्यर्थः।
Eṣaḥ, this; aṇuḥ, subtle; ātmā, Self; veditavyaḥ, is to be known; only through the pure cetasā, intelligence. Where is It to be realized? Yasmin, where, in the body in which; prāṇaḥ, the vital force; saṃviveśa, has entered well; pañcadhā, in five different forms, viz Prāṇa, Apāna, etc., within the heart in that very body. It is to be known through the intelligence. This is the idea.

की-दृशेन चेतसा वेदितव्यः? इत्य् आह – प्राणैः सहेन्द्रियैः चित्तं सर्वम् अन्तःकरणं प्रजानाम् ओतं व्याप्तं येन, क्षीरम् इव स्नेहेन, काष्ठम् इव च_अग्निना। सर्वं हि प्रजानाम् अन्तःकरणं चेतनावत् प्रसिद्धं लोके। यस्मिंश् च चित्ते क्लेशादि-मल-वियुक्ते शुद्धे विभवति, एषः उक्त आत्मा विशेषेण स्वेन_आत्मना विभवति आत्मानं प्रकाशयति_इत्यर्थः॥

Through what kind of intelligence (cetasā) is It to be known? That is being said: Through that intelligence by which sarvam cittam, the whole mind, the internal organ; prajānām, of creatures; prāṇaiḥ (saha), together with their motor and sensory organs; is otam, pervaded, as milk is with butter or wood with fire; for the entire internal organ of every creature in this world is familiarly known to be possessed of sentience. Moreover, It is to be known in that internal organ, yasmin viśuddhe, which having become pure, freed from the dirt of grief etc., eṣaḥ ātmā, the foregoing Self; vibhavati, reveals Itself distinctly, i.e. in Its own reality.


य एवम्-उक्त-लक्षणं सर्वात्मानम् आत्मत्वेन प्रतिपन्नस् तस्य सर्वात्मत्वाद् एव सर्वावाप्ति-लक्षणं फलम् आह –
For one, who attains as his own Self that which is the Self of all and which is possessed of the above characteristics, is being stated the result, consisting in the attainment of all, which follows from the very fact of his becoming one with all:
yad, yad, loka, manas, sam-vi-√bhā, viśuddha-sattva, √kam, yad, ca, kāma;
tad, tad, loka, √ji, tad, ca, kāma, tad, ātma-jña, hi, √arc, bhūti-kāma.

यं यं लोकं मनसा संविभाति [संकल्पयति] यान् च कामान् [भोगान्] कामयते, तं तं लोकं तान् च कामान् विशुद्ध-सत्त्वः [ज्ञानी] जयते [प्राप्नोति]। तस्मात् भूति-कामः [विभूति-इच्छावान्] आत्म-ज्ञं हि अर्चयेत् [पूजयेत्]॥
Whatever experience (loka) is revealed by the mind, and whatever desires it entertains, the one whose mind is free from confusions and doubts wins over (has already attained the ānanda, fulfillment, MunU.2.2.7, of) that experience and those desires. Therefore, all those desirous of prosperity praise the one who knows oneself.
● Whatever experience (यं यं लोकम्) is revealed by the mind (मनसा संविभाति),
○ (and) whatever desires it entertains (Kāmayate), the one whose mind is free from confusions and doubts (विशुद्ध-सत्त्वः कामयते यान् च कामान्)
● wins over (has already attained the Ānanda, fulfillment, MunU.2.2.7, of) that experience (तं तं लोकं जयते) and those desires (तान् च कामान्).
○ Therefore (तस्मात्), (all) those desirous of prosperity (Bhūti) praise the one who knows oneself (आत्म-ज्ञं हि अर्चयेत् भूति-कामः).
यं यं लोकं पित्रादि-लक्षणं मनसा संविभाति सङ्कल्पयति ‘मह्यम् अन्यस्मै वा भवेद्’ इति, विशुद्ध-सत्त्वः क्षीण-क्लेशः आत्म-विन् निर्मलान्तःकरणः कामयते यांश् च कामान् प्रार्थयते भोगान्, तं तं लोकं जयते प्राप्नोति तांश् च कामान् संकल्पितान् भोगान्।
Yam yam lokam, any world which soever, such as the World of the manes etc., that; viśuddha-sattvaḥ, the man of pure mind, the man freed from mental afflictions (kleśas),
[•Kleśas – ignorance, egotism, desire, aversion, and ardent longing for mundane existence (YS.2.3).•]
the knower of the Self; saṃvibhāti, wishes for; manasā, with the mind, thinking, ‘Let this be mine or for somebody else’; ca, and; yān kāmān, those enjoyable things that; kāmayate, (he) covets; jayate, he wins, gets; tam tam lokam, those very worlds; ca tān kāmān, and those enjoyable things that are wished for.

तस्माद् विदुषः सत्य-सङ्कल्पत्वाद् आत्म-ज्ञम् आत्म-ज्ञानेन विशुद्धान्तःकरणं ह्य् अर्चयेत् पूजयेत् पाद-प्रक्षालन-शुश्रूषा-नमस्कारादिभिः भूति-कामः विभूतिम् इच्छुः। ततः पूजार्ह एव_असौ॥

Since the wishes of the enlightened man are infallible, tasmāt, therefore; bhūti-kāmaḥ, one who hankers after prosperity; arcayet, should worship, through washing of feet, service, salutation, etc.; ātma-jñam, the knower of the Self, who is purified in mind by virtue of his knowledge of the Self. Therefore such a one is certainly adorable.

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This knowledge has to be chosen

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tad, √vid, etad, parama, brahman, dhāman, yatra, viśva, nihita, √bhā, śubhra;
upa-√ās, puruṣa, yad, hi, a-kāma, tad, śukra, etad, ati-√vṛt, dhīra.

सः [आत्म-ज्ञः] एतद् ब्रह्म परमं धाम वेद [जानाति], यत्र [धाम्नि] विश्वं [जगत्] निहितं, [यद् च] शुभ्रं भाति। ये अ-कामाः हि [तम् आत्म-ज्ञं] पुरुषं उपासते [सेवन्ते], ते धीराः [मुमुक्षवः] एतद् शुक्रं [नृ-रेतस्] अतिवर्तन्ति॥
That wise one knows brahman as this ultimate abode (dhāman), in which is fixed the universe, and which always reveals itself with clarity (śubhra). Those who are free from all (other) desires respectfully approach (upāsate, as students) that person, and being discerning, they too cross over to this (far shore of) clarity (śukra).
● That (wise) one knows (सः वेद) Brahman as this ultimate abode (Dhāman) (एतद् परमं ब्रह्म धाम),
○ in which is fixed the universe (यत्र विश्वं निहितं), and which (always) reveals (itself) with clarity (Śubhra) (भाति शुभ्रम्).
● Those who are free from all (other) desires (A-kāmāḥ) respectfully approach (Upāsate, as students) that person (उपासते पुरुषं ये हि अ-कामाः),
○ (and) being discerning (Dhīrāḥ), they (too) cross over to this (far shore of) clarity (Śukra) (ते शुक्रम् एतद् अतिवर्तन्ति धीराः).
(यस्मात्) स वेद जानाति एतद् यथोक्त-लक्षणं ब्रह्म परमं प्रकृष्टं धाम सर्व-कामानाम् आश्रयम् आस्पदम्, यत्र यस्मिन् ब्रह्मणि धाम्नि विश्वं समस्तं जगद् निहितम् अर्पितम्, यच् च स्वेन ज्योतिषा भाति शुभ्रं शुद्धम्,
(Since) saḥ, he; veda, knows; etat brahma, this Brahman, as defined before; which is the paramam dhāman, best abode, the resort of all desires; yatra, where, in which Brahman, as the abode; viśvam nihitam, the whole universe is placed; and which bhāti, shines in Its own lustre; śubhram, holy;

तम् अप्य् एवम् आत्म-ज्ञं पुरुषं ये हि अ-कामाः विभूति-तृष्णा-वर्जिता मुमुक्षवः सन्तः उपासते परम् इव सेवन्ते, ते शुक्रं नृ-बीजं यद् एतत् प्रसिद्धं शरीरोपादान-कारणम् अतिवर्तन्ति अतिगच्छन्ति धीराः बुद्धिमन्तः, न पुनर् योनिं प्रसर्पन्ति। “न पुनः क्व रतिं करोति” इति श्रुतेः। अतस् तं पूजयेद् इत्य् अभिप्रायः॥

(Therefore) ye, those people indeed; a-kāmāḥ, who having become free from desire, free from the passion for prosperity; upāsate, serve – with aspiration for liberation; that very puruṣam, person who is such a knower of the Self – as though he were the supreme Reality; te, those; dhīrāḥ, wise ones; ativartanti, transcend; etat śukram, this human seed – that is well known as the material source of the body; they never again approach any womb (for rebirth), as declared in the Veda text; ‘He never hankers again.’ Therefore one should adore him. This is the purport.


मुमुक्षोः काम-त्याग एव प्रधानं साधनम् इत्य् एतद् दर्शयति –
It is being shown that the eschewing of desires is the chief discipline for an aspirant of liberation:
kāma, yad, √kam, manyamāna, tad, kāma, √jan, tatra, tatra;
paryāpta-kāma, kṛta-ātman, tu, iha, eva, sarva, pra-vi-√lī, kāma.

यः कामान् कामयते, [तान्] मन्यमानः सः तत्र तत्र [लोके] कामभिः [सह] जायते। पर्याप्त-कामस्य कृत-आत्मनः तु इह [शरीरे] एव सर्वे कामाः प्रविलीयन्ति॥
The one who dwells on (manyamāna) and desires objects (BhG.2.62) is born again and again in wherever place has those desirable objects. Whereas, for the one who has fulfilled all desires by having discovered the (already fulfilled) ātman, here itself all desires dissolve (are absorbed within the fulfillment of ātman).
● The one who dwells on (Manyamāna) and desires objects (कामान् यः कामयते मन्यमानः)
○ is born again and again in wherever place has those desirable objects (सः कामभिः जायते तत्र तत्र).
● Whereas, for the one who has fulfilled all desires (Paryāpta-kāmasya) (by) having discovered the (already fulfilled) Ātman (पर्याप्त-कामस्य कृत-आत्मनः तु),
○ here itself (इह एव) all desires dissolve (are absorbed within the fulfillment of Ātman) (सर्वे प्रविलीयन्ति कामाः).
कामान् यः दृष्टादृष्टेष्ट-विषयान् कामयते मन्यमानः तद्-गुणांश् चिन्तयानः प्रार्थयते, सः तैः कामभिः कामैर् धर्माधर्म-प्रवृत्ति-हेतुभिर् विषयेच्छा-रूपैः सह जायते तत्र तत्र। यत्र यत्र विषय-प्राप्ति-निमित्तं कामाः कर्मसु पुरुषं नियोजयन्ति, तत्र तत्र तेषु तेषु विषयेषु तैर् एव कामैर् वेष्टितो जायते।
Yaḥ, he who; kāmayate, covets, hankers after; kāmān, desirable things – seen or unseen; manyamānaḥ, while brooding, on them, on their good qualities; saḥ, he; jāyate, is born; kāmabhiḥ, alone with those desires, the longing for objects that lead to involvement in virtues and vices; tatra tatra, amidst those surroundings, in which the desires tempt the man to action for acquiring the objects. He is born amidst those very objects, surrounded by those very desires.

यस् तु परमार्थ-तत्त्व-विज्ञानात् पर्याप्त-कामः आत्म-कामत्वेन परि समन्ततः आप्ताः कामा (BrhU.4.4.6) यस्य तस्य पर्याप्त-कामस्य, कृतात्मनः अ-विद्या-लक्षणाद् अ-पर-रूपाद् अपनीय स्वेन परेण रूपेण कृत आत्मा विद्यया यस्य तस्य कृतात्मनस् तु, इह_एव तिष्ठत्य् एव शरीरे सर्वे धर्माधर्म-प्रवृत्ति-हेतवः प्रविलीयन्ति विलयम् उपयान्ति, नश्यन्ति_इत्यर्थः। कामाः तज्-जन्म-हेतु-विनाशान् न जायन्त इत्यभिप्रायः॥

Tu, but; for him who has got his wishes fulfilled on the realization of the supreme Reality – parpyāpta-kāmasya, for the man of fully satisfied desires, for him who has secured all covetable things from everywhere by virtue of his craving for the Self; kṛta-ātmanaḥ, for one who is Self poised, for the man whose Self, having been weaned away from Its inferior aspect constituted by ignorance, has become established in Its own superior aspect through knowledge; sarve (kāmāḥ), all (longings), that induce virtuous or vicious activity; pravilīyanti, vanish, that is to say, get dissipated; iha eva, even here, even while the body lasts. The purport is that desires do not crop up (in his mind) owing to the destruction of their causes.


‘यद्य् एवं सर्व-लाभात् परम आत्म-लाभः, तल्-लाभाय प्रवचनादय उपाया बाहुल्येन कर्तव्या’ इति प्राप्ते, इदम् उच्यते –
Some may be led to think that if the attainment of the Self be the highest of all achievements, then for Its realization one should practise extensively such processes as the study of the Vedas. To this the text says:
na, idam, ātman, pravacana, labhya, na, medhā, na, bahu, śruta;
yad, eva, etad, √vṛ [svī-kāre], tad, labhya, tad, etad, ātman, vi-√vṛ [an-ācchādane], tanū, svā.

अयम् आत्मा लभ्यः न प्रवचनेन, न मेधया, न बहुना श्रुतेन। एषः [साधकः] यम् [आत्मानं परम-अर्थेन] वृणुते, तेन [वरण-साधनेन मुमुक्षुणा] एव [सः वरिष्ठ-आत्मा] लभ्यः, तस्य [मुमुक्षोः] एषः आत्मा स्वां तनूं [स्व-रूपं] विवृणते॥ (KathU.1.2.23)
This ātman is not attained by reciting scripture, nor by memory of scripture, nor by listening to many scriptures (i.e., words cannot reveal ātman, they can only remove confusions). The ātman that alone one chooses (solely commits to), by that ātman is this ātman attained, since this ātman self-reveals its form (as the only limitless witness-being).
● This Ātman is not attained by reciting (scripture) (न अयम् आत्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यः),
○ nor by memory (of scripture) (न मेधया), nor by listening to many (scriptures) (न बहुना श्रुतेन).
● What (Ātman) alone one chooses (solely commits to) (यम् एव एषः वृणुते), by that (Ātman) is this (Ātman) attained (तेन लभ्यः),
○ (since) this Ātman (self-)reveals (तस्य एषः आत्मा विवृणुते) its form (as the only limitless witness-being) (तनूं स्वाम्).
यः अयम् आत्मा व्याख्यातः, यस्य लाभः परः पुरुषार्थः, _असौ वेद-शास्त्राध्ययन-बाहुल्येन प्रवचनेन [केवलेन] लभ्यः। तथा न मेधया ग्रन्थार्थ-धारण-शक्त्या, न बहुना श्रुतेन न_अपि भूयसा श्रवणेन_इत्यर्थः।
Ayam ātmā, this Self, which has been explained and whose attainment is the highest human goal; na labhyaḥ, is not attained; pravacanena, through study, of Vedas and scriptures extensively. Similarly, na medhayā, nor through intelligence, the power of comprehension of the purport of texts; na bahunā śrutena, nor through many things heard, that is to say, not even through much hearing (of scriptures).

केन तर्हि लभ्य इति, उच्यते – यम् एव परमात्मानम् एव एषः विद्वान् वृणुते प्राप्तुम् इच्छति, तेन वरणेन एष पर आत्मा लभ्यः, न_अन्येन साधनान्तरेण। नित्य-लब्ध-स्व-भावत्वात्,
By what then can It be reached? That is being explained. Yam eva, the very entity, the supreme Self, which; eṣaḥ, this one, the man of knowledge; vṛṇute, seeks to reach; this, supreme Self labhyaḥ, is attainable; tena, by that fact of hankering;
[•Consisting in pursuing the idea, ‘I am Brahman.’•]
but not through any other spiritual effort, for It is by Its very nature ever attained.

की-दृशोऽसौ विदुष आत्म-लाभः? इति उच्यते – तस्य एष आत्मा अ-विद्या-संछन्नां स्वां परां तनूं स्वात्म-तत्त्वं स्व-रूपं विवृणुते प्रकाशयति, प्रकाश इव घटादिर् विद्यायां सत्याम् आविर्-भवति_इत्यर्थः। तस्माद् अन्य-त्यागेन_आत्म-लाभ-प्रार्थन_एव आत्म-लाभ-साधनम् इत्यर्थः॥

Now is being explained how this attainment of the Self by the man of knowledge comes about. Eṣaḥ ātmā, this Self; tasya, of his; vivṛṇute, reveals; svām tanūm, Its own supreme nature, Its reality that was enveloped in ignorance; the idea is that when knowledge dawns, the Self becomes revealed just like pots etc. on the coming of light. Hence the purport is that the means for the attainment of the Self consists in praying for this consummation to the exclusion of everything else.


आत्म-प्रार्थना-सहाय-भूतान्य् एतानि च साधनानि बलाप्रमाद-तपांसि लिङ्ग-युक्तानि संन्यास-सहितानि। यस्मात् –
These spiritual disciplines, too – viz strength, absence of delusion, and knowledge – as associated with their sign, that is to say, coupled with monasticism, are helpful to the prayer for the attainment of the Self. For:
na, idam, ātman, bala-hīna, labhya, na, ca, pramāda, tapas, vā, api, a-liṅga;
etad, upāya, √yat, yad, tu, vidvas, tad, etad, ātman, √viś, brahman, dhāman (or brahma-dhāman).

अयम् आत्मा लभ्यः न बल-हीनेन, न च प्रमादात्, [न] वा अपि तपसः [पाण्डित्यात्] अ-लिङ्गात् [अ-सन्न्यासा]। यः तु विद्वान् [विवेकी] एतैः उपायैः यतते, तस्य एषः [जीव-]आत्मा ब्रह्म धाम विशते [संप्रविशति]॥
This ātman is not attained by one who lacks the strength (of commitment), nor by one who is inattentive, nor by one whose discipline (tapas, of studentship to this teaching) that (a-liṅga) does not show the mark (of renunciation towards all other pursuits). Whereas, the discerning one who makes effort through these means (upāyas), for him or her, the self (ātman) (as though) enters (as not other than) brahman as the (ultimate) abode (dhāman).
● This Ātman is not attained by one who lacks the strength (of commitment) (न अयम् आत्मा बल-हीनेन लभ्यः),
○ nor by one who is inattentive (न च प्रमादात्), nor by one whose discipline (Tapas, of studentship to this teaching) that does not show the mark (A-liṅga) (of renunciation towards all other pursuits) (तपसः वा अपि अ-लिङ्गात्).
● Whereas, the discerning one who makes effort through these means (Upāyas) (एतैः उपायैः यतते यः तु विद्वान्),
○ for him or her (तस्य), the self (Ātman) (as though) enters (एषः आत्मा विशते) (as not other than) Brahman as the (ultimate) abode (Dhāman) (ब्रह्म धाम).
न अयम् आत्मा बल-हीनेन बल-प्रहीणेन_आत्म-निष्ठा-जनित-वीर्य-हीनेन लभ्यः, _अपि लौकिक-पुत्र-पश्वादि-विषयसङ्ग-निमित्तात् प्रमादात्, तथा तपसो वा_अपि अ-लिङ्गाल् लिङ्ग-रहितात्। तपोऽत्र ज्ञानं, लिङ्गं संन्यासः, संन्यास-रहिताज् ज्ञानान् न लभ्यत इत्यर्थः।
Ayam ātmā, this Self na labhyaḥ, is not attainable; bala-hīnena, by one devoid of strength, bereft of the vigour generated by constant adherence to the Self; na ca pramādāt, nor again through the delusion, caused by attachment to mundane things – son, cattle, etc.; similarly nor vā api tapasaḥ, even from tapas; a-liṅgāt, unassociated with liṅga (i.e. the sign of a monk).
[•Śaṅkara is very emphatic that external renunciation is necessary (see introductions to this and Aitareya Upaniṣads). But Ānanda-Giri seems to differ. Says he, ‘Why should this be so, since the Vedas mention the attainment of the Self by Indra, Janaka, Gargī, and other? That is a valid objection. Sannyāsa consists in renunciation of everything; and since they had no idea of possession, they had internal renunciation as a matter of fact. The external sign is not the idea intended; for in the Smṛti we have, “An outer mark is no source of virtue.”’•]
Tapas here means knowledge, and liṅga means monasticism. The purport is that It is not gained through knowledge unassociated with monasticism.

एतैः उपायैः बलाप्रमाद-संन्यास-ज्ञानैः यतते तत्-परः सन् प्रयतते यस् तु विद्वान् विवेकी आत्म-वित्, तस्य विदुषः एष आत्मा विशते सम्प्रविशति ब्रह्म धाम

Tu, but; yaḥ vidvān, the man of knowledge, the discerning man, the knower of the Self, who; yatate, strives, with diligence; etaiḥ upāyaiḥ, through such means – strength, absence of delusion, monasticism, and knowledge; tasya, of him, of that enlightened man; eṣaḥ ātmā, this Self; viśate, enters into; the brahma dhāman, abode that is Brahman.


कथं ब्रह्म विशते? इति उच्यते –
How one enters into Brahman is being stated:
samprāpya, enad, ṛṣi, jñāna-tṛpta, kṛta-ātman, vīta-rāga, praśānta;
tad, sarva-ga, sarvatas, prāpya, dhīra, yukta-ātman, sarva, eva, ā-√viś.

एनम् [आत्मानं] संप्राप्य, ऋषयः ज्ञान-तृप्ताः, कृत-आत्मनः, वीत-रागाः, प्रशान्ताः [भवन्ति]। सर्व-गम् [आत्मानं] सर्वतः प्राप्य, ते धीराः युक्त-आत्मानः सर्वम् एव आविशन्ति॥
Having completely attained this (brahman), the sages were satisfied in knowledge. Their mind being prepared, they were free of attachments (vīta-rāga) and naturally cheerful (praśānta). Having gained everywhere the all-pervasive and (always) united in (contemplation of the limitless) ātman, those wise ones become everything.
● Having completely attained this (Brahman) (सम्प्राप्य एनम्), the sages were satisfied in knowledge (ऋषयः ज्ञान-तृप्ताः).
○ Their mind being prepared (कृत-आत्मानः), they were free of attachments (वीत-रागाः) and naturally cheerful (प्रशान्ताः).
● Having gained everywhere the all-pervasive, those wise ones (ते सर्व-गं सर्वतः प्राप्य धीराः),
○ being (always) united in (contemplation of the limitless) Ātman (युक्त-आत्मानः), become everything (सर्वम् एव आविशन्ति).
सम्प्राप्य समवगम्य एनम् आत्मानम् ऋषयः दर्शनवन्तः तेन_एव [ज्ञान-तृप्ताः] ज्ञानेन तृप्ताः, न बाह्येन तृप्ति-साधनेन शरीरोपचय-कारणेन। कृतात्मानः परमात्म-स्व-रूपेण_एव निष्पन्नात्मानः सन्तः। वीत-रागाः विगत-रागादि-दोषाः। प्रशान्ताः उपरतेन्द्रियाः।
Samprāpya, having attained, having fully realized; enam, this, the Self; the ṛṣayaḥ, seers; become jñāna-tṛptāḥ, contented with that very knowledge, and not with any external object that gratifies and leads to physical nourishment; kṛta-ātmanaḥ, established in identity with the supreme Self; vīta-rāgāḥ, free from such drawbacks as attachment; praśāntāḥ, composed, have the senses withdrawn.

ते एवं-भूताः सर्व-गं सर्व-व्यापिनम् आकाशवत् सर्वतः सर्वत्र प्राप्य, न_उपाधि-परिच्छिन्नेन_एक-देशेन। किं तर्हि? तद् ब्रह्म_एव_अ-द्वयम् आत्मत्वेन प्रतिपद्य धीराः अत्यन्त-विवेकिनः युक्तात्मानो नित्य-समाहित-स्व-भावाः सर्वम् एव समस्तं शरीर-पात-कालेऽपि आविशन्ति भिन्ने घटे भिन्न-घटाकाशवद् अ-विद्या-कृतोपाधि-परिच्छेदं जहति। एवं ब्रह्म-विदो ब्रह्म धाम प्रविशन्ति॥

Te, those people, who become so; prāpya, having realized; sarva-gam, the All-pervasive (Brahman), comparable to space; sarvataḥ, everywhere – and not partially, as circumscribed by the limiting adjuncts. What follows then? Having realized as their own Self that very Brahman that is without a second, dhīrāḥ, the absolutely discriminating people; who are by nature yukta-ātmanaḥ, ever merged in deep contemplation; āviśanti, enter; sarvam eva, into the All, even at the time of the falling of the body. They give up the limitations of the adjuncts created by ignorance, like space confined within a pot on the breaking of the pot. Thus the knowers of Brahman enter into the abode that is Brahman.


किञ्च –
veda-anta-vijñāna-su-niścita-artha, sannyāsa-yoga, yati, śuddha-sattva;
tad, brahma-loka, para-anta-kāla, para-a-mṛta, pari-√muc, sarva.

संन्यास-योगात् शुद्ध-सत्वाः यतयः वेदान्त-विज्ञान-सु-निश्चित-अर्थाः [भवन्ति]। ते [यतयः] सर्वे पर-अ-मृताः ब्रह्म-लोकेषु [ब्रह्म एव लोकाः साधकाः तेषु, सर्व-ग-चैतन्ये ब्रह्मणि] परान्त-काले परिमुच्यन्ति॥
Those who make proper effort due to the above means (yoga, upāyas) that show a renunciation (of all other pursuits), and who have thus gained a clarity of mind (MunU.3.1.8), they reach a well ascertained understanding of the Vedānta (Upaniṣad) teaching (i.e., the true identity of the individual and the Lord). Into this abode (loka) that is brahman, when the (physical and subtle body’s) time is finished, all these wise people are completely free (from any birth), being the ultimate immortal (brahman only).
● They reach a well ascertained understanding of the Vedānta (Upaniṣad) teaching (वेदान्त-विज्ञान-सु-निश्चितार्थाः),
○ those who make (proper) effort due to the (above) means (Yoga, Upāyas) that show a renunciation (of all other pursuits) (सन्न्यास-योगात् यतयः), (and) who have (thus) gained a clarity of mind (MunU.3.1.8) (शुद्ध-सत्त्वाः).
● Into this abode (Loka) that is Brahman, when the (physical and subtle body’s) time is finished, they (ते ब्रह्म-लोकेषु परान्त-काले)
○ all (these wise people) are completely free (from rebirth), being the ultimate immortal (Brahman only) (पर-अमृताः परिमुच्यन्ति सर्वे).
वेदान्त-जनितं विज्ञानं वेदान्त-विज्ञानं तस्य_अर्थः परमात्मा विज्ञेयः, सोऽर्थः सु-निश्चितो येषां ते वेदान्त-विज्ञान-सुनिश्चितार्थाः। ते च संन्यास-योगात् सर्व-कर्म-परित्याग-लक्षण-योगात् केवल-ब्रह्म-निष्ठा-स्व-रूपाद् योगाद् यतयः यतन-शीलाः शुद्ध-सत्त्वाः शुद्धं सत्त्वं येषां संन्यास-योगात्, ते शुद्ध-सत्त्वाः।
Vedānta-vijñāna-suniścita-arthāḥ, those to whom the entity to be known, i.e. the supreme Self presented by the Vedānta (Veda-anta) knowledge, has become fully ascertained. Those very people are yatayaḥ, assiduous. (They) śuddha-sattvāḥ, have become purified in mind; sannyāsa-yogāt, through the Yoga of monasticism, through the Yoga consisting in the giving up of all activities, which is the same as the Yoga of remaining steadfast in Brahman alone.

ते ब्रह्म-लोकेषु, संसारिणां ये मरण-कालास् ते अपरान्ताः, तान् अपेक्ष्य मुमुक्षूणां संसारावसाने देह-परित्याग-कालः परान्त-कालः तस्मिन् परान्त-काले साधकानां बहुत्वाद् ब्रह्म_एव लोको ब्रह्म-लोकः एकोऽप्य् अन्-एकवद् दृश्यते प्राप्यते च। अतो बहु-वचनं ब्रह्म-लोकेष्व् इति, ब्रह्मणि_इत्यर्थः।
Te sarve, all these people; para-anta-kale, at the time of final death – the times of death of worldly people are not final departures; as compared with these the time of the falling of the body of an aspirant for salvation, at the end of his worldly state, is the supreme moment of departure; at that supreme moment of departure; (they become freed) brahma-lokeṣu, in the worlds that are the Brahman, the worlds and Brahman being identical; the plural (in worlds) is used from the standpoint of the aspirants who are many, and consequently the same Brahma-loka appears to be many, or (the plural is used) in the sense that Brahman is realized as comprising all. So the word brahma-lokeṣu means in Brahman.

परामृताः परम् अ-मृतम् अ-मरण-धर्मकं ब्रह्म आत्म-भूतं येषां ते परामृता जीवन्त एव ब्रह्म-भूताः, परामृताः सन्तः परिमुच्यन्ति परि समन्तात् प्रदीप-निर्वाणवद् भिन्न-घटाकाशवच् च निवृत्तिम् उपयान्ति परिमुच्यन्ति परि समन्तान् मुच्यन्ते सर्वे, न देशान्तरं गन्तव्यम् अपेक्षन्ते।
Para-a-mṛtāh: those to whom the supreme Immortality, the deathless Brahman, has become their very Self, those who have become Brahman while still living. Having (thus) attained identity with the supreme immortality, they sarve parimucyanti, all attain the cessation of the worldly state like a lamp blown out or like the space in a pot (when broken); they become freed on every side – they do not stand in need of going elsewhere.

शकुनीनाम् इव_आकाशे जले वारि-चरस्य वा।
पदं यथा न दृश्येत तथा ज्ञानवतां गतिः॥(MBhSan.181.1)

“अन्-अध्व-गा अध्वसु पारयिष्णवः” (ItUp) इति श्रुति-स्मृतिभ्याम्।
And this is in accord with such Veda and Smṛti texts as:
‘Just as the footprints of birds cannot be traced in space and of aquatics in water, similar is the course of the men of knowledge’ (Mbh. Sa. 239. 24),
‘Those who want to go beyond the courses of the world, do not tread on any path’ (It. 18).

देश-परिच्छिन्ना हि गतिः संसार-विषया_एव, परिच्छिन्न-साधन-साध्यत्वात्। ब्रह्म तु समस्तत्वान् न देश-परिच्छेदेन गन्तव्यम्। यदि हि देश-परिच्छिन्नं ब्रह्म स्याद्, मूर्त-द्रव्यवद् आद्य्-अन्तवद् अन्याश्रितं सावयवम् अ-नित्यं कृतकं च स्यात्। न त्व् एवं-विधं ब्रह्म भवितुम् अर्हति। अतस् तत्-प्राप्तिश् च न_एव देश-परिच्छिन्ना भवितुं युक्ता। अपि च, अ-विद्यादि-संसार-बन्धापनयनम् एव मोक्षम् इच्छन्ति ब्रह्म-विदः, न तु कार्य-भूतम्॥

The Paths (to be followed after death), which are dependent on spatial limitation, are indeed within phenomenal existence, since they are attained through limited means. But Brahman, being the All, is not a goal to be attained in terms of spatial limitations. Should Brahman be circumscribed by space like any concrete object, It will also have a beginning and an end, It will be supported by something else, It will have parts, and it will be impermanent and a product. But Brahman cannot be so; therefore Its attainment, too, cannot be determined in terms of limitation of space. Besides, the knowers of Brahman accept only that liberation which consists in the removal of ignorance etc., which are the causes of mundane bondage, and not that which is a product.


किञ्च मोक्ष-काले –
Furthermore, at the time of liberation:
gata, kala, pañca-daśan, pratiṣṭhā, deva, ca, sarva, prati-devatā;
karman, vijñānamaya, ca, ātman, para, a-vyaya, sarva, ekī-√bhū.

[मोक्ष-काले] पञ्च-दश कलाः [प्राण-आद्याः] प्रतिष्ठाः [स्व-करणाणि प्रति] गताः। सर्वे देवाः च [देह-आश्रय-इन्द्रियाणि] प्रति-देवतासु [समष्टि-देवतासु गताः]। सर्वे कर्माणि [प्रारब्ध-आदि-कर्माणि] विज्ञानमयः आत्मा [देह-आदि-अभिमान-आत्मा] च परे अ-व्यये एकी-भवन्ति॥
The fifteen parts (of the puruṣa enumerated in PrasU.6.4*) merge back into their separate respective cosmic bases (pratiṣṭhās), and all the senses (devas) into each of their presiding deities (space, etcetera, TatB.20), and all one’s karma and their owner the “I” (vijñānamaya ātman, the intellect which includes the I-notion) – all these merge back to one (ekī-bhavanti) in the highest imperishable one (into the total unmanifest, a-kṣara a-vyakta**).
(* “(1.) prāṇa (Hiraṇya-garbha). From out of prāṇa (he created) (2.) trust (śraddhā, the ability to abide in learning what is helpful for life), (then the five elements) (3.) space, (4.) air, (5.) fire, (6.) water and (7.) earth, (and the means to sense them) (8.) each sense organ (indriya, counting as one to get to the number sixteen), and (9.) the mind (manas, to be in charge of them).
Then (to feed them he created) (10.) food (anna). From out of food (he created) (11.) vitality (vīrya), (12.) religious discipline (tapas), (13.) mantras (the teachings of what is helpful), (14.) karma and (15.) the realms (of karma)”. Except the sixteenth part, nāman, which may be taken here as the same as “I” that is our name for jīva-ātman and so not a part.)
(** Whose reality itself is but brahman, i.e., this individual person is no longer there to carve out these parts as separate from the total, belonging only to “Me,” PrasU.6.5.)
● The fifteen parts (of the Puruṣa) merge back (गताः कलाः पञ्च-दश) into their separate respective (cosmic) bases (प्रतिष्ठाः),
○ and all the senses (देवाः च सर्वे) into each of their presiding deities (space, etcetera, TatB.20) (प्रति-देवतासु),
● and (all one’s) Karma (कर्मा॑णि) and (their owner) the “I” (Vijñānamaya Ātman, the intellect which includes the I-notion) (विज्ञानमयः च आत्मा),
○ all these merge back to one (Ekī-bhavanti) in the highest imperishable one (into the total unmanifest, A-kṣara A-vyakta) (परे अ-व्यये सर्वे एकी-भवन्ति).
या देहारम्भिकाः कलाः प्राणाद्याः, ताः स्वां प्रतिष्ठां गताः स्वं स्वं कारणं गता भवन्ति_इत्यर्थः। प्रतिष्ठाः इति द्वितीया-बहु-वचनम्। पञ्च-दश पञ्च-दश-संख्याका या अन्त्य-प्रश्न-परिपठिताः (PrasU.6.1–4 [प्राण-आदि-नाम-पर्यन्तं]) प्रसिद्धाः, देवाश् च देहाश्रयाश् चक्षुर्-आदि-करण-स्थाः सर्वे प्रतिदेवतास्व् आदित्यादिषु गता भवन्ति_इत्यर्थः।
(At the time of liberation) the kalāḥ, constituents, that there are – the vital force and the others that build up the body; gatāḥ, have repaired, each to its own basis, that is to say, they merge in their respective causes. The word ‘pratiṣṭhāḥ, to the sources’ in used in the plural number accusative case (feminine gender). The well-known (constituents) pañca-daśa, fifteen in number, that are mentioned in the last Question (of the Praśna Upaniṣad); ca and; sarve devāḥ, all the gods (i.e. deities), living in the body and seated in the organs of vision etc.; (get merged) prati-devatāsu, into the respective gods, viz the Sun and others; ‘get merged’ – this much is understood.

यानि च मुमुक्षुणा कृतानि कर्माण्य् अ-प्रवृत्त-फलानि, प्रवृत्त-फलानाम् उपभोगेन_एव क्षीणमाणत्वात्। विज्ञानमयश् च_आत्मा अ-विद्या-कृत-बुद्ध्य्-आद्य्-उपाधिम् आत्मत्वेन मत्वा जलादिषु सूर्यादि-प्रतिबिम्बवद् इह प्रविष्टो देह-भेदेषु, कर्मणां तत्-फलार्थत्वात् सह तेन_एव विज्ञानमयेन_आत्मना, अतो विज्ञानमयो विज्ञान-प्रायः।
And the karmāṇi, the karmas, performed by the seeker of liberation that have not begun to bear fruit – not the karmas that have begun to bear fruit, since these get exhausted merely by being enjoyed; ca vijñānamayaḥ ātmā, and the soul appearing like the intellect. The soul that has entered here into multifarious bodies, like the reflections of the sun etc. in water etc., appearing like the intellect as a result of considering itself identical with the limiting adjuncts, viz the intellect and the rest, that are created by ignorance. As karmas are meant for producing results for this (apparent) soul, therefore the karmas, together with this soul appearing like the intellect, (become unified in the supreme Undecaying). Therefore vijñānamaya means resembling the intellect.

ते_एते कर्माणि विज्ञानमयश् च आत्मा उपाध्य्-अपनये सति परे अ-व्यये अन्-अन्तेऽक्षये ब्रह्मणि आकाश-कल्पे ‘अजेऽजरेऽमृतेऽभयेऽपूर्वेऽनपरेऽनन्तरेऽबाह्येऽद्वये शिवे शान्ते’ सर्वे एकी-भवन्ति अ-विशेषतां गच्छन्ति एकत्वम् आपद्यन्ते, जलाद्य्-आधारापनय इव सूर्यादि-प्रतिबिम्बाः सूर्ये, घटाद्य्-अपनये_इव_आकाशे घटाद्य्-आकाशाः॥

When the limiting adjunct of the self is removed, these karmas and the soul, resembling the intellect, sarve, all; ekī-bhavanti, become indistinguishable, become unified; pare a-vyāye, in the supreme Undecaying – in the infinite, imperishable Brahman that is comparable to space, and is birthless, ageless, proximate, immortal, fearless, without cause and effect, without interior and exterior, non-dual, auspicious, and calm; just as the reflections of the sun etc. return to the sun on the withdrawal of the vessels of water etc. or the spaces circumscribed by pots etc. to space itself on the removal of pots etc.


किञ्च –
yathā, nadī, syandamāna, samudra, astam, √gam, nāma-rūpa, vihāya;
tathā, vidvas, nāma-rūpa, vimukta, para, para, puruṣa, upa-√i, divya.

यथा स्यन्दमानाः नद्यः नाम-रूपे विहाय समुद्रे अस्तं गच्छन्ति, तथा [मोक्ष-काले] विद्वान् नाम-रूपात् मुक्तः [सन्] परात् [अ-व्याकृतात् माययाः] परं दिव्यं पुरुषं उपैति॥ (cf. PrasU.6.5)
Like flowing rivers into the ocean get absorbed, losing their names (nāmans) and forms (rūpas). In this way, the wise person is freed from these names and forms, and attains the shinning, ultimate puruṣa (brahman) which is superior to that (a-kṣara a-vyakta).
● Like flowing rivers into the ocean (यथा नद्यः स्यन्दमानाः समुद्रे)
○ get absorbed (अस्तं गच्छन्ति), losing their names (Nāmans) and forms (Rūpas) (नाम-रूपे विहाय).
● In this way, the wise person (तथा विद्वान्) is freed from these names and forms (नाम-रूपात् विमुक्तः),
○ (and) attains the shinning, ultimate Puruṣa (Brahman) which is superior to that (A-kṣara A-vyakta) (परात् परं पुरुषम् उपैति दिव्यम्).
यथा नद्यः गङ्गाद्याः स्यन्दमानाः गच्छन्त्यः समुद्रे समुद्रं प्राप्य अस्तम् अ-दर्शनम् अ-विशेषात्म-भावं गच्छन्ति प्राप्नुवन्ति नाम च रूपं च नाम-रूपे विहाय हित्वा, तथा अ-विद्या-कृत-नाम-रूपाद् विमुक्तः सन् विद्वान् पराद् अ-क्षरात् पूर्वोक्तात् परं दिव्यं पुरुषं यथोक्त-लक्षणम् (MunU.2.1.2) उपैति उपगच्छति॥
Yathā, as; nadyaḥ, rivers – Gaṅgā and the rest; syandamānāḥ, flowing down; gacchanti, attain; astam, invisibility, indistinguishable identity; samudre, in the sea, on reaching the sea; nāma-rūpe vihāya, by giving up (their) names and forms; tathā, similarly; vidvān, the illumined soul; nāma-rūpāt vimuktaḥ, having become freed from name and form – the creations of ignorance; upaiti, arrives at; the divyam puruṣam, self-effulgent Puruṣa, as described earlier; who is param, higher; parāt, than the imperishable (Māyā) already explained (MunU.2.1.2).


ननु श्रेयसि_अन्-एके विघ्नाः प्रसिद्धाः, अतः क्लेशानाम् अन्यतमेन_अन्येन वा देवादिना च विघ्नितो ब्रह्म-विद् अप्य् अन्यां गतिं मृतो गच्छति न ब्रह्म_एव।
Objection: Is it not will known that many obstacles beset the path to liberation? So even a knower of Brahman, when dead, may go along a different course and may not reach Brahman Itself, being hindered by one of the mental aflictions (MunU.3.1.10) or one of the gods or some such being.

न, विद्यया_एव सर्व-प्रतिबन्धस्य_अपनीतत्वात्। अ-विद्या-प्रतिबन्धमात्रो हि मोक्षो न_अन्य-प्रतिबन्धः, नित्यत्वाद् आत्म-भूतत्वाच् च। तस्मात् –

Answer: Not so, for by knowledge itself are removed all the hindrances. The only obstacle to emancipation is ignorance, and there is no other hindrance; for emancipation is eternal and identical with the Self. Therefore:
tad, yad, ha, vai, tad, parama, brahman, √vid, brahman, eva, √bhū, na, idam, a-brahma-vid, kula, √bhū;
√tṝ, śoka, √tṝ, pāpman, guhā-granthi, vimukta, a-mṛta, √bhū.

यः [ज्ञानी] ह वै तद् परमं ब्रह्म वेद, सः ब्रह्म एव भवति। अस्य [ज्ञानिनः] [पुत्र-शिष्य-]कुले अ-ब्रह्म-विद् न भवति। [सः] शोकं तरति, पाप्मानं तरति, गुहा-ग्रन्थिभ्यः विमुक्तः [सन् च] अ-मृतः भवति॥
The very person who comes to know that ultimate brahman (reality), is (at this time finally known to be) that brahman alone. In his or her lineage there is none who could not be a knower of brahman. This one crosses beyond sorrow and everything unwanted (pāpmāna). Freed from the knots (confusions) of the heart, this one is now free of death.
● The very person who comes to know that ultimate Brahman (reality) (सः यः ह वै तद् परमं ब्रह्म वेद),
○ is (at this time finally known to be) that Brahman alone (ब्रह्म एव भवति). In his or her lineage there is none who could not be a knower of Brahman (न अस्य अ-ब्रह्म-वित् कुले भवति).
● This one crosses beyond sorrow (तरति शोकम्) and everything unwanted (Pāpmāna) (तरति पाप्मानम्).
○ Freed from the knots (confusions) of the heart (गुहा-ग्रन्थिभ्यः विमुक्तः), this one is now free of death (अ-मृतः भवति).
सः यः कश्चिद् ह वै लोके तत् परमं ब्रह्म वेद साक्षाद् ‘अहम् एव_अस्मि’_इति जानाति, स न_अन्यां गतिं गच्छति। देवैर् अपि तस्य ब्रह्म-प्राप्तिं प्रति विघ्नो न शक्यते कर्तुम्, ‘आत्मा ह्य् एषां स भवति’ [इति (BrhU.1.4.10)]। तस्माद् ब्रह्म-विद्वान् ब्रह्म_एव भवति
Saḥ yah ha vai, anyone who, in this world; veda, knows; tat, that; paramam brahma, supreme Brahman, directly as ‘I am verily Brahman’; he does not follow any other course. In the matter of his attaining Brahman, even the gods cannot raise any obstacle; for he becomes their Self. Hence one who knows Brahman, bhavati, becomes; brahma eva, Brahman indeed.

किञ्च, न अस्य विदुषः अ-ब्रह्म-वित् कुले भवति
Furthermore, asya kule, in his line, in the line of the knower of Brahman; na bhavati, is not born; a-brahma-vit, anyone who does not know Brahman.

किञ्च, तरति शोकम् अन्-एकेष्ट-वैकल्य-निमित्तं मानसं संतापं जीवन्न् एव_अतिक्रान्तो भवति। तरति पाप्मानं धर्माधर्माख्यं गुहा-ग्रन्थिभ्यः हृदयाविद्या-ग्रन्थिभ्यः विमुक्तः सन्न् अ-मृतः भवति_इत्य् उक्तम् एव “भिद्यते हृदय-ग्रन्थिः” (MunU.2.2.8) इत्य्-आदि॥

Besides, even while he is alive, he tarati śokam, overcomes mental grief, caused by the loss of various desirable things. He tarati pāpmānam, goes beyond aberrations, known as merit and demerit. Guhā-granthibhyāh vimuktaḥ, having become freed from the knots of the heart, from the knots in the heart created by ignorance (MunU.2.1.10); he bhavati, becomes; a-mṛtaḥ, immortal. This has already been said, ‘the knot of the heart gets united’ etc. (MunU.2.2.8).


अथ_इदानीं ब्रह्म-विद्या-सम्प्रदान-विध्य्-उपप्रदर्शनेन_उपसंहारः क्रियते –
Thereafter, the conclusion is now being made by presenting the rule of transmission of the knowledge of Brahman:
tad, etad, ṛc, abhyukta. kriyāvat, śrotriya, brahma-niṣṭha, svayam, √hu, eka-ṛṣi, śrad-dhayat;
tad, eva, etad, brahma-vidyā, √vad, śiras-vrata, vidhivat, yad, tu, cīrṇa.

तद् एतद् ऋचा अभ्युक्तम् – [ये] क्रियावन्तः [कर्म-अनुष्ठानेन शुद्ध-चित्ताः], श्रोत्रियाः [स्व-वेद-आध्यायिनः], ब्रह्म-निष्ठाः [स-गुण-ब्रह्म-उपासकाः ब्रह्म-जिज्ञासवः वा], श्रद्धयन्तः [च], [ये आथर्वणिकः च] स्वयम् एक-ऋषिम् [अग्निं] जुह्वते यैः तु [=च] विधिवत् शिरस्-व्रतं चीर्णं [चरितं कृतं (BrS.3.3.3)] – तेषां [पात्र-भूतानाम्] एव एतां ब्रह्म-विद्यां वदेत॥
The following has been stipulated by a Rik Veda mantra:
To those who adhere to their duties, have studied their (family) Veda (for this Upaniṣad, it would usually be the Atharva Veda), are committed to the study of brahman, and with trust (in this teaching) have themselves daily performed the eka-ṛṣi ritual (the name for agni-hotra in Atharva Veda) – for them definitely this teaching of brahman can be told. Along with those also who have performed śiras-vrata*.
(* The vow involving the placing of a fire-pot on the head, or elsewhere described in purāṇa as chanting six mantras stating that each of the five elements and the universe is ashes, then applying ashes to the body thrice daily until knowledge is gained. In effect ritually acting out the teaching in this Upaniṣad, imposing the varied universe onto the body, and then reducing this variety to its singular reality as oneself.)
The following has been stipulated by a Rik mantra (तद् एतद् ऋचा अभ्युक्तम्):
● (Only) to those who adhere to their duties (क्रियावन्तः), have studied their (family) Veda (in the case of this Upaniṣad, this would usually be the connected Atharva Veda) (श्रोत्रियाः), are committed to (the study of) Brahman (ब्रह्म-निष्ठाः),
○ (and) with trust (in this teaching, Śraddhayantaḥ) have themselves daily performed the Eka-ṛṣi ritual (the name for Agni-hotra in Atharva Veda) (स्वयं जुह्वते एक-ऋषिं श्रद्धयन्तः),
● for them definitely (तेषाम् एव) this teaching of Brahman can be told (एतां ब्रह्म-विद्यां वदेत).
○ Along with those also who have performed Śiras-vrata vow (शिरस्-व्रतं विधिवत् यैः तु चीर्णम्).
तद् एतद् विद्या-सम्प्रदान-विधानम् ऋचा मन्त्रेण (RgVeda.???) अभ्युक्तम् अभिप्रकाशितम् – क्रियावन्तः यथोक्त-कर्मानुष्ठान-युक्ताः, श्रोत्रियाः, ब्रह्म-निष्ठाः अपरस्मिन् ब्रह्मण्य् अभियुक्ताः परं ब्रह्म बुभुत्सवः, स्वयम् एकर्षिम् एकर्षि-नामानम् अग्निं जुह्वते जुह्वति श्रद्धयन्तः श्रद्दधानाः सन्तः ये, तेषाम् एव संस्कृतात्मनां पात्र-भूतानाम् एतां ब्रह्म-विद्यां वदेत ब्रूयात्।
Tat etat, this rule regarding the transmission of knowledge; abhyuktam, is revealed; ṛcā, by a mantra; those who are kriyāvantaḥ, engaged in the practice of disciplines mentioned earlier; śrotriyāḥ, versed in Veda studies and observances; brahma-niṣṭhāḥ, devoted to the inferior Brahman and seekers of the knowledge of the supreme Brahman; who svayam, by themselves; juhvate (i.e. juhvati), sacrifice; eka-ṛṣim, to the fire named Ekārṣi; śraddhayantaḥ, with faith; teṣām eva, to them alone, who have become purified and fit recipients; vadeta, one should expound; etām brahma-vidyām, this knowledge of Brahman.

शिरो-व्रतं शिरस्य् अग्नि-धारण-लक्षणं, यथा आथर्वणानां वेद-व्रतं प्रसिद्धम्। यैस् तु यैश् च तच् चीर्णं विधिवद् यथा-विधानं तेषाम् एव च (वदेत)॥

And to those alone one should expound yaiḥ tu, by whom moreover; cīrṇam, has been accomplished; vidhivat, duly, in accordance to rules; the śiro-vratam, vow of holding fire on the head, a Veda vow as is familiar amongst the followers of the Atharva-Veda.


tad, etad, satya, ṛṣi, aṅgiras, purā, √vac, na, etad, a-cīrṇa-vrata, adhi-√i;
namas, parama-ṛṣi, namas, parama-ṛṣi.

ऋषिः अङ्गिराः तद् एतद् [अ-क्षरं] सत्यं [शौनकाय] पुरा उवाच। एतत् [तत्त्वम्] अ-चीर्ण-व्रतः न अधीते [पठति]। नमः परम-ऋषिभ्यः। नमः परम-ऋषिभ्यः॥
This is the truth (satya) which the seer Aṅgiras told long ago. One who has not completed (the equivalent of) this vow does not study this (in detail, though it may be recited or heard, since even one’s neighbor will hear the student daily chanting it).
Salutations to the great seers (repeated).
● This is the truth (तद् एतद् सत्यम्) which the seer Angiras (ऋषिः अङ्गिराः)
○ told long ago (पुरा उवाच). One who has not completed (the equivalent of) this vow does not study this (in detail, though it may be recited or heard) (न एतद् अ-चीर्ण-व्रतः अधीते).
● Salutations to the great seers (repeated) (नमः परम-ऋषिभ्यः नमः परम-ऋषिभ्यः).
तद् एतद् अ-क्षरं पुरुषं सत्यम् ऋषिः अङ्गिरा नाम पुरा पूर्वं शौनकाय विधिवद् उपसन्नाय पृष्टवते उवाच। तद्वद् अन्योऽपि तथा_एव श्रेयो-ऽर्थिने मुमुक्षवे मोक्षार्थं विधिवद् उपसन्नाय ब्रूयाद् इत्यर्थः।
Ṛṣiḥ, the seer; named aṅgiras, Aṅgiras; purā, in the days of yore; uvāca, spoke of; tat, that entity; etat satyam, which is this Truth, the Imperishable Puruṣa; to Śaunaka who had approached duly and asked him. The idea implied is that, anyone else, too, should similarly speak to one who seeks for the highest good, who hankers after liberation, and approaches dutifully.

न एतद् ग्रन्थ-रूपम् अ-चीर्ण-व्रतः अ-चरित-व्रतोऽपि अधीते न पठति, चीर्ण-व्रतस्य हि विद्या फलाय संस्कृता भवति_इति।
A-cīrṇa-vrataḥ, one who has not fulfilled the vow; na adhīte, does not (i.e. should not) read; etat, this, this (knowledge) in the form of the text. For knowledge becomes sufficiently clear for bearing fruits to one who has fulfilled the vow.

समाप्ता ब्रह्म-विद्या। सा येभ्यो ब्रह्मादिभ्यः पारम्पर्य-क्रमेण संप्राप्ता, तेभ्यो नमः परम-ऋषिभ्यः। परमं ब्रह्म साक्षाद् दृष्टवन्तो ये ब्रह्मादयोऽवगतवन्तश् च, ते परमर्षयः। तेभ्यो भूयोऽपि नमः, द्विर्-वचनम् अत्य्-आदरार्थं मुण्डक-समाप्त्य्-अर्थं च॥

The knowledge of Brahman is ended. Namaḥ, salutation; parama-ṛṣibhyaḥ, to those great seers, starting with Brahmā, through whom that knowledge was successively handed down, the great seers being those, beginning with Brahmā, who directly saw and realized Brahman. (Namaḥ parama-ṛṣibhyaḥ) salutation to those, again. The repetition is used as an indication of great regard, and as a conclusion of the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad.

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Om, pūrṇa, adas, pūrṇa, idam, pūrna, pūrṇa, ud-√añc.
pūrṇa, pūrṇa, ādāya, pūrṇa, eva, ava-√śiṣ.
Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

॥इति मुण्डक-उपनिषद् समाप्ता॥