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योग-सूत्राणि
Yoga Sūtra Sources

Sūtra and Vṛtti with Commentary Source Quotations
of each Yoga Sūtra, by A.K. Aruna


1. Samādhi - Contemplation 2. Sādhana - Preparation 3. Vibhūti - Accomplishments 4. Kaivalya - Freedom

Format and vṛtti (clarifying commentary) by A.K. Aruna, 2021 ver.1.0: UpasanaYoga. English translation and scripture quotations taken from the author's book Patanjali Yoga Sutras: Translation and Commentary in the Light of Vedanta Scriptures available on Amazon and other online outlets. If downloaded, requires installed Devanāgarī Siddhanta1.ttf font, downloadable from UpasanaYoga. If run from UpasanaYoga website, it alternatively can use online Web Font. Any Devanāgarī in parentheses () is an alternate reading of text in Red.
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by A.K. Aruna
First Print Mar 2012 (ISBN 978-0-9818640-7-5)
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/, or click the following logo:
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🔗 ओं, स॒ ह ना॑व् अवतु। स॒ ह नौ॑ भुनक्तु। स॒ह वी॒र्यं॑ करवावहै। ते॒ज॒स्विना॒व् अधी॑तम् अस्तु॒ मा वि॑द्विषा॒वहै᳚। ओं शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॑॥
Om; tad, ha, asmad, √av. Tad, ha, asmad, √bhuj. Saha, vīrya, √kṛ. Tejasvin, adhīta, √as, mā, vi-√dviṣ. Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.
सः ह नै अवतु। सः ह नौ भुनक्तु। सह वीर्यं करवावहै। तेजस्विनौ [तेजस्विनोः आवयोः] अधीतं अस्तु [अथवा, नौ अधीतं तेजस्वि अस्तु]। मा विद्विषावहै। ओम् शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥

योगेन चित्तस्य पदेन वाचां मलं शरीरस्य च वैद्यकेन।
योऽपाकरोत् तं प्रवरं मुनीनां पतञ्जलिं प्राञ्जलिर् आनतोऽस्मि॥

yoga, citta, pada, vācā, mala, śarīra, ca, vaidyaka;
yad, apa-ā-√kṛ, tad, pravara, munin, patañjali, prāñjali, ānata, √as.

I bow with hands folded to Patañjali, the best of sages who removes the impurity of the mind by his Yoga[-sūtras], of speech by his words [his grammar commentary called Mahā-bhāṣya], and of the body by his science of medicine [called Caraka-pratisaṃskṛta].
[अहं] प्राञ्जलिः [पुरतस्-अञ्जलिः] तं मुनीनां प्रवरं पतञ्जलिं [नाम] आनतः अस्मि [नमस्-करोमि], यः मलं [क्लेशं] अपाकरोत् [अपहरेत्] चित्तस्य [अन्तःकरणस्य] योगेन [योग-सूत्र-शासनेन], वाचां पदेन [महा-भाष्य-व्याकरणेन, शरीरस्य वैद्यकेन [चरक-प्रतिसंस्कृत-चिकित्सया] च॥

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Chapter 1 On Contemplation ……

Introducing Yoga ……

General Definition of Yoga ……

The Goal of Yoga ……

Identification with Thought ……

The Nature of Thoughts ……

Repetition and Non-attachment ……

Two Forms of Contemplation ……

Contemplation on the Lord ……

The Nature of the Lord ……

Distractions of the Mind ……

The Removal of Distractions ……

Clarity of Mind ……

Four Forms of Contemplation With Seed ……

Clarity and Knowledge ……

Contemplation Free of Seed ……


Chapter 2 On Preparation ……

Yoga in Regard to Action ……

The Five Afflictions ……

The Affliction of Ignorance ……

The Affliction of I-notion ……

The Afflictions of Attachment and Aversion ……

The Affliction of Fear of Death ……

Giving Up Afflictions ……

Karma-Storage From the Afflictions ……

Giving Up Sorrow ……

Mutual Identification of Seer and Seen ……

The Nature of the Seen ……

The Nature of the Seer ……

The Seen’s Relation to the Seer ……

Cause and Removal of Mutual Identification ……

The Eight Limbs of Yoga ……

1. The Avoidances ……

2. The Observances ……

Nurturing the Avoidances and Observances ……

The Components of the Avoidances ……

The Components of the Observances ……

3. The Sitting Posture ……

4. Controlling of Breath ……

5. Withdrawal of the Senses ……


Chapter 3 On Accomplishments ……

6. Restraining Thoughts ……

7. Retaining Thoughts ……

8. Contemplation ……

Uniting (Saṃyama) of the Last Three Limbs ……

Which are the Internal Limbs of Yoga? ……

Change Regarding Contemplation ……

Change Regarding All Objects ……

Accomplishments and Superpowers – Siddhis ……

Saṃyama on Change ……

Saṃyamas on the Seen and on the Seer ……

The Final Accomplishment is Freedom ……

Liberating Knowledge – Kaivalya ……


Chapter 4 On Freedom ……

Causes of the Accomplishments ……

Action and the Mind ……

The Past and Future and the Present ……

Oneness Determines Entities ……

Distinction of Objects from Thoughts ……

Distinction of Thoughts from Self ……

Knowledge as Freedom ……

Appendix: Index of Quotation Sources to Sūtra Citations ……

Amṛta-nāda Upaniṣad

6 – YS.1.2

17 – YS.1.17

Āruṇeya Upaniṣad

1–3 – YS.2.31

3 – YS.1.21

Bhagavad Gītā

BhG.2.11 – YS.2.15

BhG.2.12 – YS.1.3

BhG.2.14 – YS.2.15

BhG.2.14 & 16 – YS.1.3

BhG.2.16 – YS.4.12

BhG.2.17 – YS.1.3

BhG.2.22 – YS.1.3

BhG.2.23 – YS.3.46

BhG.2.26–28 – YS.2.15

BhG.2.29 – YS.1.49

BhG.2.42 & 43 – YS.1.15

BhG.2.44 – YS.4.29

BhG.2.46 – YS.1.46

BhG.2.47 – YS.4.11

BhG.2.47–48 – YS.4.2

BhG.2.48 – YS.1.2

BhG.2.50 – YS.1.2, YS.4.3

BhG.2.51 – YS.4.11

BhG.2.52–53 – YS.4.11

BhG.2.53 – YS.4.29

BhG.2.59 – YS.2.15

BhG.2.62–63 – YS.1.15

BhG.2.64 – YS.2.54

BhG.2.64 –65 – YS.1.47

BhG.2.67 – YS.2.55

BhG.3.3 – YS.2.29

BhG.3.6 – YS.2.15

BhG.3.6–7 – YS.3.48

BhG.3.13 – YS.4.1

BhG.3.17 – YS.2.42

BhG.3.17–18 – YS.1.40, YS.3.49

BhG.3.28 – YS.4.34

BhG.3.30 – YS.4.11

BhG.3.32 – YS.1.46

BhG.3.42–43 – YS.3.48

BhG.4.1 – YS.1.26

BhG.4.10 – YS.1.23

BhG.4.24 – YS.4.29

BhG.4.30 – YS.4.1

BhG.4.35 – YS.3.46

BhG.4.38 – YS.1.7

BhG.5.2 – YS.2.29

BhG.5.8–9 – YS.4.42

BhG.5.10 – YS.4.34

BhG.5.12 – YS.1.22

BhG.5.19 – YS.3.53

BhG.5.21 – YS.4.11

BhG.5.27–28 – YS.2.46

BhG.6.9 – YS.3.53

BhG.6.11–14 – YS.2.46

BhG.6.14 – YS.1.29

BhG.6.16 – YS.1.10

BhG.6.17 – YS.4.1

BhG.6.20 – YS.1.51

BhG.6.21–23 – YS.1.1

BhG.6.23 – YS.1.2

BhG.6.26 – YS.3.1

BhG.6.29–31 – YS.3.53

BhG.6.34 – YS.1.2

BhG.6.35 – YS.1.12

BhG.6.37–38 & 40 – YS.3.55

BhG.6.40–44 – YS.3.38

BhG.7.6 – YS.3.55

BhG.7.7 – YS.3.46

BhG.7.10 – YS.3.55

BhG.7.14 – YS.1.45

BhG.7.16–18 – YS.1.29

BhG.7.20–22 – YS.4.16

BhG.8.12–13 – YS.3.32

BhG.9.4–5 – YS.1.26, YS.3.52

BhG.9.7 – YS.4.9

BhG.9.9 – YS.4.34

BhG.9.14 – YS.2.1

BhG.9.16 – YS.4.1

BhG.9.18 – YS.4.18

BhG.10.19 & 41 – YS.3.46

BhG.10.20 – YS.3.46

BhG.10.22 – YS.3.55

BhG.10.25 – YS.3.2

BhG.10.36 – YS.3.55

BhG.10.38 – YS.4.19

BhG.10.40 – YS.3.46

BhG.11.15–6 – YS.1.44

BhG.12.18–19 – YS.3.51

BhG.13.9 & 11 – YS.2.30

BhG.13.14 – YS.2.18

BhG.13.17 – YS.1.26, YS.1.36, YS.3.49

BhG.13.23 – YS.4.34

BhG.13.26 – YS.2.17

BhG.13.27–28 – YS.1.24

BhG.13.29 – YS.4.5

BhG.13.31 – YS.4.18, YS.4.2

BhG.13.34 – YS.4.5

BhG.14.6–8 – YS.3.35

BhG.14.10 – YS.2.15

BhG.14.19 – YS.3.35, YS.4.34

BhG.14.20 – YS.3.52

BhG.14.22–25 – YS.2.18

BhG.15.9 – YS.3.49

BhG.15.13–15 – YS.4.1

BhG.15.20 – YS.2.22

BhG.16.1–3 – YS.3.51

BhG.16.21 – YS.4.10

BhG.17.8 – YS.4.1

BhG.17.14–17 – YS.2.1

BhG.17.15 – YS.2.36

BhG.18.9 – YS.3.46

BhG.18.50–55 – YS.2.2

BhG.18.56 & 62 – YS.4.26

BhG.18.61 – YS.4.5

BhG.18.62 – YS.2.45

BhG.18.66 – YS.4.7

BhG.18.73 – YS.2.22

Brahma-bindu Upaniṣad

10 – YS.3.10

Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad

BrhU.1.4.1 & 7 – YS.3.52

BrhU.1.4.2 – YS.4.14

BrhU.1.4.6 – YS.3.41

BrhU.1.4.10 – YS.1.29

BrhU.2.1.2 – YS.3.32

BrhU.2.1.2 … 2.1.20 – YS.1.16

BrhU.2.3.6 – YS.1.48

BrhU.2.4.5 – YS.1.49

BrhU.2.4.14 – YS.1.3

BrhU.2.5.18 – YS.1.16

BrhU.2.5.19 – YS.1.9, YS.1.26

BrhU.3.4.2 – YS.1.3, YS.1.45

BrhU.3.8.4 – YS.1.26

BrhU.3.9.26…4.2.4, 4.4.22 & 4.5.15 – YS.1.48

BrhU.3.9.28.7 – YS.1.17

BrhU.4.1.4 (Bhāṣyam) – YS.1.7

BrhU.4.3.6 – YS.1.3

BrhU.4.3.9 – YS.1.38

BrhU.4.3.23 – YS.1.3

BrhU.4.3.32 – YS.1.3

BrhU.4.3.32–33 – YS.1.17

BrhU.4.4.14 – YS.2.15

BrhU.4.5.11 – YS.4.14

BrhU.4.5.6 – YS.1.49

BrhU.5.15.1 – YS.3.26

BrhU.6.2.15 – YS.3.26

BrhU.6.2.16 – YS.3.27

Chāndogya Upaniṣad

ChanU.2.23.1 – YS.2.1

ChanU.3.13.7 – YS.1.36

ChanU.4.17.1–2 – YS.1.7

ChanU.6.1.1–2 – YS.2.30

ChanU.6.1.4–5 – YS.1.9

ChanU.6.2.1 – YS.1.3

ChanU.6.2.1–2 – YS.4.12

ChanU.6.2.1 & 6.2.3–4 – YS.3.41

ChanU.6.3.2–3 – YS.3.41

ChanU.6.4.1 – YS.3.41

ChanU.6.8.7 – YS.1.29

ChanU.6.9.1–3 – YS.4.10

ChanU.6.14.1–3 – YS.2.25

ChanU.7.1.3 – YS.3.54

ChanU.7.19.1–20.1 – YS.1.20

ChanU.7.25.2 – YS.3.49

ChanU.7.26.1–2 – YS.3.8

ChanU.7.26.2 – YS.3.54

ChanU.8.1.1–3 – YS.4.14

ChanU.8.1.3 – YS.3.34

ChanU.8.1.5 – YS.1.36

ChanU.8.6.5–6 – YS.3.26, YS.3.32

ChanU.8.15.1 – YS.2.1

Dhyāna-bindū Upaniṣad

18 – YS.3.2

Gāyatrī Mantra, Ṛg Veda

3.62.10 – YS.3.26

Īśāvāsya Upaniṣad

IsU.4 – YS.1.49

IsU.6 – YS.3.46

Jābāla Upaniṣad

1.1 – YS.3.54

Kaivalya Upaniṣad

KaivU.1.3–4 – YS.1.7

KaivU.1.6 – YS.1.36

KaivU.1.11 – YS.1.12

KaivU.1.16 – YS.3.55

KaivU.1.17–18 – YS.1.3

KaivU.1.17–20 – YS.4.23

KaivU.1.19 – YS.1.3

KaivU.2.2 – YS.2.25, YS.4.34

Kaṭha Upaniṣad

KathU.1.1.26–27 – YS.3.51

KathU.1.2.2 – YS.1.2

KathU.1.2.4 – YS.1.8

KathU.1.2.7 – YS.1.49

KathU.1.2.8 – YS.1.38, YS.3.35

KathU.1.2.9 – YS.1.49

KathU.1.2.15 & 17 – YS.1.38

KathU.1.2.18 – YS.3.52

KathU.1.2.20 – YS.3.45

KathU.1.2.23 – YS.1.49

KathU.1.3.5–6 – YS.2.54

KathU.1.3.10–11 – YS.2.19

KathU.1.3.12 – YS.1.3

KathU.2.1.1 – YS.1.29

KathU.2.2.13 – YS.3.52

KathU.2.3.5 – YS.3.47

KathU.2.3.11 – YS.1.2

KathU.2.3.16 – YS.3.32

Kena Upaniṣad

KenU.1.3–5 – YS.1.49

KenU.2.4 – YS.4.20

Maitrāyaṇī Upaniṣad

1.9 – YS.1.4

Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad

ManU.5 – YS.1.10

ManU.6 – YS.1.25

ManU.7 – YS.1.27

Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad Kārikā

ManKa.1.28 – YS.1.27

ManKa.2.5–7 – YS.1.9

ManKa.2.12 – YS.1.9

ManKa.2.13–15 – YS.3.43

ManKa.2.19 – YS.1.9

ManKa.2.32 – YS.3.10

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad

MunU.1.1.3 – YS.3.33

MunU.1.1.4 – YS.4.19

MunU.1.1.4–5 – YS.1.46

MunU.1.2.9 – YS.1.12

MunU.1.2.12 – YS.2.25, YS.3.35

MunU.2.2.2 – YS.3.45

MunU.3.1.3 – YS.3.55

MunU.3.1.7 – YS.1.45

MunU.3.1.8 – YS.1.49

MunU.3.2.3 – YS.1.49

MunU.3.2.5 – YS.1.37, YS.3.42

Pañca-Daśī

4.30 – YS.3.19

7.103–105 – YS.1.49

Pātañjala-Yoga-Sūtrāṇi-Bhoja-Sadāśiva-Vṛtti

3.3 – YS.3.35

Pātañjali Yoga Sūtrāṇi Vyāsa’s Bhāṣya

1.1 – YS.1.1

2.27 – YS.2.27

Praśna Upaniṣad

PrasU.2.1–4 – YS.1.3

PrasU.3.5 – YS.3.40

Puruṣa Sūkta, Ṛg Veda

10.90.2 – YS.1.26

Ṛg Veda

6.47.18 – YS.1.9

Śabda-Stoma-Mahānidhi (abridged version of Vācaspatyam dictionary)

YS.3.16

Sarva-sāra Upaniṣad

16 (or 7 & 8 by a different numbering) – YS.3.14

Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad

SvetU.1.3 – YS.3.49

SvetU.1.14 – YS.1.12

SvetU.2.9 – YS.1.34

SvetU.2.14 – YS.2.22

SvetU.3.8 – YS.1.51, YS.3.35

SvetU.3.12 – YS.4.18

SvetU.4.10 – YS.1.45

SvetU.4.11 – YS.3.49

SvetU.4.15 – YS.2.44

SvetU.5.3 – YS.1.7

SvetU.5.4–5 – YS.3.49

SvetU.5.5 & 7 – YS.1.16

SvetU.6.11 – YS.4.18

Taittirīya Upaniṣad

TaitU.1.11.1 – YS.1.3

TaitU.2.1.1 – YS.1.17, YS.1.29, YS.2.24, YS.3.37, YS.3.41, YS.4.19

TaitU.2.6.1 – YS.1.3

TaitU.2.7.1 – YS.1.17, YS.4.14

TaitU.2.8.1.4 – YS.1.17

TaitU.2.9.1 – YS.1.17, YS.1.49

TaitU.3.6.1 – fn. 3.37

TaitU.3.10.4–6 – YS.3.44

Taittirīya Upaniṣad, Saṅkara’s Bhāṣya Introduction

YS.1.1

Vedānta-paribhāṣā

1.18 – YS.3.19

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Contemplation

s.01 s.02 s.03 s.04 s.05 s.06 s.07 s.08 s.09 s.10 s.11 s.12 s.13 s.14 s.15 s.16 s.17 s.18 s.19 s.20 s.21 s.22 s.23 s.24 s.25 s.26 s.27 s.28 s.29 s.30 s.31 s.32 s.33 s.34 s.35 s.36 s.37 s.38 s.39 s.40 s.41 s.42 s.43 s.44 s.45 s.46 s.47 s.48 s.49 s.50 s.51

[atha – now; anuśāsana – traditional teaching; yoga – the means.]

योग-सूत्राणां विषयः मूल-प्रमाणं च उक्ते – अथ आरम्भ-अर्थे, मङ्गल-अर्थे च अथ इति, योग-अनुशासनं योगस्य श्रुति-अनुरूप-आगम-प्रमाण-शासनम् (YS.1.7)॥ – [Vṛtti]

अथ इति ‘अथ इति अयम् अधिकार-अर्थः (=आरम्भ-अर्थः)’ इति (Vyāsa's Pātañjali Yoga Sūtra Bhāṣa 1.1).
“This use of the word ‘atha’ has the sense of the beginning (adhikāra) of a text.” (Vyāsa’s Pātañjali Yoga Sūtrāṇi Bhāṣya 1.1).

अनुशासनम् इति ‘अ-विद्या-काम-कर्म-उपादान-हेतु-निवृत्तौ स्व-आत्मनि अवस्थानं मोक्षः इति’ इति (TaitU.UpodghātaBhāṣya).
“‘Mokṣa (freedom)’ is remaining in one’s own self, once there is the removal of the cause for the arising of [saṃsāra in the form of] ignorance (a-vidyā) [which is the cause of], desire (kāma) [which is the cause of], action and its results (karma) [in order to placate the felt sense of lack due to ignorance of the self as full and complete].” (Taittirīya Up. Sāṅkara Bhāṣya introduction).

‘सुखम् आत्यन्तिकं यत् तद् बुद्धि-ग्राह्यम् अतीन्द्रियम्। वेत्ति यत्र न च एव अयं स्थितः चलति तत्त्वतः॥ यं लब्ध्वा च अपरं लाभं मन्यते न अधिकं ततः। यस्मिन् स्थितः न दुःखेन गुरुणा अपि विचाल्यते॥ तं विद्याद् दुःख-संयोग-वियोगं योग-सञ्ज्ञितम्।’ इति (BhG.6.21–23).
“When one knows that same limitless sukha (fulfillment that is the nature of the self, of ātman) – which is to be grasped by the intellect, [yet] is not within the scope of the senses – and abiding [there in the sukha], never moving away from this truth [i.e., reality], having gained that which one knows is not bettered by another gain, and abiding in which [reality] one would not be affected – even by great pain – one knows that disassociation from association with sorrow to be what is called yoga.” (Bh. Gītā 6.21 through 23).

‘स्वयं च आत्मा ब्रह्म। तद्-विज्ञानात् अ-विद्या-निवृत्तिः इति, अतः ब्रह्म-विद्या-अर्थ-उपनिषद् आरभ्यते। उपनिषद् इति विद्या उच्यते, तद्-सेविनां गर्भ-जन्म-जरा-आदि-निशातनात्, तद्-अवसादनात् वा, ब्रह्मणः उपनिगमयितृत्वात्; उपनिषण्णं वा अस्यां (विद्यायां) परं श्रेयः’ इति (TaitU.UpodghātaBhāṣya)॥
“One’s very self (ātman) is brahman (limitless reality). By clearly knowing that, there is [the mokṣa (freedom) said to be] the removal of [self-]ignorance. The Upaniṣad is undertaken for the sake of this knowledge of brahman (brahma-vidyā). This knowledge is called ‘Upaniṣad.’ [It is called Upa-ni-ṣad because] for those who are dedicated to that [knowledge], it loosens [the bonds of] entering a womb, birth, old age, etc., [finally] puts an end to that [saṃsāra, the life of unbecoming becoming] by leading [you] back to [yourself as] brahman, and, having done this, is the ultimate goal (śreyas) in this [knowledge].” (Taittirīya Up. Sāṅkara Bhāṣya introduction).

[yoga – means; nirodha – mastery; vṛttis – thoughts; citta – mind.]

अथ योगस्य उपायः अधिकारी च उक्तौ – योगः नाम चित्त-अ-निरोधिनः चित्त-वृत्ति-निरोधः अन्तःकरण-प्रत्यय-रूपाणाम् अ-विद्या-क्लेश-मूल-नाशकः अस्मिता-आदि-क्लेश-कार्य-लयकः चित्त-प्रसाद-साधनेन प्रतिरोधकः च इत्थं-भूत-निरोधः॥ – [Vṛtti]

योगः इति ‘तां योगम् इति मन्यन्ते स्थिराम् इन्द्रिय-धारणाम्’ इति (KathU.2.3.11).
“They know yoga as that [final goal (parāṃ gatim)] which has a steady control (dhāraṇā) of the organs [of action and knowledge].” (Kaṭha Up. 2.3.11).

‘प्रत्याहारः तथा, ध्यानं, प्राण-आयामः अथ, धारणा, तर्कः च एव समाधिः च षड्-अङ्गः योगः उच्यते’ इति (Amṛta-nāda Up. 6)
“The six-fold yoga is said to be withdrawing (pratyāhāra) [the mind and senses], retaining (dhyāna) [the wanted thoughts] in contemplation, controlling the breath (prāṇa-āyāma), restraining (dhāraṇā) [the unwanted thoughts] in contemplation, contemplating with reason (tarka) [in keeping with the scriptures], and contemplation that culminates in assimilation (samādhi).” (Amṛta-nāda Up. 6).

‘(मनसः) समत्वं योग उच्यते’ इति (BhG.2.48).
“Sameness [of attitude (buddhi) towards results – whatever they are] is called yoga.” (Bh. Gītā 2.48).

‘योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् (=कुशल-भावः, यथार्थता)’ इति (BhG.2.50).
“Propriety in actions [i.e., acting within dharma, where the means are as important as the end] is [called] yoga.” (Bh. Gītā 2.50).

‘दुःख-संयोग-वियोगं योग-सञ्ज्ञितम्’ इति (BhG.6.23).
“Disassociation (viyoga) from association with sorrow is what is called yoga.” (Bh. Gītā 6.23).

‘चञ्चलं हि मनः कृष्ण प्रमाथि बलवद् दृढम्। तस्य अहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोः इव सु-दुष्-करम्’ इति (BhG.6.34).
“O Kṛṣṇa, since the mind is very fleeting, distracting, strong and well-rooted, I think that its control is quite as difficult as that of the wind.” (Bh. Gītā 6.34).

‘श्रेयः च प्रेयः च मनुष्यम् एतः तौ सम्परीत्य विविनक्ति धीरः। श्रेयः हि धीरः अभि प्रेयसः वृणीते प्रेयः मन्दः योग-क्षेमाद् (शरीर-आदि-उपचय-रक्षणात्) वृणीते’ इति (KathU.1.2.2)॥
“The beneficial (śreyas) and the pleasurable (preyas) confront a person. The wise person examines and differentiates the two. The wise person [such as yourself] chooses the beneficial over the pleasurable. The mediocre chooses the pleasurable out of [the desire for] acquiring and protecting [experiences].” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.2).

[tadā – then; draṣṭṛ – witness; avasthāna – remains; sva-rūpa – its own nature.]

अथ योगस्य प्रयोजनम् उक्तं – तदा योग-समाप्तौ, द्रष्टुः दृक्-साक्षि-रूप-परम-पुरुषस्य स्व-रूपे सत्-चित्-आनन्द-स्व-रूपे अवस्थानं कैवल्य-स्थानम् (YS.4.34)॥ – [Vṛtti]

द्रष्टुः इति ‘न दृष्टेः द्रष्टारं पश्येः।…एष ते आत्मा सर्व-अन्तरः अतः अन्यद् आर्तं (=विनाशि)’ इति (BrhU.3.4.2).
“You cannot see the witness (draṣṭṛ) of all that is seen. …This which is within all is your self (ātman). What is other than this suffers [destruction].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 3.4.2).

‘सलिलः (=स्वच्छीभूतः सलिलः इव) एकः द्रष्टा अ-द्वैतः भवति, एषः ब्रह्म-लोकः सम्राट्’ इति (BrhU.4.3.32).
“[Transparent like] water, the witness (draṣṭṛ) is one (eka), without a second (a-dvaita). This is what is viewed as reality (brahman), O King.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 4.3.32).

स्व-रूपे अवस्थानम् इति ‘जाग्रत्-स्वप्न-सुषुप्ति-आदि-प्रपञ्चं यद् प्रकासते। तद् ब्रह्म अहम् इति ज्ञात्वा सर्व-बन्धैः प्रमुच्यते॥ त्रिष् धामसु यद् भोग्यं भोक्ता भोगः च यद् भवेत्। तेभ्यः वि-लक्षणः साक्षी चिन्मात्रः अहं सदा शिवः’ इति (KaivU.1.17–8).
“The one who lights up this expanse consisting of the waking, dream, and deep sleep, etc. [the heavens, etc.], that reality (brahman) I am. Knowing this, one is free from all binds. Different from whatever is the experienced, the experiencer, and the experience, I am the witness, pure awareness, ever calm.” (Kaivalya Up. 1.17,18).

‘सत्यं वद। धर्मं चर’ इति (TaitU.1.11.1).
“Speak satya (truth). Follow dharma (universal justice and local customs).” (Taittirīya Up. 1.11.1).

‘सत्यं च अन्-ऋतं च सत्यम् अभवत्। यद् इदं किञ्च। तत् सत्यम् इति आचक्षते’ इति (TaitU.2.6.1).
Satya (reality) is [all pairs of opposites and adjectives, such as] satya (real) and an-ṛta (unreal). They say that whatever there is is [only] that satya (reality).” (Taittirīya Up. 2.6.1).

‘भगवन्, कति एव देवाः प्रजां विधारयन्ते, कतरे एतत् प्रकाशयन्ते, कः पुनः एषां वरिष्ठः इति॥ तस्मै सः ह उवाच। आकाशः ह वै एषः देवः वायुः अग्निः आपः पृथिवी वाक् मनः चक्षुः श्रोत्रं च। ते प्रकाश्य अभिवदन्ति वयम् एतद् बाणम् अवष्टभ्य विधारयामः॥ तान् वरिष्ठः प्राणः उवाच। मा मोहम् आपद्यथ, अहम् एव एतत् पञ्चधा आत्मानं प्रविभज्य एतद् बाणम् अवष्टभ्य विधारयामि इति, ते अ-श्रद्दधानाः बभूवुः॥ सः अभिमानात् ऊर्ध्वम् उत्क्रामते इव, तस्मिन् उत्क्रामति अथ इतरे सर्वे एव उत्क्रामन्ते, तस्मिन् च प्रतिष्ठमाने सर्वे एव प्रातिष्ठन्ते। तद् यथा मक्षिकाः मधुकर-राजानम् उत्क्रामन्तं सर्वाः एव उत्क्रामन्ते, तस्मिन् च प्रतिष्ठमाने सर्वाः एव प्रातिष्ठन्ते, एवं वाक् मनः चक्षुः श्रोत्रं च ते प्रीताः प्राणं स्तुन्वन्ति’ इति (PrasU.2.1–4).
“ ‘Sir, how many deities sustain a creature? Which of them boast this [greatness]? And who is superior [in this] to those [deities]?’ To them he said, ‘This deity is Space, [as well as] Air, Fire, Water, Earth, and Speech, Mind, Eye, and Ear. Boasting, they say, ‘By supporting this reed [of a body], we sustain [the creature].’ Prāṇa (Life-force), who is superior, said to them, ‘Do not fall to this delusion. I alone, dividing myself five ways [as prāṇa (outward exhalation), apāna (downward inhalation and energy), vyāna (dispersing circulation), udāna (upward ejecting energy including the ejecting of the subtle body upon death), and samāna (uniting digestion)] to support this reed [of a body] and sustain [the creature].’ They did not trust [this truth]. Confidently he (Prāṇa) starts rising out [of the body]. When he arises, then [helplessly] all the others rise; when he settles back, every one of them settles back. In the same way all bees [praise] the royal bee, who arises [from the nest], [by] their rising and sit when [s]he sits, so too Speech, Mind, Eye, and Ear, being satisfied, praise Prāṇa.’ ” (Praśna Up. 2.1 through 4)

‘(अ-सतः) आगम-अपायिनः अनित्याः॥…न अ-सतः विद्यते भावः न अ-भावः विद्यते सतः’ इति (BhG.2.14 & 16).
“[The unreal] have a beginning and an end, [therefore] are time bound. …The unreal (a-sat) has no being (bhāva) [of its own], and the real (sat) has no nonbeing (a-bhāva).” (Bh. Gītā 2.14 and 16).

‘वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरः अपराणि। तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णानि अन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही’ इति (BhG.2.22).
“Just as a person discarding worn-out clothes takes on other new ones; similarly, the embodied one (dehin), discarding worn-out bodies, takes on other new ones.” (Bh. Gītā 2.22).

‘अस्तम् इते आदित्ये याज्ञवल्क्य, चन्द्रमसि अस्तम् इते, शान्ते अग्नौ, शान्तायां वाचि किं ज्योतिः एव अयं पुरुषः इति – आत्मा एव अस्य ज्योतिः भवति इति, आत्मना एव इयं ज्योतिषा आस्ते पल्ययते (=परि-अयते) कर्म कुरुते विपल्येति (=विपरि-एति)’ इति (BrhU.4.3.6).
“‘O Yājñavalkya, when the sun has set, the moon has set, the fire has gone out, and speech has stopped, a person has what alone as a light?’ – ‘The self (ātman) alone is his light. By the light that is the self alone, he sits, departs, does work, and returns.’” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 4.3.6).

‘यद् द्वै तद् न पश्यति पश्यन् वै तद् न पश्यति, न हि द्रष्टुः दृष्टेः विपरिलोपः विद्यते अ-विनाशित्वात्। न तु तद् द्वितीयम् अस्ति ततः अन्यद् विभक्तं यद् पश्येत्’ इति (BrhU.4.3.23).
“[In deep sleep] it indeed does not see, [because though] indeed seeing it does not see, for there is no loss of vision for the witness (draṣṭṛ), since it is imperishable. Rather, there is no second thing other than it, which it could see as separate.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 4.3.23).

‘न तु एव अहं जातु न आसं न त्वं न इमे जन-अधिपाः। न च एव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयम् अतः परम्’ इति (BhG.2.12).
“Never [was there a time that] I was not, nor you, nor these kings. Nor will any of us cease to exist hereafter.” (Bh. Gītā 2.12).

‘यत्र हि द्वैतम् इव भवति तद् इतर: इतरं जिघ्रति, तद् इतरः इतरं पश्यति, तद् इतर: इतरं शृणोति, तद् इतर: इतरम् अभिवदति, तद् इतर: इतरं मनुते, तद् इतरः इतरं विजानाति। यत्र वा अस्य सर्वम् आत्मा एव अभूत् तत् केन कं जिघ्रेत्, तत् केन कं पश्येत्, तत् केन कं शृणुयात्, तत् केन कम् अभिवदेत्, तत् केन कं मन्वीत, तत् केन कं विजानीयात्। येन इदं सर्वं विजानाति तं केन विजानीयात्। विज्ञातारम् अरे केन विजानीयात्’ इति (BrhU.2.4.14).
“Because where there is as if duality, there something smells something. There something sees something. There something hears something. There something speaks something. There something thinks something. There something knows something. But where [upon the dissolution of the universe] everything is one’s self (ātman), there, how would one smell what? There, how would one see what? There, how would one hear what? There, how would one speak what? There, how would one think what? There, how would one know what? How would one know that by which one knows all this? How, my dear, would one know the knower?” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 2.4.14).

‘मयि एव सकलं जातं मयि सर्वं प्रतिष्ठितम्। मयि सर्वं लयं याति तद् ब्रह्म अ-द्वयम् अस्मि अहम्’ इति (KaivU.1.19).
“In me alone is born everything. In me everything remains. In me everything resolves. That without-a-second reality (brahman) am I.” (Kaivalya Up. 1.19).

‘एष सर्वेषु भूतेषु गूढः आत्मा न प्रकाशते’ इति (KathU.1.3.12).
“This self (ātman) hidden [by unreal ignorance] in all beings does not appear.” (Kaṭha Up. 1.3.12).

‘सद् एव सोम्य इदम् अग्रे आसीत् एकम् एव अ-द्वितीयम्’ इति (ChanU.6.2.1).
“Existence (sat) alone, my dear, was this in the beginning, one only without a second.” (Chāndogya Up. 6.2.1).

‘अ-विनाशि तु तद् विद्धि येन सर्वम् इदं ततम्। विनाशम् अव्ययस्य अस्य न कश्चित् कर्तुम् अर्हति’ इति (BhG.2.17).
“By which [reality] all this [the time-bound unreal, including this mind-body complex] is pervaded, know that [timeless and real] to be indestructible. Nothing is able to bring about the destruction of this that does not change.” (Bh. Gītā 2.17).

[itaratra – on the other hand; sā-rūpya – has the same form; vṛttis – thoughts.]

अथ योगस्य प्रतिबन्धक-मूलम् उक्तं – द्रष्टुः वृत्ति-सा-रूप्यम् अन्तःकरण-धर्म-सम-रूपता इति पुरुष-स्व-रूप-अ-ज्ञानी कल्पते (YS.2.5) इतरत्र आ तस्मात् स्व-रूपे अवस्थानात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

वृत्ति-सा-रूप्यम् इति ‘चित्तम् एव हि संसारः तद् प्रयत्नेन शोधतेत्। यद्-चित्तः तद्-मयः भवति गुह्यम् एतद् सनातनम्’ इति (Maitrāyaṇī Up. 1.9)
“The mind (citta) alone indeed is one’s transient existence (saṃsāra). One should make effort to clean it up. In whatever way one thinks, that one becomes. This is an eternal mystery!” (Maitrāyaṇī Up. 1.9).

[vṛttis – thoughts; pañcataya – of five types; kliṣṭa – hinder; a-kliṣṭa – do not hinder.]

योगस्य प्रधान-साधन-क्षेत्रम् उक्तं – मनसः पञ्चतय्यः वृत्तयः सामान्यतः अन्तःकरण-धी-रूपाणि (YS.1.6) योगस्य क्लिष्ट-अक्लिष्टाः अपकारिणः उपकारिणः वा योग-साधन-योग्यतः॥ – [Vṛtti]

Kleśa-hetu (what occasions [nimitta] the afflictions)” (Vyāsa’s Pātañjali Yoga Sūtrāṇi Bhāṣya 1.5, and Śaṅkara’s Pātañjali Yoga Sūtrāṇi Bhāṣya Vivaraṇa 1.5).

[pramāṇa – knowledge; viparyaya – error; vikalpa – imagination; nidrā – sleep; smṛti – memory.]

वृत्तयः प्रमाण-विपर्यय-विकल्प-निद्रा-स्मृतयः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[pramāṇa – knowledge; pratyakṣa – direct knowledge; anumāna – indirect knowledge; āgama – scripture.]

प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-आगमाः ‘अयं घटः’ इति-आदि-स्थूल-विषयस्य इन्द्रिय-जन्य-प्रत्यक्षं ‘मनः सुखि’ इति-आदि-चित्त-धर्म-सूक्ष्म-विषयस्य साक्षि-प्रत्यक्षं च प्रथम-प्रमाणं, परस्-अक्ष-लौकिक-विषयानाम् ‘अयं धूमवान्’ इति-प्रत्यक्ष-जनक-लिङ्गेन ‘अयं पर्वतः वह्णिमान्’ इति-अनुमानम् उपमान-अर्थ-आपत्ति-अन्-उपलब्धि-सहितं च द्वितीय-प्रमाणं, ब्रह्म-आत्म-ऐक्य-देव-स्वर्ग-पुण्य-आदि-प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-अ-विषयाणां श्रुति-शब्दः श्रुति-अनुवादः च तृतीय-प्रमाणं प्रमाणानि त्रि-प्रकार-प्रमा-करण-वृत्तयः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

आगमाः इति ‘…वै, सम्राट्, पश्यन्तम् आहुः – अद्राक्षीः त्वं हस्तिनम् इति, सः चेत् अद्राक्षम् इति आह, तत् सत्यम् एव भवति; यः तु अन्यः ब्रूयात् – अहम् अश्रौषम् इति, तद् व्यभिचरति; यत् तु चक्षुषा दृष्टं तत् अव्यभिचारित्वात् सत्यम् एव भवति’ इति (BrhU.4.1.4 Bhāṣyam, also BrhUEng.5.14.4 Mūlam).
“If a person, O Emperor, says to one who has seen with the eyes, “Have you seen the elephant?” and he answers, “Yes, I have,” then it is considered true; while if another says, “I have heard of it,” it may not correspond with fact. But what is seen with the eyes is always true, as it corresponds with fact.” (Bṛhad-Āraṇyaka Up. 4.1.4 Bhāṣyam, also BrhUEng.5.14.4 Mūlam).

‘प्रत्यक्षं श्रुतिः, प्रामाण्यं प्रत्यनपेक्षत्वात्; अनुमानं स्मृतिः, प्रामाण्यं प्रति सापेक्षत्वात्’ इति (BrS.1.3.28 Śāṅkara-Bhāṣyam).
Pratyakṣa means the Scriptures (Śruti), which are independent of means of proof, and Anumāna means the Smṛti which is dependent (on some Scriptural origin of it) for its own authoritativeness.” (Śaṅkara’s Brahma-Sūtra-Bhāṣyam 1.3.28).

‘प्रजा-पतिः लोकान् अभ्यतपत् तेषां तप्यमानानां रसान् प्रावृहद् अग्निं पृथिव्याः वायुम् अन्तरिक्षाद् आदित्यं दिवः॥ सः एताः तिस्रो देवताः अभ्यतपत् तासां तप्यमानानां रसान् प्रावृहद् अग्नेः ऋचो वायोः यजूंषि सामानि आदित्यात्’ इति (ChanU.4.17.1–2).
“The Lord of creatures (Prajā-pati) contemplated (abhi-atapat) the worlds. While they were being contemplated, He extracted their essences – Fire from the earth, Wind from the sky, the Sun from the heavens. He contemplated these three deities. While they were being contemplated, He extracted Their essences [the three Veda hymn forms] – the Ṛg [i.e., chanted] verses from Fire, Yajur prose from Wind, Sāman [i.e., sung] verses from the Sun.” (Chāndogya Up. 4.17.1 and 2).

‘एक-एकं जालं बहुधा विकुर्वन् अस्मिन् क्षेत्रे संहरति एषः देवः। भूयः सृष्ट्वा पतयः (=प्रजा-पतयः) तथा ईशः सर्व-आधि-पत्यं कुरुते महा-आत्मा’ इति (SvetU.5.3).
“Repeatedly spreading out the net (jāla) [i.e., the Indra-jāla, the blinding net of appearances] one after another, this Lord (deva) withdraws it into this ground (kṣetra) [i.e., into itself]. Repeatedly manifesting (kṣetra) [the manifestations of creation] via the Lords of creatures (Prajā-patis) [in each cycle], the Lord (Īśa) as the limitless self (mahā-ātman) continues the over-lordship (ādhipatyaṃ kurute) of all [through these appearances].” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 5.3).

‘न कर्मणा न प्रजया धनेन त्यागेन एके अ-मृतत्वम् आनशुः। परेण नाकं निहितं गुहायां विभ्राजते यद् यतयः विशन्ति॥ वेदान्त-विज्ञान-सुनिश्चित-अर्थाः सन्न्यास-योगात् यतयः शुद्ध-सत्त्वाः। ते ब्रह्म-लोकेषु परान्त-काले परामृताः परिमुच्यन्ति सर्वे’ इति (KaivU.1.3–4).
“Not by action, progeny, or wealth, but by renunciation they attain immortality – beyond heaven and hidden in the cave [of the heart/intellect]. Into this which shines there enter those who apply [appropriate] effort. Having clearly ascertained the meaning of the science (vijñāna) of Vedānta and who have clarity of mind (śuddha-sattva) through the yoga of renunciation (sannyāsa), at the time of death they all are free and beyond mortality in the world(s) of brahman.” (Kaivalya Up. 1.3 and 4).

‘न हि ज्ञानेन स-दृशं पवित्रम् इह विद्यते। तत् स्वयं योग-संसिद्धः कालेन आत्मनि विन्दति’ इति (BhG.4.38).
“In this world, indeed, there is no purifier equal to knowledge. In time, the one who is prepared by yoga [and has a proper teacher] gains that [knowledge] easily in [one’s prepared] mind.” (Bh. Gītā 4.38).

[viparyaya – error; mithyā-jñāna – false conclusion; a-tad-rūpa-pratiṣṭha – not based on the actual form of its object.]

विपर्ययः नाम मिथ्या-ज्ञानम् अन्यथा अवगमनं, स्व-रूप-अ-विवेकतः शुक्तिकायां रजत-प्रातिभासिक-ज्ञानवत्, मृदि घटत्व-व्यावहारिक-ज्ञानवत् वा अ-तद्-रूप-प्रतिष्ठं यद्-वर्तमान-रूपं, तद्-रूपे न आश्रितं ज्ञानं च॥ – [Vṛtti]

विपर्ययः इति ‘दूरम् एते विपरीते विषूची अ-विद्या या च विद्या इति ज्ञाता’ इति (KathU.1.2.4).
“These two, known as ignorance (a-vidyā) and knowledge (vidyā), are widely opposed (viparīta) and diverging [leading to bondage and to freedom, respectively].” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.4).

[vikalpa – imagination; anupātin – based; śabda-jñāna – verbal knowledge; śūnya – lacks; vastu – object.]

शब्द-ज्ञान-अनुपाती वचन-ज्ञान-अनुरूपी वचन-ज्ञान-आलम्बनः वा केवलं वस्तु-शून्यः अ-वर्तमान-विषयी विकल्पः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

विकल्पः इति ‘प्राण-आदिभिः अनन्तैः तु भावैः एतैः विकल्पितः। माया एषा तस्य देवस्य (=जीव-आत्मनः) यया अयं मोहितः स्वयम्’ इति (ManKa.2.19).
“[The self] is imagined (vikalpita) as these countless things such as the life-force (prāṇa), etc. This is the apparition (māyā) of that shining one (deva) [the self], by which that very one itself is deluded.” (Māṇḍūkya Up. Kārikā 2.19).

शब्द-ज्ञान-अनुपाती इति ‘यथा सोम्य एकेन मृत्-पिण्डेन सर्वं मृन्मयं विज्ञातं स्याद् वाचा-आरम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं मृत्तिका इति एव सत्यम्॥ यथा सोम्य एकेन लोह-मणिना सर्वं लोहमयं विज्ञातं स्याद् वाचा-आरम्भणं विकारो नामधेयं लोहितम् इति एव सत्यम्’ इति (ChanU.6.1.4–5).
“Just as, my dear, everything made of clay [e.g., a clay pot] is known through this one lump of clay, being a modification (vikāra) in name only (nāmadheya), based on words (vācā-ārambhaṇa), the ‘clay’ alone is their reality (satya). Just as, my dear, everything made of metal (loha – often referring to either iron, copper, or gold) is known through this one lump of metal, being a modification in name only, based on words, the ‘metal’ alone is their reality.” (Chāndogya Up. 6.1.4 and 5).

‘रूपं रुपं प्रतिरुपः बभूव तद् अस्य रूपं प्रतिचक्षणाय। इद्रः मायाभिः पुरु-रूपः ईयते युक्ताः हि अस्य हरयः शताः दश’ इति (रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव तदस्य रूपं प्रतिचक्षणाय। इन्द्रो मायाभिः पुरुरूप ईयते युक्ता ह्यस्य हरयः शता दशेति। (Ṛg Veda 6.47.18)
“‘Lord (Indra) was the reflection in every form, for revealing that form of His. By appearances (māyās) [in the senses of individuals] the Lord (Indra) is taken as multi-formed, because of His harnessed hundreds of ten horses (haris) [i.e., the ten organs of action and knowledge]’ (Ṛg Veda 6.47.18).

‘इति अयं वै हरयोऽयं वै दश च सहस्राणि बहूनि च अन्-अन्तानि च’ इति (BrhU.2.5.19).
He indeed is the horses [the organs], He indeed is the ten and the thousands [of creatures], many and countless.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 2.5.19).

‘स्वप्न-जागरिते स्थाने हि एकम् आहुः मनीषिणः। भेदानां हि समत्वेन प्रसिद्धेन एव हेतुना॥ आदौ अन्ते च यन न अस्ति वर्तमानेऽपि तत् तथा। वितथैः सदृशाः सन्तः अ-वितथाः इव लक्षिताः॥ स-प्रयोजनता तेषां स्वप्ने विप्रतिपद्यते। तस्माद् आदि-अन्तवत्त्वेन मिथ्या एव खलु ते स्मृताः’ इति (ManKa.2.5–7).
“The wise say the dream and waking worlds are the same, because there is a well-known, logical similarity of their different objects. [Namely] what is not there before and after is in that same way [i.e., not there] in the present also. Those [objects in the waking world] are regarded [by the unwise] as not false, [even] while being similar [in nature] to the false [mirages, etc.] [which are also unreal even during their appearance]. [Additionally] their having a [real, i.e., lasting] utility is contradicted in dream [e.g., despite a supposedly real evening meal that satisfies hunger, one can then dream one is starving]. Therefore, by having a beginning and an end, they are taught (smṛta) to indeed exist falsely (mithyā).” (Māṇḍūkya Up. Kārikā 2.5 through 7).

‘कल्पयति आत्मना आत्मानम् आत्मा देवः स्व-मायया। सः एव बुध्यते भेदान् इति वेदान्त-निश्चयः’ इति (ManKa.2.12).
“The shining self imagines (kalpayati) itself by itself via its own māyā. It alone knows the different objects. This is the determination of the Vedāntas (i.e., Upaniṣads).” (Māṇḍūkya Up. Kārikā 2.12).

[nidrā – sleep; vṛtti – mental state; ālambana – based; pratyaya – cognition; a-bhāva – absence.]

अ-भाव-प्रत्यय-आलम्बना स्व-काले विशेष-भाव-प्रत्यय-रहिता अ-विद्या-कारण-शरीर-अ-व्यक्त-रूपा वृत्तिः निद्रा नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

निद्रा इति ‘योगः अस्ति…न च अति-स्वप्न-शीलस्य’ इति (BhG.6.16).
Yoga is not there for one who sleeps too much.” (Bh. Gītā 6.16).

‘यत्र सुप्तः न कञ्चन कामं कामयते न कञ्चन स्वप्नं पश्यति तत् सुषुप्तम्। सुषुप्त-स्थानः एकी-भूतः प्रज्ञान-घनः एव आनन्दमयः हि आनन्द-भुक् चेतो-मुखः प्राज्ञः तृतीयः पादः’ इति (ManU.5).
“Where the one who is asleep neither desires any object nor sees any dream, that is deep sleep. Whose world is the deep sleep, who has [therein] become one as pure cognition alone [without an object], who is peaceful as an enjoyer of the peace [of oneself] [via the absence of disturbance], who is the portal to the experience [of the other two worlds: dream and waking] – this one is [called] prājña and is the third quarter [of Om and of ātman].” (Māṇḍūkya Up. 5).

[smṛti – memory; a-saṃpramoṣa – not losing; viṣaya – object; anubhūta – experienced before.]

अनुभूत-विषय-अ-संप्रमोषः अन्य-वृत्ति-विषय-अनुरूप-प्रत्यादानं संस्कार-द्वारेण वृत्तिः स्मृतिः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tad-nirodha – discipline of these; abhyāsa – repetition; vai-rāgya – non-attachment.]

अभ्यास-वैराग्याभ्याम् अभ्यासस्य वैराग्यस्य च द्वारेण तद्-निरोधः चित्त-वृत्ति-निरोधः (YS.3.50)॥ – [Vṛtti]

अभ्यासेन इति ‘स्व-देहम् अरणि कृत्वा प्रणवं च उत्तर-अरणिम्। ध्यान-निर्मथन-अभ्यासाद् देवं पश्येत् निगूढवत्’ इति (SvetU.1.14).
“Making one’s mind the fire-making block of wood and praṇava (i.e., Om) the upper churning stick, by the repetition (abhyāsa) of churning which is contemplation (dhyāna), the shining self (deva) becomes evident, as though [previously] hidden within.” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 1.14).

‘आत्मानम् अरणिं कृत्वा प्रणवं च उत्तर-अरणिम्। ज्ञान-निर्मथन-अभ्यासात् पापं दहति पण्डितः’ इति (KaivU.1.11).
“Making one’s mind the fire-making block of wood and praṇava the upper churning stick, by the repetition (abhyāsa) of churning which is knowledge (jñāna), the wise burn their karma demerit.” (Kaivalya Up. 1.11).

‘मनो दुर्-निग्रहं चलम्। अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते’ इति (BhG.6.35).
“The mind is fleeting and difficult to master. But, O Arjuna, with repetition (abhyāsa) and with non-attachment (vairāgya), it is mastered.” (Bh. Gītā 6.35).

वैराग्येण इति ‘अ-विद्यायां बहुधा वर्तमानाः वयं कृत-अर्थाः इति अभिमन्यन्ति बालाः। यत् (=यस्मात् एवं) कर्मिणः न (तत्त्वं) प्रवेदयन्ति रागात् तेन आतुराः क्षीण-लोकाः च्यवन्ते’ इति (MunU.1.2.9).
“Continuing variously in ignorance, the immature boast ‘we have attained the goal.’ Since engaged in activities, they do not try to gain knowledge due to attachment (rāga). Suffering afflictions because of that, they fall back when [what it took to gain] their world (loka) [i.e., their human embodiment, heaven, etc.] is exhausted.” (Muṇḍaka Up. 1.2.9).

[abhyāsa – repetition; yatna – effort; sthiti – remaining; tatra – in that.]

तत्र निरोधे, स्थितौ दृक्-स्व-रूप-अवस्थान-अर्थ-साधने यत्नः मानसः उत्साहः अभ्यासः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tu – but; saḥ – it; āsevita – thoroughly attended to; sat-kāra – utmost respect; nais-antarya – no interruption; dīrgha-kāla – long time; dṛḍha-bhūmi – firm success.]

सः अभ्यासः तु दीर्घ-काल-नैरन्तर्य-सत्-कार-आसेवितः यावत् पर्याप्तं निर्-अन्तरं योग-साधन-श्रद्धया आसेवितव्यः, तावत् दृढ-भूमिः अवस्थान-समाप्तिः, प्रज्ञा अ-विप्लवा इत्यर्थः (YS.2.26)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[vai-rāgya – non-attachment; saṃjñā – known; vaśī-kāra – mastery; vitṛṣṇa – desire; viṣaya – objects; dṛṣṭa – seen; ānuśravika – repeatedly heard from scriptures.]

दृष्ट-अनुश्रविक-विषय-वितृष्णस्य लौकिक-अ-लौकिक-विषय-रागस्य वशी-कार-संज्ञा स्वा-तन्त्र्य-आख्या वैराग्यं नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

दृष्ट-विषय-वितृष्णस्य इति ‘ध्यायतः विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गः तेषु उपजायते। सङ्गात् सञ्जायते कामः कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते॥ क्रोधाद् भवति सम्मोहः सम्मोहात् स्मृति-विभ्रमः। स्मृति-भ्रंशाद् बुद्धि-नाशः बुद्धि-नाशात् (पुमान्) प्रणश्यति’ इति (BhG.2.62–63).
“For a person who mentally dwells on objects, attachment to them arises; from attachment arises desire [i.e., requirements in order to be happy and anticipations of their fruition]; from [thwarted] anticipations arises anger; from anger is delusion [i.e., error in judgment]; from delusion is lapse of memory; from lapse of memory is lapse of intellect; from lapse of intellect [what distinguishes the human condition] the person is destroyed [i.e., the unique human opportunity to attain what is truly beneficial is completely wasted, and the person remains in saṃsāra (the life of unbecoming becoming)].” (Bh. Gītā 2.62–63).

अनुश्रविक-विषय-वितृष्णस्य इति ‘याम् इमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्य् अ-विपश्चितः। वेद-वाद-रताः पार्थ न अन्यद् अस्ति इति वादिनः॥ काम-आत्मानः स्वर्ग-परा जन्म-कर्म-फल-प्रदाम्। क्रिया-विशेष-बहुलां भोग-ऐश्वर्य-गतिं प्रति’ इति (BhG.2.42–43).
“O Arjuna, the unwise – who remain engrossed in [the bulk of] the words of the Vedas [dealing with heaven-going, and gaining power, wealth, and progeny], arguing that there is nothing more, who are full of desires [i.e., requirements/anticipations] and who hold heaven as primary – they spout flowery discourse full of special rituals [directed] toward gaining power and objects of consumption, [but] yield [further] birth as a result of their actions.” (Bh. Gītā 2.42–43).

[tat-para – ultimate of that; guṇa-vai-tṛṣṇya – non-attachment to the three constituents of all of nature; khyāti – discernment; puruṣa – self.]

तद्-परं वैराग्य-प्रकृष्टं पुरुष-ख्यातेः गुण-पुरुष-विवेक-ज्ञानात् गुण-वैतृष्ण्यम् (YS.2.21)॥ – [Vṛtti]

गुण-वैतृष्ण्यम् इति ‘यः (देवः) च स्व-भावं (=प्रकृति-भावं) पचति विश्व-योनिः पाच्यान् च सर्वान् परिणामयेत् यः। सर्वम् एतद् विश्वम् अधितिष्ठति एकः गुणान् च सर्वान् विनियोजयेत् यः॥…गुण-अन्वयः (तु) यः (जीवः) फल-कर्म-कर्ता कृतस्य तस्य सः च उपभोक्ता। सः विश्व-रूपः त्रि-गुणः त्रि-वर्त्मा प्राण-अधिपः (एव) सञ्चरति स्व-कर्मभिः’ इति (SvetU.5.5 & 7).
“[The Lord, the deva] who is the source of the universe, who ripens itself [i.e., the prakṛti within it] [into manifestation], who matures all those fit to be matured [according to their karma], and who provides all the guṇas (constituents and their characteristics) – this one presides in this entire universe. …[Whereas] the [individual] who identifies with the guṇas, who takes oneself alone [instead of the Lord] as the creator and enjoyer of the results of that action, wanders [in saṃsāra] as every form [thus identified with] consisting of the three guṇas within the three paths [up to heavens, across to human births, or down to lower births], according to one’s own actions, ruling [only] one’s own life.” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 5.5 and 7).

पुरुष-ख्यातेः इति ‘सः ह उवाच गार्ग्यः, यः एव असौ आदित्ये पुरुषः एतम् एव अहं ब्रह्म उपासे इति, सः ह उवाच अजात-शत्रुः मा मा एतस्मिन् संवदिष्ठाः…’ इति (BrhU.2.1.2 … 2.1.20).
Gārgya said, ‘That puruṣa who is in the sun [as its being] I worship as reality (brahman).’ Ajāta-satru replied, ‘No, do not talk about this [which I already know]’…” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 2.1.2 …to end of the Chapter in 2.1.20).

‘सः वै अयं पुरुषः सर्वासु पूर्षु पुरिशयः न एनेन किञ्चन अनावृतं न एनेन किञ्चन अ-संवृतम्’ इति (BrhU.2.5.18).
“That indeed is puruṣa, who resides in the body (puri-śaya) in all compounds (purs) [i.e., in all bodies as their ruler and being]. There is nothing that is not covered by [i.e., included in] this [puruṣa].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 2.5.18).

[saṃprajñāta – deliberative; anugama – appropriately following; rūpa – form; vitarka – reasoning; vicāra – inquiry; ānanda – fullness; asmitā – the sense of “I am.”]

वितर्क-विचार-आनन्द-अस्मिता-रूप-अनुगमात् आनन्द-सत्-स्व-रूप-द्वि-विषयोः अनुश्रुति-वितर्केन (YS.2.33–4) श्रुति-विचारेन (see comm. on YS.4.20) च द्वि-रूपाभ्याम् अनु-प्रत्यय-अभ्यासात् संप्रज्ञातः स-वितर्क-स-विचार-प्रज्ञातः नाम समाधिः॥ – [Vṛtti]

वितर्कः इति ‘आगमस्य अ-विरोधेन ऊहनं तर्कः उच्यते’ इति (Amṛta-nāda Up. 17)
“Reasoning not in opposition to scripture (āgama) is called tarka.” (Amṛta-nāda Up. 17).

आनन्दः इति ‘विज्ञानम् आनन्दं ब्रह्म, रातिः-दातुः पर-अयणम्, तिष्ठमानस्य तद्-विदः इति’ इति (BrhU.3.9.28.7).
“Reality (brahman) is knowledge (vijñāna) and fullness (ānanda), the ultimate goal of the one who gives oblation and of the one who abiding [therein] knows that [reality].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 3.9.28.7).

‘एषः अस्य परमः आनन्दः…एतस्य एव आनन्दस्य अन्यानि भूतानि मात्राम् उपजीवन्ति॥…सः एकः ब्रह्म-लोके आनन्दः यः च श्रोत्रियः अ-वृजिनः अ-काम-हतः, अथ एषः एव परमः आनन्दः, एषः ब्रह्म-लोकः, सम्राट् इति ह उवाच याज्ञवल्क्यः’ इति (BrhU.4.3.32-33).
“‘This is its limitless fullness (ānanda). The beings who [take themselves] as other (anya) survive upon a limited measure (mātra) of this fullness (ānanda). …That is the one complete (eka) fullness (ānanda) in the world of brahman, [which is the same fullness of] the one who is steeped in this teaching (śrotriya), who is without fault and untouched by desire (a-kāma-hata). Now this is the ultimate fullness (ānanda). This [fullness] is the world which is brahman, O king,’ said Yājñavalkya.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 4.3.32 and 33).

‘सत्यं ज्ञानम् अन्-अन्तं ब्रह्म’ इति (TaitU.2.1.1).
Brahman is limitless[ness] (an-anta) reality (satya), knowledge (jñāna).” (Taittirīya Up. 2.1.1).

‘यद् वै तत् सुकृतं (=स्व-कृतम्)। रसः वै सः। रसं हि एव अयं लब्ध्वा आनन्दी भवति’ इति (TaitU.2.7.1).
“That indeed is the essence (rasa) [of everything, of names and forms], because having attained this essence (rasa) one is complete (ānandin).” (Taittirīya Up. 2.7.1).

‘स एकः ब्रह्मणः आनन्दः। श्रोत्रियस्य च अ-काम-हतस्य’ इति (TaitU.2.8.1.4).
“This is the one complete (eka) fullness (ānanda) of Lord Brahman, and of the one who is steeped in this teaching (śrotriya) and untouched by desire (a-kāma-hata).” (Taittirīya Up. 2.8.1).

‘आनन्दं ब्रह्मणः विद्वान्। न बिभेति कुतश्चन इति’ इति (TaitU.2.9.1).
“The one who knows the fullness of [i.e., who is] brahman does not fear of anything.” (Taittirīya Up. 2.9.1).

[anya – other; pūrva – preceded; abhyāsa – repetition; virāma – quietude; pratyayas – cognitions; saṃskāras – latent tendencies; śeṣa – remain.]

विराम-प्रत्यय-अभ्यास-पूर्वः संप्रज्ञात-समाधि-प्रत्यय-अभ्यास-पूर्वः सन् तद्-प्रत्यय-प्रतिरोधे संप्रज्ञात-जन्य-शमे सति अपि च संस्कार-शेषः पश्चात् अ-विद्या-बीज-जन्य-तनु-विच्छिन्न-आदि-व्यक्त-संस्कारवान् (YS.2.3–4) अन्यः अ-संप्रज्ञातः नाम समाधिः इत्यर्थः, तस्मात् अयं समाधिः अपि क्षणिकः एव न तु निर्-बीज-समाधिः (YS.1.51 & YS.3.8)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[pratyaya – follows; bhava – birth; vi-dehas – subtle beings; prakṛti-layas – beings who have been absorbed in unmanifest nature.]

भव-प्रत्ययः संसार-चक्रे किम्-चिद्-जन्म-अनुगः अ-संप्रज्ञातः समाधिः वर्तते वि-देह-प्रकृति-लयानां किम्-चिद्-स्वर्गे देह-पतन-पश्चात् संप्रज्ञात-अभ्यासिकानां च प्रकृति-लये अ-वश्यं सर्व-जीवानां च॥ – [Vṛtti]

[itaras – the rest of us; pūrvaka – follows; śraddhā – trust; vīrya – tenacity; smṛti – memory; samādhi – contemplation; prajñā – assimilated knowledge.]

श्रद्धा-वीर्य-स्मृति-समाधि-प्रज्ञा-पूर्वकः अनुशासने श्रद्धा संवेगः मेधा च तद्-प्रत्यय-अभ्यास-जन्य-संप्रज्ञात-समाधिः च संप्रज्ञात-जन्य-अ-संप्रज्ञात-समाधिः च प्रज्ञायाः निर्-बीज-समाधिः च तैः योग-सिद्धिः इतरेषां इह एव मनुष्य-देहवताम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

श्रद्धा इति ‘यदा वै श्रद्दधाति अथ मनुते, न अ-श्रद्दधन् मनुते, श्रद्दधद् एव मनुते, श्रद्धा तु एव विजिज्ञासितव्या इति, श्रद्धां भगवः विजिज्ञासे इति॥ यदा वै निस्तिष्ठति अथ श्रद्दधाति, न अ-निस्तिष्ठन् श्रद्दधाति, निस्तिष्ठन् एव श्रद्दधाति, निष्ठा (=तत्परत्वं) तु एव विजिज्ञासितव्या’ इति (ChanU.7.19.1 & 20.1).
“‘When indeed one trusts (śraddadhāti), in this way one thinks. Not trusting, one does not [so] think. Trusting alone one thinks. So trust (śraddhā) itself is to be understood.’ – ‘Sir, I desire to know śraddhā.’ – ‘When indeed one is dedicated (nistiṣṭhati), in this way one trusts. Not dedicating [oneself], one does no trust. Dedicating alone one trusts. So dedication (niṣṭhā) itself is to be understood.’” (Chāndogya Up. 7.19.1 and 20.1).

[saṃvega – tenacity; tīvra – acute; āsanna – quickly succeeds.]

चित्त-वृत्ति-निरोध-अर्थः समाधिः तीव्र-संवेगानाम् आसन्नः प्रतिष्ठितः॥ – [Vṛtti]

तीव्र-संवेगानाम् इति ‘ब्रह्म-चर्यम् अ-हिंसां च अ-परिग्रहं च सत्यं च यत्नेन हे रक्षतः हे रक्षतः हे रक्षतः’ इति (Āruṇeya Up. 3).
“Commitment to study (brahma-cārya), non-violence, renunciation, and truthfulness – O may you always observe (rakṣataḥ) [these] with effort.” (Āruṇeya Up. 3).

[tataḥ api – and thus; viśeṣa – distinction; mṛdu – weak; madhya – middling; adhi-mātratvas – strong measures.]

तीव्रस्य मृदु-मध्य-अधि-मात्रत्वात्, ततः तारतम्यात् अपि विशेषः यत्न-भेदः॥ – [Vṛtti]

मात्रत्वात् इति ‘युक्तः कर्म-फलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिम् आप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम्। अ-युक्तः काम-कारेण फले सक्तः निबध्यते’ इति (BhG.5.12).
“Giving up [the notion of control over] the result of action, the yogin attains a peace born of [the degree of] commitment; [whereas] not [committed to] yoga, attached to result(s) by the pressure of requirements, that one is bound.” (Bh. Gītā 5.12).

[ – also; Īśvara-praṇidhāna – contemplation on the Lord.]

चित्त-वृत्ति-निरोधः अभ्यास-वैराग्याभ्यां प्रतिष्ठितः ईश्वर-प्रणिधानात् परम-पुरुष-ध्यानात् वा अपि॥ – [Vṛtti]

ईश्वर-प्रणिधानात् इति ‘वीत-राग-भय-क्रोधाः मन्मयाः माम् उपाश्रिताः। बहवः ज्ञान-तपसा पूताः मद्-भावम् आगताः’ इति (BhG.4.10).
“Freed from longing, fear, and anger, having taken refuge in Me [by] being Me alone, and purified by the discipline that is knowledge – many have attained My nature [i.e., complete freedom].” (Bh. Gītā 4.10).

[Īśvara – Lord; viśeṣa – characterized; puruṣa – self; a-parāmṛṣṭa – untouched; kleśas – afflictions; karma – action; vipāka – fruition; āśaya – store-house.]

क्लेश-कर्म-विपाक-आशयैः पञ्च-क्लेशैः (YS.2.3–9) कर्मभिः कर्म-विपाक-फलैः कर्म-फल-बीज-आशयेन (YS.2.12 & YS.4.6–7) च अ-परामृष्टः अ-संस्पृष्टः पुरुष-विशेषः पुरुष-निर्देशः उत्तम-पुरुषः वा, न तु पुरुष-भेदः ‘न इह नाना अस्ति किञ्चन,’ ‘येन आवृतं नित्यम् इदं हि सर्वं, ज्ञः काल-कालः गुणी सर्व-विद् यः’ इति-आदि-बहु-श्रुतेः (BrhU.4.4.19, SvetU.6.2) ईश्वरः कैवल्य-स्व-रूप-पुरुषः॥ – [Vṛtti]

ईश्वरः इति ‘समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम्। विनश्यत्सु अ-विनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति सः पश्यति॥ समं पश्यन् हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितम् ईश्वरम्। न हिनस्ति आत्मना आत्मानं (=स्वेन एव स्वम्) ततः याति परां गतिम्’ इति (BhG.13.27–28).
“The one who sees the Lord [Me] as remaining the same in all beings, and as not being destroyed among those [bodies] being destroyed – that one [alone] sees. Because, seeing [Me] the Lord as remaining the same (sama) everywhere [as the self of all], one does not by oneself [i.e., through the mind] destroy [i.e., lose sight of] the self [since that self is the all-pervasive Me] and, hence, attains the ultimate end [i.e., the end of saṃsāra].” (Bh. Gītā 13.27 and 28).

[tatra – in that; bīja – seed; sarva-jña – knowing all; nir-atiśaya – unsurpassed.]

तत्र ईश्वरे निर्-अतिशयं सर्व-ज्ञ-बीजं सर्व-ज्ञ-शक्तिः (MunU.1.1.9), सर्व-ज्ञातृत्वं (YS.3.49) चिति-शक्तिः (YS.4.34)॥ – [Vṛtti]

सर्वज्ञः इति ‘एषः सर्व-ईश्वरः एषः सर्वज्ञः एषः अन्तर्-यामी एषः योनिः सर्वस्य प्रभव-अप्ययौ हि भूतानाम्’ इति (ManU.6).
“This is the Lord of all. This is the knower of all (sarva-jña). This is the ruler within (antar-yāmin). This is the womb (yoni), the source, and resolution of all beings.” (Māṇḍūkya Up. 6).

[api – also; guru – teacher; pūrvas – everyone before; an-avaccheda – not limited; kāla – time.]

सः ईश्वरः पूर्वेषां गुरूणाम् अपि प्राणिनाम् अपि गुरुः चिति-शक्ति-रूपेण ‘अन्तर्-यामी’ सन् (ManU.6) कालेन अन्-अवच्छेदात् ‘काल-कालः’ इति काल-स्व-रूपतया (SvetU.6.2)॥ – [Vṛtti]

गुरुः इति ‘इमं विवस्वते योगं प्रोक्तवान् अहम् अव्ययम्’ इति (BhG.4.1).
“I [Kṛṣṇa, as the Lord] taught [in the beginning] this unchanging yoga to Vivasvat (the sun deity).” (Bh. Gītā 4.1).

कालेन अन्-अवच्छेदात् इति ‘पुरुषः एव इदं सर्वम्। यद् भूतम् यद् च भव्यम्। उत अ-मृतत्वस्य ईषानः’ इति (PurSuk.2, Rg Veda 10.90.2).
“All this is puruṣa alone – whatever was and will be. It is the Lord of immortality.” (Puruṣa Sūkta, Ṛg Veda 10.90.2).

‘तद् एतद् ब्रह्म अ-पूर्वम् अन्-अपरम् अन्-अन्तरम् अ-बाह्यम्, अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म सर्व-अनुभूः इति अनुशासनम्’ इति (BrhU.2.5.19).
“That very reality (brahman) is without a prior and without a posterior, without an inside and without an outside. This reality (brahman) is the self (ātman) who experiences all (sarva-anubhū) [i.e., who according to their form exists as all]. This is the traditional teaching (anuśāsana).” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 2.5.19).

‘(तद् परं ब्रह्म) ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञान-गम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम्’ इति (BhG.13.17).
“[This limitless reality (brahman)] is knowledge (jñāna), what is to be known, and the result to be attained by knowledge. It abides in the center (hṛd) of everything [and is to be known in this intellect].” (Bh. Gītā 13.17).

‘सः ह उवाच यद् ऊर्ध्वं गार्गि दिवः यद् अवाक् पृथिव्याः यद् अन्तरा द्यावा-पृथिवी इमे यद् भूतं च भवच् च भविष्यच् च इति आचक्षते आकाशे तद् ओतं च प्रोतं च’ इति (BrhU.3.8.4).
“He [Yājña-valkya] replied, ‘In space (ākāśa) [alone] is woven warp (ota) and woof (prota) [i.e., lengthwise and crosswise] [all] this, O Gārgī, which is above the heavens, below the earth, between the heavens and earth, and which they call the past, the present, and the future.’” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 3.8.4).

‘मद्-स्थानि सर्व-भूतानि न च अहं तेषु अवस्थितः॥ न च मद्-स्थानि भूतानि…भूत-भृत् न च भूत-स्थः मम आत्मा भूत-भावनः’ इति (BhG.9.4–5).
“All beings exist in [i.e., are because of] Me, but I am not in [i.e., because of] them. [Yet] [as separate] beings they do not exist in Me. My self (ātman) produces [all] things [all names and forms], sustains [all] things, but does not exist in [i.e., is not dependent upon] these things.” (Bh. Gītā 9.4 and 5).

[vācaka – expressive name; tasya – of that; praṇava – syllable Om.]

तस्य ईश्वरस्य वाचकः प्रणवः ओम्-कारः॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रणवः इति ‘प्रणवं हि ईश्वरं विद्यात् सर्वस्य हृदये स्थितम्। सर्व-व्यापिनम् ओंकारं मत्वा धीरः न शोचति’ इति (ManKa.1.28).
“Know praṇava (i.e., Om) to be the Lord (Īśvara), present in the intellect of all. Knowing Om as the all-pervasive (Lord), the wise person does not grieve.” (Māṇḍūkya Up. Kārikā 1.28).

‘न अन्तः-प्रज्ञं न बहिः-प्रज्ञं न उभयतः-प्रज्ञं न प्रज्ञान-घनं न प्रज्ञं न अ-प्रज्ञम्। अ-दृश्यम् अ-व्यवहार्यम् अ-ग्राह्यम् अ-लक्षणम् अ-चिन्त्यम् अ-व्यपदेश्यम् एक-आत्म-प्रत्यय-सारं प्रपञ्च-उपशमं शान्तं शिवम् अ-द्वैतं चतुर्थं मन्यन्ते सः आत्मा सः विज्ञेयः’ इति (ManU.7).
“They know the [so called] fourth [quarter of Om and of ātman] to be neither conscious of the internal [i.e., mind and the dream world], the external [i.e., external objects and the waking world] nor in between, nor a pure cognition alone (prajñāna-ghana) [without an object in deep sleep], neither conscious nor non-conscious, neither seen, acted upon nor graspable, neither inferred, thought about nor describable [since] it is the essence of the cognition of the one self [in all three experiences of waking, dream, and deep sleep], in whom the universe resolves, peaceful and pleasing (śāntam śivam) [because it is] without a second. That is the self (ātman). That is what is to be known.” (Māṇḍūkya Up. 1.7).

[japa – oral or mental repetition; tad – that; bhāvana – contemplation; tad-artha – its meaning.]

तद्-जपः ओम्-कार-जपः तद्-अर्थ-भावनम् ओम्-कार-अर्थ-श्रुति-व्याख्यान-ध्यानं च॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tataḥ – from that; api – indeed; adhigama – comes to know; cetana – conscious being; pratyak – center; ca – and; antarāyas – obstacles; a-bhāva – disappear.]

ततः ओम्-कार-ध्यानस्य प्रत्यक्-चेतन-अधिगमः आत्म-स्व-रूप-ज्ञानम् अपि अन्तराय-अ-भावः ज्ञान-प्रतिबन्ध-रूप-अन्तराय-नाशः ॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रत्यक्-चेतनम् इति ‘कश्चिद् धीरः प्रत्यग्-आत्मानम् ऐक्षद् आवृत्त-चक्षुः (=न हि बाह्य-विषय-आलोचन-परत्वम्) अ-मृतत्वम् इच्छन्’ इति (KathU.2.1.1).
“The one discriminating person, seeking freedom from death, who had directed the attention within [i.e., sought in terms of knowledge instead of possessions] came to know [as clear as seeing] (aikṣat) the self within (pratyak-ātman).” (Kaṭha Up. 2.1.1).

अन्तराय-अ-भावः इति ‘चतुर्-विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सु-कृतिनः अर्जुन। आर्तः जिज्ञासुः अर्थ-अर्थी ज्ञानी च भरत-ऋषभ॥ तेषां ज्ञानी नित्य-युक्तः एक-भक्तिः विशिष्यते। प्रियः हि ज्ञानिनः अत्यर्थम् (=अतिशयेन) अहं सः च मम प्रियः॥ उदाराः सर्वे एव एते ज्ञानी तु आत्मा एव मे मतम्। आस्थितः सः हि युक्त-आत्मा माम् एव अन्-उत्तमां गतिम्’ इति (BhG.7.16–18).
“Fourfold are the people who do adaptive action and who seek Me, O Arjuna. [These four kinds of bhaktas (devotees) are] the one who is seized by trouble, the one who requires security, the one who wants to know [Me], and the jñānin (one who knows) [Me], O Arjuna. Among them, the jñānin – who is always united [in Me] and whose worship (bhakti) is of the one [Lord as everything] – is distinguished, because I [the self of all] am totally beloved to that jñānin and that one is [totally] beloved to Me. All [four] indeed are exalted, but the jñānin is ātman (Myself) alone. That is My vision. Because that one, whose mind is absorbed [in Me], has attained the goal that is but Me, beyond which there is none.” (Bh. Gītā 7.16 through 18).

‘प्रशान्त-आत्मा (=प्रशान्त-मनाः) विगत-भीः ब्रह्म-चारि-व्रते स्थितः। मनः संयम्य मद्-चित्तः युक्तः आसीत मद्-परः’ इति (BhG.6.14).
“Being of clear mind, without fear, and firm in one’s vow of seeking brahman [i.e., brahma-cārya], mastering the mind – may the yogin sit, thinking of Me [through My teaching], having Me as the ultimate.” (Bh. Gītā 6.14).

‘ब्रह्म-विद् आप्नोति परम्।…सत्यं ज्ञानम् अन्-अन्तं ब्रह्म। यः वेद निहितं गुहायां परमे व्योमन् (=परमे व्योम्नि)। सः अश्नुते सर्वान् कामान् सह’ इति (TaitU.2.1.1).
“The knower of brahman obtains the ultimate. …Brahman is limitless reality-consciousness. The one who knows the one existing [as though] hidden (nihita) in the intellect (guhā), in this limitless space [i.e., in this limitless expanse that lights up all thought therein], satisfies at once all desires.” (Taittirīya Up. 2.1.1).

‘तत् (सत्-ब्रह्म) त्वम् असि’ इति (ChanU.6.8.7…).
“That [brahman] you are.” (Chāndogya Up. 6.8.7…).

‘तद् इदम् अपि एतर्हि यः एवं वेद अहं ब्रह्म अस्मि इति सः इदं सर्वं भवति’ इति (BrhU.1.4.10).
“So even now the one who knows ‘I am brahman,’ that one is all this [universe].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 1.4.10).

[te – those; antarāyas – obstacles; vikṣepas – distractions; citta – mind; vyādhi – dis-ease; styāna – lack of mental acumen; saṃśaya – doubt; pramāda – inattention; ālasya – laziness; a-virati – intemperance; bhrānti-darśana – erroneous understanding; a-labdha-bhūmikatva – not attaining success at the stages; an-avasthitatva – lack of stability.]

व्याधि-स्त्यान-संशय-प्रमाद-आलस्य-अ-विरति-भ्रान्ति-दर्शन-अ-लब्ध-भूमिकत्व-अन्-अवस्थितत्वानि व्याधिः स्त्यानं संशयः प्रमादः आलस्यम् अ-विरतिः भ्रान्ति-दर्शनम् अ-लब्ध-योग-भूमिकत्वं तद्-भूमिकत्व-अन्-अवस्थितत्वं च नव चित्त-विक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः प्रतिबन्धाः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

[saha-bhū – arising together with; vikṣepa – distraction; duḥkha – sorrow; daurmanasya – despair; śvāsa – inhalation; praśvāsa – exhalation; ejayatva – causing agitation; aṅgam – body.]

दुःख-दौर्-मनस्य-अङ्गम्-एजयत्व-श्वास-प्रश्वासाः चित्त-दुःखं च चित्त-दुस्-स्थ-भावं च देह-अङ्ग-वेपथुः च यस्मात् चञ्चल-अपानाः चञ्चल-प्राणाः च ते विक्षेप-सह-भुवः चित्त-विक्षेपैः सह प्रवर्तमानाः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tad-pratiṣedha-artha – for removing these; abhyāsa – repetition; eka-tattva – one reality.]

तद्-प्रतिषेध-अर्थम् अन्तराय-क्षय-अर्थम् एक-तत्त्व-अभ्यासः ईश्वर-एक-परम-तत्त्व-अर्थ-साधन-यत्नः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[prasādana – clarity; citta – mind; bhāvanātas – through cultivating; maitrī – goodwill; sukha-viṣaya – the joyful; karuṇā – compassion; duḥkha[-viṣaya] – the sorrowful; muditā – approval; puṇya[-viṣaya] – the meritorious; upekṣā – allowance; a-puṇya[-viṣaya] – the non-meritorious.]

मैत्री-करुणा-मुदित-उपेक्षाणां सुख-दुःख-पुण्य-अ-पुण्य-विषयाणां सुखि-मैत्री दुःखि-करुणा पुण्यवत्-मुदिता अ-पुण्यवत्-उपेक्षा (cf. YS.3.23) च तेषां भावनातः ध्यानात्, मैत्री-आदिं भावयेत् इति तस्मात् चित्त-प्रसादनम् अन्तःकरण-शुद्धिः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[ – also; pracchardana – exhalation; vidhāraṇa – retention; prāṇa – breath.]

चित्त-स्थैर्यं प्रच्छर्दन-विधारणाभ्यां बाह्य-अभन्तर-स्तम्भैः वा अपि प्राणस्य (YS.2.50)। – [Vṛtti]

प्राणस्य इति ‘प्राणान् प्रपीड्य इह संयुक्त-चेष्टः क्षीणे प्राणे नासिकया उच्छ्वसीत। दुष्ट-अश्व-युक्तम् इव वाहम् एनं विद्वान् मनः धारयेत अ-प्रमत्तः’ इति (SvetU.2.9).
“Restraining the organs of acting and sensing (the prāṇas), [thus] whose activities are disciplined, one should [sit and gently] breathe through the nostrils when one’s activity has diminished. Without indifference, the informed one should hold this mind, like it was the reins attached to unruly horses [i.e., the organs].” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 2.9).

[ – also; utpanna – developing; pravṛtti – concerted mental pursuit; viṣayavatin – having but one object; nibandhanin – brings about; sthiti – steadiness; manas – mind.]

यतः श्रुति-आचार्य-उपदेश-विषयवती (YS.1.39 अपेक्ष्य) वा अपि ध्यान-प्रवृत्तिः उत्पन्ना, ततः मनसः स्थिति-निबन्धनी चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[ – also; jyotiṣmatin – having the light; vi-śoka – free of sorrow.]

यतः वि-शोका शोक-रहितं चैतन्य-ज्योतिः अस्याः सा वा अपि ज्योतिष्मती हृद्-पुण्डरीके बुद्धौ चैतन्य-ज्योतिः अस्याः सा तद्-ध्यान-प्रवृत्तिः उत्पन्ना, ततः चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

ज्योतिष्मती इति ‘अथ यद् अतः परः दिवः ज्योतिः दीप्यते विश्वतः पृष्ठेषु सर्वतः पृष्ठेषु अन्-उत्तमेषु उत्तमेषु लोकेषु इदं वाव तद् यद् इदम् अस्मिम् अन्तः पुरुषे ज्योतिः’ इति (ChanU.3.13.7).
“Now, the light (jyotis) which shines above this heaven, in the highest and unsurpassed regions above the universe, above all, is indeed this very same light within the person.” (Chāndogya Up. 3.13.7).

‘ज्योतिषाम् अपि तद् ज्योतिः तमसः परम् उच्यते’ इति (BhG.13.17).
“It is the light of lights [i.e., the solely self-revealing conscious being by which even the sun is revealed] said to be beyond darkness [or ignorance, as it reveals both].” (Bh. Gītā 13.17).

वि-शोका इति ‘न अस्य (देहस्य) जरया एतद् (अन्तर्-आकाशः ब्रह्म) जीर्यति, न वधेन अस्य हन्यते। एतत् सत्यं ब्रह्म-पुरम्, अस्मिन् कामाः समाहिताः॥ एषः आत्मा अपहत-पाप्मा वि-जरः वि-मृत्युः वि-शोकः वि-जिघत्सः अ-पिपासः सत्य-कामः सत्य-सङ्कल्पः’ इति (ChanU.8.1.5).
“By the aging of that [body], this [‘space within the heart,’ brahman] does not age. By the destruction of that, this is not destroyed. This is the true city of brahman [i.e., the true body not other than brahman]. In this are placed [all] desires. This is ātman not affected by painful results, free of aging, free of death, free of sorrow (vi-śoka), free of hunger and thirst, [in which reality] desire and choice are realized.” (Chāndogya Up. 8.1.5).

‘हृद्-पुण्डरीकं वि-रजं वि-शुद्धं विचिन्त्य, मध्ये (च) वि-शोदं वि-शोकं (परम-ईश्वरं विचिन्त्य)’ इति (KaivU.1.6).
“Contemplating [until] the lotus like heart (hṛd-puṇḍarīka) (i.e., the open, mature mind arisen from the mundane mire) is free of agitation and pure, [then] madhye (within that) upon the bright one (vi-śada), free of sorrow (vi-śoka) [the Lord (Parameśvara)].” (Kaivalya Up. 1.6).

[citta – mind; – also; vīta-rāga – no attachment; viṣayas – objects.]

यावत् वीत-राग-विषयं सर्व-विषयेषु रागाः विगताः अस्य वा अपि चित्तं, तावत् चित्त-स्थैर्यम्। – [Vṛtti]

वीत-रागम् इति ‘सम्प्राप्य एनम् ऋषयः ज्ञान-तृप्ताः कृत-आत्मानः वीत-रागाः प्रशान्ताः। ते सर्व-गं सर्वतः प्राप्य धीराः युक्त-आत्मानः सर्वम् एव आविशन्ति’ (MunU.3.2.5).
“Having completely attained this [brahman], the sages were satisfied in knowledge. Their mind being prepared, they were free of attachments (vīta-rāga) and naturally cheerful. Having gained everywhere the all-pervasive and [always] united in [contemplation of the limitless] ātman, those wise ones become everything!” (Muṇḍaka Up. 3.2.5).

[ – also; ālambana – basis; jñāna – knowledge; svapna – dream; nidrā – sleep.]

यतः चित्तं स्वप्न-निद्रा-ज्ञान-आलम्बनम् ओम्-कार-ध्याने त्रि-आवस्था-श्रुति-ज्ञान-आश्रयं वा अपि, ततः चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

ज्ञान-आलम्बनम् इति ‘सर्वे वेदाः यत् पदम् आमनन्ति तपांसि सर्वाणि च यद् वदन्ति। यद् इच्छन्तः ब्रह्म-चर्यं चरन्ति तत् ते पदं संग्रहेण ब्रवीमि ओम् इति एतत्॥…एतद् आ॒लम्बनं श्रेष्ठम् एतद् आलम्बनं परम्। एतद् आलम्बनं ज्ञात्वा ब्रह्म-लोके महीयते’ इति (KathU.1.2.15 & 17).
“The abode (pada) which all the Vedas proclaim, which all prayerful disciplines speak, and desiring which they take to a life of seeking brahman, that abode I tell to you in brief is this Om [i.e., what has Om as its indicating symbol]. …This basis (ālambana) [i.e., āśraya, what one seeks refuge in] is the best, this basis is the ultimate. Knowing this basis [and thus being brahman] one becomes exalted [absolutely] in the world that is brahman (brahma-loka) [or, relatively, in the highest heaven called brahma-loka].” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.15 and 17).

‘न नरेण अ-वरेण प्रोक्तः एषः सु-विज्ञेयः बहुधा चिन्त्यमानः। अन्-अन्य-प्रोक्ते गतिः अत्र न अस्ति’ इति (KathU.1.2.8).
“(Though) contemplating (cintyamāna) a lot, one finds this ātman explained by an inferior teacher difficult to know. When taught by one who knows it as himself (an-anya), there is no going wrong (gati).” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.8).

स्वप्न-ज्ञानम् इति ‘तस्य वै एतस्य पुरुषस्य द्वे एव स्थाने भवतः, इदं (भवत्-जन्म) च पर-लोक-स्थानं (शरीरादि-भूत-जन्मानि) च, सन्ध्यं तृतीयं स्वप्न-स्थानं, तस्मिन् सन्ध्ये स्थाने तिष्ठन् एते उभे स्थाने पश्यति इदं च पर-लोक-स्थानं च। अथ यथा-आक्रमः अयं पर-लोक-स्थाने भवति तम् (कर्म) आक्रमम् आक्रम्य उभयान् पाप्मनः आनन्दान् च पश्यति, सः यत्र प्रस्वपिति, अस्य लोकस्य सर्व-अवतः मात्राम् अपादाय स्वयं (स्थूल-शरीरं) विहत्य, स्वयं (स्वप्न-शरीरं) निर्माय, स्वेन भासा (वासना-आत्मक-अन्तःकरण-वृत्ति-प्रकाशेन) स्वेन ज्योतिषा प्रस्वपिति, अत्र अयं पुरुषः (आत्मा) स्वयं ज्योतिः भवति’ इति (BrhU.4.3.9).
“[Yājña-valkya replied to King Janaka:] Indeed that person (puruṣa) has only two abodes, this [life] and the other world [all other past and future lives]. Dream, a third, is their junction. Residing in that junction abode he sees both those abodes, this and the other life. Now, whatever brings one into the other life he takes that [karma] and experiences sorrows and joys. When he dreams, he takes a little of this supportive world, abandons his own [physical body], creates himself [a dream body], and dreams as his own luster [dream] by his own light (jyotis). Here, the person is his own light.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 4.3.9).

[ – also; dhyāna – retaining a single pointed inquiry in contemplation; yathā-abhimata – any object one likes.]

यथा-अभिमत-ध्यानात् यथा-स्व-इष्टे अ-क्लिष्ट-विषये ध्यानात् वा अपि चित्त-स्थैर्यम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[vaśī-kāra – mastery; asya – of this; anta – extends; parama-aṇu – most minute; parama-mahattva – most pervasive.]

तद्-अभ्यासानां फलम् आह – परम-अणु-परम-महत्त्व-अन्तः अति-सूक्ष्म-विषय-आदिः आ लिङ्गमात्र-नाम-महत्त्व-विषयात् (YS.2.19) अस्य चित्तस्य वशी-कारः सर्व-दृश्येषु वैराग्य-रूपः (YS.1.15)॥ – [Vṛtti]

वशी-कारः इति ‘यः तु आत्म-रतिः एव स्याद् आत्म-तृप्तः च मानवः। आत्मनि एव च सन्तुष्टः तस्य कार्यं न विद्यते॥ न एव तस्य कृतेन अर्थः न अ-कृतेन इह कश्चन। न च अस्य सर्व-भूतेषु कश्चिद् अर्थ-व्यपाश्रयः’ इति (BhG.3.17–18).
“Whereas, the person who would find pleasure within the self alone, be satisfied with the self, and be contented in the self alone – that one has nothing [yet] to be done. For that [person] in this world, there is, indeed, no goal by doing, nor by not doing. Nor for that one is there any dependence for [any] thing towards any being.” (Bh. Gītā 3.17 and 18).

[samāpatti – contemplation; vṛttis – thoughts; kṣīṇa – have waned; tat-añjanatā – what makes clearly evident that; tat-stha – which it rests upon; grahītṛ – knower; grahaṇa – knowing; grāhya – known; iva – like; abhijāta maṇi – quality crystal ball.]

क्षीण-वृत्तेः रजस्-तमस्-जनित-क्लेश-वृत्ति-क्षयः अस्य योगिनः, अभिजातस्य नित्य-निर्-दोष-स्व-रूपस्य इव मणेः स्फटिकस्य, ग्रहीतृ-ग्रहण-ग्राह्येषु विषयेषु तद्-स्थ-तद्-अञ्जनता ग्रहीतृ-आदि-स्थ-यद्-यद्-रूपस्य स्व-रूप-अ-परित्यागेन अपि तद्-रूपस्य दर्शनता समापत्तिः संप्रज्ञात-समाधिः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tatra – there; samāpatti – contemplation; saṅkīrṇa – mixed up; vikalpa – imagination; śabda – word; arthaperceptual or logical object; jñāna – idea; sa-vitarka – with reasoning.]

तत्र चतुर्-विध-समापत्तौ प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-प्रमाण-विषयेषु शब्द-अर्थ-ज्ञान-विकल्पैः (YS.3.17) सङ्कीर्णा नाम च वस्तु (अस्मिता इत्यर्थः YS.1.17, 3.14 & 4.14) च तद्-रूप-वृत्तिः च, यथा ‘इदं घटः अस्ति’ इति तत्र ‘घटः’ इति नाम च ‘अस्ति’ इति वस्तु एव अर्थः च ‘इदम्’ इति तद्-रूप-वृत्तिः च, तेषां विकल्पित-भेद-स्मृतेः स-सन्निधिः इत्यर्थः स-वितर्का नाम प्रथमा समापत्तिः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[pariśuddhi – purified; smṛti – memory; nirbhāsa – illumination; artha-mātra – only the perceptual or logical object; iva – as if; śūnya – had no; sva-rūpa – form of its own; nis-vitarka – free of reasoning.]

प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-प्रमाण-विषयेषु स्मृति-परिशुद्धौ विकल्पित-भेद-स्मृति-परिशुद्धौ सतां स्व-रूप-शून्या इव यदि अपि भेद-वासना-बुद्धिः तिष्ठति, भेद-कल्पना-स्मृतिः सु-अल्प-कालं गलिता अस्याः सा इत्यर्थः अर्थमात्र-निर्भासा अस्मितामात्र-दर्शनता निर्-वितर्का नाम द्वितीया समापत्तिः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[etayā eva – in that same way alone; sūkṣma-viṣayas – subtle objects; vyākhyāta – is explained; sa-vicāra – with inquiry; ca – and; nis-vicāra – free of inquiry.]

एतया एव यथा प्रत्यक्ष-अनुमान-प्रमाण-विषया समापत्तिः स-वितर्का निर्-वितर्का च, तथा स-विचारा निर्-विचारा च नाम सूक्ष्म-विषया विचार्य-श्रुति-प्रमाण-विषया व्याख्याता तृतीया चतुर्था च समापत्तिः॥ – [Vṛtti]

सूक्ष्म-विषया इति ‘अर्जुन: उवाच। पश्यामि देवान् तव देव देहे सर्वान् तथा भूत-विशेष-सङ्घान्। ब्रह्माणम् ईशं कमल-आसन-स्थम् ऋषीन् च सर्वान् उर-गान् च दिव्यान्॥ अन्-एक-बाहु-उदर-वक्त्र-नेत्रं पश्यामि त्वां सर्वतः अन्-अन्त-रूपम्। न अन्तं न मध्यं न पुनः तव आदिं पश्यामि विश्व-ईश्वर विश्व-रूप॥’ इति (BhG.11.15–16).
Arjuna said: ‘O Lord, I see in Your body all the deities and hosts of different types of beings, Lord Brahmā seated in the lotus [i.e., in Brahma-loka within the lotus-like universe], [and] all the sages and celestial serpents. I see You as having countless [bodies with] arms, bellies, mouths and eyes – whose forms are endless in all directions. And I see not Your end, nor middle, nor beginning, O Lord of the Universe whose form is the universe.’” (Bh. Gītā 11.15 and 16).

[ca – and; sūkṣma-viṣayatva – nature of being a subtle object; paryavasāna – reaches up to; a-liṅga – unmanifest.]

सूक्ष्म-विषयत्वम् अति-इन्द्रिय-श्रुति-प्रमाण-विषयत्वं च अ-लिङ्ग-पर्यवसानम् अति-सूक्ष्म-विषय-आदि आ लिङ्गमात्र-विषयात् (YS.2.19), न तु आ अ-लिङ्गात् अ-लिङ्ग-प्रकृतेः विषय-अ-योग्यत्वात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

सूक्ष्म-विषयत्वम् इति ‘बृहत् च तद् दिव्यम् अ-चिन्त्य-रूपं सूक्ष्मात् च॑ तत् सू॒क्ष्मतरं विभाति। दूरात् सु-दूरे तद् इह अन्तिके च पश्यत्सु इह एव निहितं गुहायाम्’ इति (MunU.3.1.7).
“That limitless (bṛhat) [i.e., brahman] is the shining one [that lights up everything], not available as a form of thought, [yet] variously reveals [itself] as the subtlest (sūkṣmatara) of the subtle [in each and every thought]. Existing very far from what is remote [in terms of distance or time] and close to [i.e., closer than] here [i.e., than every thought right now], it exists [as though] hidden (nihita) here itself in the conscious intellect.” (Muṇḍaka Up. 3.1.7).

‘मायां तु प्रकृतिं विद्यात् मायिनं च मह-ईश्वरम्’ इति (SvetU.4.10).
“Whereas one should know māyā as mother nature (prakṛti), and the limitless Lord as having māyā within.” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 4.10).

‘दैवी हि एषा गुणमयी मम माया दुर्-अत्यया। माम् एव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायाम् एतां तरन्ति ते’ इति (BhG.7.14).
“Because, this My (devī) māyā – in the form of the [three] guṇas and coming from [Me] the Lord – is difficult to cross. [Therefore, giving up all else in māyā,] those who seek only Me [as themselves] cross over this māyā.” (Bh. Gītā 7.14).

‘यद् एव साक्षाद् अ-परोक्षाद् ब्रह्म…एषः ते आत्मा सर्व-अन्तरः।…न दृष्टेः द्रष्टारं पश्येः, न श्रुतेः श्रोतारं शृणुयाः, न मतेः मन्तारं मन्वीथाः, न विज्ञातेः विज्ञातारं विजानीयाः’ इति (BrhU.3.4.2).
“The brahman which is immediate (sākṣāt) [as the witness] and not remote (a-parokṣāt) [as the one non-dual reality] …is this your self (ātman) that is within all. …You cannot see the witness (draṣṭṛ) of all that is seen, cannot hear the hearer of all that is heard, cannot think of the thinker of all that is thought, nor can you know the knower of all that is known.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 3.4.2).

[tāḥ – these; eva – indeed; samādhi – contemplation; sa-bīja – that retains the seed.]

ताः चतुर्-विध-समापत्तयः एव स-बीजः स-अ-विद्या-कल्पित-भिन्न-विषय-आलम्बनः समाधिः (cf. YS.1.51)॥ – [Vṛtti]

स-बीजः इति ‘ये तु एतद् अभ्यसूयन्तः न अनुतिष्ठन्ति मे मतं (=अनुशासनम्)। सर्व-ज्ञान-विमूढान् तान् विद्धि नष्टान् अ-चेतसः’ इति (BhG.3.32).
“Whereas, those who are cynical, who do not follow this, My teaching, know them – who are [thus] variously confused in all [other areas of] knowledge [because they do not know who the ‘I’ is] and lacking discernment – as lost.” (Bh. Gītā 3.32).

‘द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये इति ह स्म यद् ब्रह्म-विदः वदन्ति परा च एव अ-परा च॥ तत्र अ-परा ऋग्-वेदः यजुर्-वेदः साम-वेदः अथर्व-वेदः शिक्षा कल्पः व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दो ज्योतिषम् इति। अथ परा यया तद् अक्षरं (ब्रह्म) अधिगम्यते’ इति (MunU.1.1.4–5).
“There are two types of knowledge (vidyā) to be known, say those who know scripture – unlimited (para) and limited (a-para). Concerning these two, the limited is the Ṛg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sāma Veda, and Atharva Veda; and the sciences of pronunciation, rituals, grammar, etymology, prosody, and astrology [for understanding the scriptural texts and performing their rituals at the proper time]. Then, the unlimited is by which [brahma-vidyā (knowledge of limitless reality)] one attains that imperishable [brahman].” (Muṇḍaka Up. 1.1.4 and 5).

‘यावान् अर्थः उद-पाने सर्वतः सम्प्लुत-उदके। तावान् सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य (परम-अर्थ-तत्त्वं) विजानतः’ इति (BhG.2.46).
“For a contemplative person who knows [sat (reality)], there is as much usefulness in all the Vedas as [there is] in a small watering hole [in a once-dry river bed, when the river is] in a flood everywhere [i.e., seeing the truth everywhere, one is no longer dependent on the Vedas.]” (Bh. Gītā 2.46).

[vaiśāradya – mastery; nis-vicāra – free of inquiry; prasāda – clarity; adhi-ātman – mind.]

निर्-विचार-वैशारद्ये निर्-विचार-नाम-चतुर्थ-समाधि-परिपाकत्वे सति अधि-आत्म-प्रसादः अन्तःकरण-शुद्धिः, चित्ते यद्-किम्-चिद्-अल्प-मलस्य त्यागः अन्-आत्मतया इत्यर्थः (YS.4.25)॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रसादः इति ‘राग-द्वेष-वियुक्तैः तु विषयान् इन्द्रियैः चरन्। आत्म-वश्यैः विधेय-आत्मा (=विधेय-चित्तः) प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति॥ प्रसादे सर्व-दुःखानां हानिः अस्य उपजायते। प्रसन्न-चेतसः हि आशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते’ इति (BhG.2.64–65).
“Whereas, moving among the objects with the senses under authority of the intellect and freed from [being overpowered by] attraction and repulsion (rāga-dveṣa), the one whose mind is disciplined attains clarity (prasāda). When there is clarity (prasāda), there comes the destruction of all one’s sorrows [in the form of guilt and hurt] because, for the one whose mind is clear (prasanna), the [self-]knowledge [which destroys the sorrow] quickly becomes firm.” (Bh. Gītā 2.64 and 65).

[tatra – when that takes place; prajñā – knowledge; ṛtaṃ-bhara – bears the truth.]

या ऋतं-भरा सत्यं बिभर्त्ति, आत्म-सत्यं विवारयते इत्यर्थः तत्र चित्त-प्रसादे सति, सा प्रज्ञा श्रुति-प्रमाण-जनित-स्व-पुरुष-परिपक्व-ज्ञानं नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रज्ञा इति ‘अथ अतः आदेशः नेति नेति (=न इति न इति)’ इति (BrhU.2.3.6).
“Now therefore the teaching [of brahman] – ‘Not this, not that (neti neti).’” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 2.3.6).

‘सः एषः नेति नेति आत्मा, अ-गृह्यः न हि गृह्यते (मनसा)…’ इति (BrhU.3.9.26…4.2.4, 4.22 & 5.15).
“This very ātman is not this, not that (neti neti). [That is] what is not able to be grasped [as an object and by words] is not grasped [by the mind], …” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 3.9.26, 4.2.4, 4.4.22, and 4.5.15).

[arthatva – object; viśeṣa – unique; viṣaya – object; anya – other; prajñā – knowledge; śrutas – words of the scripture heard; anumānas – inferences.]

इयं प्रज्ञा श्रुत-अनुमान-प्रज्ञाभ्यां श्रुति-शब्दस्य अनुमानस्य वा प्रज्ञाभ्याम् अन्य-विषया, विशेष-अर्थत्वात् यस्मात् अस्याः पुरुष-प्रज्ञायाः विषयः केवलः, दृक् एव सन् न तु दृश्यं, सः दृक् स्व-प्रकाशकः इत्यर्थः (YS.4.18–22)॥ – [Vṛtti]

विशेष-अर्थत्वात् इति ‘न अयम् आत्मा प्रवचनेन लभ्यः न मेधया न बहना श्रुतेन। यम् एव एषः वृणुते तेन लभ्यः तस्य एषः आत्मा विवृणुते तनूं स्वाम्’ इति (KathU.1.2.23, MunU.3.2.3).
“This ātman is not attained by reciting [scripture], nor by memory [i.e., memorization] [of the scripture], nor by many [texts including the scripture] being heard. What one [i.e., the a-kāma – the one who has no other desire] chooses [i.e., appropriately commits completely to], by that [ātman so chosen] is it attained, [since] this ātman [self-]reveals its [true] form [as the limitless witness] to that one [alone].” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.23, Muṇḍaka Up. 3.2.3).

‘अन्-एजद् एकं मनसः जवीयः न एनद् देवाः आप्नुवन् पूर्वम् अर्षत्’ इति (IsU.4).
“This one, [though] not moving, is faster than the mind. The deities [in the body] [i.e., the senses] do not reach it, who [being all-pervasive] has already reached [everywhere].” (Īśā Up. 4).

‘यतः वाचः निवर्तन्ते। अ-प्राप्य मनसा सह। आनन्दं ब्रह्मणः विद्वान्। न बिभेति कुतश्चन’ इति (TaitU.2.9.1).
“From which, words along with thought return having not grasped, that fullness (ānanda) of brahman the wise person [knows as one’s self]. This person has no fear from anything [as there is no second thing to fear].” (Taittirīya Up. 2.9.1).

‘न चक्षुषा गृह्यते न अपि वाचा न अन्यैः देवैः (इतर-इन्द्रियैः) तपसा कर्मणा वा’ इति (MunU.3.1.8).
“It is not attained by the eye, nor by speech, nor by the other deities [i.e., the other senses], nor by prayerful discipline or ritual.” (Muṇḍaka Up. 3.1.8).

‘न तत्र चक्षुः गच्छति न वाग् गच्छति न उ मनः॥…यद् वाचा अन्-अभ्युदितं येन वाग् अभ्युद्यते॥…यन् मनसा न मनुते येन आहुः मनः मतम्। तद् एव ब्रह्म त्वं विद्धि न इदं यद् इदम् उपासते’ इति (KenU.1.3–5).
“The eye does not go there, nor speech, nor the mind. …What does not appear by speech, [but] by which speech appears, that alone may you know is brahman, not a ‘this’ [known or unknown thing] which people meditate (upāsate).” (Kena Up. 1.3 and 5).

‘श्रवणाय अपि बहुभिः यः न लभ्यः शृण्वन्तः अपि बहवः यं न विद्युः’ इति (KathU.1.2.7).
“Who is not available to many even for hearing, and which many, even having heard, do not know.” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.7).

‘न एषा तर्केण मतिः आपनेया’ इति (KathU.1.2.9).
“This knowledge (mati) [gained with the help of a teacher who identifies with brahman] is not to be attained [āpaneya = āpanīya] [or, to be taught, i.e., āpaneya meaning āpayitavya] by reason (tarka) [alone].” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.9).

‘श्रुत्वा अपि एनं (आत्मानं) वेद न च एव कश्चित्’ इति (BhG.2.29).
“Even after listening, another still does not know this [which is oneself].” (Bh. Gītā 2.29).

‘आत्मा वै अरे द्रष्टव्यः – श्रोतव्यः मन्तव्यः निदिध्यासितव्यः, मैत्रेयि’ इति (BrhU.2.4.5 & 4.5.6).
“My dear, this ātman (limitless self) is to be seen [i.e., known through śruti pramāṇa (scripture as a means of knowledge) from a competent teacher, as clear as one sees by pratyakṣa pramāṇa (sight as a means of knowledge)]. [How?] It [the teaching pramāṇa regarding ātman] is to be [repeatedly] listened to (śrotavya) and understood (mantavya) and is to be [repeatedly] contemplated (nididhyāsitavya), O Maitreyī [since, unlike seeing an apple and being told, ‘this is an apple,’ there can be obstacles to this knowledge about oneself that listening and understanding alone, simple exposure to the pramāṇa, cannot resolve].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 2.4.5, also 4.5.6).

‘बहु-जन्म-दृढ-अभ्यासात् देह-आदिषु आत्म-धीः क्षणात्। पुनः पुनः उदेति एवं जगत्-सत्यत्व-धीः अपि॥ विपरीता भावना इयं ऐक-अग्र्यात् सा निवर्तते। तत्त्व-उपदेशात् प्राक् एव भवति एतद् उपासनात्॥ उपास्तयः अतः एव अत्र ब्रह्म-शास्त्रे अपि चिन्तिताः। प्राक् अन्-अभ्यासिनः पश्चात् ब्रह्म-अभ्यासेन तद् भवेत्’ इति (PancD.7.103–105)
“By force of habit during many births, the notion that the self exists as these bodies [and minds] immediately arises again and again. In this way also [arises] the notion that the world is absolutely real (satya). By the contemplation (aikāgraya) that this notion is opposed [to the scripture and its logic] that notion goes away. This [ability to contemplate] arises [in yoga] through upāsana (contemplative worship) [of the Lord], even before [one may finally come to] the teaching on reality. Indeed because of this, upāsanas (contemplations, upāsti = upāsana) are observed even here within the teaching on reality [within the Upaniṣads, such as in many of the chapters of Chāndogya Upaniṣad]. For one who has not repeatedly performed [upāsana] before, may it be there [now] [regarding elements of the teaching methodology, as an upāsana] [and with this contemplative mind] [may contemplation be] in the form of repetition [of continual acknowledgment] regarding reality (brahman) [i.e., in the form of nididhyāsana].” (Pañca-Daśī 7.103 through 105).

[saṃskāra – latent tendency; tad-ja – born of that; pratibandhin – counter-acts; anya – other; saṃskāras – latent tendencies.]

तद्-जः प्रज्ञा-जः श्रुति-प्रमाण-रूप-संस्कारः अन्य-संस्कार-प्रतिबन्धी अ-विद्या-जनित-संस्कार-प्रतिरोधकः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[nirodha – dropping; tasya api – of even that; nirodha – dropping; sarva – everything; nir-bīja samādhi – contemplation free of seed.]

तस्य धान्-योगेन ज्ञान-योगेन, श्रुति-शब्द-रूप-संस्कारस्य अपि निरोधे त्यागे अन्-आत्मतया सर्व-निरोधात् सर्व-दृश्य-त्यागात् अन्-आत्मतया सति (YS.3.53 & 55), निर्-बीजः अ-विद्या-बीज-रहितः नाम समाधिः समाधीयते यस्मिन् इति समाधिः, सः स्व-रूप-अवस्थानं न तु ध्यान-चित्त-क्रिया, नित्य-समाधिः परम-आत्म-स्व-रूप-ज्ञानतया इत्यर्थः (YS.3.8)॥ – [Vṛtti]

सर्व-निरोधात् इति ‘यत्र (=यस्मिन् काले) उपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योग-सेवया। यत्र च एव आत्मना (=मनसा) आत्मानं पश्यन् आत्मनि (=स्वे) तुष्यति’ इति (BhG.6.20).
“When the mind – mastered (niruddha) by following yoga [i.e., contemplation] – abides [in ātman], and when one sees the ātman by the ātman (mind), [then] one is satisfied in oneself alone.” (Bh. Gītā 6.20).

निर्-बीजः समाधिः इति ‘वेद अहम् एतं पुरुषं महान्तम् आदित्य-वर्णं तमसः परस्तात्। तम् एव विदित्वा अति मृत्युम् एति न अन्यः पन्था विद्यते अयनाय’ इति (SvetU.3.8).
“I know this limitless puruṣa, whose brilliance is [like] the sun, beyond darkness (ignorance). Having known that alone, one goes beyond death (ignorance). There is no other means for reaching [beyond death] [than knowing this puruṣa].” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 3.8).

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Preparation

s.01 s.02 s.03 s.04 s.05 s.06 s.07 s.08 s.09 s.10 s.11 s.12 s.13 s.14 s.15 s.16 s.17 s.18 s.19 s.20 s.21 s.22 s.23 s.24 s.25 s.26 s.27 s.28 s.29 s.30 s.31 s.32 s.33 s.34 s.35 s.36 s.37 s.38 s.39 s.40 s.41 s.42 s.43 s.44 s.45 s.46 s.47 s.48 s.49 s.50 s.51 s.52 s.53 s.54 s.55

[kriyā-yoga – means in regard to activity; tapas – prayerful discipline; svādhyāya – one’s study of the family’s Veda scripture; Īśvara-praṇidhāna – surrendering to the Lord.]

अथ योग-प्रतिबन्ध-क्षय-उपायस्य भूयः विस्तारः – तपस्-स्व-अध्याय-ईश्वर-प्रणिधानानि (YS.2.43–45) देह-वाक्-मनसः शम-दम-उपरम-तितिक्षाः तपस्-साधनानि, विवेक-आत्मकः श्रवण-मनन-स्व-अध्यायः, अभ्यास-वैराग्य-आत्मकं परम-पुरुष-चिन्तनं च तानि क्रिया-योगः। आ-प्रयाहार-यमादि-क्रीया:, प्रज्ञा-अर्थ-क्रिया-रूप-साधनं योगः इति क्रिया-योगः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

तपः इति ‘देव-द्विज-गुरु-प्राज्ञ-पूजनं शौचम् आर्जवम्। ब्रह्म-चर्यम् अहिंसा च शारीरं तपः उच्यते॥ अनुद्वेग-करं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रिय-हितं च यत्। स्व-अध्याय-अभ्यसनं च एव वाङ्मयं तपः उच्यते॥ मनः-प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनम् आत्म-विनिग्रहः। भाव-संशुद्धिः इति एतत् तपः मानसम् उच्यते॥ श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपः तत् त्रि-विधं नरैः। अ-फल-आकाङ्क्षिभिः युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते’ इति (BhG.17.14–17).
Tapas pertaining to the body (śārīra) is said to be the honoring of deities, of those initiated into scriptural study, [and] of teachers and of scholars; cleanliness; straightforwardness [of thought, word, and deed]; a life of studentship in the Vedas [for the unwed, it also implies chastity]; and harmlessness. Tapas in the form of speech is said to be speech that is not agitating, is truthful, and both pleasant [now] and beneficial [later] [for the person spoken of or to], as well as reciting to oneself the Veda texts [daily, in the prescribed manner]. Tapas pertaining to the mind is said to be this: mental clarity, cheerfulness, discipline over [inner] speech [i.e., the non-arising of – or the restraint from expressing – unhelpful thoughts], mastery [in general] over the mind, and clean intentions. That threefold tapas – performed with complete śraddhā (trust in the teaching) by disciplined people who do not require/anticipate [limited] results [like wealth and puṇya, but instead only seek clarity of mind for knowledge] – they say is predominately sattva.” (Bh. Gītā 17.14 through 17).

स्व-अध्यायः इति ‘आचार्य-कुलाद् वेदम् अधीत्य यथा-विधानं, गुरोः कर्म अतिशेषेण, अभिसमावृत्य कुटुम्बे (=गार्हस्थ्ये) शुचौ देशे स्वाध्यायम् अधीयानः…’ इति (ChanU.8.15.1).
“Having studied the Veda according to the prescribed rule(s) and completed one’s duty to the teacher, returning to one’s household from the teacher’s family, in a clean [i.e., tidy and sanctified] place [sitting and] studying one’s scripture (svādhyāya) [as it was taught, so that it is retained, and as much more as one can study beyond what was taught by the teacher] …” (Chāndogya Up. 8.15.1).

ईश्वर-प्रणिधानम् इति ‘स-ततं कीर्तयन्तः मां यतन्तः च दृढ-व्रताः। नमस्यन्तः च मां भक्त्या नित्य-युक्ताः उपासते’ इति (BhG.9.14).
“Always acknowledging Me and making [proper] effort [to gain Me], [those] whose commitment is firm, surrendering to Me, always united [to Me] with devotion – they [the karma-yogins] seek [Me].” (Bh. Gītā 9.14).

‘त्रयः धर्म-स्कन्धाः यज्ञः अध्ययनं दानम् इति प्रथमः, तपः एव द्वितीयः, ब्रह्म-चार्यी आचार्य-कुल-वासी तृतीयः अत्यन्तम् आत्मानम् आचार्य-कुले अवसादयन् सर्वे एते पुण्य-लोकाः भवन्ति, ब्रह्म-संस्थः (=ब्रह्मणि सम्यक्-स्थितः तु) (आत्यन्तिकम्) अ-मृतत्वम्’ इति (ChanU.2.23.1).
“Three are the paths of sacred duty (dharma). The first is ritual (yajña), [continued] study (adhyayana) [after learning from a teacher], and charity (dāna) [as a householder]. The second is prayerful discipline (tapas) [as a wandering mendicant]. The third is pursuing the scripture (tapas) while living with the family of the teacher and then staying one’s entire life in that teacher’s family [i.e., in a guru-kula]. [As sacred lifestyles] they all gain a virtuous abode (puṇya-loka). [But] the one who completely lives only in brahman (brahma-saṃstha) [in whatever lifestyle] gains immortality.” (Chāndogya Up. 2.23.1).

[artha – for; bhāvana – bringing about; samādhi – contemplation of the proper means of knowledge resulting in assimilation; ca – and; artha – for; tanū-karaṇa – minimizing; kleśas – afflictions.]

क्रिया-योगः समाधि-भावन-अर्थः समाधि-उपचय-अर्थः (YS.1.3, 24–25, 3.49, 55 & 4.34) क्लेश-तनू-करण-अर्थः क्लेश-अपचय-अर्थः ॥ – [Vṛtti]

क्लेश-तनू-करण-अर्थः इति ‘सिद्धिं प्राप्तः यथा ब्रह्म तथा आप्नोति निबोध मे। समासेन एव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा॥ बुद्ध्या विशुद्धया युक्तः धृत्या आत्मानं नियम्य च। शब्द-आदीन् विषयान् त्यक्त्वा राग-द्वेषौ व्युदस्य च॥ विविक्त-सेवी लघु-आशी यत-वाक्-काय-मानसः। ध्यान-योग-परः नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः॥ अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम्। विमुच्य निर्-ममः शान्तः ब्रह्म-भूयाय कल्पते॥ ब्रह्म-भूतः प्रसन्न-आत्मा (लब्ध-अध्यात्म-प्रसाद-स्व-भावः) न शोचति न काङ्क्षति। समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्-भक्तिं लभते पराम्॥ भक्त्या माम् अभिजानाति यावान् यः च अस्मि तत्त्वतः। ततः मां तत्त्वतः ज्ञात्वा विशते तद्-अन्-अन्तरम्’ इति (BhG.18.50–55).
“O Arjuna, in which way one who has attained the success [of karma-yoga] attains brahman, which is the final conclusion of knowledge [i.e., unlike knowledge of everything else, which can have no final conclusion] – in that way, in brief, pay heed to Me. [That one] endowed with a clear mind and, by resolve, gaining mastery over the body-mind complex [so it is not wasted chasing fancies]; giving up the [requiring of] sense objects beginning with sound, etc., and giving up [i.e., being free from the hold of] attraction and repulsion (rāga-dveṣa); having the disposition to repair to a quiet place; having the habit of eating lightly [to stay bright in this quiet lifestyle]; whose speech, body, and mind are mastered; [who is] always keeping contemplation and dedication [i.e., focuses only on oneself] as the ultimate; [who is] completely committed to objectivity; [who is] free from a notional ‘I’ (ahaṅkāra), power, arrogance, desire, anger, and possession(s); [who is] free from the judgment “[this] is mine” and is clear – that one is fit for being brahman (reality) [i.e., for simply being oneself, without mistaken notions of reality]. Attaining brahman [by the knowledge that the limitless brahman is – i.e., I am – all this, including oneself] [and thus] with a cheerful mind, one neither grieves nor requires [anything]. [Thus] being the same toward all beings, [one] attains the ultimate bhakti (devotion) to Me. By that bhakti, one knows Me – who I am in extent [as everything] and in reality [as the only thing, the only reality]. Therefore, knowing Me in reality, that one [as though] enters [Me] immediately after that [i.e., by knowledge alone one attains Me even while living].” (Bh. Gītā 18.50–55).

[pañca-kleśas – five afflictions; a-vidyā – ignorance; asmitā – I-notion; rāga – attachment; dveṣa – aversion; abhiniveśa – fear of death.]

अ-विद्या-अस्मिता-राग-द्वेष-अभिनिवेशाः वक्ष्यमाणाः पञ्च-क्लेशाः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

[a-vidyā – ignorance; kṣetra – soil; uttaras – others; prasupta – dormant; tanu – sprouting; vicchinna – variously breaking out; udāra – fully grown.]

अ-विद्या क्षेत्रं प्रसव-भूमिः, क्षेत्रम् इव क्षेत्रम् उत्तरेषां चतुर्-क्लेशानां प्रसुप्त-तनु-विच्छिन्न-उदाराणाम् ओषधिवत् बीज-उद्भव-स्फुटित-वृद्ध-रूपाणाम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[a-vidyā – ignorance; khyāti – determining; nitya – timeless; śuci – pure; sukha – satisfied; ātman – self; an-ātman – what is not the self; a-nitya – within time; a-śuci – impure; duḥkha – unsatisfied.]

अ-नित्य-अ-शुचि-दुःख-अन्-आत्मसु नित्य-शुचि-सुख-आत्म-ख्यातिः अ-नित्य-आत्मकेषु नित्य-आत्म-बुद्धिः अ-शुचि-आत्मकेषु शुचि-आत्म-बुद्धिः दुःख-आत्मकेषु आनन्द-आत्म-बुद्धिः, अ-तस्मिन् तद्-बुद्धिः परस्-पर-विरुद्ध-धर्म-अध्यासः इत्यर्थः आत्म-अन्-आत्म-अ-विवेक-रूपा अ-विद्या नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

[asmitā – I-notion; iva – apparent; eka-ātmatā – identity; śaktis – natures; dṛk – seer; darśana – instrument for seeing.]

अ-विद्या-गोचरे दृक्-दर्शन-शक्त्योः दृक्-आत्म-रूपस्य दृश्य-चित्त-रूपस्य च एक-आत्मता एक-रूपता ताद्-आत्म्यम् इव अस्मिता नाम अहम्-कारः अभिमानः इत्यर्थः, न तु समाधि-विषय-अस्मिता (YS.1.17) सत्यता॥ – [Vṛtti]

[rāga – attachment; anuśayin – being in-keeping; sukhas – pleasurable objects.]

अ-विद्या-अस्मिता-वशात् सुख-अनुशयी सुख-दृश्यैः अनुरूपवान् रागः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

[dveṣa – aversion; anuśayin – being in-keeping; duḥkhas – painful objects.]

दुःख-अनुशयी दुःख-दृश्यैः अनुरूपवान् द्वेषः नाम च॥ – [Vṛtti]

[abhiniveśa – fear of death; vāhin – passed on; sva-rasa – one’s subtle essence; tathā – in that way; rūḍha (or ārūḍha) – well rooted; api – even; vidvas – scholar.]

स्व-रस-वाही स्व-रसतः प्रवाल-शीलः सन् विदुषः पर-लोक-आस्तिका-पण्डितस्य इत्यर्थः अपि तथा रूढः (आरूढः) मूलितः, दुर्-उन्मूलितः इत्यर्थः अभिनिवेशः नाशे अ-नित्यत्वे संसारे निमज्जन-रूप-भयं नाम पञ्चमः क्लेशः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[te – those; sūkṣma – subtle; heya – to be given up; prati-prasava – by resolving.]

ते अ-विद्या-कार्य-चतुर्-क्लेशाः प्रतिप्रसव-हेयाः शमेन हेयाः, अ-विद्या-आश्रय-प्रदर्शनेन त्यज्याः इत्यर्थः एवं-भूत-हेयाः काः रूपाः? – सूक्ष्माः प्रसुप्त-तनु-रूपाः क्लेषाः, विच्छिन्न-उदार-रूपाः तु शम-दम-हेयाः क्रिया-योगेन हेयाः इत्यर्थः, अथवा सूक्ष्माः प्रसुप्ताः एव, अ-क्लिष्ट-रूपाः सन्तः तेषां हानं गुण-प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं (YS.4.34)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tad-vṛttis – their expressions; heya – to be given up; dhyāna – retaining a single pointed inquiry in contemplation.]

ध्यान-हेयाः ध्यानेन हेयाः (e.g., YS.2.33–34) अपि तद्-वृत्तयः ते सूक्ष्म-क्लेश-आकाराः तनूनां वर्तमान-आकाराः पूर्व-प्रसुप्तानां भविष्य-आकाराः च, अथवा तद्-वृत्तयाः प्रसुप्त-अन्य-वृत्तयाः तनु-विच्छिन्न-उदार-आकाराः, क्लिष्ट-रूपाः सन्तः क्रिया-योग-ध्यान-अन्तेन साधनेन हेयाः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[kleśas – afflictions; mūla – source; karma-āśayakarma-storage; vedanīya – to be experienced; janmas – births; dṛṣṭa – seen; a-dṛṣṭa – unseen.]

क्लेश-मूलः क्लेश-मूलवान् कर्म-आशयः एक-जीवस्य कर्म-निधानं सूक्ष्म-कारण-शरीर-गतं नाम दृष्ट-अ-दृष्ट-जन्म-वेदनीयः इह-जन्मनि अमुत्र-जन्मनि च अनुभाव्यः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[mūla – source; sati – is there; tad-vipāka – fruition of those; jātis – births; āyuses – life-spans; bhogas – life-experiences.]

सति क्लेश-कर्म-रूपे मूले, तद्-विपाकः तद्-कर्मणः फलं जाति-आयुर्-भोगाः प्रति-जन्म च आयुः च अनुभवः च॥ – [Vṛtti]

[te – these; phalas – results; hlādas – pleasures; paritāpas – pains; hetutva – they are caused; puṇya – merit; a-puṇya – demerit.]

ते जाति-आयुर्-भोगाः ह्लाद-परिताप-फलाः सुख-दुःख-फलवन्तः पुण्य-अ-पुण्य-हेतुत्वात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[vivekins – discerning; sarva – all; duḥkha – painful; eva – alone; duḥkhas – pains; pariṇāma – change; tāpa – worry; saṃskāras – latent tendencies; ca – and; virodha – opposition; vṛtti – play; guṇas – components of nature.]

परिणाम-ताप-संस्कार-दुःखैः विकार-दुःखैः क्लेश-दुःखैः दुःख-बीज-संस्कारैः च गुण-वृत्ति-विरोधात् च, दुःखम् अ-दुःख-रहितम् एव सर्वं जगत् सुख-दुःख-मिश्रं सत् विवेकिनः तेषां सर्व-संसारः अन्-इष्टः जगत्-स्व-रूप-परम-आत्मा एव इष्टः च इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

दुःखैः इति ‘इह एव सन्तः अथ विद्मः तद् (ब्रह्म) वयम्, न चेद् अ-वेदिः महती विनष्टिः। ये तद् विदुः अ-मृताः ते भवन्ति, अथ इतरे दुःखम् एव आपियन्ति’ इति (BrhU.4.4.14).
“Being [born] in here itself [in this body], in this way we have come to know that brahman. If not, [then] not knowing [this] is a great loss. Those who know that [brahman] are free from what is dead, whereas the others remain in sorrow (duḥkha) alone [being bound to what is dead or dying].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 4.4.14).

गुण-वृत्तिः इति ‘रजः तमः च च अभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत। रजः सत्त्वं तमः च एव तमः सत्त्वं रजः तथा’ इति (BhG.14.10).
“O Arjuna, sattva [throughout the day and one’s life] arises [by] overwhelming rajas and tamas, rajas arises [by overwhelming] sattva and tamas. Similarly, tamas arises [by overwhelming] sattva and rajas.” (Bh. Gītā 14.10).

विवेकिनः इति ‘अ-शोच्यान् अन्वशोचः त्वं प्रज्ञा-वादान् च भाषसे। गत-असून् अ-गत-असून् च न अनुशोचन्ति पण्डिताः’ इति (BhG.2.11).
“You have grieved for those not to be grieved, yet proclaim words of wisdom. The wise do not grieve for those whose life’s breath is gone or not [yet] gone.” (Bh. Gītā 2.11).

परिणामः इति ‘मात्रा-स्पर्शाः तु कौन्तेय शीत-उष्ण-सुख-दुःख-दाः। आगम-अपायिनः अ-नित्याः तान् तितिक्षस्व भारत’ इति (BhG.2.14).
“O Arjuna, the contacts of the senses, which give cold/hot and pleasure/pain [the natural pairs of opposites], have a beginning and an end and [therefore] are time bound. Endure them [i.e., accept them objectively as they are], O Arjuna.” (Bh. Gītā 2.14).

‘अथ च एनं नित्य-जातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम्। तथा अपि त्वं महा-बाहो न एवं शोचितुम् अर्हसि॥ जातस्य हि ध्रुवः मृत्युः ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च। तस्माद् अ-परिहार्ये अर्थे न त्वं शोचितुम् अर्हसि॥ अ-व्यक्त-आदीनि भूतानि व्यक्त-मध्यानि भारत। अ-व्यक्त-निधनानि एव तत्र का परिदेवना’ इति (BhG.2.26–28).
“O Arjuna, now if you consider this [the self – as the body or as an individual soul] to continually be born and die – even in that way, you should not grieve. Because, for what is born, death is certain, and for what is dead, birth [in another form] is certain. Then you should not grieve over a situation that cannot be avoided. O Arjuna, [all] beings are unseen [before] their beginning [i.e., unknown as to who or what they were before their birth], [are] seen in between, and [are] unseen [after] their end [i.e., unknown as to their lot after death]. Regarding that, [even relatively] why grieve?” (Bh. Gītā 2.26 through 28).

तापः इति ‘विषयाः विनिवर्तन्ते निर्-आहारस्य देहिनः। रस-वर्जं रसः अपि अस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते’ इति (BhG.2.59).
“For the embodied one who does not feed [i.e., indulge the senses], the objects turn back [i.e., are not pursued], but the longing remains. Knowing the para [i.e., brahman (reality)], even one’s longing ceases.” (Bh. Gītā 2.59).

‘कर्म-इन्द्रियाणि संयम्य यः आस्ते मनसा स्मरन्। इन्द्रिय-अर्थान् विमूढ-आत्मा मिथ्या-आचारः सः उच्यते’ इति (BhG.3.6).
“The one who sits, restraining the organs of action, [yet] contemplating the sense objects with the mind – that one is called one whose mind is deluded and whose conduct is useless.” (Bh. Gītā 3.6).

[duḥkha – sorrow; an-āgata – not yet come; heya – to be given up.]

हेयं दुःखम् अन्-आगतं (YS.1.30–32) भविष्यं, भूत-दुःखं भूत-स्मृतितया स्वी-कर्तव्यं भवत्-दुःखं च तितिक्षितव्यं (BhG.2.14)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[saṃyoga – mutual identification; draṣṭṛ – seer; dṛśya – seen; hetu – cause; heya – to be given up.]

द्रष्टृ-दृश्ययोः दृक्-पुरुष-दृश्य-विषययोः संयोगः अ-विवेक-ख्याति (YS.2.5) संयोगः इव संयोगः मिथ्या न तु सत्यं हेय-हेतुः हेय-दुःख-हेतुः, तस्मात् विवेक-ख्यातिः दुःख-हान-हेतुः, ‘दुःख-संयोग-वियोगं योग-संज्ञितम्’ इति (BhG.6.23)॥ – [Vṛtti]

संयोगः इति ‘यावत् सञ्जायते किञ्चित् सत्त्वं स्थावर-जङ्गमम्। क्षेत्र-क्षेत्रज्ञ-संयोगात् तद् विद्धि भरत-र्षभ’ इति (BhG.13.26).
“As long as any being [i.e., a jīva] [continues to] be [re-]born as immobile or mobile – know that [continuance in saṃsāra (life of unbecoming becoming)] to be due to the saṃyoga (association) [due to a lack of viveka (knowing the difference)] between the kṣetra (the field of objects) and the kṣetra-jña (the knower of that field), O Arjuna.” (Bh. Gītā 13.26).

[dṛśya – seen; sīla – nature; prakāśa-kriyā-sthiti – light-action-inertia; ātmaka – nature; bhūtas – elements; indriyas – organs; artha – for; bhoga – enjoyment; apavarga – freedom.]

प्रकाश-क्रिया-स्थिति-शीलं सत्त्व-रजस्-तमस्-गुण-रूपं भूत-इन्द्रिय-आत्मकं पञ्च-भूत-पञ्च-इन्द्रिय-रूपं, दृश्य-दर्शन-रूपं भोग-अपवर्ग-अर्थं भोगस्य कैवल्यस्य च निमित्तं दृश्यम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

दृश्यम् इति ‘(तत् ज्ञेयं ब्रह्म) सर्व-इन्द्रिय-गुण-आभासं सर्व-इन्द्रिय-विवर्जितम्। अ-सक्तं सर्व-भृत् च एव निर्-गुणं गुण-भोक्तृ च’ इति (BhG.13.14).
“[Since that brahman to be known] [merely] appears as the attributes [i.e., the functioning – seeing, etc.] of all the organs [in these bodies], [yet] is free from all the organs; is unattached [yet] sustains all; and is free from the guṇas [yet] is the experiencer of the guṇas.” (Bh. Gītā 13.14).

‘प्रकाशं च प्रवृत्तिं च मोहम् एव च पाण्डव। न द्वेष्टि सम्प्रवृत्तानि न निवृत्तानि काङ्क्षति॥ उदासीनवद् आसीनः गुणैः यः न विचाल्यते। गुणाः वर्तन्ते इति एव यः अवतिष्ठति न इङ्गते॥ सम-दुःख-सुखः स्व-स्थः सम-लोष्ट-अश्म-काञ्चनः। तुल्य-प्रिय-अ-प्रियः धीरः तुल्य-निन्दा-आत्म-संस्तुतिः॥ मान-अपमानयोः तुल्यः तुल्यः मित्र-अरि-पक्षयोः। सर्व-आरम्भ-परित्यागी गुण-अतीतः सः उच्यते’ इति (BhG.14.22–25).
“O Arjuna, brightness, [attachment-based] activity [i.e., rajas], and, indeed, delusion (tamas) – the one who is not displeased [when they] wax, nor longs for [them when they] wane [throughout the day and one’s life]; who, remaining seemingly indifferent, is not disturbed by the guṇas; who abides – [knowing] indeed that the guṇas act – and does not waiver [from this knowledge]; who is the same in pleasure and pain [and] abides in the self; for whom a lump of clay, a stone, and gold are [transcended as] the same; for whom the pleasant and the unpleasant are [objectively viewed] the same [way]; who is wise; for whom censure and praise of the self are alike [addressing only the mind or body – as the ātman cannot be flattered nor damaged by any misconception of it]; who is the same in respect and disrespect [which express only the others’ understanding and value structure, unrelated to the self], the same regarding the side of a friend or an enemy [seeing neither as friend nor enemy]; and who has completely renounced [doership in] all activities – that one is called guṇātīta (beyond the guṇas).” (Bh. Gītā 14.22 through 25).

[parvans – levels; guṇas – components of nature; viśeṣa – particularized; a-viśeṣa – non-particularized; liṅga-mātra – merely indicated; a-liṅga – non-indicated.]

विशेष-अ-विशेष-लिङ्ग-मात्र-अ-लिङ्गानि स्थूल-मिश्र-भूतानि सूक्ष्म-तन्मात्र-भूतानि ईश्वर-नियतृ-महत्-बुद्धिः अ-व्यक्त-प्रकृतिः च तानि गुण-पर्वाणि गुण-क्रम-अवस्थाः॥ – [Vṛtti]

गुण-पर्वाणि इति ‘(स्थूल-)इन्द्रियेभ्यः पराः हि (सूक्ष-स्थूल-)अर्थाः अर्थेभ्यः च परं (अर्थ-ग्रहक-)मनः। मनसः तु परा (निश्चय-आत्मिक-)बुद्धिः बुद्धेः आत्मा महान् (=हैरण्य-गर्भं तत्त्वं) परः॥ महतः परम् अ-व्यक्तम् (=त्रि-गुण-आत्मिक-प्रकृतिः) अ-व्यक्तात् (निर्-गुण-)पु॒रुषः परः। पुरुषात् न परं किंचित् सा काष्ठा सा परा गतिः’ इति (KathU.1.3.10–11).
“Than the sense organs, the objects [of the mind] are more subtle (para). Than the objects [of the mind], the mind is more subtle. Than the mind, the intellect is more subtle. Than the intellect, the mahān ātmā [i.e., the universal intelligence, mahat – the entire subtle body of the universe] is more subtle. Than mahat, the unmanifest is more subtle. Than the unmanifest, the puruṣa [i.e., the limitless self] is more subtle. Than the puruṣa, there is nothing more subtle. That maximum limit (kāṣṭhā), that goal (gati), is the ultimate.” (Kaṭha Up. 1.3.10 and 11).

[draṣṭṛ – seer; dṛśi-mātra – pure perception; api – though; śuddha – pure; anupaśya – sees; pratyayas – thoughts.]

द्रष्टा दृक्-साक्षि-पुरुषः दृशि-मात्रः ज्ञप्ति-स्व-रूपः शुद्धः केवलः दृश्य-अ-संयुक्तः अपि प्रत्यय-अनुपश्यः चित्त-वृत्ति-अनुभव-शक्यः इव, अथवा चित्त-वृत्ति-अनुरूप-कल्पितः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[ātman – nature; dṛśya – seen; eva – simply; tad-artha – its object.]

तद्-अर्थः द्रष्टृ-अर्थः यथा, दृक्-पुरुष-विषयतया जीवस्य धर्म-अर्थ-काम-मोक्ष-पुरुष-अर्थः इत्यर्थः एव दृश्यस्य आत्मा स्व-रूपः सत्ता व्यावहारिकं स-अपेक्षा-सत्ता-वत् एव दृश्यं, न तु पारम-अर्थिकम् इत्यर्थः (YS.3.44)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[api – though; naṣṭa – lost; prati – in regard to; kṛta-artha – one who has achieved the goal; tad – it; a-naṣṭa – not lost; sa-ādhāraṇatva – it has commonality; anyas – others.]

कृत-अर्थं प्रति परम-अर्थ-कैवल्य-सम्पन्न-योगिनं नष्टं दृश्यं पारम-अर्थिक-सत्तया नष्टम् अपि, अ-नष्टं वर्तमानं तद् दृश्यं जगत् अन्य-साधारणत्वात् (YS.4.14–15, 2.5 & 1.8–9) यस्मात् अन्य-अ-कृत-अर्थ-जीवानां दृश्य-पारम-अर्थिक-सत्ता-कल्पना-दृष्टिनां ‘परिछिन्न-दृशिवत् दृश्यानि नाना-विध-सत्यानि’ इति-अ-विद्या (YS.2.24)॥ – [Vṛtti]

कृत-अर्थम् इति ‘यथा एव बिम्बं मृदया उपलिप्तं तेजोमयं भ्राजते तत् सुधान्तम् (=सुधौतम्)। तद् वै आत्म-तत्त्वं प्रसमीक्ष्य देही एकः कृत-अर्थः भवते वीत-शोकः’ इति (SvetU.2.14).
“Just as a reflecting surface covered by dirt, [when] it is clean, shines brilliantly, similarly the embodied one, clearly seeing the reality that is ātman (oneself) [with a transparently clear mind], is [thus] one (eka) [with that shining reality], has achieved the goal (kṛta-artha), and is free from sorrow.” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 2.14).

‘इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रम् इदम् उक्तं मया अन्-अघ। एतद् बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान् स्यात् कृत-कृत्यः च भारत’ इति (BhG.15.20).
“Thus, I have told this most secret [i.e., in terms of sanctity, value, and by appearing to be difficult to understand] teaching, O Sinless One. Knowing this, one becomes one who has [made best use of one’s] intellect and who has done what is to be done (kṛta-kṛtya), O Arjuna.” (Bh. Gītā 15.20).

नष्टम् इति ‘अर्जुन उवाच। नष्टः मोहः स्मृतिः लब्धा त्वद्-प्रसादात् मया अ-च्युत’ इति (BhG.18.73).
“Gone (naṣṭa) is the delusion. I have gained recognition [without error] [of myself] by Your grace [i.e., by Your teaching], O Kṛṣṇa.” (Bh. Gītā 18.73).

[saṃyoga – conjunction; śaktis – natures; sva – itself; svāmin – master; hetu – cause; upalabdhi – ascertainment; sva-rūpas – their natures.]

स्व-स्वामि-शक्त्योः स्व-दृश्य-शीलस्य स्वामि-द्रष्टृ-शीलस्य च स्व-रूप-उपलब्धि-हेतुः भिन्न-स्व-रूप-अनुभाव-हेतुः सह-ज-दृक्-दृश्य-संयोगः (YS.4.22)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[hetu – cause; tasya – of that; a-vidyā – ignorance.]

तस्य संयोगस्य हेतुः अ-विद्या॥ – [Vṛtti]

विद्या इति ‘सत्यं ज्ञानम् अन्-अन्तं ब्रह्म’ इति (TaitU.2.1.1).
Brahman is limitless (an-anta) reality (satya), knowledge (jñāna).” (Taittirīya Up. 2.1.1).

[hāna – giving up; a-bhāva – disappearance; saṃyoga – conjunction; tad-a-bhāva – disappearance of that; tad – that; kaivalya – freedom; dṛśi – seer.]

तद्-अभावात् अ-विद्या-अ-भावात् विवेक-ख्यात्या (YS.2.26) संयोग-अ-भावः अ-विद्या-रूप-संयोग-अ-भावः (YS.4.25–26) हानम् इति एवं दृश्यं नष्टम् इत्यर्थः, तद् द्रष्टृ-स्व-रूपे अवस्थानं च दृशेः कैवल्यं जीवत्-मुक्तिः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

कैवल्यम् इति ‘अनेन (कैवल्य-उपनिषद्-अध्यायेन) ज्ञानम् आप्नोति संसार-अर्णव-नाशम्। तस्मात् एवं विदित्वा एनं कैवल्यं पदम् अश्नुते’ इति (KaivU.2.2).
“By this [teaching regarding brahman] is attained a knowledge that dispels the ocean of saṃsāra (the life of continual unbecoming becoming). Therefore, knowing in this way, one attains the goal (pada) [called] completeness (kaivalya) [i.e., mokṣa (freedom)].” (Kaivalya Up. 2.2).

‘यथा सोम्य पुरुषं गन्धारेभ्यः अभिनद्ध-अक्षम् आनीय तं ततः अति-जने विसृजेत्, सः यथा तत्र प्राङ् वा उदङ् वा अधराङ् वा प्रत्यङ् वा प्रध्मायीत “अभिनद्ध-अक्षः आनीतः अभिनद्ध-अक्षः विसृष्टः”॥ तस्य यथा अभिनहनं प्रमुच्य प्रब्रूयात् “एतां दिशं गन्धाराः एतां दिशं व्रज” इति, सः ग्रामाद् ग्रामं पृच्छन् पण्डितः मेधावी गन्धारान् एव उपसंपद्येत, एवम् एव इह आचार्यवान् पुरुषः वेद, तस्य तावद् एव चिरं यावत् “न विमोक्ष्ये अथ सम्पत्स्ये” इति (मन्यते)॥ – सः यः एषः अणिमा, एतद् आत्म्यम्, इदं सर्वं, तत् सत्यं, सः आत्मा, तत् त्वम् असि श्वेतकेतो’ इति (ChanU.6.14.1–3).
“Just as, my dear, having been blind-folded [and bound], and taken from the Gandhāra [region], and thereupon left in a desolate place, one would shout ahead, up, down, and behind, ‘[I have been] brought blind-folded and left blind-folded!’ And as one [a compassionate passerby] would remove his blind-fold and teach him, ‘Gandhāra is in this direction, go in this direction,’ then inquiring from village to village this [thusly] educated (paṇḍita) and smart [i.e., retentive and logical] (medhāvin) person alone would reach Gandhāra. In this way, a person [left] here [by his/her desires and blinded to his/her own nature] who [somehow] has a teacher would know [the ātman (self)], and for him [or her] the delay would only be as long as one [thinks] ‘I am not freed nor yet reached’ [or to match the example another way… though he or she is no longer blind to ātman and already abides in this freedom, still that body and mind is not released from this life’s karma nor yet reached its final mergence back to nature – otherwise called ‘videha-mukti’ so it still has to walk those last years until then]. This very [sat (being)] is the subtlest. All this [universe] has this [subtlest] as its nature. That is reality (satya). That is the self. That you are (tat tvam asi), O Śvetaketu.” (Chāndogya Up. 6.14.1 through 3).

‘परीक्ष्य लोकान् कर्म-चितान् ब्राह्मणः निर्वेदम् आयात् न अस्ति अकृतः कृतेन। तद्-विज्ञानार्थं सः गुरुम् एव अभिगच्छेत् समित्-पाणिः श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्म-निष्ठम्’ इति (MunU.1.2.12).
“Examining the worlds gained by action, the one who has been initiated in the scripture (brāhmaṇa), and being dispassionate (nirvedam āyān) [by thinking] the uncreated [i.e., reality] is not by action, should, for clearly knowing that [brahman (reality)], approach with sacrificial sticks in hand a teacher who indeed is [both] steeped in the scriptures (śrotriya) and established in brahman (brahma-niṣṭha) [i.e., who both knows how to teach and knows what to teach].” (Muṇḍaka Up. 1.2.12).

[upāya – means; hāna – giving up; viveka-khyāti – discerning knowledge; a-viplavā – which does not go astray.]

विवेक-ख्यातिः दृक्-दृश्य-विवेक-बुद्धिः अ-विप्लवा अ-बाधिता संसार-रूप-संयोग-हान-उपायः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tasya – its; prānta-bhūmi – final stage; saptadhā – seven-fold; prajñā – assimilated knowledge.]

तस्य हान-उपायस्य कृत-अर्थ-जीवत्-मुक्तस्य वा सप्तधा प्रान्त-भूमिः सप्त-अवस्थावती प्रज्ञा – यतः सूत्रेषु प्रज्ञा-अवस्थाः न प्रथक् व्याख्याताः, इदं ज्ञानं च ‘अ-क्रमम्’ इति वक्ष्यमाणं (YS.3.54), ततः इह इयं प्रज्ञा प्रज्ञा-उपाये योग्यतायां वा यथा-उक्तम् अभ्यास-वैराग्य-श्रद्धा-वीर्य-आदि-तारतम्यम् अपेक्ष्या। अथवा, योग-अष्टाङ्ग-उपोद्घात-रूपेण सप्तधाः इति, यत्र यम-नियमे प्रथम-भागः एव। कथम्? सूत्र-करेण यम-नियम-सूत्राणि मिश्री-भूतानि (YS.3.31–45) प्रवृत्ति-निवृत्ति-कर्म-योग-क्रीया-योगतया। का प्रात-भूमिः? कर्म-योगः मोक्ष-उत्तम-पुरुष-अर्थ-दृष्टि-अर्थः, तस्य ज्ञानार्थत्वात् एव (BhG.13.11)॥ – [Vṛtti]

सप्तधा इति ‘तद् यथा – परिज्ञातं हेयं न अस्य पुनः परिज्ञेयम् अस्ति। क्षीणाः हेय-हेयवः न पुनः एतेषां क्षेतव्यम् अस्ति। साक्षात्-कृतं निरोध-समाधिना हानम्। भावितः विवेक-ख्याति-रूपः हान-उपायः।…चरित-अधिकारा बुद्धिः। गुणाः गिरि-शिखर-कूट-च्युताः इव ग्रावाणः निरवस्थानाः स्व-कारणे प्रलय-अभिमुखाः सह तेन अस्तं गच्छन्ति, न च एषां विप्रलीनानां पुनः अस्ति उत्पादः प्रयोजन-अभावात् इति। एतस्यां अवस्थायां गुण-सम्बन्ध-अतीतः स्व-रूपमात्र-ज्योतिः अ-मलः केवली पुरुषः इति’ इति (Vyāsa’s Pātañjali Yoga Sūtrāṇi Bhāṣya 2.27).
“This is as follows – (1) What is to be given up (heya) [i.e., all the kleśas (afflictions), see Yoga Sutra 2.10] is fully known, [so] nothing more is to be known about this. (2) The [continuing] reasons [i.e., the kliṣṭa (hindering) thoughts, see Yoga Sutra 1.5] for what is to be given up [the kleśas] have diminished and nothing more of them is to be diminished. (3) Their [the kleśas’] giving up is clearly seen through disciplined contemplation (nirodha-samādhi). (4) The means for their giving up in the form of a discriminative knowledge has matured. (5) The intellect has fulfilled its function. (6) Like rocks [naturally] find their level having been dislodged from the peak of a mountain, the guṇas [naturally] settle down [i.e., their potential for affliction is gone and, upon death of this embodiment, the guṇas of this body return to the elements] and are on the verge of [eventual] universal dissolution (pralaya) [i.e., become unmixed together] into their cause [i.e., into the a-vyakta (the unmanifest) prakṛti according to Vyāsa, or rather into the Lord as the unmanifest] along with that [intellect/mind (citta) of the yogin]. Having been dissolved, there is no rebirth [for the yogin] since there is no more [karma] purpose [for another embodiment]. (7) When they have settled down, the puruṣa, who transcends any relationship with the guṇas, shines in its own nature, free of impurity [any second thing], and complete (kevalī) [i.e., free].” (Vyāsa’s Pātañjali Yoga Sūtrāṇi Bhāṣya 2.27).

[anuṣṭhāna – following; aṅgas – limbs; yoga – the means; a-śuddhis – impurities; kṣaya – diminish; dīpti – light; jñāna – knowledge; ā – reaches to; viveka-khyāti – discerning knowledge.]

वक्ष्यमाण-योग-अङ्ग-अनुष्ठानात् अ-शुद्धि-क्षये परम-तत्त्व-नाना-विध-संशय-रूप-अन्तःकरण-अ-शुद्धि-क्षये शनैः शनैः सति ज्ञान-दीप्तिः आ अ-बाधित-विवेक-ख्यातेः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[aṣṭa – eight; aṅgas – limbs; yama – avoidance; niyama – observance; āsana – sitting posture; prāṇa-āyāma – controlling the breath; pratyāhāra – withdrawing; dhāraṇā – restraining the pursuit of unwanted or hindering thoughts in contemplation; dhyāna – retaining the flow of wanted or helpful thoughts in contemplation; samādhi – contemplation resulting in assimilation.]

यम-नियम-आसन-प्राण-आयाम-प्रत्याहार-धारणा-ध्यान-समाधयः नाम अष्टौ योगस्य अङ्गानि॥ – [Vṛtti]

योगात् इति ‘लोके अस्मिन् द्वि-विधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मया अन्-अघ। ज्ञान-योगेन साङ्ख्यानां कर्म-योगेन योगिनाम्’ इति (BhG.3.3).
“O Arjuna, long ago in this world I taught [in the Upaniṣads] two different lifestyles – [one] through jñāna-yoga (yoga while simply pursuing knowledge, i.e., renunciation) for those dedicated to knowledge (sāṅkhya), [and the other] through karma-yoga (yoga while performing one's duties) for yogins [i.e., those dedicated to duty as a means].” (Bh. Gītā 3.3).

‘सन्न्यासः कर्म-योगः च निःश्रेयस-करौ उभौ’ इति (BhG.5.2).
“Both [lifestyles of] sannyāsa (renunciation) and karma-yoga (yoga while performing one’s duties) lead to complete freedom.” (Bh. Gītā 5.2).

[yamas – avoidances; a-hiṃsā – non-violence; satya – truthfulness; a-steya – non-usurping; brahma-carya – pursuing the scripture; a-parigraha – renunciation.]

अहिंसा-सत्य-अ-स्तेय-ब्रह्म-चर्य-अ-परिग्रहाः वक्ष्यमाणाः (YS.2.35–39) यमाः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

ब्रह्म-चर्यम् इति ‘श्वेत-केतुः ह आरुणेयः आस तं ह पिता उवाच श्वेत-केतो वस ब्रह्म-चर्यम्, न वै सोम्य अस्मत् कुलीनः अन्-अनूच्य ब्रह्म-बन्धुः इव भवति इति॥ सः ह द्वा-दश-वर्षः उपेत्य चतुर-विंशति-वर्षः सर्वान् वेदान् अधीत्य…एयाय’ इति (ChanU.6.1.1–2).
“There once lived one Śveta-ketu, grandson of Āruṇi. His father said to him, ‘O Śveta-ketu, you please live as a brahma-carya [a student in a teacher’s house, since I am not now able to teach you myself]. Indeed, my dear, no one in our family is a brāhmaṇa in relation only, having not studied.’ He left at twelve years old and returned at twenty-four years old having studied all the Vedas.” (Chāndogya Up. 6.1.1 and 2).

अ-परिग्रहः इति ‘अ-सक्तिः अन्-अभिष्वङ्गः पुत्र-दार-गृहादिषु। नित्यं च सम-चित्तत्वंइष्ट-अन्-इष्ट-उपपत्तिषु॥…एतद् ज्ञानम् इति प्रोक्तम् अ-ज्ञानं यद् अतः अन्यथा’ इति (BhG.13.9 & 11).
“[Also] absence of ownership; lack of identification towards son [i.e., offspring], wife [i.e., spouse], house, etc.; continual equanimity of mind (sama-cittatva) towards occurrences of the desirable and the undesirable; [etc.] … [all] this is called knowledge (jñāna) [an expression of knowledge and, thus, a means of gaining knowledge]. What is other than this is an obstacle to knowledge (a-jñāna).” (Bh. Gītā 13.9 and 11).

[sārva-bhauma – applied to the entire universe; an-avacchinna – not limited; jāti – origination; deśa – place; kāla – time; samaya – circumstance; mahā-vrata – great vow.]

जाति-देश-काल-समय-अन्-अवच्छिन्नाः ब्राह्मण-आदि-जाति-अ-परिच्छिन्नाः देश-काल-अ-परिच्छिन्नाः, जीवन-दशा-अ-परिच्छिन्नाः यमाः सार्व-भौमाः सर्वथा-सर्व-विषये (YS.3.54) इत्यर्थः महा-व्रतं सर्व-सन्न्यास-अर्थ-व्रतम्, अथवा तथा अहिंसा-आदि-यम-व्रतम् अन्तिमं भवेत्॥ – [Vṛtti]

महा-व्रतम् इति ‘…केन भगवन् (प्रजा-पते) कर्माणि अ-शेषतः विसृजानि इति। तं (आरुणिं) ह उवाच प्रजा-पतिः तव पुर्त्रान् भ्रातॄन् बन्धु-आदीन् शिखं यज्ञ-उपवीतं यागं सूत्रं स्व-अध्यायं च भूलोक-भवलोक-स्वर्लोक-महर्लोक-जनोलोक-तपोलोक-सत्यलोकं च अतल-तलातल-वितल-सुतल-रसातल-महातल-पातालं ब्रह्म-अण्डं च विसृजेत्।…(इदं सर्वं) सन्धिं समाधौ आत्मनि आचरेत्। सवेषु वेदेषु आरण्यकम् आवर्तयेत्, उपनिषदम् आवर्तयेत् उपनिषदम् आवर्तयेत् इति।…ब्रह्म-चर्यम् अ-हिंसां च अ-परिग्रहं च सत्यं च, यत्नेन हे रक्षतः हे रक्षतः हे रक्षतः’ इति (Āruṇeya Up. 1–3).
“‘O Lord [Prajā-pati], how should I renounce karmas (actions and their results) completely?’ Prajā-pati said to him [Āruṇi], ‘Your children, siblings, relations, etc. [i.e., every one and thing related to you], the [sacred] tuft of hair, [performing the] investiture of the sacred thread, oblation rituals, the sacred thread [itself], [the initial, bulky heaven-going portion of the] Veda study, and the brahma-aṇḍa (i.e., the universe, see Chāndogya Up. 3.19) [all the worlds (lokas), from] Bhū-loka [i.e., Earth], [and up to] Bhuva-loka, Svar-loka, Mahar-loka, Jalas-loka, Tapas-loka, Satya-loka, and [down to] Atala, Talātala [though usually placed just below Rasātala], Vitala, Sutala, Rasātala, Mahātala, and Pātāla – one should renounce… One should merge (sandhim ācaret) [the entire universe] in samādhi which is ātman. One should recite the forest section (āraṇyaka) in each of the Vedas [in which upāsanas (meditations) and the teaching of brahman are given]. One should [especially] recite over and over the Upaniṣads [within them]. …Commitment to study (brahma-cārya), non-violence, renunciation, and truthfulness – O may you always observe (rakṣataḥ) [these] with effort.’” (Āruṇeya Up. 1 through 3).

[niyamas – observances; śauca – cleanliness; santoṣa – contentment; tapas – prayerful discipline; svādhyāya – one’s study of the family’s Veda scripture; Īśvara-praṇidhāna – intelligently surrendering to the Lord.]

शौच-सन्तोष-तपस्-स्व-अध्याय-ईश्वर-प्रणिधानानि वक्ष्यमानानि (YS.2.40–45 & 2.1–2) नियमाः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

[bādhana – hindered; vi-tarka – wrong thinking; prati-pakṣa-bhāvana – contemplate the contradiction.]

वि-तर्क-बाधने विपर्यय-तर्केन योग-प्रतिबन्धने सति प्रति-पक्ष-भावनं तद्-वि-तर्कात् विपरीत-भावनं भवेत्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[prati-pakṣa-bhāvana – contemplating the contradiction; hiṃsā-ādi – violence, etcetera; kṛta – done; kārita – ordered; anumodita – permitted; pūrvaka – out of; lobha – greed; krodha – anger; moha – delusion; mṛdu – small; madhya – middling; adhi-mātra – great measure; an-anta – continuous, unfailing; phalas – results; duḥkha – pain; a-jñāna – ignorance; vi-tarka – illogical; iti – “…”.]

यथा ‘ये वि-तर्काः हिंसा-आदयः कृत-कारित-अनुमोदिताः लोभ-क्रोध-मोह-पूर्वकाः मृदु-मध्य-अधि-मात्राः ते दुःख-अ-ज्ञान-अन्-अन्त-फलाःइति प्रति-पक्ष-भावनम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[pratiṣṭhā – establishment; a-hiṃsā – non-violence; tyāga – dropping; vaira – hostility; tad-sannidhi – those around that.]

अहिंसा-प्रतिष्ठायां सत्यां तद्-सन्निधौ तस्य योगिनः सन्निधौ वैर-त्यागः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[pratiṣṭhā – establishment; satya – truthfulness; āśrayatva – has the power of sustaining; phalas – results; kriyā – action.]

सत्य-प्रतिष्ठायां सत्यां क्रिया-फल-आश्रयत्वं तस्य योगिनः क्रिया-इष्ट-फलानाम् उत्पत्ति-स्थानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

सत्यम् इति ‘अन्-उद्वेग-करं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रिय-हितं च यत्’ इति (BhG.17.15).
“Speech that is not agitating, is truthful, and both pleasant [now] and beneficial [later] [for the other person].” (Bh. Gītā 17.15).

[pratiṣṭhā – establishment; a-steya – non-usurping; sarva – everything; upasthāna – around; ratnas – jewels.]

अ-स्तेय-प्रतिष्ठायाम् अ-लोभ-प्रतिष्ठायां सत्यां सर्व-रत्न-उपस्थानं तस्य योगिनः ईश्वरमत्त्वेन एव सर्व-विभूति-आधारः, न ममत्वम् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[pratiṣṭhā – establishment; brahma-carya – pursuing the scripture; lābha – gain; vīrya – strength.]

ब्रह्म-चर्य-प्रतिष्ठायां सत्यां वीर्य-लाभः योगे तीव्र-संवेग-लाभः (YS.1.21)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[sthairya – establishment; a-parigraha – renunciation; sambodha – understanding; kathaṃtā – reason; janma – birth.]

अ-परिग्रह-स्थैर्ये परित्याग-स्थैर्ये सति जन्म-कथंता-सम्बोधः त्यक्तव्य-कर्म-आशयतया अन्-आदि-जन्म-याथा-अर्थ्यं सम्बुध्यते (YS.2.12 & 4.10)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[śauca – cleanliness; jugupsā – repulse; sva-aṅga – one’s own body; a-saṃsarga – non-attachment; paras – others.]

बाह्य-शौचात् नियमात् स्व-अङ्ग-जुगुप्सा स्व-देह-अ-पुण्य-भाग-त्याग-दृष्टिः परैः बाह्य-मनस्-हारैः अपि पुण्य-अ-पुण्य-मिश्र-देहैः अ-संसर्गः भाग-त्याग-दृष्टिः तथा अपि इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[sattva-śuddhi – mental cleanliness; sau-manasya – contentment; aika-agrya – ability to stay on one; indriya-jaya – mastery over the senses; yogyatva – capacity; ātma-darśana – knowing the self.]

सत्त्व-शुद्धि-सौ-मनस्य-ऐक-अग्र्य-इन्द्रिय-जय-आत्म-दर्शन-योग्यत्वानि अन्तःकरण-शौचात् सु-मनस्-भावे ऐक-अग्र्ये इन्द्रिय-विनिग्रहे आत्म-ज्ञाने च योग्यत्वानि ॥ – [Vṛtti]

[santoṣa – contentment; lābha – attains; an-uttama – unsurpassed; sukha – fullness.]

यतः आत्म-दर्शन-योग्यत्वं ततः सन्तोषात् नियमात् अन्-उत्तमः सुख-लाभः आत्म-स्व-रूप-तृप्तिः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

सन्तोषात् इति ‘यः तु आत्म-रतिः एव स्याद् आत्म-तृप्तः च मानवः। आत्मनि एव च सन्तुष्टः तस्य कार्यं न विद्यते’ इति (BhG.3.17).
“Whereas, the person who would [find] pleasure within the self alone, be satisfied (tṛpta) with the self, and be contented (santuṣṭa) in the self alone – that one has nothing [yet] to be done.” (Bh. Gītā 3.17).

[tapas – prayerful discipline; kṣaya – wane; a-śuddhis – impurities; kāya – body; indriyas – senses; siddhi – success.]

काय-इन्द्रिय-सिद्धिः देह-इन्द्रिय-योग्यत्व-सिद्धिः इह जन्मनि च परम-पुरुष-अर्थ-सिद्धिः अ-शुद्धि-क्षयात् क्लेश-क्षयात् तपसः (YS.2.1) नियमात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[svādhyāya – one’s study of the family’s Veda scripture; saṃprayoga – identity; devatā – Lord; iṣṭa – one’s family or personal worship.]

स्व-अध्यायात् (YS.2.1) नियमात् इष्ट-देवता-संप्रयोगः सर्व-विभूति-रूपेण सर्व-नियन्तृ-रूपेण जन्म-स्थिति-लय-रूपेण च ईश्वरस्य इष्ट-देवता-रूपेण अ-भिन्नत्वम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

इष्ट-देवता इति ‘सः एव काले भुवनस्य गोप्ता विश्व-अधिपः सर्व-भूतेषु गूढः। यस्मिन् युक्ताः ब्रह्म-ऋषयः देवताः च तम् एवं ज्ञात्वा मृत्यु-पाशान् छिनत्ति’ इति (SvetU.4.15).
“He alone is the preserver of the universe in time, the Lord (adhipa) of the universe, [as though] hidden in all beings. Knowing in this way the one [Lord] in whom all the sages of the Vedas and the deities (devatās) are united, one cuts the noose of death.” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 4.15).

[Īśvara-praṇidhāna – intelligently surrendering to the Lord; siddhi – attainment; samādhi – contemplation resulting in assimilation.]

समाधि-सिद्धिः परम-पुरुषे सर्वं समाधीयते यस्मिन् इति समाधिः तस्मिन् समाधौ सिद्धिः (YS.1.51) ईश्वर-प्रणिधानात् (YS.2.1) नियमात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

ईश्वर-प्रणिधानात् इति ‘तम् (ईश्वरम्) एव शरणं गच्छ सर्व-भावेन भारत। तत्-प्रसादात् परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम्’ इति (BhG.18.62).
“With all [your] being, surrender to that [Lord] alone [who is the center of your being and is in the form of your natural disposition moving you through life], O Arjuna. By that [Lord’s] grace you will attain the ultimate peace, the timeless abode.” (Bh. Gītā 18.62).

[āsana – sitting practice; sthira – stable; sukha – comfortable.]

स्थिर-सुखं स्थिरं सुखं च भवेत् आसनं ध्यान-अर्थम् एव पद्म-स्वस्तिक-आदि-देह-स्थापनं नाम तृतीय-योग-अङ्गम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

आसनम् इति ‘स्पर्शान् कृत्वा बहिः बाह्यान् चक्षुः च एव अन्तरे भ्रुवोः। प्राण-अपानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तर-चारिणौ॥ यत-इन्द्रिय-मनो-बुद्धिः मुनिः मोक्ष-परायणः। विगत-इच्छा-भय-क्रोधः यः सदा मुक्तः एव सः’ इति (BhG.05.27–28).
“Keeping external the external sense objects and the vision within the eyebrows [i.e., the eyes shut], keeping [naturally] equal the exhalation and inhalation moving within the nostrils, the one who is contemplative – whose senses, mind, and intellect are mastered [enough to sit in meditation], having mokṣa (complete freedom) as the ultimate end, from whom are [mostly or completely] gone requiring/anticipating, fear and anger – that one [who sits in meditation, contemplating this teaching] is always liberated indeed.” (Bh. Gītā 5.27 and 28).

‘शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरम् आसनम् आत्मनः। न अति-उच्छ्रितं न अति-नीचं चैल-अजिन-कुश-उत्तरम्॥ तत्र एक-अग्रं मनः कृत्वा यत-चित्त-इन्द्रिय-क्रियः। उपविश्य आसने युञ्ज्याद् योगम् आत्म-विशुद्धये॥ समं काय-शिरो-ग्रीवं धारयन् अ-चलं स्थिरः। सम्प्रेक्ष्य नासिका-अग्रं स्वं दिशः च अन्-अवलोकयन्॥ प्रशान्त-आत्मा विगत-भीः ब्रह्म-चारि-व्रते स्थितः। मनः संयम्य मद्-चित्तः युक्तः आसीत मद्-परः’ इति (BhG.6.11–14).
“Arranging one’s seat in a clean place, firm, not too high nor too low, on which the cover is [from top to bottom:] a [soft] cloth, a hide [for padding], and kuśa grass [for insulation from cold and dampness] [or whatever else provides the same]. [Then] sitting upon that seat [or its equivalent] – making the mind single-pointed [i.e., having just one object] – may the one whose activities of the mind and senses are mastered contemplate [the teaching] for clarity of mind [i.e., for removing obstacles to abiding in this knowledge]. Holding the body, head, and neck in line and still, being steady [i.e., having a wide base], [as though] looking at the tip of one’s nose [i.e., relaxing the shut eyes, whose open gaze otherwise would be along the tip of the nose], not looking [listening, etc.] in all directions, being of clear mind, without fear, and firm in [one’s] vow of seeking brahman (brahma-carya; i.e., listening to the teacher, then continually contemplating and teaching others), mastering the mind – may the yogin sit, thinking of Me [through My teaching], having Me as the ultimate.” (Bh. Gītā 6.11 through 14).

[śaithilya – relaxation; prayatna – straining; samāpatti – contemplating; an-anta – limitless.]

प्रयत्न-शैथिल्य-अन्-अन्त-समापत्तिभ्यां स्थिर-आसने प्रयत्न-शैथिल्येन सुख-आसने च आकाश-प्राण-आदि-अन्-अन्त-विषय-समापत्त्या॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tataḥ – from that; an-abhighāta – not assailed; dvan-dvas – pairs of opposites.]

ततः स्थिर-सुख-आसनात् योगी शीत-उष्ण-सुख-दुःख-आदि-द्वम्-द्व-अन्-अभिघातः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tasmin sati – established in this; prāṇa-āyāma – controlling the breath; viccheda – separating; gati – flow; śvāsa – inhalation; pra-śvāsa – exhalation.]

तस्मिन् द्वम्-द्व-अन्-अभिघात-आसने सति, श्वास-प्रश्वासयोः अन्तर्-श्वास-बहिर्-श्वासयोः गति-विच्छेदः प्राणायामः नाम चतुर्थ-योग-अङ्गम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[vṛtti – operation; bāhya – outward; abhyantara – inward; stambha – stoppage; paridṛṣṭa – is observed; deśa – location; kāla – length; saṃkhyā – count; dīrgha – long; sūkṣma – subtle.]

बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-स्तम्भ-वृत्तिः श्वास-प्रश्वासयोः बाह्य-वृत्तिः अभन्तर-वृत्तिः स्तम्भ-वृत्तिः च त्रि-विध-प्राण-आयामः, देश-काल-संख्याभिः देशतः कालतः संख्यातः च परिदृष्टः परीक्षितः, दीर्घ-सूक्ष्मः काल-संख्यातः दीर्घः अन्-अन्त-बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-प्राण-देशतः (YS.2.51) सूक्ष्मः च प्राण-आयामः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[caturtha – fourth; ākṣepin – diminishing; viṣaya – attention; bāhya – outward; abhyantara – inward.]

बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-विषय-आक्षेपी बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-श्वास-गमन-विषयात् दृष्टि-प्रत्याहारः चतुर्थः प्राण-आयामः प्राण-सन्निधि-वीक्षणम्, अ-बाह्य-अन्-अभ्यन्तर-सर्व-व्याप्त-प्राण-वीक्षणम् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tataḥ – from that; āvaraṇa – blocking; prakāśa – clarity; kṣīyate – lessened.]

ततः प्राण-आयामात् क्षीयते प्रकाश-आवरणं रजस्-तमोभ्यां चित्त-सत्त्व-गुण-आच्छादनम् (YS.1.31)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[ca – and; manas – mind; yogyatā – fitness; dhāraṇā – restraining the pursuit of unwanted or hindering thoughts in contemplation.]

अ-बाह्य-अन्-अभ्यन्तर-प्राण-वीक्षणात् धारणासु (YS.3.1) च योग्यता मनसः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[pratyāhāra – withdrawing; indriyas – senses; iva – seeming; anukāra – take on; sva-rūpa – very nature; citta – mind; a-saṃprayoga – withdraw; sva-viṣayas – their own objects.]

स्व-विषय-अ-संप्रयोगे इन्द्रियाणां सति, चित्तस्य स्व-रूप-अनुकारः इव आसने प्राण-आयामे च चित्तस्य यथा अन्-अन्त-विषय-अनुरूपः बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-विषय-आक्षेपि-अनुरूपः अपि इन्दियाणां प्रत्याहारः नाम पञ्चम-योग-अङ्गम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

इन्द्रियाणाम् इति ‘यः तु अ-विज्ञानवान् भवति अ-युक्तेन मनसा सदा। तस्य इन्द्रियाणि अ-वश्यानि दुष्ट-अश्वाः इव सा-रथेः॥ यः तु विज्ञानवान् भवति युक्तेन मनसा सदा। तस्य इन्द्रियाणि वश्यानि सद्-अश्वाः इव सा-रथेः’ इति (KathU.1.3.5–6).
“But the undisciplined senses, of that [intellect] which lacks discernment and [thus is] ever with a mind (manas) not in control, are like the unruly horses of the charioteer [i.e., of the intellect without control of the reins, of the mind]. Whereas, the disciplined senses, of that [intellect] which has discernment and [thus is] ever with a mind in control, are like the trained horses of the charioteer.” (Kaṭha Up. 1.3.5 and 6).

‘राग-द्वेष-वियुक्तैः तु विषयान् इन्द्रियैः चरन्। आत्म-वश्यैः (बुद्धि-वश्यैः) विधेय-आत्मा (विधेय-अन्तःकरणः) प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति’ इति (BhG.2.64).
“Whereas, moving among the objects with the senses under authority of the intellect and freed from [being overpowered by] rāga-dveṣa (attraction and repulsion), the one whose mind is disciplined attains clarity (prasāda).” (Bh. Gītā 2.64).

[parama – best; vaśyatā – mastery; indriyas – senses; tataḥ – by that.]

ततः चित्त-पूर्वका वश्यता, परमा वश्यता इन्द्रियाणाम् अपि मानसः इन्द्रिय-शमः भवेत् इत्यर्थः, न तु इन्द्रिय-दमः॥ – [Vṛtti]

इन्द्रियाणाम् इति ‘इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यद् मनः अनुविधीयते। तद् अस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुः नावम् इव अम्भसि’ इति (BhG.2.67).
“Because, that very mind (manas), which follows after the roaming senses, takes away one’s wisdom (prajñā), like a small boat on the water, which follows after the wind.” (Bh. Gītā 2.67).

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[dhāraṇā – restraining the pursuit of unwanted or hindering thoughts in contemplation; bandha – keeping; citta – mind; deśa – place.]

भूयः – देश-बन्धं क्लिष्ट-विषयात् अ-क्लिष्ट-एक-विषये स्थापनं पुनः पुनः चित्तस्य धारणा नाम षष्ठ-योग-अङ्गम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

धारणा इति ‘यतः यतः निश्चरति मनः चञ्चलम् अ-स्थिरम्। ततः ततः नियम्य एतद् आत्मनि एव वशं नयेत्’ इति (BhG.6.26).
“Bringing it [i.e., the mind] back from whichever [distracting object] the [naturally] mobile, unsteady mind goes to – [by understanding that object also as] within limitless ātman alone – may one bring [the mind] under control.” (Bh. Gītā 6.26).

[tatra – when that is; dhyāna – retaining the flow of wanted or helpful thoughts in contemplation; ekatānatā – nature of having a oneness; pratyayas – thoughts.]

तत्र धारणायां पर्याप्तौ सत्यां प्रत्यय-एक-तानता अ-क्लिष्ट-एक-विषये स्थितिः ध्यानं नाम सप्तम-योग-अङ्गम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

धारणा इति ‘तैल-धाराम् इव’ इति (Dhyāna-bindu Up. 18).
“Like the flow of oil.” (Dhyāna-bindū Up. 18).

‘यज्ञानां जप-यज्ञः अस्मि’ इति (BhG.10.25).
“I [Īśvara] am, among yajñas (rituals), the yajña that is the mental repetition [of the Lord’s name] (japa).” (Bh. Gītā 10.25).

[samādhi – contemplation that culminates in assimilation; tad eva – the same; nirbhāsa – appearance; artha-mātra – only the object; iva – as if; śūnya – lacks; sva-rūpa – its own form.]

तद् ध्यानम् एव अर्थ-मात्र-निर्भासम् अस्मितामात्र-दर्शनता (YS.1.43) अस्य तद् चित्त-स्व-रूप-शून्यं यदि अपि भेद-वासना-बुद्धिः तिष्ठति, भेद-कल्पना-स्मृतिः सु-अल्प-कालं गलिता अस्य तद् इत्यर्थः (YS.1.43) इव समाधिः नाम अष्टम-योग-अङ्गम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[traya – three; ekatra – together; saṃyama – uniting.]

त्रयं धारना-ध्यान-समाधि-साधनम् एकत्र संयमः नाम॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tad-jaya – mastering that; āloka – there manifests; prajñā – knowledge that is assimilated.]

तद्-जयात् संयम-जयात् प्रज्ञा-आलोकः संयम-विषये प्रज्ञा-विस्तारः, ऋतं-भरा प्रज्ञा इत्यर्थः (YS.1.48)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[viniyoga – application; tasya – of that; bhūmis – stages.]

तस्य संयमस्य भूमिषु योग-उपाय-प्रति-अवस्थानेषु (YS.2.27) विनियोगः प्रवृत्तिः, योगी ध्यान-शीलः भवेत् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[traya – these three; antar-aṅgas – internal limbs; pūrvas – preceding.]

त्रयं संयम-नाम अन्तर्-अङ्गं सूक्ष्मतर-अङ्गं पूर्वेभ्यः पञ्च-योग-अङ्गेभ्यः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tad api – even they; bahir-aṅgas – external limbs; nir-bīja – free of seed.]

तद् त्रयम् अपि बहिर्-अङ्गम् अ-सु-सूक्ष्म-अङ्गं स-अविद्या-बीजतया निर्-बीजस्य ऋतं-भर-समाधेः कैवल्यस्य॥ – [Vṛtti]

निर्-बीजस्य इति ‘(सनत्-कुमार: उवाच) तस्य ह वै एतस्य एवं पश्यतः एवं मन्वानस्य एवं विजानतः – आत्मतः प्राणः, आत्मतः आशा, आत्मतः स्मरः, आत्मतः आकाशः, आत्मतः तेजः, आत्मतः आपः, आत्मतः आविर्-भाव-तिरो-भावौ, आत्मतः अन्नम्, आत्मतः बलम्, आत्मतः विज्ञानम्, आत्मतः ध्यानम्, आत्मतः चित्तम्, आत्मतः सङ्कल्पः, आत्मतः मनः, आत्मतः वाक्, आत्मतः नाम, आत्मतः मन्त्राः, आत्मतः कर्माणि, आत्मतः एव इदं सर्वम् इति॥ तद् एषः श्लोकः। न पश्यः मृत्युं पश्यति, न रोगं, न उत दुःखतां, सर्वं ह पश्यः पश्यति सर्वम् आप्नोति सर्वशः इति’ इति (ChanU.7.26.1–2).
“For the one who sees (paśyan) thus [i.e., knows as clearly as seeing], [because of being one] who contemplates (manvāna) thus [i.e., thinks over with reason], and who ascertains (vijānan) thus [i.e., correctly determines] – from ātman is life (prāṇa), hope and love, space, fire and water, appearance and disappearance, food and strength, cognition, meditation, memory, intension and mind, speech and name, Veda verses and rituals – all this is from ātman alone. There is this verse – Seeing [thus] one does not see death, nor disease, nor affliction. Seeing [thus], one sees all and attains all, in all ways.” (Chāndogya Up. 7.26.1 and 2).

[pariṇāma – change; nirodha – assimilation; anvaya – regarding; citta – mind; kṣaṇa – moment; nirodha – assimilation; prādur-bhāva – arising; saṃskāras – latent tendencies; nirodha – assimilation; abhibhava – quelling; vyutthāna – active mind.]

अथ संयमे की-दृशः चित्त-परिणामः, सर्व-दृष्टेषु च धर्म-लक्षण-अवशा-परिणामानां वस्तु-देश-काल-परिणामानां प्रथम: (YS.3.13) – व्युत्थान-निरोध-संस्कारयोः अभिभव-प्रादुर्-भावौ अ-निरोध-चित्ते क्लिष्ट-संस्कारस्य शमः निरोध-चित्ते शासन-अ-क्लिष्ट-संस्कारस्य उद्भवः च निरोध-क्षण-चित्त-अन्वयः निरोध-समय-चित्ते सन्तत-अनुगतः निरोध-परिणामः समाधि-निरोधे धर्म-विकारः भवति॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tasya – its; vāhitā – flow; praśānta – clarity; saṃskāra – latent tendency.]

तस्य चित्तस्य प्रशान्त-वाहिता सत्त्वता-शम-सन्तत-प्रवाहः अ-क्लिष्ट-संस्कारात्, चित्ते अ-क्लिष्ट-संस्कार-प्राधान्य-अनुगतः समाधि-धर्म-सन्तत-परिणामः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

संस्कारात् इति ‘न निरोधः न च उत्पत्तिः न बद्धः न च साधकः। न मुमुक्षुः न वै मुक्तः इति एषा परम-अर्थता’ इति (Brahma-bindu Up. 10, ManKa.2.32).
“There is no destruction, nor origination, nor one in bondage, nor one trying [to get out of bondage], no desire for freedom, nor freedom – this is the nature of ultimate reality.” (Brahma-bindu Up. 10, Māṇḍūkya Up. Kārikā 2.32).

[pariṇāma – change; samādhi – contemplation; citta – mind; kṣaya – losing; sarva-arthatā – all directedness; udaya – gaining; eka-agratā – one directedness.]

सर्व-अर्थता-एक-अग्रतयोः क्षय-उदयौ विविध-विषयत्व-चित्तस्य क्षयः एक-अग्रता-चितस्य उदयः च उभौ चित्तस्य समाधि-परिणामः समाधि-प्रथम-क्षण-पूर्वकः विकारः भवति, समाधि-पुरस्-सरण-लक्षणं धारणा-ध्यान-धर्म-परिणामः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[punaḥ – and; tataḥ – apart from those; pariṇāma – change; eka-agratā – one directedness; citta – mind; tulya – same; pratyaya – thought; śānta – past; udita – present.]

ततः तद्-द्वि-परिणामयोः पृथक् पुनर्शान्त-उदितौ तुल्य-प्रत्ययौ पूर्व-उत्तरौ तुल्य-द्वि-प्रत्ययौ चित्तस्य एक-अग्रता-परिणामः एक-अग्रतायाम् अवस्था-विकारः भवति, ध्यान-अवस्था ध्यान-कालः एक-अग्रता-सम-धर्म-परिणामः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[etena – by this; vyākhyāta – are explained; pariṇāmas – changes; dharmas – distinguishing characteristics; lakṣaṇas – extrinsic symptoms; avasthās – periods; bhūtas – objects; indriyas – senses.]

एतेन चित्त-परिणाम-त्रयेण दृष्ट-अन्तेन (cf. YS.2.31 & 3.53) भूत-इन्द्रियेषु सर्वेषु दृष्टेषु दर्शनेषु च अपि धर्म-लक्षण-अवस्था-परिणामाः नाम वस्तुतः देशतः कालतः च विकाराः इत्यर्थः व्याख्याताः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[dharmin – domain of the characteristics; anupātin – consequence; dharmas – distinguishing characteristics; śānta – past; udita – present; a-vyapadeśya – future.]

शान्त-उदित-अ-व्यपदेश्य-धर्म-अनुपाती (YS.1.9) भूत-भवत्-भविष्यत्-कालतः धर्मभिः उपाधीयते धर्मी देशतः वस्तु, यस्मिन् धर्माः स्व-काले व्यक्ताः अ-व्यक्ताः च सः धर्मी, तद् सत्-वस्तु अधिष्ठानं न परिणमते न व्यभिचरति, यथा घटे व्यक्ते अ-व्यक्ते च सति तद्-आकाशः न व्यभिचरति, ततः इदं धर्म-परिणाम-भेदत्वं धर्मि-भेदत्वेन कल्पते अ-विवेकतः॥ – [Vṛtti]

धर्मी इति ‘मनस्-आद्ः च प्राण-आदिः च इच्छा-आदिः च सत्त्व-आदिः च पुण्य-आदिः च एते पञ्च-वर्गाणां धर्मी भूत-आत्म-ज्ञानात् ऋते न विनश्यति, आत्म-सन्निधौ नित्यत्वेन प्रतीयमानः आत्म-उपाधिः यः तद् लिङ्ग-शरीरं हृद्-ग्रन्थिः इति उच्यते। तत्र यद् प्रकाशते चैतन्यं सः क्षेत्र-ज्ञः इति उच्यते’ इति (Sarva-Sāra Up. 16, or 7 & 8 by a different numbering).
“The mind, [memory, intellect, and I-notion], the outward breath, [downward breath, dispersing circulation, upward energy, and uniting digestion], desire, [and aversion], sattva, [rajas, and tamas guṇas], and karma merit, [and demerit] – these are the five groups [of characteristics of the individual person who travels from birth to birth, the jīva]. The domain (dharmin) [i.e., the individual jīva] of these five groups, lacking knowledge of the self of these elements [the bhūta-ātman], does not die [i.e., keeps wandering in saṃsāra]. It appears as being timeless [only] within [i.e., because of] the presence of [the timeless] ātman. What is an [apparently limiting] adjunct (upādhi) of ātman is that subtle body (liṅga-śarīra) called the knot of [i.e., around] the heart (hṛd-granthi) [ – the shackle of ignorance within the mind that needs to be dissolved for freedom]. In that [subtle body], the consciousness which lights it up is called the knower of the field [of this body and of the body of the universe] (kṣetra-jña).” (Sarva-Sāra Up. 16, or 7 and 8 by a different numbering).

[anyatva – difference; krama – sequence; hetu – cause; anyatva – difference; pariṇāma – change.]

क्रम-अन्यत्वं धर्माणां क्रम-भेदत्वं, यथा पूर्वं शीतम् अपरम् उष्णम्, अथवा पूर्वम् उष्णम् अपरं शीतं परिणाम-अन्यत्वे तापन-शीतल-आदि-परिणाम-रूप-भेदत्वे हेतुः परिणामः धर्म-क्रम-अपेक्षः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[traya – three-fold; saṃyama – contemplation; pariṇāma – change; jñāna – knowledge; atīta – past; an-āgata – future.]

अथ विविधाः परिणाम-आदि-संयमाः – परिणाम-त्रय-संयमात् अतीत-अन्-आगत-ज्ञानं भूत-भविष्यत्-रूप-काल-ज्ञानं चित्त-कल्पनात्वेन (YS.4.12–13 & 33) – प्रत्यक्ष-प्रमाण-अ-विषयतया चित्त-कल्पना-धर्मवन्तौ, प्रत्यक्ष-धर्म-भवत्-लक्षणात् अन्यौ यदि अपि भवत्-अवस्थायाम् एव प्रतीतौ॥ – [Vṛtti]

सूत्र इति ‘सु-अल्प-अक्षरम् अ-सन्दिग्धं सारवत् विश्वतो-मुखम्। अ-स्तोभम् अन्-अ-वद्यं च सूत्रं सूत्र-विदः विदुः’ इति (Śabda-Stoma-Mahānidhi: A Sanskrit Dictionary by Tārānātha Bhaṭṭāchārya).
“Those who know sūtra literature know a sūtra as having minimal syllables (su-alpa-akṣara), lacking ambiguity (a-sandigdha), being meaningful (sāravat), being able to have more than one valid meaning as well as being non-contradicting (viśvato-mukha) [with what is said before and after], lacking elaboration in praise (a-stobha), and having no fault (an-a-vadya) [in grammar or logic].” (Śabda-Stoma-Mahānidhi: A Sanskrit Dictionary by Tārānātha Bhaṭṭāchārya).

[saṅkara – confusion; śabda-artha-pratyaya – word-object-idea; adhyāsa – being imposed; itara-itara – each other. saṃyama – contemplation; tad-pravibhāgas – its separate parts; jñāna – knowledge; rutas – sounds; sarva-bhūtas – all beings.]

शब्द-अर्थ-प्रत्ययानाम् इतर-इतर-अध्यासात् यस्मात् नाम-वस्तु-रूपाणां परस्-पर-अध्यासः सङ्करः मिश्रं, तद्-प्रविभाग-संयमात् सङ्कर-विवेक-संयमात् (YS.1.42–4) सर्व-भूत-रुत-ज्ञानं सर्व-भूतानां वाक्-प्रयोजन-ज्ञानं संसार-सङ्कर-निमित्तत्वेन भवेत्, ‘समाने वृषे पुरुषः निमग्नः अन्-ईशया शोचति मुह्यमानः’ इति (MunU.3.1.2) ‘प्राणि-सुख-दुःख-उद्भूत-हर्ष-शोक-जात-नृत्य-गीत-वादित्र-क्ष्वेलित-आस्फोटित-हसित-आकृष्ट-रुदित-हा-हा-मुञ्च-मुञ्च-इति-आदि-अन्-एक-शब्द-कृत-तुमुली-भूत-महा-रवः’ इति (‘ऊर्ध्व-मूलः अवाक्-शाखः…’ इति KathU.2.3.1 Śaṅkara-bhāṣya)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[saṃskāras – latent tendencies; sākṣāt – immediate; karaṇa – instrumental cause; jñāna – knowledge; pūrva – prior; jātis – births.]

संस्कार-साक्षात्-करणात् अस्मिन् जन्मनि संस्कार-साक्षात्-करण-संयमात् पूर्व-जाति-ज्ञानं स्वे परेषु च पूर्व-जन्मनां निज-संस्कार-अपेक्षा-ज्ञानम् (YS.2.12–13)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[pratyaya – thought; jñāna – knowledge; para – other; cittas – minds.]

स्व-प्रत्ययस्य संयमात् पर-चित्त-ज्ञानम् अन्य-चित्त-प्रकार-ज्ञानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रत्ययस्य इति ‘मातुर् मानाभिनिष्पत्तिः निष्पन्नं मेयम् एति तत्। मेयाभिसङ्गतं तच् च मेयाभत्वं प्रपद्यते’ इति (PancD.4.30).
“From the cognizer the cognition is produced. Having been produced, it reaches out to its object. Having come together with its object, it assumes the form of the object.” (Pañca-Daśī 4.30).

‘यत्र यथा तटाक-उदकं छिद्रात् निर्गत्य कुल्या-आत्मना केदारान् प्रविश्य तद्वत् एव चतुर्-कोण-आदि-आकारं भवति, तथा तैजसम् अन्तःकरणम् अपि चक्षुर्-आदि-द्वारा निर्गत्य घट-आदि-विषय-देशं गत्वा घट-आदि-विषय-आकारेण परिणमते। सः एव परिणामः वृत्तिः इति उच्यते’ इति (Vedānta-paribhāṣā 1.18).
“Here [regarding an external object cognition], just like water from a pond goes out through an opening, enters the fields in the form of canals, and becomes a four cornered form, etc., similarly the luminous mind (antaḥ-karaṇa) also goes out through the gate of sight, etc. [any of the five senses], reaches the locale of an object (viṣaya), such as pot, etc., and changes into the form of the object, the pot, etc. That modification (pariṇāma) is called a vṛtti (thought or thought-form).” (Vedānta-paribhāṣā 1.18).

‘पराञ्चनि खानि’ इति (KathU.2.1.1).
“Outgoing senses” (Kaṭha Up. 2.1.1).

‘पञ्च-श्रोतस्-अम्बुं पञ्च-योनि-उग्र-वक्राम्’ इति (SvetU.1.5).
“The five streams of water [the five senses] violently meandering among their five sources [the five great elements]” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 1.5).

‘अन्यत्र-मना अभूवमं न अदर्शम्, अन्यत्र-मना अभूवं न अश्रौषम्’ इति (BrhUEng.1.5.3).
“With the mind elsewhere I did not see, with the mind elsewhere I did not hear” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 1.5.3).

[ca – but; na – not; tat-sa-ālambana – accompanied with its basis; a-viṣayī-bhūtatva – is not within the scope; tasya – of that.]

तद्-ज्ञानं न च तु तद्-स-आलम्बनं पर-चित्तस्य आदिम-संस्कारेण सहितं, तस्य स्व-चित्तस्य अ-विषयी-भूतत्वात् तस्मात् पर-चित्तस्य ज्ञानं न संपूर्णं भवेत्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[saṃyama – contemplation; rūpa – form; kāya – body; tad-grāhya-śakti – its capability of being grasped; stambha – stopped; a-saṃprayoga – non-contact; prakāśa – light; cakṣus – sight; antar-dhāna – concealment.]

काय-रूप-संयमात् तद्-ग्राह्य-शक्ति-स्तम्भे स्वयं तिरस्-भूते तूष्णी-भूते च इत्यर्थः चक्षुस्-प्रकाश-अ-संप्रयोगे चित्तस्य पर-देह-आदि-विषय-आक्षेपेण (YS.2.51–54) च सति स्व-देहस्य पर-देहस्य च अन्तर्-धानं बुद्धि-कृतम् अन्-अवधानं, स्थूल-विषयेषु न चित्त-विक्षेपाः इत्यर्थः (YS.1.30–31)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[karma – subtle result of willful action; sa-upakrama – has a sequence that is quick; ca – and; nir-upakrama – has a sequence that is slow; saṃyama – contemplation; tat – that; – or; a-riṣṭas – ill-omens; jñāna – knowledge; apara-anta – death.]

स-उपक्रमं निर्-उपक्रमं च स-फलं शीघ्रम् अ-शीघ्रं च कर्म, तद्-संयमात् अपर-अन्त-ज्ञानं मरण-काल-ज्ञानम्, अ-रिष्टेभ्यः दुर्-निमित्तेभ्यः वा॥ – [Vṛtti]

[maitrī-ādi – goodwill, etcetera; balas – strengths.]

मैत्री-आदिषु (YS.1.33) संयमात् बलानि मैत्री-करुणा-मुदित-उपेक्ष-बलानि॥ – [Vṛtti]

[balas – strengths; bala-ādi – strength, etcetera; hastin – elephant.]

पर-भूत-बलेषु संयमात् हस्ति-बल-आदीनि हस्ति-आदि-अपेक्षा-नैपुण्यानि॥ – [Vṛtti]

[nyāsa – directing; āloka – light; pravṛtti – outward; jñāna – knowledge; sūkṣma – subtle; vyavahita – concealed; viprakṛṣṭa – remote.]

प्रवृत्ति-आलोक-न्यासात् बहिर्-बुद्धि-प्रकाश-लक्ष्यी-करणात् सूक्ष्म-व्यवहित-विप्रकृष्ट-ज्ञानं सूक्ष्म-गूढ-दूराणां ज्ञानं यथा सूर्यं प्रति॥ – [Vṛtti]

[saṃyama – contemplation; sūrya – sun; jñāna – knowledge; bhuvanas – worlds.]

भुवन-ज्ञानं तमस्-रजस्-सत्त्वस्य भूर्-भुवस्-स्वरः ज्ञानं सूर्ये भास्करे पूषनि ब्रह्म-लोक-द्वारे संयमात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

सूर्ये इति ‘तत् सवितुर् वरेण्यं भर्गो देवस्य धीमहि। धियो यो नः प्रचोदयात्’ इति (Gāyatrī Mantra, Ṛg Veda 3.62.10).
“We meditate upon that to be worshiped of the sun as this effulgence of the Lord which impels our intellects.” (Gāyatrī Mantra, Ṛg Veda 3.62.10).

‘केन इषितं पतति प्रेषितं मनः’ इति (KenU.1.1).
“Impelled by what (agent, by its mere presence) does the mind go directed (to its object)?” (Kena Up. 1.1).

‘आदित्यं गच्छति एतद् वै खलु लोक-द्वारम्’ इति (ChanU.8.6.5).
“He goes to the sun, this indeed is the doorway to the [highest] realms [of heaven].” (Chāndogya Up. 8.6.5 and 6).

‘हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्य अपिहितं मुखम्। तद् त्वं पूषन् अपावृणु सत्य-धर्माय दृष्टये’ इति (BrhU.5.15.1).
“The face [i.e., the true nature] of satya (i.e., brahman) is [as though] hidden by the golden vessel (pātra) [i.e., the blinding sun]. O Sun, please remove that [pātra, the blinding manifest form of yourself] for showing [the satya] to [me] the one whose nature is that satya.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 5.15.1).

‘ते ये एवम् एतद् विदुः, ये च अमी अरण्ये श्रद्धां सत्यम् उपासते, ते अर्चिः अभिसम्भवन्ति, अर्चिषः अहः, अह्नः आपूर्यमाण-पक्षम् आपूर्यमाण-पक्षात् यान् षण्मासान् उदन् आदित्यः एति, मासेभ्यः देव-लोकं, देव-लोकात् आदित्यम्, आदित्याद् वैद्युतं, तान् वैद्युतान् पुरुषः मानसः एत्य ब्रह्म-लोकान् गमयति, ते तेषु ब्रह्म-लोकेषु पराः परावतः वसन्ति, तेषां न पुनर्-आवृत्तिः’ इति (BrhU.6.2.15).
“Those who meditate upon this [five-fire ritual] in this way, and those in the forest who meditate with faith upon satya [i.e., Hiraṇya-garbha, the limit of subtlety but as ‘other’ than oneself, falling short of limitless brahman], they enter into the [funeral] fire[-deity], from the fire[-deity] they go to the day[-deity], from the day[-deity] to the waxing fortnight[-deity], from the waxing fortnight[-deity] to those six-months[-deities] where the sun travels north, by those six-months[-deities] to the heaven of the deities, from the heaven of the deities to the sun[-deity], from the sun[-deity] to the lightening-deity. From the lightening-deity a person born of the mind [of Hiraṇya-garbha] comes and takes them to the realms called brahma-loka [the highest heaven, wherein one can be taught brahma-vidyā, presumably, in the highest of these realms and get out of this rebirth cycle completely]. In those realms of brahma-loka they live a long time. For them there is no return again [during the life of this Hiraṇya-garbha, if at all, they will return upon the dissolution of that current brahma-loka during pralaya, the dissolution of all worlds for the next manifestation cycle].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 6.2.15).

[candra – moon; jñāna – knowledge; vyūha – arrangement; tārās – stars.]

चन्द्रे नक्षत्र-नाथे दक्षिण-आयन-देवतायां संयमात् तारा-व्यूह-ज्ञानं नक्षत्र-रचना-मार्ग-ज्ञानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

चन्द्रे इति ‘अथ ये यज्ञेन दानेन तपसा लोकान् जयन्ति ते धूमम् अभिसम्भवन्ति, धूमाद् रात्रिं रात्रेः पक्षीयमाण-पक्षम् अपक्षीयमाण-पक्षाद् यान् षण्मासान् दक्षिण-आदित्यः एति, मासेभ्यः पितृ-लोकं, पितृ-लोकात् चन्द्रं, ते चन्द्रं प्राप्य अन्नं भवन्ति, तान् तत्र देवाः यथा सोमं राजानम् आप्यायस्व अपक्षीयस्व इति, एवम् एनान् तत्र भक्षयन्ति, तेषां यदा तत् पर्यवैति अथ इमम् एव आकाशम् अभिनिष्पद्यन्ते, आकाशाद् वायुं, वायोः वृष्टिं, वृष्टेः पृथिवीं, ते पृथिवीं प्राप्य अन्नं भवन्ति, ते पुनः पुरुष-अग्नौ हूयन्ते, ततः योषा-अग्नौ जायन्ते, लोकान् प्रति उत्थायिनः ते एवम् एव अनुपरिवर्तन्ते, अथ ये एतौ पन्थानौ न विदुः ते कीटाः पतङ्गाः यद् इदं दन्दशूकम्’ इति (BrhU.6.2.16).
“Whereas, those who win [heavenly] worlds through ritual, charity, and prayerful discipline enter into the [funeral] smoke[-deity], from the smoke[-deity] they go to the night[-deity], from the night[-deity] to the waning fortnight[-deity], from the waning fortnight[-deity] to the six-months[-deities] where the sun travels south, from those six-months[-deities] to the heaven of the ancestors, from the heaven of the ancestors to the moon[-deity]. Reaching the moon[-deity] they [i.e., their karmas that brought them here] become food. There the deities enjoy them [like one enjoys] King Soma [saying] thus, ‘May you increase and [then] diminish [like the moon].’ When that [karma] of theirs elapses, then they fall out [of the lunar heaven] to this space [i.e., they, being emptied of their load of karma that was consumed by and thus swelled the waxing of the moon, become like empty space], from space to air, from air to rain, from rain to the earth. Reaching the earth they [i.e., their watery bodies] become food again, and they are offered into the [digestive] fire of a male, from him they [as seed] are born in the [reproductive] fire of a female, in this way alone rising [again] to [other] worlds they revolve [in saṃsāra]. But, those who do not know [and follow] either of these two paths [of rites to the lunar heavens and of meditations to the solar heavens] [directly] become [i.e., may be born as] worms, flies, and this [bug, etc.] that keeps biting [us].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 6.2.16).

[dhruva – pole star; jñāna – knowledge; tad-gati – their movement.]

ध्रुवे संयमात् तद्-गति-ज्ञानं नक्षत्र-चक्र-गति-ज्ञानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[nābhi-cakra – navel plexus; jñāna – knowledge; vyūha – arrangement; kāya – body.]

नाभि-चक्रे संयमात् काय-व्यूह-ज्ञानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[kaṇṭha-kūpa – cavity of the throat; nivṛtti – suppression; kṣudh – hunger; pipāsā – thirst.]

कण्ठ-कूपे संयमात् क्षुत्-पिपासा-निवृत्तिः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[kūrma-nāḍī – bronchial passage[s]; sthairya – calmness.]

कूर्म-नाड्यां कूर्मः इव कूर्मः नाम उरस्-स्थ-नाडी तस्यां, तद्-सन्निधि-प्राणे संयमात् स्थैर्यं चित्त-स्थैर्यं, यथा प्राण-विक्षणे॥ – [Vṛtti]

[mūrdhan-jyotis – light in the head; darśana – vision; siddhas – accomplished beings.]

मूर्ध-ज्योतिषि मूर्धनि शिरसि ज्योतिः चित्त-चैतन्यं तस्मिन् दृशि, मूर्ध-नाडि-प्राणस्य वा प्रगत्यां संयमात् सिद्ध-दर्शनं तेषां सिद्धं ज्ञानं भवेत्, अथवा वि-देह-आदि-सिद्ध-पुरुष-स्वर्ग-स्थस्य दर्शनं भवेत् (YS.3.25 & 1.19)॥ – [Vṛtti]

सिद्ध-दर्शनम् इति ‘अथ यत्र एतद् अस्मात् शरीराद् उत्क्रामति अथ एतैः एव रश्मिभिः ऊर्ध्वम् आक्रमते सः ओम् इति वा ह उद् वा मीयते सः यावत् क्षिप्येन् मनः तावद् आदित्यं गच्छति एतद् वै खलु लोक-द्वारं विदुषां प्रपदनं, निरोधः अ-विदुषाम्॥ तद् एषः श्लोकः। शतं च एका च हृदयस्य नाड्यः तासां मूर्धानम् अभिनिःसृता एका। तया ऊर्ध्वम् आयन् अ-मृतत्वम् एव विष्वन् अन्याः उत्क्रमणे भवन्ति उत्क्रमणे भवन्ति’ इति (ChanU.8.6.5–6 & KathU.2.3.16).
“Thus when this one [the common person] departs from this body, as well as the one who dies [uttering, i.e., meditating upon] ‘Om,’ then one goes upward through these rays alone [that come from the sun into the subtle pathways in the body called the nāḍīs reaching to the heart, and from them back to the sun, see Chāndogya Up. 8.6.2, i.e., there is no disconnect of energy between the center of oneself and the representative center of the universe]. After the mind fails [to remain tied to this body], then one goes to the sun, this indeed is the doorway to the [highest] realms [of heaven]. There is passage [through the sun] for the [sufficiently] wise, but there is obstruction [there] for the unwise. There is this verse – ‘One hundred and one nāḍīs of the heart. One of them goes out to the head. Going upward through that, one attains deathlessness. The other [nāḍīs] [going] in different directions are when going out [in those other directions, upon death].’” (Chāndogya Up. 8.6.5 and 6, and Kaṭha Up. 2.3.16).

‘सर्व-द्वाराणि संयम्य मनः हृदि निरुध्य च। मूर्ध्नि आधाय आत्मनः प्राणम् आस्थितः योग-धारणाम्॥ ओम् इति एक-अक्षरं ब्रह्म व्याहरन् माम् अनुस्मरन्। यः प्रयाति त्यजन् देहं सः याति परमां गतिम्’ इति (BhG.8.12–13).
“Closing all the gates [i.e., the sense organs] and [as a visualization] withdrawing the mind into the heart; placing one’s breath at [the top of] the head, and remaining [there] holding [the last breath] by [the strength of] yoga; chanting the single syllable ‘Om,’ which is brahman; remembering Me accordingly [through My teaching], [while] giving up the body – the one [yogin who is not yet fully wise] who departs [by movement as it were] – that one reaches the most exalted end [within saṃsāra, i.e., brahma-loka, the seventh heaven, where one may be taught brahma-vidyā and thus freed].” (Bh. Gītā 8.12 and 13).

‘यः एव असौ आदित्ये पुरुषः…अतिष्ठाः सर्वेषां भूतानां मूर्धा राजा इति वा अहम् एतम् उपास इति, सः यः एतम् एवम् उपास्ते अति-ष्ठाः सर्वेषां भूतानां मूर्धा राजा भवति’ इति (BrhU.2.1.2).
“That person [brahman] which is in the sun…I contemplate this one as existing across all beings, as [their] head and resplendent. The one who contemplates this one in this way [also] exists across all beings, as their head and resplendent.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 2.1.2).

[ – and; prātibha – light; sarva – everything.]

प्रातिभात् (YS.3.25) बुद्धि-चैतन्ये संयमात् वा सर्वं परम-पुरुष-अर्थ-कृतम् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

सर्वम् इति ‘शौनकः ह वै महा-शालः अङ्गिरसं विधिवत् उपसन्नः पप्रच्छ। कस्मिन् नु भगवः विज्ञाते सर्वम् इदं विज्ञातं भवति इति’ इति (MunU.1.1.3).
Śaunaka, a great householder, appropriately approached Aṅgiras and asked, ‘Venerable sir, upon having known what all this is known?’” (Muṇdaka Up. 1.1.3).

[hṛdaya – center; saṃvid – knowledge; citta – mind.]

हृदये बुद्धौ हृद्-आकाशे संयमात् चित्त-संवित् चित्त-स्व-रूप-ज्ञानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

हृदये इति ‘यावान् वै अयम् आकाशः तावान् एषः अन्तर्-हृदये आकाशः। उभे अस्मिन् द्यावा-पृथिवी अन्तः एव समाहिते॥ उभौ अग्निः च वायुः च सूर्या-चन्द्रमसौ उभौ विद्युत्-नक्षत्राणि। यद् च अस्य इह अस्ति यद् च न अस्ति सर्वं तद् अस्मिन् समाहितम्’ इति (ChanU.8.1.3).
“Indeed as vast as this space [in the cosmos] is this space inside the heart (antar-hṛdaye ākāśaḥ) [i.e., the mind]. In this [mind, the space in the heart] are contained [are contemplated] (samāhite) within both sky and earth, both fire and wind, both sun and moon, and lightening and stars. Whatever here one has and does not have [in this world], all that is contained [is contemplated] in this [mind, the space in the heart].” (Chāndogya Up. 8.1.3).

[bhoga – experience; arthatva – sake; para – other; a-viśeṣa – non-distinguishing; pratyaya – notion; sattva – mind; puruṣa – self; atyanta – completely; a-saṅkīrṇa – separate. saṃyama – contemplation; artha – sake; sva – the self; jñāna – knowledge; puruṣa – self.]

सत्त्व-पुरुषयोः चित्त-पुरुषोः अति-अन्त-अ-सङ्कीर्णयोः अ-शेष-भेदयोः धर्मतः (YS.2.5) प्रत्यय-अ-विशेषः अ-विवेक-प्रत्ययः भोगः पर-अर्थत्वात् यस्मात् अन्-आत्म-अर्थः, स्व-अर्थ-संयमात् आत्म-अवस्थान-अर्थे संयमात् तु पुरुष-ज्ञानं स्व-परम-पुरुष-ज्ञानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

सत्त्वम् इति ‘तत्र सत्त्वं निर्-मलत्वात् प्रकाशकम् अन्-आमयम्। सुख-सङ्गेन बध्नाति ज्ञान-सङ्गेन च अन्-अघ॥ रजः राग-आत्मकं विद्धि तृष्ण-आसङ्ग-समुद्भवम्। तद् निबध्नाति कौन्तेय कर्म-सङ्गेन देहिनम्॥ तमः तु अ-ज्ञान-जं विद्धि मोहनं सर्व-देहिनाम्। प्रमाद-आलस्य-निद्राभिः तद् निबध्नाति भारत’ इति (BhG.14.6–8).
“Among these [three guṇas], sattva – since it is free from impurity – is illuminating and free from affliction – [yet] binds by [one’s] attachment to pleasure and by [one’s] attachment to knowing [i.e., attachment/identity is the problem, not the pleasure or knowledge], O Arjuna. Know rajas, which is of the nature of attraction [i.e., it is an impurity to the natural clarity of the sattva mind – projecting virtues on things they don’t have], as born of [i.e., increased by] longing and attachment. O Arjuna, it binds the embodied one by attachment to activity. Whereas, know tamas – for all those identified with their body – as delusion [i.e., as the lack of discerning the difference between oneself and objects of desire] born of [i.e., perpetuated by] ignorance. It binds by carelessness, laziness, and sleepiness, O Arjuna.” (Bh. Gītā 14.6 through 8).

‘न अन्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टा अनुपश्यति। गुणेभ्यः च परं वेत्ति मद्-भावं सः अधिगच्छति’ इति (BhG.14.19).
“When the seer sees [according to the teaching] that there is not a doer other than the guṇas and knows [the self] as beyond the guṇas, [then] that one attains My nature [called mokṣa (freedom)].” (Bh. Gītā 14.19).

पुरुष-ज्ञानम् इति ‘मनसः वृत्ति-शून्यस्य (भेद-वृत्ति-रहितस्य अ-खण्ड-आकारतया) ब्रह्म-आकारतया स्थितिः’ इति (Pātañjala-Yoga-Sūtrāṇi-Bhoja-Sadāśiva-Vṛtti 3.3).
“The status of the mind whose thoughts are unreal (śūnya) by having the form of brahman.” (Pātañjala-Yoga-Sūtrāṇi-Bhoja-Sadāśiva-Vṛtti 3.3).

‘तद्-विज्ञान-अर्थं सः गुरुम् एव अभिगच्छेत् समित्-पाणिः श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्म-निष्ठम्’ इति (MunU.1.2.12).
“For assimilated knowledge of that [reality] one must with ritual fuel in hand [as a sign of dutifulness] approach only a teacher (guru) who is learned in the scripture (śrotriya) and established in that reality (brahma-niṣṭha).” (Muṇdaka Up. 1.2.12).

‘अन्-अन्य-प्रोक्ते गतिः अत्र न अस्ति अणीयान् हि अ-तर्क्यम् अणु-प्रमाणात्’ इति (KathU.1.2.8).
“When taught by one who is [established] in no other (an-anya) [reality], there is no going (gati) [astray] in regard to it. Because, it is subtler (aṇīyas) than the subtle (aṇu) and unapproachable by mere logic (a-tarkya).” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.8).

‘वेद अहम् एतं पुरुषं महान्तम् आदित्य-वर्णं तमसः परस्तात्। तम् एव विदित्वा अति-मृत्युम् एति न अन्यः पन्थाः विद्यते अयनाय’ इति (SvetU.3.8).
“I know this fullness (puruṣa) that is limitless (mahat), clear and bright as the sun (āditya-varṇa), and beyond the darkness [of ignorance]. By knowledge of that alone (tam eva viditvā) one goes beyond death. There is no other way of getting [there].” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 3.8).

[tataḥ – from that; jāyante – arise; prātibha – light; vārttās – activities; śrāvaṇa – hearing; vedanā – sensation; ādarśa – sight; āsvāda – taste.]

ततः स्व-अर्थ-संयमात् प्रातिभ-श्रावण-वेदन-आदर्श-आस्वाद-वार्त्ताः बुद्धि-शक्तिः श्रवणस्य स्पर्शनस्य दर्शनस्य रसनस्य घ्राणस्य इन्द्रिय-शक्तयः च, अथवा वार्त्तः वृत्ति-इत्यर्थे ततः चतुर्-इन्द्रिय-वृत्ति-शक्तयः इत्यर्थः जायन्ते॥ – [Vṛtti]

[siddhis – superpowers; vyutthāna – active mind; te – these; upasargas – impediments [or secondary]; samādhi – contemplation.]

ते प्रातिभ-आदि-शक्ति-रूपाः पुरुष-ज्ञान-अर्थ-समाधौ उपसर्गाः प्रतिबन्धकाः यदि भोगार्थाः एव, अथवा अधिकाः एव प्रतिबन्ध-रहिताः (YS.1.12 & 15), भोग-अर्थे व्युत्थाने अ-निरोध-चित्ते तु प्रयोजनवत्यः सिद्धयः॥ – [Vṛtti]

उपसर्गाः (=अधिकाः एव) इति ‘सः यः एवं वेद प्रतितिष्ठति। अन्नवान् अन्न-अदः भवति। महान् भवति। प्रजया पशुभिः ब्रह्म-वर्चसेन। महान् कीर्त्या’ इति (TaitU.3.6.1).
“One who knows [through contemplation] thusly becomes established [in the ultimate being within (parame vyoman)]. That one possesses food and is the eater of food, and is bountiful in progeny, wealth, spiritual radiance, and fame.” (Taittirīya Up. 3.6.1).

[śaithilya – loosening; kāraṇa – cause; bandha – bondage; ca – and; saṃvedana – fully understanding; pracāra – travel; citta – mind; āveśa – entering; para-śarīra – another body.]

बन्ध-कारण-शैथिल्यात् इदम्-शरीर-बन्ध-कारण-मोचनात् अभिनिवेश-क्लेश-मोचनात् च प्राचुर्येण प्रचार-संवेदनात् उदान-आदि-जीव-यात्रा-ज्ञानात् च चित्तस्य पुनर्-जन्मनि ‘योगिनाम् एव कुले’ पर-शरीर-आवेशः॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रचार-संवेदनात् इति ‘पार्थ न एव इह न अमुत्र विनाशः तस्य विद्यते। न हि कल्याण-कृत् कश्चिद् दुर्-गतिं तात गच्छति॥ प्राप्य पुण्य-कृतां लोकान् उषित्वा शाश्वतीः समाः। शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योग-भ्रष्टः अभिजायते॥ अथवा योगिनाम् एव कुले भवति धीमताम्। एतद् हि दुर्-लभतरं लोके जन्म यद् ईदृशम्॥ तत्र तं बुद्धि-संयोगं लभते पौर्व-देहिकम्। यतते च ततः भूयः संसिद्धौ कुरु-नन्दन॥ पूर्व-अभ्यासेन तेन एव ह्रियते हि अ-वशः अपि सः। जिज्ञासुः अपि योगस्य शब्द-ब्रह्म अतिवर्तते’ इति (BhG.6.40–44).
“O Arjuna, neither here itself [due to the positive attitude of śraddhā (trust in the teaching)] nor hereafter [according to karma] is there loss for that one. Because, O Dear One, [to the extent] anyone performs adaptive action [in keeping with dharma], [to that extent] that one does not get a bad lot. The one who has ‘fallen’ from this yoga gains the [same] worlds [i.e., heavens] of those who do adaptive actions, lives there for countless years, [then] is [re-]born in the home of a virtuous [i.e., following dharma] and fortunate [family]. Or [even better] that one is born in the family of wise yogins. Such a birth as this is indeed more difficult to attain in this world. There, one gains connection with [i.e., quickly matures to] an intellect [like the one] that existed while in the previous body and [then] strives further than that, towards success [i.e., complete freedom], O Arjuna. By that previous [life’s] practice [i.e., its karma-phala (the results of its karma)] alone, even without will, one is indeed swept along. Just desiring to know about [this] [jñāna-]yoga [one quickly] goes beyond the Veda text [i.e., its bulky heaven-going section].” (Bh. Gītā 6.40 through 44).

[jaya – mastering; udāna – upward energy; a-saṅga – not getting stuck; jala – water; paṅka – mud; kaṇṭakas – thorns; ādi – etcetera; ca – and; utkrānti – ascending.]

उदान-जयात् शरीर-त्याग-आदि-उदान-नाम-प्राण-ऊर्ध्व-शक्ति-वशी-करणात् जल-पङ्क-कण्टक-आदिषु अ-सङ्गः अ-निमग्नः मरण-काले उत्क्रान्तिः च॥ – [Vṛtti]

[jaya – from mastering; samāna – uniting energy; jvalana – glowing.]

समान-जयात् उदर-परिपाक-आदि-समान-नाम-प्राणस्य समी-करण-शक्तेः वशी-करणात् ज्वलनं बल-आदि-तेजः॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रचार-संवेदनात् इति ‘एषः हि एतद् हुतम् अन्नं समं नयति तस्माद् एताः सप्त-अर्चिषः भवन्ति’ इति (PrasU.3.5).
“Since this [samāna] distributes equally the food offered [into the fire of prāṇa], from that these seven flames [of prāṇa] [issue out] [through the mouth and the two eyes, ears, and nostrils].” (Praśna Up. 3.5).

[saṃyama – contemplation; saṃbandha – connection; śrotra – sense of hearing; ākāśa – element space; divya – divine; śrotra – hearing.]

श्रोत्र-आकाशयोः श्रवण-आकाशयोः संबन्ध-संयमात् कार्य-कारण-व्यष्टि-समष्टि-संबन्धे संयमात् दिव्यं श्रोत्रं श्रुति-व्यष्टि-समष्टि-शासन-श्रवणम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

आकाशस्य इति ‘तस्माद् वै एतस्माद् आत्मनः आकाशः संभूतः। आकाशाद् वायुः। वायोः अग्निः। अग्नेः आपः। अद्भ्यः पृथिवी’ इति (TaitU.2.1.1).
“From that [brahman] indeed, which is this self (ātman), exists space. From space [exists] air, from air fire, from fire water, from water earth.” (Taittirīya Up. 2.1.1).

‘सद् एव सोम्य इदम् अग्रे आसीद् एकम् एव अ-द्वितीयम्…तद् ऐक्षत बहु स्यां प्रजायेय इति तत् तेजः असृजत, तत् तेजः ऐक्षत बहु स्यां प्रजायेय इति तद् अपः असृजत। तस्माद् यत्र क्वच शोचति स्वेदते वा पुरुषः तेजसः एव तद् अधि आपः जायन्ते॥ ताः आपः ऐक्षन्त बह्व्यः स्याम प्रजायेमहि इति ताः अन्नम् असृजन्त, तस्माद् यत्र क्व च वर्षति तद् एव भूयिष्ठम् अन्नं भवति अद्भ्यः एव तद् अधि अन्न-अद्यं जायते’ इति (ChanU.6.2.1 & 3–4).
“In the beginning [of this manifestation cycle], my dear, [all] this was existence (sat) alone, one indeed without a second. …That [existence as the Lord] envisioned [as it was before and in keeping with that], ‘May I be many, may I be born [as though many].’ That [existence] gave rise to Fire. That Fire envisioned, ‘May I be many, may I be born [as though many].’ That [Fire] gave rise to Water. Therefore, whenever a person is hot he perspires. So water is produced indeed from heat. That Water envisioned, ‘May I be many, may I be born [as though many].’ That [Water] gave rise to Food, i.e., Earth. Therefore, whenever it rains, then abundant food arises. So eatable food is produced from water.” (Chāndogya Up. 6.2.1 and 3 through 4).

‘पृथिव्याः ओषधयः। ओषधीभ्यः अन्नम्। अन्नात् पुरुषः। सः वै एषः पुरुषः अन्न-रसमयः’ इति (TaitU.2.1.1).
“From the earth are plants. From plants is food. From food is the person. This very person is made from the essence of food.” (Taittirīya Up. 2.1.1).

‘एतावद् वै इदं सर्वम् अन्नं च एव अन्नादः च’ इति (BrhU.1.4.6).
“All this [universe] is indeed this much – food and the eater of food.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 1.4.6).

‘सा इयं देवता ऐक्षत हन्त अहम् इमाः तिस्रः देवताः अनेन जीवेन आत्मना अनुप्रविश्य नाम-रूपें व्याकरवाणि इति॥ तासां त्रि-वृतं त्रि-वृतम् एक-एकां करवाणि इति सा इयं देवता इमाः तिस्रः देवताः अनेन एव जीवेन आत्मना अनुप्रविश्य नाम-रूपे व्याकरोत्॥…यद् अग्ने रोहितं रूपं तेजसः तद् रूपं यद् शुक्लं तद् अपां, यत् कृष्णं तद् अन्नस्य – अपागाद् अग्नेः अग्नित्वं वाचा-आरम्भणं विकारः नामधेयं त्रीणि रूपाणि इति एव सत्यम्’ इति (ChanU.6.3.2–3 & 4.1).
“This very Lord thought, ‘Well, may I enter into these three deities [i.e., Fire, Water, and Food/Earth] through this [individual] living ātman [as in the previous cycle] and [through the enlivened mind therein] differentiate [all things] into name and form.’ This very Lord (thought), ‘Of these [three deities], may I make each one threefold. May I enter into these three deities through this [individual] living ātman and [through the enlivened mind therein] differentiate [all things] into name and form.’ In [triplicated, i.e., material/visible] fire, what is the red color/form is the color/form of [undifferentiated] Fire, what is the white color/form [in the fire] is that of Water, and what is the black color/form [in the fire] is that of Food/Earth – [thus] [a single] form/nature of [visible] fire has gone away from [what we call] fire [that is really tri-formed] [i.e., all that we give a name to is in fact a semblance consisting of something more subtle, and that more subtle is more real as it is more permanent]. [All] modification [i.e., form (rūpa)] is originating from speech (vācā-ārambhaṇa), mere name alone (nāmadheya). The three forms [of undifferentiated Fire, Water, and Food/Earth, not available to the senses] alone are [relatively] real (satya) [as even their reality is but existence (sat) itself, which has no beginning, no modification, and no end].” (Chāndogya Up. 6.3.2 through 3, and 6.4.1).

[saṃyama – contemplation; saṃbandha – connection; kāya – body; ākāśa – space; ca – and; samāpatti – contemplation; laghu-tūla – light cotton; gamana – movement; ākāśa – space.]

काय-आकाशयोः देह-आकाशयोः संबन्ध-संयमात् कारणमय-कार्यस्य कारणस्य च व्यष्टेः समष्टेः च संबन्धे संयमात् लघु-तूल-समापत्तेः तूल-पिण्ड-आदि-लघु-पद-अर्थ-समापत्तिः तया अपि आकाश-गमनम् आकाशे हि आकाशतया च सर्व-गमनम्, अ-प्रतिबद्ध-चित्तस्य हृद्-आकाशे च॥ – [Vṛtti]

आकाश-गमनम् इति ‘ते सर्व-गं सर्वतः प्राप्य धीराः युक्त-आत्मानः (=युक्त-चेतसः) सर्वम् एव आविशन्ति’ इति (MunU.3.2.5).
“Those wise [sages], whose minds are merged [in that reality] [and thus] having attained the all-pervading (sarva-ga) in every way, they enter [i.e., become] everything indeed [as the self of all].” (Muṇḍaka Up. 3.2.5).

[vṛtti – thought; bahir – externally; a-kalpita – without error; mahā-vi-deha – great disembodiment. tataḥ – from that; āvaraṇa – covering; prakāśa – light; kṣaya – removed.]

बहिस् पराक्-इन्द्रिय-द्वारेण अ-कल्पिता आत्म-परिच्छेद-विकल्पना-रहिता बुद्धि-वृत्तिः महा-वि-देहा अत्यन्त-देह-विमुक्ता, ततः प्रकाश-आवरण-क्षयः विद्या-प्रतिबन्द-क्षयः॥ – [Vṛtti]

महा-वि-देहा इति ‘विकरोति अपरान् भावान् अन्तर्-चित्ते व्यवस्थितान्। नियतान् च बहिर्-चित्तः एवं कल्पयते प्रभुः॥ चित्त-कालाः हि ये अन्तः तु द्वय-कालाः च ये बहिः। कल्पिताः एव ते सर्वे विशेषः न अन्य-हेतुकः॥ अ-व्यक्ताः एव ये अन्तः तु स्फुटाः एव च ये बहिः। कल्पिताः एव ते सर्वे विशेषः तु इन्द्रिय-अन्तरे’ इति (ManKa.2.13–15).
“The Lord (prabhu) [i.e., the limitless self] diversely manifests (vikaroti) the limited (a-para) objects existing [dis-orderly, as in dream] inside the mind as well as the orderly [objects] outside the mind – in this way [the self] imagines (kalpayate). Those [objects] are inside because their time [of manifestation] is only that of their thought, whereas those others are outside [because] their time [of manifestation] is twice [i.e., as the time one is thinking of them and as the time of their being seen, or, in other words, their time from the perspective of the seer and from the perspective of the seen], so, the distinction having no other reason [than their time of manifestation, and not for reason of any separate intrinsic nature on their part], they all [both internal and external objects] are but imaginations (kalpitas) [i.e., temporally ‘fixed up’ by the mind]. Those [objects] which are inside are indistinct (a-vyakta), whereas the others which are outside are distinct (sphuṭa). [Since] their distinction is but the difference in the organ [that perceives it, whether the mind or the mind via the senses], then [external objects being not intrinsically different from dream or mental-only objects] are [as well] all imaginations [i.e., not absolutely real].” (Māṇḍūkya Up. Kārikā 2.13 through 15).

[saṃyama – contemplation; arthavattva – significance; anvaya – connection; sthūla – gross; sūkṣma – subtle; sva-rūpa – its own nature; jaya – mastery; bhūta – created.]

स्थूल-स्व-रूप-सूक्ष्म-अन्वय-अर्थवत्त्व-संयमात् स्थूल-रूपं स्व-रूपं सूक्ष्म-रूपं च तेषां समन्वयस्य तत्त्वे संयमात् – स्थूल-रूपं सूक्ष्मेण स्व-काल-बाधितं सूक्ष्म-रूपं च स्व-रूपेण स्व-काल-बोधितम् इत्यर्थः (YS.1.42–44) भूत-जयः सर्व-स्थूल-सूक्ष्म-भूत-वशी-करणम् (YS.2.18)॥ – [Vṛtti]

भूत-जयः इति ‘सः यः च अयं पुरुषे। यः च असौ आदित्ये। सः एकः॥ सः यः एवं-वित्। अस्मात् लोकात् प्रेत्य। एतम् अन्नमयम् आत्मानम् उपसंक्रम्य। एतं प्राणमयम् आत्मानम् उपसंक्रम्य। एतं मनोमयम् आत्मानम् उपसंक्रम्य। एतं विज्ञानमयम् आत्मानम् उपसंक्रम्य। एतम् आनन्दमयम् आत्मानम् उपसंक्रम्य। इमान् लोकान् काम-अन्नी काम-रूपी अनुसंचरन्। एतत् साम गायन् आस्ते। हा वु हा वु हा वु॥ अहम् अन्नम् अहम् अन्नम् अहम् अन्नम्। अहम् अन्न-अदः अहम् अन्न-अदः अहम् अन्न-अदः’ इति (TaitU.3.10.4–6).
“The one who is in this person [the individual] and the one who is in the sun [the Lord] – that is one (eka). That one who knows thus – leaving this world [of ignorance], transcending [by swallowing in terms of knowledge] this body (ātman) made of food, transcending this body made of energy (prāṇa), transcending this body made of mind, transcending this body made of intellect (vijñāna), transcending this body made of joy (ānanda) – moving about [all] these worlds consuming at will any food, assuming at will any form – he [or she] sits singing this song, ‘Oho [repeated 3 times]. [As every thing] I am [all] food [repeated 3 times]. [As every being] I am the eater of [all] food [repeated 3 times].’” (Taittirīya Up. 3.10.4 through 6).

[tataḥ – from that; prādur-bhāva – evident; aṇiman-ādi – the most small, etcetera; kāya-saṃpat – attainment of the body; ca – and; tad-dharma – that nature; an-abhighāta – cannot be assailed.]

ततः स्थूल-सूक्ष्म-भूत-जयात्, भूत-व्यापनात् भूत-अत्ययनात् च अणिम-आदि-प्रादुर्-भावः अति-सूक्ष्मता-अति-महत्ता-आदि-आख्या-स्व-रूप-आत्म-दर्शनं, काय-संपद् जगत्-काय-लाभः जगत्-स्व-रूपतया तद्-धर्म-अन्-अभिघातः सर्व-जगत्-स्व-रूप-लाभात् न अन्येन अभिघातः बादितः भवेत्, यस्मात् सर्व-आत्मनः अन्यद् न किम्-चन स्थूल-जगत्-जयः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

अणिम-आदि इति ‘यद् अर्चिमद् यद् अणुभ्यः अणु च यस्मिन् लोकाः निहिताः लोकिनः च। तद् एतद् अ-क्षरं ब्रह्म’ इति (MunU.2.2.2).
“What is shining and is subtle (aṇu) among the subtle [i.e., the tiniest] objects (aṇus), and in which are placed all the worlds and dwellers in these worlds, that is this immutable brahman (reality).” (Muṇḍaka Up. 2.2.2).

‘अणोः अणीयान् महतः महीयान् आत्मा अस्य जन्तोः निहितः गुहायाम्’ इति (KathU.1.2.20).
“The self (ātman) is smaller than the small (aṇu), bigger than the big (mahat); present in the heart of [every] creature.” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.20).

[kāya-saṃpat – attainment of bodies; rūpa – shapely; lāvaṇya – beautiful; bala – strong; saṃhananatva – hard; vajra – diamond.]

रूप-लावण्य-बल-वज्र-संहननत्वानि सु-रूप-प्रिय-बल-वज्र-इव-दृढत्वानि जगत्-सर्व-काय-रूपाणि ईश्वर-विभूतित्वानि काय-संपद् सर्व-जगत्-काय-लाभः (cf. YS.2.37), क्षेत्र-लाभः क्षेत्र-ज्ञतया (BhG.13.1–6)॥ – [Vṛtti]

काय-संपद् इति ‘मत्तः परतरं न अन्यत् किञ्चिद् अस्ति धनञ्-जय। मयि सर्वम् इदं प्रोतं सूत्रे मणि-गणाः इव’ इति (BhG.7.7).
“Like collections of gems [i.e., so many glories] on a thread, all this is strung in Me.” (Bh. Gītā 7.7).

‘श्री-भगवान् उवाच। हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्याः हि आत्म-विभूतयः। प्राधान्यतः कुरु-श्रेष्ठ न अस्ति अन्तः विस्तरस्य मे॥…यद् यद् विभूतिमत् सत्त्वं श्रीमद् ऊर्जितम् एव वा। तद् तद् एव अवगच्छ त्वं मम तेजः-अंश-सम्भवम्’ इति (BhG.10.19 & 41).
“The Lord said: Well now, O Arjuna, I will tell to you the extraordinary glories of Myself [the self of all] wherever there is importance, since there is no end to My detailed description…Whatever entity has glory (vibhūti), has wealth, or is indeed powerful – that itself, may you know, is born of a fraction of My power.” (Bh. Gītā 10.19 and 41).

‘यः तु सर्वाणि भूतानि आत्मनि एव अनुपश्यति। सर्व-भूतेषु च आत्मानं ततः न विजुगुप्सते’ इति (IsU.6).
“The one who according [to the teaching] sees all beings in one’s self (ātman) alone, and one’s self in all beings.” (Īśā Up. 6).

‘येन भूतानि अ-शेषेण द्रक्ष्यस्य् आत्मनि अथ-उ मयि’ इति (BhG.4.35).
“By this [knowledge] you will see all beings in Me and even in yourself.” (Bh. Gītā 4.35).

‘न एनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि न एनं दहति पावकः। न च एनं क्लेदयन्ति आपः न शोषयति मारुतः’ इति (BhG.2.23).
“Weapons [made from the element earth] do not cut it [the embodied one], nor [does the element] fire burn it, nor [does the element] water soak it, nor [does the element] wind wither it.” (Bh. Gītā 2.23).

‘अहम् आत्मा गुडाका-ईश सर्व-भूत-आशय-स्थितः। अहम् आदिः च मध्यं च भूतानाम् अन्तः एव च’ इति (BhG.10.20).
“O Arjuna, the self (ātman) [yourself, the I] residing in the mind [i.e., in the seat of thoughts wherein reality is to be acknowledged] of all beings is Me. The source, the center, and the resolution of [all] beings is Me.” (Bh. Gītā 10.20).

‘न अन्तः अस्ति मम दिव्यानाम्’ इति (BhG.10.40).
“There is no end to My divine glories.” (Bh. Gītā 10.40).

‘कार्यम् इति एव यद् कर्म नियतं क्रियते अर्जुन। सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलं च एव सः त्यागः सात्त्विकः मतः’ इति (BhG.18.9).
“O Arjuna, if – renouncing both attachment [to action] and [its] result [i.e., as karma-yoga] – enjoined karma is performed as simply what is to be done, [then] that renunciation is considered predominately sattva.” (Bh. Gītā 18.9).

[saṃyama – contemplation; arthavattva – significance; anvaya – connection; asmitā – I-notion; sva-rūpa – its own nature; grahaṇa – perceiving; jaya – mastery; indriyas – sense organs.]

ग्रहण-स्व-रूप-अस्मिता-अन्वय-अर्थवत्त्व-संयमात् इन्द्रिय-ग्रहणे सत्-चित्-स्व-रूपस्य ‘अहम् अस्मि’ इति-बुद्धेः च समन्वयस्य तत्त्वे संयमात्, व्यष्टि-ग्रहण-क्रियायां समष्टि-स्व-रूपस्य प्रतिबन्धि-अ-संभवतायां संयमात् इत्यर्थः इन्द्रिय-जयः इन्द्रिय-वशी-करणम्, इन्द्रियाणि अ-प्रतिबन्धकानि, सूक्ष्म-जगत्-जयः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

स्वरूप-अस्मिता-अन्वय इति ‘यथा आदर्शे तथा आत्मनि (=बुद्धौ), यथा स्वप्ने तथा पितृ-लोके। यथा अप्सु परि इव ददृशे तथा गन्धर्व-लोके (एवं च लोक-अन्तरेषु अपि – Śāṅkara Bhāṣam)’ इति (KathU.2.3.5).
“As [clearly] in a [spotless] mirror, so in the mind [i.e., here in this world with the valid teaching]; [but] as [indistinct] in dream, so in the world of the ancestors, and as was seen [more distinct but still not steady] in water so in the world of the celestial musicians [and so also in any other world where the teaching is not available, therefore make effort to prepare your mind here itself to get this clear teaching].” (Kaṭha Up. 2.3.5).

[tataḥ – from that; javitva – swiftness; manas – mind; bhāva – one exists; vi-karaṇa – free from the senses; ca – and; jaya – mastery; pradhānamother nature.]

ततः इन्द्रिय-जयात् मनस्-जवित्वं मनसः तीव्र-संवेगः (YS.1.21), वि-करण-भावः इन्द्रिय-करणेभ्यः विमुक्तिः, प्रधान-जयः अ-व्यक्त-समष्टि-वशी-करणं स्व-रूपतया कारण-जगत्-जयः इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रधान-जयः इति ‘कर्म-इन्द्रियाणि संयम्य यः आस्ते मनसा स्मरन्। इन्द्रिय-अर्थान् विमूढ-आत्मा मिथ्या-आचारः सः उच्यते॥ यः तु इन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्य आरभते अर्जुन। कर्म-इन्द्रियैः कर्म-योगम् अ-सक्तः सः विशिष्यते’ इति (BhG.3.6–7).
“The one who sits restraining the organs of action, [yet] contemplating the sense objects with the mind – that one is called one whose mind is deluded and whose conduct is useless. [Such is the predicament of a renunciate not prepared for a contemplative lifestyle]. However, O Arjuna, the one who rules the senses with the mind, is unattached [i.e., not anticipating results], who through the organs of action undertakes action as a yoga (a means for preparing for knowledge) – that one is better [than the deluded of useless conduct].” (Bh. Gītā 3.6 and 7).

‘इन्द्रियाणि पराणि आहुः इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः। मनसः तु परा बुद्धिः यः बुद्धेः परतः तु सः॥ एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्य-आत्मानम् आत्मना (संस्कृतेन मनसा)। जहि शत्रुं महा-बाहो काम-रूपं दुर्-आसदम्’ इति (BhG.3.42–43).
“They say that the senses are superior [to the body and all other objects], the mind is superior to the senses, the intellect is superior to the mind; whereas the one who is superior to the intellect is that [limitless self]. O Arjuna, in this way [of] knowing [oneself] as superior to the intellect, steadying the one by the other one [steadying the senses by the mind, the mind by the intellect, and the intellect by self-knowledge], destroy the enemy in the form of kāma (overpowering desire), [otherwise so] difficult to get a fix on.” (Bh. Gītā 3.42 and 43).

[khyāti-mātra – one who has reached discernment; anyatā – distinction; sattva – mind; puruṣa – self; adhiṣṭhātṛtva – one presides; sarva-bhāvas – all beings; ca – and; sarva-jñātṛtva – very nature of the knower of all.]

सत्त्व-पुरुष-अन्यता-ख्याति-मात्रस्य मनस्-पुरुष-विवेक-ख्यातिः एव यस्य तस्य योगिनः सर्व-भाव-अधिष्ठातृत्वं सर्व-भाव-अस्तित्वं सत्-स्व-रूपत्वं सर्व-ज्ञातृत्वं सर्व-ज्ञप्तित्वं (YS.1.25), चित्-स्व-रूपत्वं परम-पुरुष-स्व-रूपत्वम् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

अधिष्ठातृत्वम् इति ‘ते ध्यान-योग-अनुगताः अपश्यन् देव-आत्म-शक्तिं स्व-गुणैः निगूढाम्। यः कारणानि निखिलानि तानि काल-आत्म-युक्तानि अधितिष्ठति एकः’ इति (SvetU.1.3).
“Committed to contemplation as a means (dhyāna-yoga), they have seen [i.e., come to know] the power (śakti) behind the individual (ātman [i.e., the jīva]) as the shining being (deva) [or, the power (śakti) behind (ātman) the shining mind (deva)] [as though] hidden by the guṇas, who alone (eka) presides in (adhitiṣṭhati) all causes related to time [i.e., nature] and the individual.” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 1.3).

‘यः योनिं योनिम् अधितिष्ठति एकः यस्मिन् इदं सं च वि च एति सर्वम्। तम् ईशानं वर-दं देवम् ईड्यं निचाय्य इमां शान्तिम् अत्यनम् एति’ इति (SvetU.4.11).
“One completely attains this peace [i.e., freedom from grief], seeing that shining (deva), worshipful, blessing-bestowing Lord (īśāna), who is the one alone (eka) who presides in (adhitiṣṭhati) each and every [other] source (yoni), within which all this resolves and manifests.” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 4.11).

‘सर्वाः दिशः ऊर्ध्वम् अधः च तिर्यक् प्रकाशयन् भ्राजते यद् उ अनड्वान्। एवं सः देवः भगवान् वरेण्यः योनि-स्वभावान् अधितिष्ठति एकः॥ यद् च स्वभावं पचति विश्व-योनिः पाच्यान् च सर्वान् परिणामयेत् यः। सर्वम् एतद् विश्वम् अधितिष्ठति एकः गुणान् च सर्वान् विनियोजयेत् यः’ इति (SvetU.5.4–5).
“Lighting up all directions – up, down, and across – the one who shines [powerfully] like a bull [in a field of cows], that Lord shining (deva) in this way, the one to be chosen, is the one alone (eka) who presides in (adhitiṣṭhati) [all] that have the nature of being sources (yonis). The [single] source (yoni) of everything [including prakṛti], who ripens [everything’s] nature, who would [appropriately] mature all those that are to be matured [i.e., deserving maturity, one way or another, according to their karma], who would [appropriately] present (viniyojayet) all attributes (guṇas), is the one alone (eka) who presides in (adhitiṣṭhati) this entire universe.” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 5.4 and 5).

‘ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञान-गम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम्’ इति (BhG.13.17).
“It is jñāna (knowledge) [i.e., universal order and what lights everything in that order], jñeya [to be known], and the result to be attained by/as jñāna. It abides (viṣṭhita) in the center (hṛd) of everything [and is to be known in this intellect at the center of the human being].” (Bh. Gītā 13.17).

‘अथ अतः आत्म-आदेशः एव – आत्मा एव अधस्तात् आत्मा उपरिष्टात् आत्मा पश्चाद् आत्मा पुरस्ताद् आत्मा दक्षिणतः आत्मा उत्तरतः आत्मा एव इदं सर्वम् इति, सः वै एषः एवं पश्यन् एवं मन्वानः एवं विजानन् आत्म-रतिः आत्म-क्रीडः आत्म-मिथुनः (यस्मात्) आत्म-आनन्दः, सः स्वराट् भवति, तस्य सर्वेषु लोकेषु काम-चारः भवति, अथ ये अन्यथा अतः विदुः अन्य-राजानः ते क्षय्य-लोकाः भवन्ति तेषां सर्वेषु लोकेषु अ-काम-चारः भवति’ इति (ChanU.7.25.2).
“Now the teaching in regard to oneself (ātman) apart from this [body-mind complex] – oneself alone is alone below, oneself is above, oneself is west, oneself is east, oneself is south, oneself is north, and oneself is indeed all this. The very one who sees in this way, who contemplates in this way and who has assimilated knowledge in this way [as well] revels [inside] (rati) in the self, plays [outside] (krīḍā) in the self, and copulates [with a partner] (mithuna) in the self, [because] oneself is fullness (ātma-ānanda). That one alone rules (sva-rāṭ). That one has free rein (kāma-cāra) in all worlds. Whereas, those who know otherwise than this are ruled by another. Their worlds decay. They have no free rein in any of those worlds.” (Chāndogya Up. 7.25.2).

‘श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च रसनं घ्राणम् एव च। अधिष्ठाय मनः च अयं (ईश्वरः जीव-भूतः) विषयान् उपसेवते’ इति (BhG.15.9).
“Presiding over (adhiṣṭhāya) [by giving conscious-being to] [the subtle functions of] hearing, vision, touching, taste, and smelling – and the mind – this [Lord, in the form of the individual] experiences the sense objects.” (Bh. Gītā 15.9).

‘यः तु आत्म-रतिः एव स्याद् आत्म-तृप्तः च मानवः। आत्मनि एव च सन्तुष्टः तस्य कार्यं न विद्यते॥ न एव तस्य कृतेन अर्थः न अ-कृतेन इह कश्चन। न च अस्य सर्व-भूतेषु कश्चिद् अर्थ-व्यपाश्रयः’ इति (BhG.3.17–18).
“Whereas, the person who would [find] pleasure within the self alone, be satisfied with the self, and be contented in the self alone, …for that one there is no dependence for [any] thing toward any being.” (Bh. Gītā 3.17 and 18).

[api – and; tad-vai-rāgya – non-attachment to that; doṣa-bījas – defect-seeds; kṣaya – withered; kaivalya – freedom.]

तद्-वैराग्यात् सत्त्व-पुरुष-अन्यता-ख्याति-मात्रस्य वैराग्यात् (YS.1.15-16 & 49-51), सर्व-आत्म-भावात् न तु सत्त्व-पुरुष-विवेक-वृत्ति-ज्ञान-मात्रात् इत्यर्थः अपि दोष-बीज-क्षये अ-विद्या-दोष-बीज-क्षये (YS.2.2-4) सति कैवल्यं नाम भवति॥ – [Vṛtti]

[upanimantraṇa – invitation; sthānins – those in high position; a-karaṇa – no reason; saṅga – attachment; smaya – conceit; prasaṅga – necessitate; punar – return; an-iṣṭa – what would not be chosen.]

स्थानि-उपनिमन्त्रणे सु-स्थानिनाम् आवाहने सति सङ्ग-स्मय-अ-करणं बन्धस्य दर्पस्य वा निमित्त-रहितं पुनर्-अन्-इष्ट-प्रसङ्गात् यस्मात् आत्म-अनात्म-विवेकिना बन्ध-दर्प-आदि-दोषाः न एव पुनः वरितव्याः भवेयुः॥ – [Vṛtti]

अन्-इष्ट-प्रसङ्गात् इति ‘श्वः-भावाः मर्त्यस्य यद् (हे) अन्तक एतत् सर्व-इन्द्रियाणां जरयन्ति तेजः। अपि सर्वं जीवितम् अल्पम् एव तव एव वाहाः तव नृत्य-गीते॥ न वित्तेन तर्पणीयः मनुष्यः लप्स्यामहे वित्तम् अ-द्राक्ष्म॑ चेत् त्वा। जीविष्यामः यावद् ई॑शिष्यसि त्वं वरः तु मे वरणीयः सः एव’ इति (KathU.1.1.26–27).
“O Lord Death, all this is so much ephemerals lasting only till tomorrow. They waste away the power of all the senses. All of life is short. [As for Your counter-offer, let] the cars, dances, and songs be Yours alone. A mortal cannot be [fully] satisfied by wealth. If I have beheld You [Lord Death] [and survived], I will receive wealth [anyway, when I get back to Earth]. [Having already been freed from You] as long as You rule, I will live. But, my best choice (vara) [to be taught the knowledge of existence (asti) by You] [instead] remains the same.” (Kaṭha Up. 1.1.26 and 27).

‘समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मान-अपमानयोः। शीत-उष्ण-सुख-दुःखेषु समः सङ्ग-विवर्जितः॥ तुल्य-निन्दा-स्तुतिः मौनी सन्तुष्टः येन केनचित्। अ-निकेतः स्थिर-मतिः भक्तिमान् मे प्रियः नरः’ इति (BhG.12.18–19).
“The same (sama) toward [another who takes himself or herself as] an enemy or a friend and toward respect or disrespect; the same toward [the opposites] cold and hot, pleasure and pain; free from attachment, for whom censure and praise are alike [addressing only this body or mind, but not one’s self]; disciplined in speech; satisfied with whatever [happens]; homeless [i.e., a renunciate or who has no ownership toward a house he or she may own]; whose knowledge is firm – who [in this way] has devotion, [that] person is dear to Me.” (Bh. Gītā 12.18 and 19).

‘अ-भयं सत्त्व-संशुद्धिः ज्ञान-योग-व्यवस्थितिः। दानं दमः च यज्ञः च स्व-अध्यायः तपः आर्जवम्॥ अ-हिंसा सत्यम् अ-क्रोधः त्यागः शान्तिः अ-पैशुनम्। दया भूतेषु अ-लोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीः अ-चापलम्॥ तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचम् अ-द्रोहः न-अतिमानिता। भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीम् अभिजातस्य भारत’ इति (BhG.16.1–3).
“Freedom from fear, purity of mind, steadiness in [i.e., commitment to] knowledge and its contemplation, charity, mastery over the [ways of] behavior, performing [daily] yajña [prayers, etc.], reciting to oneself the Veda texts, prayerful discipline, straightforwardness, harmlessness, truthfulness, resolution of anger, renunciation, clarity, apaiśuna (not exposing defects of one person to another), compassion toward living beings, aloluptva (absence of agitation of the senses in the presence of objects), gentleness, modesty, absence of [meaningless] physical agitation, brilliance [expressed as self-confidence], accommodation [i.e., patience and understanding], resolve, cleanliness, absence of malice, absence of demanding respect from others – [these] are there for one born to the wealth of a deva (i.e., a worthy person), O Arjuna.” (Bh. Gītā 16.1 through 3).

[saṃyama – contemplation; kṣaṇas – moments of time; tad-krama – their sequence; jñāna – knowledge; viveka-ja – born of discernment.]

क्षण-तद्-क्रमयोः काल-क्षण-स्व-रूपे क्षणानां क्रमे च (YS.4.33) संयमात् काल-बद्ध-जगतः जगत्-स्वरूप-काल-अ-बद्ध-परम-आत्मनः च विवेक-जं ज्ञानं भवति॥ – [Vṛtti]

क्षण-तद्-क्रमयोः इति ‘न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चिद् न अयं कुतश्चिद् न बभूव कश्चित्। अ-जः नित्यः शाश्वतः अयं पुराणः न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे’ इति (KathU.1.2.18).
“This intelligence (vipaścit) [i.e., consciousness] is not born nor does it die. Nor did this come from anything, nor did it become anything else. This, which is unborn, timeless, ever the same, and is always there, is not destroyed [i.e., changed] when the body is destroyed [i.e., changed].” (Kaṭha Up. 1.2.18).

‘नित्यः अ-नित्यानां चेतनः चेतनानाम्’ इति (KathU.2.2.13).
“The timeless of the time-bound (a-nityas), the consciousness of the conscious.” (Kaṭha Up. 2.2.13).

‘गुणान् एतान् अतीत्य त्रीन् देही देह-समुद्भवान्। जन्म-मृत्यु-जरा-दुःखैः विमुक्तः अ-मृतम् अश्नुते’ इति (BhG.14.20).
“Transcending these three guṇas that give rise to the body – and freed from birth, death, aging, and sorrow [i.e., guilt and hurt] – the embodied one attains immortality.” (Bh. Gītā 14.20).

‘आत्मा एव इदम् अग्रे आसीत्।…तद् ह इदं तर्हि अ-व्याकृतम् आसीत्, तद् नाम-रूपाभ्याम् एव व्याक्रियत, असौ-नाम अयम् इदं-रूपः इति, तद् इदम् अपि एतर्हि नाम-रूपाभ्याम् एव व्याक्रियते, असौ-नाम अयम् इदं-रूपः इति सः एषः (आत्मा) इह प्रविष्टः आ नख-अग्रेभ्यः यथा क्षुरः क्षुर-धाने अवहितः स्याद्, विश्वं-भरः वा विश्वं-भर-कुलाये, तं न पश्यन्ति। अ-कृत्स्नः हि सः प्राणन् एव प्राणः नाम भवति। वदन् वाक्, पश्यन् चक्षुः, शृण्वन् श्रोत्रं, मन्वानः मनः, तानि अस्य एतानि कर्म-नामानि एव। सः यः अतः एक-एकम् उपास्ते न सः वेद, अ-कृत्स्नः हि एषः अतः एक-एकेन भवति आत्मा इति एव उपासीत, अत्र हि एते सर्वे एकं भवन्ति। तद् एतत् पदनीयम् अस्य सर्वस्य यद् अयम् आत्मा, अनेन हि एतत् सर्वं वेद’ इति (BrhU.1.4.1 & 7).
Ātman [here, the shining intelligence manifest as the subtle universe] alone was there in the beginning. …That [which is] this very universe was at that time undifferentiated. It became [itself] differentiated only into name and form (nāma-rūpa), ‘this [existence] is this [particular] name, this [existence] is this [particular] form.’ Even now this [universe] is differentiated only into name and form, ‘this [existence] is this [particular] name, this [existence] is this [particular] form’ [i.e., not into separate real entities, not away or different from ātman]. This very [ātman] had [already] entered into these [bodies] all the way to the tips of the [finger and toe] nails, like a razor would be placed in its case [i.e., as manifest within like the obvious shining awareness in the mind (hṛd), the is-is-is in every cognition, yet not fully known, as if encased] or like fire/energy (viśvaṃ-bhara) [i.e., the support of the body] within the nest/body (kulāya) of fire/energy (viśvaṃ-bhara) [i.e., as latent within like fire yet to be converted from unmanifest into manifest energy within the wood, here, as existence present in the body throughout and not fully known, yet fully, blazingly, knowable]. They [the people] do not [in fact] see it [ātman]. Because [viewed from a limited perspective] it is not [seen] complete/whole (a-kṛtsna). Only while [manifesting the function of] living [does it go by] the name ‘life (prāṇa)’; while [manifesting the function of] speaking…‘speech’; while seeing…‘sight’; while hearing…‘the sense of hearing’; while thinking…‘the mind.’ Each of these are merely the names for it through these functions. The one who meditates upon it as individual and separate from it does not [in fact] know, because this is incomplete as separate from it. Only as ātman [i.e., as oneself, complete, without separations or divisions] can one contemplate it, because in this [ātman] all these are one whole (eka). Among all these [names], this ātman is what is to be attained [by knowledge], because all this [i.e., everything, every name] is known [only] by this [by ātman, by this consciousness].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 1.4.1 and 7).

‘मद्-स्थानि सर्व-भूतानि न च अहं तेषु अवस्थितः॥ न च मद्-स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगम् ऐश्वरम्। भूत-भृत् न च भूत-स्थः मम आत्मा भूत-भावनः’ इति (BhG.9.4–5).
“All beings exist in [i.e., are because of] Me, but I am not in [i.e., because of] them. [Yet] [as separate] beings [they] do not exist in Me. Look at My, the Lord’s, yoga (connection to/attaining in) [the world]! My ātman (self, the self of all) produces [all] things [all names and forms], sustains [all] things, but does not exist in [i.e., is not dependent upon] these things.” (Bh. Gītā 9.4 and 5).

[tataḥ – from that; an-avaccheda – no separation; anyatā – distinction; jāti – character; lakṣaṇa – symptom; deśa – place; pratipatti – ascertainment; tulya – both being the same.]

व्याप्त-दृश्यस्य सर्व-व्यापि-अ-काल-आत्मनः च – जाति-लक्षण-देशैः धर्म-लक्षण-अवस्थाभिः वस्तुतः देशतः कालतः च विकारैः अन्यता-अन्-अवच्छेदात् अन्यतया अ-भेदात्, तुल्ययोः मनस्-पुरुष-अ-द्वितीयस्य, यथा नामधेय-मृद्-घटस्य मृदः च ततः जगद्-आत्म-विवेकात् प्रतिपत्तिः ज्ञानं सिद्धिः॥ – [Vṛtti]

तुल्ययोः इति ‘इह एव तैः जितः सर्गः येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः। निर्-दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद् ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः’ इति (BhG.5.19).
“Those whose mind is rooted in what is by nature the same (sama) win over birth here itself. Because the defect-less brahman is the same (sama) [i.e., everywhere it is one only], therefore they abide in brahman.” (Bh. Gītā 5.19).

‘सुहृद्-मित्र-अरि-उदासीन-मध्यस्थ-द्वेष्य-बन्धुषु। साधुषु अपि च पापेषु सम-बुद्धिः विशिष्यते’ इति (BhG.6.9).
“That one is exalted whose vision is the same (sama) toward the kind-hearted, friends, enemies, acquaintances, mediators, the hateful, kin, the virtuous, and even sinners.” (Bh. Gītā 6.9).

‘सर्व-भूत-स्थम् आत्मानं सर्व-भूतानि च आत्मनि। ईक्षते योग-युक्त-आत्मा सर्वत्र सम-दर्शनः॥ यः मां पश्यति सर्वत्र सर्वं च मयि पश्यति। तस्य अहं न प्रणश्यामि सः च मे न प्रणश्यति॥ सर्व-भूत-स्थितं यः मां भजति एकत्वम् आस्थितः। सर्वथा वर्तमानः अपि सः योगी मयि वर्तते’ इति (BhG.6.29–31).
“Whose mind is absorbed in [this] contemplation, who sees the same (sama) [i.e., brahman] everywhere – sees [one’s] self abiding in all beings and all beings in [one’s] self. The one who sees Me everywhere and sees everything in Me – I am not lost [i.e., remote] to that one, nor is that one lost [i.e., remote] to Me. Having attained [this vision/knowledge of] oneness, the one who [thus] gains Me as abiding in all beings, that yogin, though engaging in all types [of action], abides in Me [i.e., abides not just when in the seat of meditation – because knowledge is continuous, in and out of meditation].” (Bh. Gītā 6.29 through 31).

[jñāna – knowledge; viveka-ja – born of discernment; iti – is said to; tāraka – liberate; sarva-viṣaya – includes everything; sarvathā-viṣaya – in everyway; ca – and; a-krama – lacks a progression.]

तारकं ‘तरति शोकम् आत्म-विद्’ इति येन तद् तारकं ज्ञानं सर्व-विषयं सर्वथा-विषयं सर्व-सर्वथा-जगत्-आत्म-विषयं ज्ञानम् अ-क्रमं न तारतम्य-वृत्ति-ज्ञामं स्व-रूप-ज्ञानत्वेन, अपि च काल-अतीत-आत्मनः ज्ञानं च इति विवेक-जं ज्ञानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

तारकम् इति ‘सः अहं भगवः मन्त्र-विद् एव अस्मि, न आत्म-विद्, श्रुतं हि एव मे भगवद्-दृशेभ्यः “तरति शोकम् आत्म-विद्” इति, सः अहं भगवः शोचामि तं मा भगवान् शोकस्य पारं तारयतु इति तं ह उवाच – यद् वै किंचैतद् अध्यगीष्ठा नाम एव एतत्’ इति (ChanU.7.1.3).
“‘Revered Sir [i.e., O Sanat-kumāra], as I am, I am but a knower of mantras (sacred verbal texts), not a knower of ātman. Because I have indeed heard from those like yourself that the knower of ātman crosses over (tarati) sorrow (śoka) and, Revered Sir, as I am, I suffer, [then] may your reverence [as a teacher] help me cross over (śoka) beyond sorrow.’ [Sanat-kumāra] replied to him [Nārada], ‘Whatever you had studied is but name (nāman) alone.’” (Chāndogya Up. 7.1.3).

‘रुद्रः तारकं ब्रह्म व्याचष्टे येन असौ अ-मृती-भूत्वा मोक्षी-भवति’ इति (Jābāla Up. 1.1).
Rudra distinctly imparts the saving (tāraka) scripture (brahman), by which one who [already] is free (a-mṛta) [by nature], is [now] free [by knowledge].” (Jābāla Up. 1.1).

सर्वथा-विषयम् इति ‘तद् एषः श्लोकः – न पश्यः मृत्युं पश्यति न रोगं न उत दुःखताम्। सर्वं ह पश्यः पश्यति, सर्वम् आप्नोति सर्वशः’ इति (ChanU.7.26.2).
“There is this verse – Seeing [thus] one does not see death, nor disease, nor affliction. Seeing [thus], one sees all and attains all, in all ways.” (Chāndogya Up. 7.26.2).

[śuddhi-sāmya – pure equality; sattva – mind; puruṣa – self; iti – is called; kaivalya – freedom.]

अथ योग-प्रयोजन-स्व-रूपः पुनर्-उक्तः – सत्त्व-पुरुषयोः मनस्-पुरुषयोः दृश्य-दृशोः शुद्धि-साम्ये निर्-उपाधि-स्व-रूप-ऐक्ये अ-द्वितीये सति कैवल्यं केवलस्य एकस्य भावः, अ-द्वैतं सर्व-आत्म-भावेन न तु जगतः एकाकित्वेन नाम इति॥ – [Vṛtti]

शुद्धि-साम्ये इति ‘यदा पश्यः पश्यते रुक्म-वर्णं कर्तारम् ईशं पुरुषं ब्रह्म-योनिम्। तदा विद्वान् पुण्य-पापे विधू॒य निर्-अञ्जनः परमं साम्यम् उपैति’ इति (MunU.3.1.3).
“When the experiencer (the individual) knows as clear as seeing the shinning person (puruṣa) [him or herself as the] Lord who is the only doer and as the source of even Lord Brahmā, then this wise one, shaking off [as ‘mine’] all karma merit and demerit, is freed of impurities, and attains ultimate sameness (paramaṃ sāmyam).” (Muṇḍaka Up. 3.1.3).

‘बुद्धिः बुद्धिमताम् अस्मि’ इति (BhG.7.10).
“I [the Lord, the ultimate puruṣa] am the intellect (buddhi) of all who have an intellect.” (Bh. Gītā 7.10).

‘इन्द्रियाणां मनः च अस्मि’ इति (BhG.10.22).
“I am the mind (manas) among the powers [of perception and action].” (Bh. Gītā 10.22).

‘सत्त्वं सत्त्ववताम् अहम्’ इति (BhG.10.36).
“I am the contemplative disposition (sattva) among the contemplative.” (Bh. Gītā 10.36).

‘अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयः तथा’ इति (BhG.7.6).
“I am the source of the entire universe, as well at [its] resolution.” (Bh. Gītā 7.6).

‘तद् (परं ब्रह्म) त्वम् एव त्वम् एव तद्’ इति (KaivU.1.16).
“That [limitless reality] is you, you are that.” (Kaivalya Up. 1.16).

‘अ-यतिः श्रद्धया उपेतः योगात् चलित-मानसः। अ-प्राप्य योग-संसिद्धिं कां गतिं कृष्ण गच्छति॥ कच्चित् न उभय-विभ्रष्टः छिन्न-अभ्रम् इव नश्यति। अ-प्रतिष्ठः महा-बाहो विमूढः ब्रह्मणः पथि॥…पार्थ, न एव इह न अमुत्र विनाशः तस्य विद्यते। न हि कल्याण-कृत् कश्चित् दुर्-गतिं तात गच्छति (BhG.6.37–38 & 40).
“O Kṛṣṇa, [the renunciate talked about in this sixth chapter] endowed with trust [in this Your teaching], [but] who does not make [adequate] effort, whose mind wanders away from yoga, not gaining success in yoga – what is [that one’s] lot? O Kṛṣṇa, deluded in the path [i.e., the means for the knowledge] of brahman, fallen from both [karma-yoga and jñāna-yoga] [and thus] without a basis, I hope that this one does not fizzle out, like a cloudlet [split off from a cloudbank]? …O Arjuna, neither here itself [due to the positive attitude of śraddhā] nor hereafter [according to karma] is there loss for that one. O Dear One, [to the extent] anyone performs adaptive action [in keeping with dharma], [to that extent] that one does not get a bad lot.” (Bh. Gītā 6.37, 38, and 40).

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Freedom

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[siddhis – superpowers or accomplishments; ja – effected; janma – birth; oṣadhis – herbs; mantras – repetition of sacred declarations; tapas – austerities; samādhi – contemplation.]

अथ क्लिष्ट-अ-क्लिष्ट-कर्म-आशयं वक्ष्यामः – जन्म-ओषधि-मन्त्र-तपस्-समाधि-जाः पूर्व-जन्म-संस्कारैः (BhG.6.44) चिकित्सा-ओषधिभिः श्रुति-मन्त्र-जप-स्व-अध्ययनाभ्यां तपोभिः विविध-समाधिभिः च संवृद्धाः सिद्धयः ‘परिणाम-त्रय-संयमात्’ इति-आदि-सिद्धयः (YS.3.16–48)॥ – [Vṛtti]

ओषधिभिः इति ‘यज्ञ-शिष्ट-अशिनः सन्तः मुच्यन्ते सर्व-किल्बिषैः’ इति (BhG.3.13).
“Those who eat the food left after first offering to the Lord are freed from all transgressions.” (Bh. Gītā 3.13).

‘अपरे नियत-आहाराः प्राणान् प्राणेषु जुह्वति’ इति (BhG.4.30).
“Others, whose food [consumption] is regulated, offer [their] prāṇas (energies) into the prāṇas (digestive fires).” (Bh. Gītā 4.30).

‘युक्त-आहार-विहारस्य युक्त-चेष्टस्य कर्मसु। युक्त-स्वप्न-अवबोधस्य योगः भवति दुःख-हा’ इति (BhG.6.17).
“For one whose food and activity are moderated – whose bodily movement is regulated during activities, whose sleeping and waking [hours] are moderated – yoga is a destroyer of [all] sorrows.” (Bh. Gītā 6.17).

‘स्वधा अहम् अहम् औषधम्’ इति (BhG.9.16).
“The food [offered to the ancestors] is Me, the food (auṣadha, made from plants [oṣadhis]) [offered to the Lord] is Me.” (Bh. Gītā 9.16).

‘गाम् आविश्य च भूतानि धारयामि अहम् ओजसा। पुष्णामि च ओषधीः सर्वाः सोमः भूत्वा रस-आत्मकः॥ अहं वैश्वा-नरः भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहम् आश्रितः। प्राण-अपान-समायुक्तः पचामि अन्नं चतुर्-विधम्॥ सर्वस्य च अहं हृदि सन्निविष्टः’ इति (BhG.15.13–15).
“Having entered the earth [as the brilliance from the sun], I sustain with My strength all beings. And being the extracted juice in the form of sap [from the earth], I nourish all plants (oṣadhis) [hence, I am the food]. Being the digestive fire, obtaining in the body of living beings, and united with [i.e., stoked by] exhalation and inhalation, I cook [inside the body] the four kinds of food [drunk, chewed, licked, and sucked]. And I am present [as the conscious being] in everyone’s intellect [energized by Me as the digested food].” (Bh. Gītā 15.13 through 15).

‘आयुः-सत्त्व-बल-आरोग्य-सुख-प्रीति-विवर्धनाः। रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिराः हृद्याः आहाराः सात्त्विक-प्रियाः’ इति (BhG.17.8).
“Foods that increase longevity, mental clarity, strength, health, pleasure [in taste], and satisfaction [visually or physically], [that are] tasty, oily, long lasting [in the body], and pleasing to the mind – [they] are [said to be] a favorite of one predominately sattva. (Bh. Gītā 17.8).

[pariṇāma – change; jāti-antara – another birth; āpūra – filling in; prakṛti – pre-existing nature.]

जाति-अन्तर-परिणामः तद्-सिद्धि-अर्थ-जन्म-अन्तर-परिणामः (YS.4.1) प्रकृति-आपूरात् पूर्व-संस्कार-प्रवाहात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रकृति-आपूरात् इति ‘कर्मणि एव अधिकारः ते मा फलेषु कदाचन। मा कर्म-फल-हेतुः भूः मा ते सङ्गः अस्तु अ-कर्मणि॥ योग-स्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्-जय। सिद्धि-अ-सिद्ध्योः समः भूत्वा समत्वं योगः उच्यते’ इति (BhG.2.47–48).
“You have control only in doing action, never in its results. Do not [think yourself to] be the cause of the results of action [that cause being but the Lord as embodied in the universal laws of karma]. Nor should you have attachment to inaction. O Arjuna, being free from attachment [toward anticipated results], [i.e.] being the same (sama) towards success or failure, established in yoga [this attitude], [then] perform action. Sameness (samatva) [of attitude (buddhi) towards results – whatever they are] is called yoga.” (Bh. Gītā 2.47 and 48).

‘अन्-आदित्वात् निर्-गुणत्वात् परम-आत्मा अयम् अ-व्ययः। शरीर-स्थः अपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते’ इति (BhG.13.31).
“O Arjuna, since it is beginningless [i.e., uncaused/un-effected] and since it is without attributes, this changeless parama-ātman (limitless I) does not do action – even though obtaining in the body – nor is it affected [by the results of action].” (Bh. Gītā 13.31).

[nimitta – efficient cause; a-prayojaka – not the instigator; prakṛtispre-existing causes; tu – rather; kṣetrika-vat – like a farmer; bheda – removal; varaṇas – obstacles; tataḥ – to them.]

निमित्तम् इह अस्मिन् जन्मनि कायिक-वाचिक-मानस-स्व-क्रिया-रूपः नूतन-कर्म-फल-हेतुः अ-प्रयोजकं न प्रवर्तकं प्रकृतीनाम् इदं-जन्म-अर्थे प्रकृतीनां पूर्व-कर्म-फल-संस्काराणाम्, इह जन्मनि अल्प-आगामि-कर्म न प्रयोजकम् अ-परिमित-सञ्चित-कर्मनः इत्यर्थः, तद्-नूतन-क्रियया प्रायेण वरण-भेदः प्रतिबन्धिक-उच्छेदः एव तु ततः सु-संस्कारेभ्यः, क्षेत्रिकवत् यथा क्षेत्र-पतिः क्षेत्र-आसेक-पथि प्रसर-स्तम्भनानि उच्छिनत्ति॥ – [Vṛtti]

वरण-भेदः इति ‘योगः (स्व-)कर्मसु कौशलम् (=यथा-अर्थता)’ इति (BhG.2.50).
“Propriety in actions [i.e., acting within dharma, where, like for the Lord, the means are as important as the end] is [called] yoga.” (Bh. Gītā 2.50).

[cittas – minds; nirmāṇa – fashioned; asmitā-mātra – purely by a notional-I.]

निर्माण-चित्तानि जन्म-क्रमेण कर्म-फल-अनुरूप-देह-चित्त-सङ्घाताः जायन्ते, इदं चित्तं प्रायेण प्रारब्ध-संस्कार-कार्यं न तु संस्कार-कारिकम् इत्यर्थः। प्रयोजका का? – अस्मिता-मात्रात् परिमित-जीवत्व-अभिमानात् एव पूर्व-अ-विद्यायाम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[bheda – distinction; pravṛtti – activity; eka – one; citta – mind or self; prayojaka – instigates; an-ekas – all other ones.]

प्रवृत्ति-भेदे चित्त-प्रवृत्तेः स्व-परम-आत्मनः विवेके सति, न तु चित्त-प्रवृत्तौ अभिमाने प्रयोजकं प्रेरितारं (SvetU.1.6) चित्तम् एकम् ईश्वर-शक्तिः लिङ्ग-मात्रम् एव (YS.2.19), अथवा एकम् एव चैतन्यं प्रति-चित्ततया वर्तमानम् अन्-एकेषां सर्व-अ-विवेकिनाम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

प्रवृत्ति-भेदे इति ‘प्रकृति एव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः। यः पश्यति तथा आत्मानम् अ-कर्तारं सः पश्यति’ इति (BhG.13.29).
“And the one who sees actions being done in every way by prakṛti (nature) alone and, in that way, [sees] that the self is not a doer – that one [alone] [correctly] sees.” (Bh. Gītā 13.29).

‘क्षेत्र-क्षेत्र-ज्ञयोः एवम् अन्तरं ज्ञान-चक्षुषा। भूत-प्रकृति-मोक्षं च ये विदुः यान्ति ते परम्’ इति (BhG.13.34).
“Those who thus know, through the eye of wisdom, the distinction between the kṣetra and the kṣetra-jña [i.e., the object and the subject – the subject being the substance of all objects, of all names and forms] and [their inherent] freedom from prakṛti (the cause) of [all] beings – they attain the ultimate.” (Bh. Gītā 13.34).

‘ईश्वरः सर्व-भूतानां हृद्-देशे अर्जुन तिष्ठति। भ्रामयन् सर्व-भूतानि यन्त्र-आरूढानि मायया’ इति (BhG.18.61).
“O Arjuna, the Lord – causing all beings to spin around, [as if] mounted on a machine [as on a wheel revolving in saṃsāra – now up, now down] by māyā (the Lord’s power of projecting) – remains [unmoved as the self of all] in the seat of the intellect (hṛd) of all beings.” (Bh. Gītā 18.61).

[tatra – in that; dhyāna-ja – born of contemplation; an-āśaya – no storehouse.]

तत्र ऐक्ये ध्यान-जं ध्याने शासनेन विकल्प-परिशुद्धं चित्तम् अन्-आशयं तद्-चित्ते कर्म-आशयवत्त्वं जीवित्वम् अ-विद्या-हेतुत्वात् न विद्यते (YS.2.12 & YS.1.24)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[yogin – the one who has attained success in yoga; a-śukla – neither pure; a-kṛṣṇa – nor impure; karmas – results of action; itaras – everyone else; tri-vidha – three-fold.]

कर्म-अ-शुक्ल-अ-कृष्णं न एव पुण्यं पापं वा कर्म योगिनः, त्रि-विधं सत्त्व-रजस्-तमांसि कर्माणि इतरेषाम् अ-विकेकिनाम्, ‘अहं कर्ता मम कर्म, अहं भोक्ता मम कर्म-फलम्’ इति-बुद्धिमताम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

कर्म-अ-शुक्ल-अ-कृष्णम् इति ‘सर्व-धर्मान् (=धर्म-अ-धर्मान्) परित्यज्य माम् एकं शरणं व्रज’ इति (BhG.18.66).
“Giving up all dharma [and a-dharma] (adaptive and maladaptive action) [by giving up doership], surrender to Me alone [as there is nothing other than Me].” (Bh. Gītā 18.66).

[tataḥ – from that; abhivyakti – manifestation; vāsanās – latent tendencies; anuguṇa – in keeping; tad-vipāka – fruition of those; eva – alone.]

इतरेषाम् अ-विकेकिनां ततः कर्म-आशयात् तद्-विपाक-अनुगुणानां कर्म-विपाक-अनुरूपाणाम् एव अ-प्रतिबन्धितानां च एव इत्यर्थः (YS.4.3) अभिव्यक्तिः अस्मिन् जन्मनि व्यक्तिः वासनानां संस्कारानाम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[eka-rūpatva – having the same form; ān-antarya – linkage; smṛtis – memories; saṃskāras – latent impressions; api – though; vyavahita – separated; jātis – births; deśas – locations; kālas – times.]

जाति-देश-काल-व्यवहितानां जन्म-देश-कलभिः वियुक्ताणाम् अपि आन्-अन्तर्यम् अन्वयः स्मृति-संस्कारयोः एक-रूपत्वात् यस्मात् दूर-पूर्व-काल-ज-संस्कारस्य तद्-संस्कार-परिपाक-वर्तमान-स्मृतेः च एक-रूपत्वम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

जाति-देश-काल-व्यवहितानाम् इति ‘सर्व-भूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिं यान्ति मामिकाम्। कल्प-क्षये पुनः तानि कल्प-आदौ विसृजामि अहम्’ इति (BhG.9.7).
“O Arjuna, at the end of the kalpa (manifestation cycle, the start of night for Lord Brahmā), all things go [i.e., become unmanifest] into My prakṛti (māyā). Again, at the beginning of the manifestation cycle, I project [i.e., manifest] them [from My māyā].” (Bh. Gītā 9.7).

[ca – and; an-āditva – no beginning; tāsām – for these; āśis – desire; nityatva – eternal.]

तासां वासनानां संस्कारानाम् अन्-आदित्वं न आदिमत्वं , आशिषः नित्यत्वात् यस्मात् संसार-चक्रे हीनता-भावना-रूपस्य संस्कार-हेतु-कामस्य न आदिमत्वम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

आशिषः इति ‘त्रि-विधं नरकस्य इदं द्वारं नाशनम् आत्मनः। कामः क्रोधः तथा लोभः तस्माद् एतत् त्रयं त्यजेत्’ इति (BhG.16.21).
“Desire [i.e., requiring], anger, and greed: This is the threefold gate of hell [i.e., painful experience], which is the loss of oneself [i.e., it is the destruction of a mind able to pursue a worthy existence]. Therefore, one should give up this triad [by this teaching].” (Bh. Gītā 16.21).

‘यथा सोम्य मधु मधु-कृतः निस्तिष्ठन्ति (=निष्पादयन्ति) नाना-अत्ययानां (=नाना-गतीनां) वृक्षाणां रसान् समवहारम् एकतां रसं गमयन्ति॥ ते यथा तत्र न विवेकं लभन्ते अमुष्य अहं वृक्षस्य रसः अस्मि अमुष्य अहं वृक्षस्य रसः अस्मि इति एवम् एव खलु सोम्य इमाः सर्वाः प्रजाः सति (सुषुप्ति-काले मरण-प्रलययोः च) संपद्य न विदुः सति संपद्यामहे इति॥ ते इह (पूर्वं) व्याघ्रः वा सिंहः वा वृकः वा वराहः वा कीटः वा पतङ्गः वा दंशः वा मशकः वा (एवं-संस्कारवान्) यद् यद् भवन्ति तद् (एवं-संस्कारवान्) आभवन्ति (पश्चात्)’ इति (ChanU.6.9.1–3).
“Just as, my dear [Śveta-ketu], bees prepare honey [by] collecting the essences of many distant trees and making them one essence, and just as in that [honey] those [essences, though bringing with them their different flavors] have no discernment, ‘I am the essence of this tree, I am the essence of that tree [etc.],’ in this way alone, my dear, all these creatures [as subtle bodies] having merged into existence (sat) [during deep sleep, after death of the body, and after the dissolution of the universe], do not know, ‘We [separately] have merged into existence (sat).’ [Nevertheless, their individual tendencies remain as their own karma-storehouse, therefore] whatever they are here [before] – tiger, lion, wolf, boar, worm, fly, biting gnat or mosquito [i.e., having such, or a mixture of those, tendencies] – that they return to [upon waking and re-birth].” (Chāndogya Up. 6.9.1 through 3).

[saṃgṛhītatva – held together; hetus – causes; phalas – results; āśraya – abode; ālambanas – bases; eṣām – these have; a-bhāva – no existence; tad-a-bhāva – these have no existence.]

संस्काराणां हेतु-फल-आश्रय-आलम्बनैः संगृहीतत्वात् यस्मात् स्वस्य हेतु-रूप-अ-विद्या-काम-कर्मभिः फल-रूप-कार्यः आश्रय-रूप-चित्त-कार्यः आलम्बन-रूप-विषय-कार्यः च निमित्तत्वम्, एषां हेतु-आदि-व्यक्त-निमित्तानाम् अधीनत्वानाम् अ-नित्यत्वानाम् अ-भावे व्यवहार-प्रतिभास-अ-परम-सत्तायां परम-सत्ता-अपेक्षामात्रे सति, तद्-अ-भावः अ-व्यक्त-संस्काराणाम् अपि न परम-सत्ता (YS.1.24, 2.24–25, 3.49, 55, 4.18 & 34)॥ – [Vṛtti]

तद्-अ-भावः इति ‘कर्मणि एव अधिकारः ते मा फलेषु कदाचन। मा कर्म-फल-हेतुः भूः’ इति (BhG.2.47).
“You have control only in doing action, never in its results. Do not [think yourself to] be the cause of the results of action.” (Bh. Gītā 2.47).

‘कर्म-जं बुद्धि-युक्ताः हि फलं त्यक्त्वा मनीषिणः’ इति (BhG.2.51).
“Because, the wise, endowed with this attitude – after discarding [the pressure for] result born of action…” (Bh. Gītā 2.51).

‘यदा ते मोह-कलिलं बुद्धिः व्यतितरिष्यति। तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च॥ श्रुति-विप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला। समाधौ (=आत्मनि) अ-चला बुद्धिः’ इति (BhG.2.52–53).
“When your intellect crosses over the confusion that is delusion, then you will gain a dispassion for what has been heard and is yet to be heard [from the secular and the spiritual marketers]. When your intellect – [previously] distracted by the śruti [i.e., the bulk of the Vedas (scriptures) concerned with providing means for gaining heaven, power, wealth, and progeny] – becomes steady and centered on samādhi (oneself)…” (Bh. Gītā 2.52 and 53).

‘मयि सर्वाणि कर्माणि सन्न्यस्य अध्यात्म-चेतसा। निर्-आशीः निर्-ममः भूत्वा’ इति (BhG.3.30).
“With a mind centered on oneself [as the Lord, as the reality], renouncing all action in Me [the Lord – as prakṛti (nature), the cosmic order], being free from anticipations, and free from [the judgment] ‘this is mine.’…” (Bh. Gītā 3.30).

‘बाह्य-स्पर्शेषु अ-सक्त-आत्मा विन्दति आत्मनि यत् सुखम्। सः ब्रह्म-योग-युक्त-आत्मा सुखम् अ-क्षयम् अश्नुते’ इति (BhG.5.21).
“The one whose mind is [relatively or absolutely] not attached towards external sense objects finds [relative or absolute] happiness in the self. That one whose mind is endowed with clear knowledge of brahman attains the sukha (fulfillment) that does not wane [i.e., mokṣa (freedom)].” (Bh. Gītā 5.21).

[atīta – past; an-āgata – future; asti – exist; sva-rūpatas – in their own form; bheda – difference; adhvan – path; dharmas – characteristics.]

अथ भूत-भवत्-भविष्यत्-स्व-रूप-विषयः (YS.3.16 & 3.52) परिसमाप्तः – अतीत-अन्-आगतं भूत-भविष्यत्-कालः (‘अन्यत्र भूतात् च भव्यात् च’ इति KathU.1.2.14) स्व-रूपतः पूर्व-भवत्-कालस्य भवत्-स्मृति-रूपतया भविष्यत्-नाम-कालस्य भवत्-कल्पना-रूपतया च अस्ति वर्तते, अध्व-भेदात् धर्माणां यस्मात् स्व-व्यक्ति-कर्म-पथ्योः धर्म-भेदाः (YS.3.14, 49 & 2.5)॥ – [Vṛtti]

अतीत-अन्-आगतं स्व-रूपतः अस्ति इति (यस्मात् भूत-भविष्यत्-कालं विरुद्ध-द्वन्द्व-स्व-रूपम् इति चेत्) ‘न अ-सतः विद्यते भावः, न अ-भावः विद्यते सतः’ इति (BhG.2.16).
A-sat (the unreal, the time-bound) has no being [of its own], and sat (the real) has no nonbeing.” (Bh. Gītā 2.16).

‘सद् एव सोम्य इदम् अग्रे आसीद् एकम् एव अ-द्वितीयम्। तद् (=तत्र) ह एके आहुः अ-सद् एव इदम् अग्रे आसीद् एकम् एव अ-द्वितीयं तस्माद् अ-सतः सद् जायत (=अजायत)॥ कुतः तु खलु सोम्य एवं स्याद् इति ह उवाच कथम् अ-सतः सद् जायेत इति। सत् तु एव सोम्य इदम् अग्रे आसीद् एकम् एव अ-द्वितीयम्’ इति (ChanU.6.2.1–2).
“Existence (sat) alone, my dear [Śvetaketu], was this in the beginning – one alone without a second. Now, some say that non-existence (a-sat) alone was this in the beginning – one alone without a second, and from that non-existence came existence. But how, my dear, indeed could it be said that such a thing is possible? How could existence come from non-existence? Rather, existence alone, my dear, was this in the beginning – one alone without a second.” (Chāndogya Up. 6.2.1 and 2).

[te – these; vyakta – manifest; sūkṣma – subtle; ātmans – natures; guṇas – characteristics.]

ते भूत-भवत्-भविष्यत्-कालाः व्यक्त-सूक्ष्माः, तौ भूत-भविष्यत्-कालौ भवत्-काले एव सन्तौ भूत-स्मृतितया भविष्यत्-कल्पनातया च सूक्ष्म-वृत्ती, भवत्-कालः तु एव व्यक्तः, ते कालाः गुणात्मानः स्व-गुण-अनुरूपाः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tattva – reality; vastu – entity; ekatva – oneness; pariṇāmas – modifications.]

अथ वस्तु-स्व-रूपं चित्त-स्व-रूपं च वक्ष्यामः – परिणाम-एकत्वात् स्व-कार्य-परिणाम-कल्पनानाम् एक-स्व-रूपत्वात्, यथा स्वर्ण-मृद्-आदि स्व-कार्याणि च वस्तु-तत्त्वं किञ्चित्-वस्तुनः एक-सत्ता, अतः सर्व-कार्य-एकत्वं परम-ईश्वर-एक-कारणम् एव परम-आत्मा परम-सत्ता॥ – [Vṛtti]

तत्त्वम् इति ‘अथ यद् इदम् अस्मिन् ब्रह्म-पुरे दहरं पुण्डरीकं वेश्म दहरः अस्मिन् अन्तर्-आकाशः तस्मिन् यद् अन्तः तद् अन्वेष्टव्यं तद् वाव विजिज्ञासितव्यम् इति॥ तं चेद् ब्रूयुः यद् इदम् अस्मिन् ब्रह्म-पुरे दहरं पुण्डरीकं वेश्म दहरः अस्मिन् अन्तर्-आकाशः किं तद् अत्र विद्यते यद् अन्वेष्टव्यं यद् वाव विजिज्ञासितव्यम् इति सः ब्रूयात्॥ यावान् वै अयम् आकाशः तावान् एषः अन्तर्-हृदये आकाशः। उभे अस्मिन् द्यावा-पृथिवी अन्तः एव समाहिते॥ उभौ अग्निः च वायुः च सूर्या-चन्द्रमसौ उभौ विद्युत् नक्षत्राणि। यद् च अस्य इह अस्ति यद् च न अस्ति सर्वं तद् अस्मिन् समाहितम्’ इति (ChanU.8.1.1–3).
“[The teacher should say] ‘Now, in this city of brahman [i.e., the body with its nine gates, which are the seven sense openings in the head and the two lower openings in the bottom of the trunk, into which brahman has ‘entered’ as the self], there is this small lotus[-like] abode [i.e., the closed, downward pointing lotus-like heart/intellect, that needs opening, expansion], and in this is [as though] a small enclosed space. What is interior within that [heart/intellect] is that which is to be sought and indeed to be known.’ If [the students] were to reply to him, ‘In this city of brahman, there is this small lotus[-like] abode, and in this is a small enclosed space, [then] what is that in this which is to be sought, and indeed to be known?’ He should reply, ‘As much indeed as this space [outside], that much [and more, as it is totally limitless] is this space [i.e., in this imagery – is this brahman] in the inner heart [i.e., the inner core of the person, the heart and intellect of the person]. In it are resolved (samāhita) within indeed both heaven and earth. Both fire and air, both the sun and the moon, the lightning, the stars, and all of this that is here and is not – is resolved in this.’” (Chāndogya Up. 8.1.1 through 3).

‘द्वितीयाद् (वस्तु-अन्तरात्) वै भयं भवति’ इति (BrhU.1.4.2).
“Fear [including insecurity] arises [only] from a second thing [i.e., a thought or an object of thought].” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 1.4.2).

‘अ-सद् (=अ-विकृतं ब्रह्म) वै इदम् अग्रे आसीत्। ततः वै सद् (=विकृतं ब्रह्म) अजायत। तद् आत्मानं स्वयम् अकुरुत। तस्मात् तत् सु-कृतम् उच्यते इति – यद् वै तत् सु-कृतम्। रसः वै सः। रसं हि एव अयं लब्ध्वा आनन्दी भवति। कः हि एव अन्यात् कः प्राण्यात्। यद् एषः आकाशः आनन्दः न स्यात्। एषः हि एव आनन्दयाति। यदा हि एव एषः एतस्मिन् अ-दृश्ये अन्-आत्म्ये अ-निरुक्ते अ-निलयने अ-भयं प्रतिष्ठां विन्दते। अथ सः अ-भयं गतः भवति। यदा हि एव एषः एतस्मिन् उद् (=अपि) अरम् (=अल्पम्) अन्तरं कुरुते। अथ तस्य भयं भवति। तत् तु एव भयं (ईश्वरः अन्यः मत्तः अहम् अन्यः संसारी इयेवं-)विदुषः अ-मन्वानस्य’ इति (TaitU.2.7.1).
“Existence unmanifest (a-sat) [i.e., brahman unmanifested] indeed was this [universe] in the beginning. From that arose existence manifested (sat) [i.e., brahman manifested as names and forms]. That [existence (brahman)] [as though] created itself. Therefore, it is said to be perfectly created (su-kṛta, without a second thing required as an external factor or condition, thus it is self-manifesting, svayam-kṛta). That which is self-manifesting (su-kṛta) is indeed that essence (rasa) [of everything, of names and forms], because having attained this essence (rasa) one is full (ānandin) [i.e., this essence, being without a second, is an absence of fear and insecurity, and manifests as fullness and security alone – ānanda and sat]. Since who [else than brahman] would breath in and who [else] would breath out, if this space [within oneself as one’s essence] be not fullness (ānanda) [that is this brahmansatyam jñānam anantam brahma]? Since this alone gives rise to fullness. Since, when this one discovers [one’s] being and absence of fear in this [brahman] which is not [a second object] seen, as bodiless, as not named [i.e., not a form having a name], and not having [any other] abode [than itself], then that one has attained [as not being separate from] fearlessness. [But, not finding this due to ignorance] when this one makes (kurute) [i.e., imagines] even the least difference (antara) in this [brahman (reality)], then there is fear of that [other thing, e.g., as God, as others, etc.]. But that [separate other, though being but brahman] indeed becomes a terror (bhaya) for one who [thus] knows without [properly] thinking.” (Taittirīya Up. 2.7.1).

‘अस्य महतः भूतस्य निश्वसितम् एतद् यद् ऋग्-वेदः यजुर्-वेदः साम-वेदः अथर्व-अङ्गिरसः इति-हासः पुराणं विद्याः (=देव-जन-विद्याः) उपनिषदः श्लोकाः सूत्राणि अनुव्याख्यानानि व्याख्यानानि इष्टं हुतम् आशितं पायितम् अयं च लोकः परः च लोकः सर्वाणि च भूतानि अस्य एव एतानि सर्वाणि निश्वसितानि’ इति (BrhU.4.5.11).
“As the breath of this limitless being [brahman, reality] are the Ṛg-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sāma-Veda, Atharva-Veda, Iti-hāsa (epics), Purāṇa (legends), vidyā (arts), Upaniṣads, ślokas (verses), sūtras (aphorisms), vyākhyānas (commentaries) and their anuvyākhyānas (explanations), iṣṭa (rituals), hutam āśita (ritual food) and pāyita (drink offerings), this loka (world) and the other, and all beings. All these are the breath of this [brahman, reality] alone.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Up. 4.5.11).

[sāmya – oneness; vastu – entity; bheda – different; cittas – thoughts; vibhakta – separate; panthan – path; tayoḥ – for the two.]

वस्तु-साम्ये वस्तुनः एकत्वे (YS.4.14 & 2.22) यदि अपि सति, चित्त-भेदात् एक-वस्तौ अन्-एक-चित्त-वृत्तीनां भेदात् तयोः वस्तुनः चित्त-वृत्तेः च विभक्तः भिन्नः पन्थाः व्यक्ति-कर्म-मार्गः वस्तु-निमित्त-मार्गः चित्त-वृत्ति-मार्गः च भिन्नौ, तस्मात् वस्तुनः चित्त-वृत्तीनां पृथक्-रूपत्वं व्यवहार-सत्तात्वम् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[na ca – nor; vastu – object; tantra – dependent; eka-citta – single thought; tadā kiṃ syāt – were that ever to be the case; tad – that; a-pramāṇaka – never have a means of knowing.]

न च एक-चित्त-तन्त्रम् एक-वस्तु न च वस्तु स्वस्य एक-चित्त-वृत्तिः एव इत्यर्थः, तद् एवं-भूतं वस्तु अ-प्रमाणकं स्व-तन्त्र-प्रमा-करण-रहितं तदा किं स्यात्, यस्मात् पश्चात् इत्थंभूत-प्रमाण-चित्तं स्वस्य-विषयम् एव न तु पूर्व-वस्तु-विषयम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

अ-प्रमाणकम् इति ‘कामैः तैः तैः हृत-ज्ञानाः प्रपद्यन्ते अन्य-देवताः। तं तं नियमम् आस्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया॥ यः यः यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्धयार्चितुम् इच्छति। तस्य तस्य अ-चलां श्रद्धां ताम् एव विदधामि अहम्॥ सः तया श्रद्धया युक्तः तस्याः (देवतायाः) राधनम् ईहते। लभते च ततः कामान् मया एव विहितान् हि तान्’ इति (BhG.7.20–22).
“Those whose discrimination has been robbed away by various [heavenly or worldly] requirements and are ruled by their own disposition worship various deities, following various stipulations [per the appropriate deity to fulfill each particular requirement]. Whoever be the devotee and to whichever [limited] form [of Mine] one wishes to worship with faith – for that one, the very same faith I make firm [by giving the result of the devotee’s action]. That one, endowed with that faith, engages in the worship of that [deity, that limited form of Me] and obtains from that [deity] those desired objects – because those are ordained by Me alone [in the form of the laws of karma].” (Bh. Gītā 7.20 through 22).

[apekṣitva – requirement; tad-uparāga – its influence; citta – mind [or thought]; vastu – object; jñāta – known; a-jñāta – unknown.]

तद्-उपराग-अपेक्षित्वात् चित्तस्य यस्मात् चित्त-वृत्तेः वस्तु-अनुरूप-परिणामेन अपेक्षित्वं, वस्तु तद्-परिणत-चित्तस्य वृत्त्या ज्ञात-अ-ज्ञातं ज्ञातं भवति अथवा अ-ज्ञातं यदि अ-परिणतं चित्तं स्यात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[a-pariṇāmitva – immutability; puruṣa – self; tad-prabhu – its master; vṛttis – thoughts; citta – mind; sadā – always; jñāta – known.]

सदा तु एव ज्ञाताः चित्त-वृत्तयः, तद्-प्रभोः चित्त-प्रभोः पुरुषस्य अ-परिणामित्वात् वृत्ति-ज्ञाने पुरुष-चैतन्यं निर्-आयासेन वृत्ति-प्रकाशकं न एव परिणमते, यथा राज-शक्ति-सन्निधौ एव राज-सेवकाः कुर्वन्ति॥ – [Vṛtti]

अ-परिणामित्वात् इति ‘एकः देवः सर्व-भूतेषु गूढः सर्व-व्यापी सर्व-भूत-अन्तर-आत्मा। कर्म-अध्यक्षः सर्व-भूत-अधिवासः साक्षी चेता केवलः निर्-गुणः च’ इति (SvetU.6.11).
“The one (eka) shining being (deva) is the one who is [as though] hidden in all beings, pervading all as the self (ātman) within all beings, the seer (adhyakṣa) of [all] activities, the inhabitant (adhivāsa) of all beings, the witness (sākṣin), the knower (cetṛ), complete (kevala), and without attributes (nir-guṇa).” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 6.11).

‘अन्-आदित्वान् निर्-गुणत्वात् परम-आत्मा अयम् अ-व्ययः। शरीर-स्थः अपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते’ इति (BhG.13.31).
“O Arjuna, since it is beginningless and since it is without attributes (nir-guṇa), this changeless (a-vyaya), limitless I (parama-ātman) does not do action – even though obtaining in the body, nor is it affected [by the results of action].” (Bh. Gītā 13.31).

तद्-प्रभोः इति ‘महान् प्रभुः वै पुरुषः सत्त्वस्य एषः प्रवर्तकः’ इति (SvetU.3.12).
“The puruṣa is indeed the limitless Master (prabhu, the Lord); it is the prime mover (pravartaka) of the real (sattva, all entities including the mind).” (Śvetāśvatara Up. 3.12).

‘गतिः भर्ता प्रभुः साक्षी’ इति (BhG.9.18).
“The goal, the nourisher, the Lord (prabhu), and the witness (sākṣin) [are Me (the Lord)].” (Bh. Gītā 9.18).

[na – nor; tad – it; sva-ābhāsa – self-revealing; dṛśyatva – it has the nature of being seen.]

न तद् चित्तं स्व-आभासं सर्व-स्व-वृत्ति-रूप-आभासं (YS.4.22), दृश्यत्वात् यस्मात् ज्ञातम् अ-ज्ञातम् अपि च व्यक्तम् अ-व्यक्तम् अपि च दृश्यं, यथा सर्व-अन्य-वस्तूनि॥ – [Vṛtti]

स्व-आभासम् इति ‘सत्यं ज्ञानम् अन्-अन्तं ब्रह्म’ इति (TaitU.2.1.1).
Brahman is limitless reality (satya), knowledge (jñāna).” (Taittirīya Up. 2.1.1).

‘द्वे विद्ये वेदितव्ये इति ह स्म यद् ब्रह्म-विदः वदन्ति परा च एव अ-परा च’ इति (MunU.1.1.4).
“There are two types of knowledge to be known, say those who know scripture – unlimited (para) and limited (a-para).” (Muṇḍaka Up. 1.1.4).

‘ज्ञानं ज्ञानवताम् अहम्’ इति (BhG.10.38).
“I [the Lord] am the knowledge (jñāna) among those who have knowledge.” (Bh. Gītā 10.38).

[ca – and; eka-samaya – same moment; an-avadhāraṇa – no ascertainment; ubhaya – both.]

एक-समये सम-काले च उभय-अन्-अवधारणं स्व-वृत्ति-रूपस्य स्व-वस्तु-रूपस्य च उभयोः न अवधारणं, यथा ‘अयं घटः’ इति ‘इयं घट-वृत्तिः’ इति च वृत्ती॥ – [Vṛtti]

एक-समये (घट-वृत्ती तु उभे अस्तिता अपि च) इति ‘(ब्रह्म सत्यं) प्रति-बोध-विदितं मतम्, अ-मृतत्वं हि विन्दते’ इति (KenU.2.4).
“It [brahman (reality)] is [rightly] known [when] it is known in every cognition [as ‘is-is-is,’ as ‘existence-existence-existence’], because [by that knowledge] one attains the nature of being free from death.” (Kena Up. 2.4).

[dṛśya – object; citta-antara – another thought; ati-prasaṅga – over necessity; buddhis – cognitions; buddhis – cognitions; ca – and; saṅkara – confusion; smṛtis – memories.]

चित्त-अन्तर-दृश्ये अपर-चित्त-वृत्त्या पूर्व-चित्त-वृत्तेः दृश्ये यदि अपि सति, बुद्धि-बुद्धेः अपर-बुद्धि-वृत्त्या पूर्व-बुद्धि-वृत्तेः अति-प्रसङ्गः अन्-अन्त-वश्यकता, न कदा-चिद् का-चिद् वृत्तिः ज्ञाता इत्यर्थः, स्मृति-सङ्करः प्रमाण-वृत्तित्वेन स्मृति-वृत्ति-सङ्करः (YS.1.7 & 11), न च अपि का-चिद् स्मृतिः ज्ञाता इति अति-प्रसङ्गात् ॥ – [Vṛtti]

[a-pratisaṃkrama – unchanging; citi – consciousness; saṃvedana – knowledge; sva-buddhi – its cognition; āpatti – take; tad-ākāra – the form of that.]

चितेः अ-प्रतिसंक्रमायाः अ-परिणाम-चैतन्यस्य (YS.4.18) सर्व-व्यापक-सत्-चितः च अपि तद्-आकार-आपत्तौ चित्त-वृत्ति-रूप-व्याप्तौ सत्यां स्व-बुद्धि-संवेदनं स्व-वृत्ति-ज्ञानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[citta – mind; uparakta – affected; dṛśya – seen; draṣṭṛ – witness; sarva – everything; artha – object.]

द्रष्टृ-दृश्य-उपरक्तम् अ-लुप्त-दृक्-सन्निधौ प्रकाशितं दृश्य-वस्तु-अनुरूप-परिणतं च चित्तं सर्व-अर्थं किम्-चिद् वस्तु जानीयात् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

सर्व-अर्थम् इति ‘जाग्रत्-स्वप्न-सुषुप्ति-आदि-प्रपञ्चं यद् प्रकासते। तद् ब्रह्म अहम् इति ज्ञात्वा सर्व-बन्धैः प्रमुच्यते॥ त्रिः धामसु यद् भोग्यं भोक्ता भोगः च यद् भवेत्। तेभ्यः वि-लक्षणः साक्षी चिन्मात्रः अहं सदा शिवः॥ मयि एव स-कलं जातं मयि सर्वं प्रतिष्ठितम्। मयि सर्वं लयं याति तद् ब्रह्म अ-द्वयम् अस्ति अहम्॥ अणोः अणीयान् अहम् एव तद्वत् महान् अहं विश्वम् अहं विचित्रम्। पुरातनः अहं पुरुषः अहम् ईशः हिरण्यमयः अहं शिव-रूपम् अस्मि’ इति (KaivU.1.17–20).
“The one who lights up this expanse consisting of the waking, dream, and deep sleep, etc. [the heavens, etc.], that reality (brahman) am I [the parama-ātman, previously deluded by māyā into thinking itself limited]. Knowing this, one is free from all binds. Different from whatever is the experienced, the experiencer, and the experience, I am the witness, pure awareness, ever calm. In me alone everything is born, in me everything is sustained, and in me everything is resolved. I am that brahman, without a second. [Since I am unlimited in every way] I am indeed subtler than the subtle, and in that same way I am the vast, diverse universe. I am the puruṣa that is always there. I am the Lord who shines [as everything]. I am ever calm.” (Kaivalya Up. 1.17 through 20).

[tad – that; api – though; citra – diverse; a-saṃkhyeya – countless; vāsanās – latent tendencies; para-artha – for another; saṃhatya-kāritva – it acts like it is being put together.]

तद् चित्तम् अ-संख्येय-वासनाभिः अ-गण्य-संस्कारैः चित्रं विविधम् अपिपर-अर्थम् अन्य-अर्थं न स्व-अर्थं स्थूल-सूक्ष्म-शरीर-स्थ-जीव-अर्थम् एव इत्यर्थः संहत्य-कारित्वात् यथा निर्मित्त-गृहं गृह-स्थ-अर्थं सर्वं स्थूल-सूक्ष्म-जगत् चित्त-सहितं पर-तन्त्रं न तु परम-अर्थ-सत्यम् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[darśin – one who knows; viśeṣa – distinction; vinivṛtti – cessation; bhāvanā – imagining; bhāva – being; ātman – oneself.]

अथ ज्ञानम् एव कैवल्यं वक्ष्यामः – विशेष-दर्शिनः आत्म-अन्-आत्म-विवेकिनः (YS.4.18 & .22–3) आत्म-भाव-भावना-विनिवृत्तिः आत्मतया स-परिणाम-दृश्य-चित्त-कल्पनायाः निवृत्तिः, आत्मनः अ-परिणामित्वात् (YS.4.18)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tadā – then; citta – mind; nimna – surrenders; viveka – discernment; kaivalya-prāk-bhāra – has freedom before it.]

तदा अन्-आत्मनः आत्म-भाव-भावना-विनिवृत्तौ विवेक-निम्नं विकेक-ज्ञान-परिणतं सत् कैवल्य-प्राक्-भारं चित्तं कैवल्य-अभि-मुखं चित्तं, यद् सर्व-विषयं सर्वथा-विषयं विवेक-जं ज्ञानं (YS.3.54) तद् कैवल्य-ज्ञानम् इत्यर्थः॥ – [Vṛtti]

विवेक-निम्नम् इति ‘सर्व-कर्माणि अपि सदा कुर्वाणः मद्-व्यपाश्रयः। मद्-प्रसादात् अवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदम् अ-व्ययम्॥…तम् एव शरणं गच्छ सर्व-भावेन भारत। तत्-प्रसादात् परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम्’ इति (BhG.18.56 & 62).
“The one who – though always performing all karma – has Me as the basis [of all actions and results] attains by [this] My grace [i.e., by the result (clarity of mind), which is given by the Lord as the teacher and as what is taught] the end, which is ever the same and imperishable. …With all [your] being, surrender to that [Lord] alone [who is the center of your being and is in the form of your natural disposition moving you through life], O Arjuna. By that [Lord’s] grace you will attain the ultimate peace, the timeless abode.” (Bh. Gītā 18.56 and 62).

[chidras – cracks; tad – that; antara – those different; pratyayas – thoughts; saṃskāras – latent tendencies.]

तद्-छिद्रेषु विवेक-भङ्गेषु सत्सु प्रत्यय-अन्तराणि अ-विकेकाः क्लेश-व्यक्त-प्रत्ययाः संस्कारेभ्यः भवेयुः, यस्मात् ते प्रत्ययाः क्लेश-अ-व्यक्त-संस्कार-जाः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[eṣām – their; hāna – giving up; -vat – like that; ukta – said; kleśas – afflictions.]

हानं त्यागः एषाम् अ-विवेक-संस्काराणां व्यक्त-क्लेशवद् उक्तम् (YS.2.10–11 & 4.11)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[api – even; a-kusīda – no interest; sarvathā – in any way; prasaṃkhyāna – meditation process; viveka-khyāti – discerning knowledge; samādhi – contemplation; megha – mass; dharma – support.]

प्रसंख्याने ध्याने सुख-स्थाने अपि अ-कुसीदस्य अ-प्रयोगिनः मोक्ष-अर्थित्वात् सर्वथा, विवेक-ख्यातेः विवेक-ज्ञानेन धर्म-मेघः (ऋतं-भरा YS.1.48) धारयति इति धर्म तस्य धर्मस्य योनिः समाधिः समाधीयते यस्मिन् इति समाधिः, निर्-बीज-समाधिः निवृत्त-अ-ज्ञान-बीज-समाधिः द्रष्टृ-स्व-रूप-परम-आत्म-अवस्थानम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

समाधिः इति ‘ब्रह्म एव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्म-कर्म-समाधिना (=सर्व-कर्म ब्रह्म एव सम्यक्-दर्शनेन)’ इति (BhG.4.24).
Brahman (reality) indeed is to be attained by the one whose vision of identity (samādhi) is that [every aspect of] action is brahman.” (Bh. Gītā 4.24).

‘यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला। समाधौ (=आत्मनि) अ-चला बुद्धिः तदा योगम् अवाप्स्यसि’ इति (BhG.2.53).
“When the intellect becomes steady and becomes centered (a-cala) on your self (samādhi), then you will attain yoga.” (Bh. Gītā 2.53).

‘भोगै-ऐ्वर्य-प्रसक्तानां तया (पुष्पितया वाचा) अपहृत-चेतसाम्। व्यवसाय-आत्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ (=अन्तः-करणे) न विधीयते’ इति (BhG.2.44).
“For those whose minds are carried away by that [flowery talk] and who are attached to consumption and power, a well-discerned knowledge is not formed in their mind (samādhi).” (Bh. Gītā 2.44).

[tataḥ – from that; nivṛtti – cessation; kleśas – afflictions; karmas – results of action.]

ततः समाधेः क्लेश-कर्म-निवृत्तिः इह एव अ-विद्या-आदि-क्लेशानां (YS.2.3) च देह-पतने पुनर्-जन्म-हेतु-कर्म-आशयस्य (YS.2.12) च निवृत्तिः॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tadā – then; malas – impurities; āvaraṇa – cover; sarva – all; apeta – gone away; jñeya – to be known; alpa – insignificant; jñāna – knowledge; ān-antya – limitless.]

तदा क्लेश-कर्म-निवृत्तौ सर्व-आवरण-मल-अपेतस्य आत्म-तत्त्व-आवरण-अ-विद्या-मल-विगतस्य ज्ञानिनः – परम-आत्म-ज्ञानस्य आन्-अन्त्यात् परिपूर्णात् – सर्व-विषय-ज्ञानं ज्ञेयम् अल्पम् अ-पुरुष-अर्थकं, विलासि एव न तु अवश्यकं, सर्व-विषय-ज्ञानस्य परम-पुरुष-अर्थ-मोक्ष-परिसमाप्तिमत्त्वात्॥ – [Vṛtti]

[tataḥ – from that; guṇas – constituents of nature; kṛta – have completed; artha – purpose; krama – sequence; pariṇāmas – changes; samāpti – end.]

ततः आन्-अन्त्य-ज्ञानात् कृत-अर्थानाम् इदानीं जन्मनि परम-पुरुष-अर्थ-कृतानां परिणाम-क्रम-समाप्तिः प्रान्त-परिणाम-क्रमस्य समाप्तिः गुणानाम्॥ – [Vṛtti]

कृत-अर्थानां गुणानाम् इति ‘न एव किञ्चित् करोमि इति युक्तः मन्येत तत्त्व-वित्। पश्यन् शृण्वन् स्पृशन् जिघ्रन् अश्नन् गच्छन् स्वपन् श्वसन्॥ प्रलपन् विसृजन् गृह्णन् उन्मिषन् निमिषन् अपि। इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रिय-अर्थेषु वर्तन्ते इति धारयन्’ इति (BhG.5.8–9).
“The contemplative knower of the truth, maintaining that the organs [of sense and action] engage in their objects, would think ‘I do not do anything,’ even though seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, moving, sleeping, breathing, talking, releasing, grasping, or opening and closing [the eyes].

[krama – sequence; prati-yogin – associated; kṣaṇas – moments; nirgrāhya – can be assumed; apara-anta – other end; pariṇāma – change.]

क्षण-प्रति-योगी प्रति-काल-क्षणैः सम्बन्धी (YS.3.15) परिणाम-अपर-अन्त-निर्ग्राह्यः परिणामस्य प्रान्ते कल्प्यः क्रमः गुण-परिणाम-अन्वयः यस्मात् भूत-भविष्यत्-क्षणाः कल्पनाः (YS.4.12) तस्मात् क्रमः अपि कल्पना (YS.3.52), तथा परिणाम-क्रमः जन्म-मरण-क्रमः अपि कल्पना इत्यर्थः (YS.1.9)॥ – [Vṛtti]

[artha-śūnya – no more purpose; puruṣa – person; guṇas – constituents of nature; pratiprasava – return to their origin. kaivalya – freedom. – otherwise; iti – known as; śakti – pure power; citi – consciousness; pratiṣṭha – remaining; sva-rūpa – its own nature.]

पुरुष-अर्थ-शून्यानां गुणानां कर्म-आशय-रूप-गुणाः पुरुषस्य अ-प्रयोजकाः तेषां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः अ-व्यक्ते प्रलयं देह-पतनात् ऊर्ध्वम् (YS.4.32), अथवा इह एव प्रतिप्रसवः व्यावहारिक-शरीर-रूपत्वेन अवस्थानम् एव तद्-पारम-अर्थिक-सत्ता-आरोपेण विना (YS.1.4, 2.5 & 25–26) कैवल्यम् अभिधीयते, स्व-रूप-प्रतिष्ठा इह एव द्रष्टृ-स्व-रूप-अवस्थानं (YS.1.3) वा चिति-शक्तिः चैतन्य-स्व-रूपः एव इति कैवल्यम् अभिधीयते, इति योग-सूत्राणि समाप्तानि च॥ – [Vṛtti]

गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः इति ‘तत्त्व-वित् तु महा-बाहो गुण-कर्म-विभागयोः। गुणाः गुणेषु वर्तन्ते इति मत्वा न सज्जते’ इति (BhG.3.28).
“Whereas, O Arjuna, the one who knows the truth of the distinction of the guṇas [from ‘I’], and of [their] actions [from ‘I’], thinking ‘the guṇas [i.e., the body and mind] engage among the guṇas [i.e., among the objects – physical and mental]’ – that one is not bound.” (Bh. Gītā 3.28).

‘ब्रह्मणि आधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः। लिप्यते न सः पापेन पद्म-पत्रम् इव अम्भसा’ इति (BhG.5.10).
“Giving up attachment [i.e., not anticipating results], the one who performs actions, offering [them] unto brahman (the Lord – as prakṛti (nature), the cosmic order) – that one is not affected by pāpa (karma demerit), like a lotus leaf [is not soaked] by water.” (Bh. Gītā 5.10).

‘न च मां तानि कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्-जय। उदासीनवद् आसीनम् अ-सक्तं तेषु कर्मसु’ इति (BhG.9.9).
“O Arjuna, these karmas (actions and their results) do not bind Me, who is seated [here as the basis of prakṛti (nature)], seemingly indifferent [being its mere conscious witness] and unattached towards these karmas.” (Bh. Gītā 9.9).

‘यः एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह। सर्वथा वर्तमानः अपि न सः भूयः अभिजायते’ इति (BhG.13.23).
“The one who in this way knows puruṣa and prakṛti with its guṇas – that one, even though performing action in all ways [whether as a student, householder, retiree, or renunciate] is not born again.” (Bh. Gītā 13.23).

‘न अन्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टा अनुपश्यति। गुणेभ्यः च परं वेत्ति मद्-भावं सः अधिगच्छति’ इति (BhG.14.19).
“When the seer sees [according to the teaching] that there is not a doer other than the guṇas, and knows [the self] as beyond the guṇas, [then] that one attains My nature [called mokṣa].” (Bh. Gītā 14.19).

कैवल्यम् इति ‘अनेन ज्ञानम् आप्नोति संसार-अर्णव-नाशनम्। तस्मात् एवं विदित्वा एनं कैवल्यं पदम् अश्नुते, कैवल्यं पदम् अश्नुते’ इति (KaivU.2.2).
“By this [teaching regarding brahman] is attained a knowledge that dispels the ocean of saṃsāra (the life of continual unbecoming becoming). Therefore, knowing in this way, one attains the goal (pada) [called] completeness (kaivalya) [i.e., mokṣa (freedom)].” (Kaivalya Up. 2.2).

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pūrṇa, pūrṇa, ādāya, pūrṇa, eva, ava-√śiṣ.
Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

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Amṛta-nāda Upaniṣad

6 – YS.1.2

17 – YS.1.17

Āruṇeya Upaniṣad

1–3 – YS.2.31

3 – YS.1.21

Bhagavad Gītā

BhG.2.11 – YS.2.15

BhG.2.12 – YS.1.3

BhG.2.14 – YS.2.15

BhG.2.14 & 16 – YS.1.3

BhG.2.16 – YS.4.12

BhG.2.17 – YS.1.3

BhG.2.22 – YS.1.3

BhG.2.23 – YS.3.46

BhG.2.26–28 – YS.2.15

BhG.2.29 – YS.1.49

BhG.2.42 & 43 – YS.1.15

BhG.2.44 – YS.4.29

BhG.2.46 – YS.1.46

BhG.2.47 – YS.4.11

BhG.2.47–48 – YS.4.2

BhG.2.48 – YS.1.2

BhG.2.50 – YS.1.2, YS.4.3

BhG.2.51 – YS.4.11

BhG.2.52–53 – YS.4.11

BhG.2.53 – YS.4.29

BhG.2.59 – YS.2.15

BhG.2.62–63 – YS.1.15

BhG.2.64 – YS.2.54

BhG.2.64 –65 – YS.1.47

BhG.2.67 – YS.2.55

BhG.3.3 – YS.2.29

BhG.3.6 – YS.2.15

BhG.3.6–7 – YS.3.48

BhG.3.13 – YS.4.1

BhG.3.17 – YS.2.42

BhG.3.17–18 – YS.1.40, YS.3.49

BhG.3.28 – YS.4.34

BhG.3.30 – YS.4.11

BhG.3.32 – YS.1.46

BhG.3.42–43 – YS.3.48

BhG.4.1 – YS.1.26

BhG.4.10 – YS.1.23

BhG.4.24 – YS.4.29

BhG.4.30 – YS.4.1

BhG.4.35 – YS.3.46

BhG.4.38 – YS.1.7

BhG.5.2 – YS.2.29

BhG.5.8–9 – YS.4.42

BhG.5.10 – YS.4.34

BhG.5.12 – YS.1.22

BhG.5.19 – YS.3.53

BhG.5.21 – YS.4.11

BhG.5.27–28 – YS.2.46

BhG.6.9 – YS.3.53

BhG.6.11–14 – YS.2.46

BhG.6.14 – YS.1.29

BhG.6.16 – YS.1.10

BhG.6.17 – YS.4.1

BhG.6.20 – YS.1.51

BhG.6.21–23 – YS.1.1

BhG.6.23 – YS.1.2

BhG.6.26 – YS.3.1

BhG.6.29–31 – YS.3.53

BhG.6.34 – YS.1.2

BhG.6.35 – YS.1.12

BhG.6.37–38 & 40 – YS.3.55

BhG.6.40–44 – YS.3.38

BhG.7.6 – YS.3.55

BhG.7.7 – YS.3.46

BhG.7.10 – YS.3.55

BhG.7.14 – YS.1.45

BhG.7.16–18 – YS.1.29

BhG.7.20–22 – YS.4.16

BhG.8.12–13 – YS.3.32

BhG.9.4–5 – YS.1.26, YS.3.52

BhG.9.7 – YS.4.9

BhG.9.9 – YS.4.34

BhG.9.14 – YS.2.1

BhG.9.16 – YS.4.1

BhG.9.18 – YS.4.18

BhG.10.19 & 41 – YS.3.46

BhG.10.20 – YS.3.46

BhG.10.22 – YS.3.55

BhG.10.25 – YS.3.2

BhG.10.36 – YS.3.55

BhG.10.38 – YS.4.19

BhG.10.40 – YS.3.46

BhG.11.15–6 – YS.1.44

BhG.12.18–19 – YS.3.51

BhG.13.9 & 11 – YS.2.30

BhG.13.14 – YS.2.18

BhG.13.17 – YS.1.26, YS.1.36, YS.3.49

BhG.13.23 – YS.4.34

BhG.13.26 – YS.2.17

BhG.13.27–28 – YS.1.24

BhG.13.29 – YS.4.5

BhG.13.31 – YS.4.18, YS.4.2

BhG.13.34 – YS.4.5

BhG.14.6–8 – YS.3.35

BhG.14.10 – YS.2.15

BhG.14.19 – YS.3.35, YS.4.34

BhG.14.20 – YS.3.52

BhG.14.22–25 – YS.2.18

BhG.15.9 – YS.3.49

BhG.15.13–15 – YS.4.1

BhG.15.20 – YS.2.22

BhG.16.1–3 – YS.3.51

BhG.16.21 – YS.4.10

BhG.17.8 – YS.4.1

BhG.17.14–17 – YS.2.1

BhG.17.15 – YS.2.36

BhG.18.9 – YS.3.46

BhG.18.50–55 – YS.2.2

BhG.18.56 & 62 – YS.4.26

BhG.18.61 – YS.4.5

BhG.18.62 – YS.2.45

BhG.18.66 – YS.4.7

BhG.18.73 – YS.2.22

Brahma-bindu Upaniṣad

10 – YS.3.10

Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad

BrhU.1.4.1 & 7 – YS.3.52

BrhU.1.4.2 – YS.4.14

BrhU.1.4.6 – YS.3.41

BrhU.1.4.10 – YS.1.29

BrhU.2.1.2 – YS.3.32

BrhU.2.1.2 … 2.1.20 – YS.1.16

BrhU.2.3.6 – YS.1.48

BrhU.2.4.5 – YS.1.49

BrhU.2.4.14 – YS.1.3

BrhU.2.5.18 – YS.1.16

BrhU.2.5.19 – YS.1.9, YS.1.26

BrhU.3.4.2 – YS.1.3, YS.1.45

BrhU.3.8.4 – YS.1.26

BrhU.3.9.26…4.2.4, 4.4.22 & 4.5.15 – YS.1.48

BrhU.3.9.28.7 – YS.1.17

BrhU.4.1.4 (Bhāṣyam) – YS.1.7

BrhU.4.3.6 – YS.1.3

BrhU.4.3.9 – YS.1.38

BrhU.4.3.23 – YS.1.3

BrhU.4.3.32 – YS.1.3

BrhU.4.3.32–33 – YS.1.17

BrhU.4.4.14 – YS.2.15

BrhU.4.5.11 – YS.4.14

BrhU.4.5.6 – YS.1.49

BrhU.5.15.1 – YS.3.26

BrhU.6.2.15 – YS.3.26

BrhU.6.2.16 – YS.3.27

Chāndogya Upaniṣad

ChanU.2.23.1 – YS.2.1

ChanU.3.13.7 – YS.1.36

ChanU.4.17.1–2 – YS.1.7

ChanU.6.1.1–2 – YS.2.30

ChanU.6.1.4–5 – YS.1.9

ChanU.6.2.1 – YS.1.3

ChanU.6.2.1–2 – YS.4.12

ChanU.6.2.1 & 6.2.3–4 – YS.3.41

ChanU.6.3.2–3 – YS.3.41

ChanU.6.4.1 – YS.3.41

ChanU.6.8.7 – YS.1.29

ChanU.6.9.1–3 – YS.4.10

ChanU.6.14.1–3 – YS.2.25

ChanU.7.1.3 – YS.3.54

ChanU.7.19.1–20.1 – YS.1.20

ChanU.7.25.2 – YS.3.49

ChanU.7.26.1–2 – YS.3.8

ChanU.7.26.2 – YS.3.54

ChanU.8.1.1–3 – YS.4.14

ChanU.8.1.3 – YS.3.34

ChanU.8.1.5 – YS.1.36

ChanU.8.6.5–6 – YS.3.26, YS.3.32

ChanU.8.15.1 – YS.2.1

Dhyāna-bindū Upaniṣad

18 – YS.3.2

Gāyatrī Mantra, Ṛg Veda

3.62.10 – YS.3.26

Īśāvāsya Upaniṣad

IsU.4 – YS.1.49

IsU.6 – YS.3.46

Jābāla Upaniṣad

1.1 – YS.3.54

Kaivalya Upaniṣad

KaivU.1.3–4 – YS.1.7

KaivU.1.6 – YS.1.36

KaivU.1.11 – YS.1.12

KaivU.1.16 – YS.3.55

KaivU.1.17–18 – YS.1.3

KaivU.1.17–20 – YS.4.23

KaivU.1.19 – YS.1.3

KaivU.2.2 – YS.2.25, YS.4.34

Kaṭha Upaniṣad

KathU.1.1.26–27 – YS.3.51

KathU.1.2.2 – YS.1.2

KathU.1.2.4 – YS.1.8

KathU.1.2.7 – YS.1.49

KathU.1.2.8 – YS.1.38, YS.3.35

KathU.1.2.9 – YS.1.49

KathU.1.2.15 & 17 – YS.1.38

KathU.1.2.18 – YS.3.52

KathU.1.2.20 – YS.3.45

KathU.1.2.23 – YS.1.49

KathU.1.3.5–6 – YS.2.54

KathU.1.3.10–11 – YS.2.19

KathU.1.3.12 – YS.1.3

KathU.2.1.1 – YS.1.29

KathU.2.2.13 – YS.3.52

KathU.2.3.5 – YS.3.47

KathU.2.3.11 – YS.1.2

KathU.2.3.16 – YS.3.32

Kena Upaniṣad

KenU.1.3–5 – YS.1.49

KenU.2.4 – YS.4.20

Maitrāyaṇī Upaniṣad

1.9 – YS.1.4

LEFT OFF

Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad

ManU.5 – YS.1.10

ManU.6 – YS.1.25

ManU.7 – YS.1.27

Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad Kārikā

ManKa.1.28 – YS.1.27

ManKa.2.5–7 – YS.1.9

ManKa.2.12 – YS.1.9

ManKa.2.13–15 – YS.3.43

ManKa.2.19 – YS.1.9

ManKa.2.32 – YS.3.10

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad

MunU.1.1.3 – YS.3.33

MunU.1.1.4 – YS.4.19

MunU.1.1.4–5 – YS.1.46

MunU.1.2.9 – YS.1.12

MunU.1.2.12 – YS.2.25, YS.3.35

MunU.2.2.2 – YS.3.45

MunU.3.1.3 – YS.3.55

MunU.3.1.7 – YS.1.45

MunU.3.1.8 – YS.1.49

MunU.3.2.3 – YS.1.49

MunU.3.2.5 – YS.1.37, YS.3.42

Pañca-Daśī

4.30 – YS.3.19

7.103–105 – YS.1.49

Pātañjala-Yoga-Sūtrāṇi-Bhoja-Sadāśiva-Vṛtti

3.3 – YS.3.35

Pātañjali Yoga Sūtrāṇi Vyāsa’s Bhāṣya

1.1 – YS.1.1

2.27 – YS.2.27

Praśna Upaniṣad

PrasU.2.1–4 – YS.1.3

PrasU.3.5 – YS.3.40

Puruṣa Sūkta, Ṛg Veda

10.90.2 – YS.1.26

Ṛg Veda

6.47.18 – YS.1.9

Śabda-Stoma-Mahānidhi (abridged version of Vācaspatyam dictionary)

YS.3.16

Sarva-sāra Upaniṣad

16 (or 7 & 8 by a different numbering) – YS.3.14

Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad

SvetU.1.3 – YS.3.49

SvetU.1.14 – YS.1.12

SvetU.2.9 – YS.1.34

SvetU.2.14 – YS.2.22

SvetU.3.8 – YS.1.51, YS.3.35

SvetU.3.12 – YS.4.18

SvetU.4.10 – YS.1.45

SvetU.4.11 – YS.3.49

SvetU.4.15 – YS.2.44

SvetU.5.3 – YS.1.7

SvetU.5.4–5 – YS.3.49

SvetU.5.5 & 7 – YS.1.16

SvetU.6.11 – YS.4.18

Taittirīya Upaniṣad

TaitU.1.11.1 – YS.1.3

TaitU.2.1.1 – YS.1.17, YS.1.29, YS.2.24, YS.3.41, YS.4.19

TaitU.2.6.1 – YS.1.3

TaitU.2.7.1 – YS.1.17, YS.4.14

TaitU.2.8.1.4 – YS.1.17

TaitU.2.9.1 – YS.1.17, YS.1.49

TaitU.3.6.1 – fn. 3.37

TaitU.3.10.4–6 – YS.3.44

Taittirīya Upaniṣad, Saṅkara’s Bhāṣya Introduction

YS.1.1

Vedānta-paribhāṣā

1.18 – YS.3.19

॥इति योग-सूत्राणि समाप्तानि॥