Format by A.K. Aruna, 2022 ver.5.0: UpasanaYoga. If downloaded, requires installed Devanāgarī Siddhanta1.ttf font, downloadable from UpasanaYoga. If run from UpasanaYoga website, it alternatively can use online Web Font. Any Devanāgarī in parentheses () is an alternate reading of text in Red. Top button "Collapse all panels" contracts the view in which individual items can be re-expanded, or again the top button "Restore all panels" reloads page to original view. The Devanagari text source is the Sharada Peetham, Sringeri (advaitasharada.sringeri.net). Praśna Upaniṣad from the Atharva Veda, consists of the answers to six praśnas (questions) posed to the sage Pippalāda.
by A.K. Aruna
First Update to HTML Jan 2018 with Creative Commons International License:
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/, or click the following logo:
मन्त्रोक्तस्यार्थस्य विस्तरानुवादीदं ब्राह्मणमारभ्यते। ऋषिप्रश्नप्रतिवाचनाख्यायिका तु विद्यास्तुतये। एवं संवत्सरब्रह्मचर्यसंवासादितपोयुक्तैर्ग्राह्या, पिप्पलादवत्सर्वज्ञकल्पैराचार्यैः वक्तव्या च, न येन केनचिदिति विद्यां स्तौति। ब्रह्मचर्यादिसाधनसूचनाच्च तत्कर्तव्यता स्यात् – This Brāhmaṇa [•i.e. this Upaniṣad occurring as the brāhmaṇa or Veda explanation of the mantras of the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad.•] is begun as an elaborate reiteration of the subject-matter already dealt with in the mantra portion. [•i.e. in the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad which presented the knowledge of the Self and talked of two kinds of knowledge – the higher and the lower. The latter relates to both rites and meditation. Of these two kinds of lower knowledge, the first is dealt with in the saṃhitā portion of the Vedas, the second is elaborated in the Second and Third Questions of this Upaniṣad. The First Question clarifies the result of both rites and meditation so as to generate a dislike for them. The Fourth Question is meant as an elaboration of the two verses in the Muṇḍaka starting with ‘As from a blazing fire’ (MunU.2.1.1). The Fifth Question expands the meditation stated in the verse, Om is the bow, etc. (MunU.2.2.4). The Sixth Question is for elucidating the remaining portion beginning with ‘From this emerges Prāṇa’ (MunU.2.1.3)-A.G.•] The story in the form of questions and answers by the ṛṣis, however, is meant for eulogising the knowledge. Knowledge is thus praised by showing that it can be acquired by those who are endowed with self-control and who undergo such disciplines as living in the teacher’s house for a year under the vow of brahma-carya [•Celibacy and study of the Vedas with a pious attitude.•] and that it can be imparted by people who are almost omniscient like Pippalāda and others but not by a non-descript person. Moreover, brahma-carya and other disciplines become obligatory from their reference (in the story):
Sukeśan, son of Bhārad-vāja; Satya-kāma, the son of Śibi; Gārgya, descendent of Garga, and grandson of Sūrya; Kausalya, son of Aśvala; Bhārgava, descendent of Bhṛgu, from Vidarbha; and Ka-bandhin, descendant of Katya – these six were intent upon brahman and engaged for brahman, and (now) were desirous of traditionally inquiring into (the ultimate) brahman. They approached the revered Pippalāda with fire kindling in hand (as a show of desire to serve the teacher), thinking he certainly will tells us everything.
सुकेशा च नामतः, भरद्वाजस्यापत्यं भारद्वाजः। Sukeśan by name, and (known as) Bhārad-vājaḥ, (because he was) the son of Bharad-vāja.शैब्यश्च शिबेरपत्यं शैब्यः, सत्यकामो नामतः। Saibyaḥ, the son of Śibi, who was Satya-kāma by name.सौर्यायणी सूर्यस्यापत्यं सौर्यः, तस्यापत्यं सौर्यायणिः; छान्दसं सौर्यायणीति; गार्ग्यः गर्गगोत्रोत्पन्नः। The son of Sūrya is Saurya, and Saurya’s son is Sauryāyaṇī, the lengthening of i in Sauryāyaṇī being a Veda licence; (and he was a) Gārgya, born in the line of Garga.कौसल्यश्च नामतः, अश्वलस्यापत्यम् आश्वलायनः। Kausalya by name (and called) Āśvala-ayana (because he was) the son of Aśvala.भार्गवः भृगोर्गोत्रापत्यं भार्गवः, वैदर्भिः विदर्भेषु भवः। Bhārgava is one who was a scion of the line of Bhṛgu; and he was Vaidarbhi, being born in Vidarbha.कबन्धी नामतः, कत्यस्यापत्यं कात्यायनः; विद्यमानः प्रपितामहो यस्य सः; युवप्रत्ययः। Ka-bandhin by name; and he was Kātyāyana, a descendant (i.e. great-grandson) of Katya, and had his great-grandfather living, the suffix in the word being used to imply that sense.ते ह एते ब्रह्मपराः अपरं ब्रह्म परत्वेन गताः, तदनुष्ठाननिष्ठाश्च ब्रह्मनिष्ठाः, परं ब्रह्म अन्वेषमाणाः किं तत् यन्नित्यं विज्ञेयमिति तत्प्राप्त्यर्थं यथाकामं यतिष्याम इत्येवं तदन्वेषणं कुर्वन्तः, तदधिगमाय एष ह वै तत्सर्वं वक्ष्यतीति आचार्यमुपजग्मुः। Te ha ete, these people who were such; were brahma-parāḥ, ever devoted to the inferior Brahman, mistaking that for the superior One; and they were brahma-niṣṭhāḥ, engaged in practices leading to Its attainment; and they were param brahma anveṣamāṇāḥ, intent on a search of the supreme Brahman. What is that (Brahman)? That which is eternal and a thing to be realized. They, who searched for that Brahman with the idea, ‘For the sake of attaining It, we shall make efforts to our hearts content’, approached a teacher for knowing about It, with the belief: ‘Eṣaḥ ha vai tat sarvam vakṣyati, this one will certainly tell us everything regarding It.’
कथम्? ते ह समित्पाणयः समिद्भारगृहीतहस्ताः सन्तः, भगवन्तं पूजावन्तं पिप्पलादम् आचार्यम् उपसन्नाः उपजग्मुः॥ How did they go? Samit-pāṇayaḥ, with loads of faggot (kindling, for the sacred home fires) in hand; te ha, those people; upasannāḥ, approached; bhagavantam pippalādam, the venerable Pippalada, the teacher.
To them the seer, Pippalāda, said, “Stay here a year more with religious discipline, as scriptural students, and with trust. Thereafter, you may ask questions as you wish. If we know, we will answer everything.”
तान् एवमुपगतान् सः ह किल ऋषिः उवाच भूयः पुनर् एव – यद्यपि यूयं पूर्वं तपस्विन एव, तथापीह तपसा इन्द्रियसंयमेन विशेषतो ब्रह्मचर्येण श्रद्धया च आस्तिक्यबुद्ध्या आदरवन्तः संवत्सरं कालं संवत्स्यथ सम्यग्गुरुशुश्रूषापराः सन्तो वत्स्यथ। Tān, to them, who had approached (him) thus; saḥ, he; the ṛṣiḥ, seer; uvāca ha, said; – ‘Although you have already practised control of the senses, still bhūyaḥ eva, over again; you saṃvatsyatha, dwell here in a fitting manner; wholeheartedly serving your teacher, saṃvatsaram, for the period of a year; tapasā, with control of the senses; and especially brahma-caryeṇa, with brahma-carya; and śraddhayā, with faith, endowed with earnest belief in the truth (of the scriptures and the teacher’s words).
ततः यथाकामं यो यस्य कामस्तमनतिक्रम्य यद्विषये यस्य जिज्ञासा तद्विषयान् प्रश्नान् पृच्छत। यदि तद्युष्मत्पृष्टं विज्ञास्यामः। अनुद्धतत्वप्रदर्शनार्थो यदि - शब्दो नाज्ञानसंशयार्थः प्रश्ननिर्णयादवसीयते सर्वं ह वो वः पृष्टार्थं वक्ष्याम इति॥ After that pṛcchata praśnān, put questions, with regard to anything that anyone (of you) may desire to know; yathā-kāmam, as you please, in accordance with the desire that each of you may entertain. Yadi vijñāsayāmaḥ, if we happen to know, what you ask; vakṣyāmaḥ, we shall explain; sarvam ha vaḥ, all, that you ask.’ The word ‘if’ is used to express the absence of conceit, but not to betray ignorance or doubt, which fact is obvious from the solution of the questions (by him).
After that year, Ka-bandhin, descendant of Katya, approached and asked, “Venerable sir, from what indeed are all these beings born?”
अथ संवत्सरादूर्ध्वं कबन्धी कात्यायनः उपेत्य उपगम्य पप्रच्छ पृष्टवान् – हे भगवन्, कुतः कस्मात् ह वै इमाः ब्राह्मणाद्याः प्रजाः प्रजायन्ते उत्पद्यन्ते इति। अपरविद्याकर्मणोः समुच्चितयोर्यत्कार्यं या गतिस्तद्वक्तव्यमिति तदर्थोऽयं प्रश्नः॥ Atha, after that, after the lapse of a year; ka-bandhī kātyāyanaḥ, Ka-bandhin, great-grandson of Katya; upetya, having approached (him); papraccha, asked; ‘Bhagavan, O venerable sir; kutaḥ ha vai, from what indeed; imāḥ prajāḥ, these beings counting from the Brāhmaṇas; prajāyante, are born?’ The result obtained and the course merited by following the rites etc. in combination with the lower knowledge have to be stated; and hence this question.
To him the teacher said: Prajā-pati (the Lord of creatures) became desirous of progeny. He contemplated what He knew (by which he attained this exalted status via rituals and meditation in an earlier life) and thereupon He created from Himself a pairing of food and life-energy (rayi and prāṇa), thinking that these two will produce for Me the variety of creatures.
तस्मै एवं पृष्टवते स ह उवाच तदपाकरणायाह – प्रजाकामः प्रजाः आत्मनः सिसृक्षुः वै, प्रजापतिः सर्वात्मा सन् जगत्स्रक्ष्यामीत्येवं विज्ञानवान्यथोक्तकारी तद्भावभाविताः कल्पादौ निर्वृत्तो हिरण्यगर्भः, सृज्यमानानां प्रजानां स्थावरजङ्गमानां पतिः सन्, जन्मान्तरभावितं ज्ञानं श्रुतिप्रकाशितार्थविषयं तपः, अन्वालोचयत् अतप्यत। Tasmai, to him, who had inquired thus; saḥ ha uvāca, he said; in order to solve that question: Vai, as is well known, having become prajā-kāmaḥ, desirous of creating progeny, for Himself – being filled with the idea, ‘I shall create by becoming the soul of all’; prajā-patiḥ, the Lord of creatures – who had practised (meditation and rites conjointly in his earlier life) as already mentioned, and was full of that thought – evolved, at the commencement of a cycle (of creation), as Hiraṇya-garbha [•In His previous life He was a human aspirant meditating on Prajā-pati (Hiraṇya-garbha) with the belief, ‘I am Prajā-pati, identified with all.’ That intense meditation made Him Prajā-pati at the beginning of the present cycle of creation. Even then the belief that He is Prajā-pati persisted, and He had still in His mind all the Veda knowledge acquired earlier.•] by becoming the Lord of all moving and motionless creatures that were being created. (And having become Hiraṇya-garbha,) (saḥ) tapaḥ atapyata, He practised, deliberated on; the tapas, consisting in the knowledge which was acquired in the past life and which related to objects revealed by the Vedas.
अथ तु सः एवं तपः तप्त्वा श्रौतं ज्ञानमन्वालोच्य, सृष्टिसाधनभूतं मिथुनम् उत्पादयते मिथुनं द्वन्द्वमुत्पादितवान् रयिं च सोममन्नं प्राणं च अग्निमत्तारम् इत्येतौ अग्नीषोमौ अत्रन्नभूतौ मे मम बहुधा अनेकधा प्रजाः करिष्यतः इति एवं सञ्चिन्त्य अण्डोत्पत्तिक्रमेण सूर्याचन्द्रमसावकल्पयत्॥ Then, tapas taptvā, after having practised tapas in that way, having revolved in His mind the Veda knowledge; saḥ, He; utpādayate, created; mithunam, a couple that is instrumental to creation; (the couple, viz) rayim ca, the moon, the food [•The word rayi can be taken in the feminine gender.-Aruna•]; prāṇam ca, and Prāṇa, fire, the eater (the sun). After creating the cosmic egg, He created the sun and the moon, under the idea, ‘Etau, these two, viz fire and moon, which are the eater and the eaten; prajāḥ kariṣyataḥ, will produce creatures; bahudhā, multifariously; me, for me.’ [•He projected the couple, the sun and the moon, and became identified with it. Then He created the year that is dependent on that couple, and became identified with the year. Thus successively He produced and became identified with the half-year, month, fortnight, day and night; rice, barley, and other foodstuff; semen and creatures. Prāṇa and rayi convey the ideas of energy and matter.•]
The sun is indeed the life-energy (the eater), and the moon is indeed matter to be consumed (which gets ‘eaten’ during the lunar cycles). Everything is only formed (material) and unformed (subtle) matter. Other than the latter, material matter is (in turn) food (for the subtle).
आदित्यः ह वै प्राणः अत्ता अग्निः। रयिरेव चन्द्रमाः। रयिरेवान्नं सोम एव। तदेतदेकमत्ता अग्निश्चान्नं च प्रजापतिरेकं तु मिथुनम्; गुणप्रधानकृतो भेदः। Ādityaḥ ha vai, the sun, verily; is prāṇaḥ, Prāṇa – the eater, fire; rayiḥ eva, the food is verily; candramāḥ, the moon; rayi is certainly the food (anna) and it is the moon (soma). That which is the eater and that which is the food are but one; they are but Prajā-pati who has become the couple, the distinction being made from the standpoint of superiority and inferiority.
कथम्? रयिर्वै अन्नमेव एतत् सर्वम्। किं तत्? यत् मूर्तं च स्थूलं च अमूर्तं च सूक्ष्मं च। मूर्तामूर्ते अत्त्रन्नरूपे अपि रयिरेव। How? Etat sarvam, all this; rayiḥ vai, is but food. All of what? Yat mūrtam, whatever is formed, gross; ca a-mūrtam, and whatever is formless, subtle; all gross and subtle things, which constitute the food and the eater, are but rayiḥ, food.तस्मात् प्रविभक्तादमूर्तात् यदन्यन्मूर्तरूपं मूर्तिः, सा एव रयिः अन्नम् अमूर्तेन अत्त्रा अद्यमानत्वात्॥ That mūrtiḥ, gross; which is different tasmāt, from that, from the subtle, which is wholly distinct; is indeed rayiḥ, food, since it is eaten up by the formless. [•When no distinction of superior or inferior is made, then everything may be classed as food, for everything is absorbed by something else. But when the distinction is made, the gross gets absorbed in the subtle and is to be considered as food.•]
तथा अमूर्तोऽपि प्राणोऽत्ता सर्वमेव यच्चाद्यम्। कथम्? Similarly, the formless Prāṇa (life), the eater, is also everything that is eaten, and hence it is all. How?
Now, the sun rises and pervades the eastern region, by that it absorbs (becomes one with) the life-energies into its rays in the east. The same in the south, the west, the north, as well as below, above, and in-between in those regions, in all directions. By illuminating them it absorbs all the life-energies into its rays.
अथ आदित्यः उदयन् उद्गच्छन् प्राणिनां चक्षुर्गोचरमागच्छन् यत् प्राचीं दिशं स्वप्रकाशेन प्रविशति व्याप्नोति, तेन स्वात्मव्याप्त्या सर्वान्तःस्थान् प्राणान् प्राच्यान् अन्नभूतान् रश्मिषु स्वात्मावभासरूपेषु व्याप्तिमत्सु व्याप्तत्वात्प्राणिनः संनिधत्ते संनिवेशयति आत्मभूतान्करोतीत्यर्थः। Atha, now then; yat, the fact that; ādityaḥ udayan, the sun, as it rises up, as it comes within the vision of creatures; praviśati, enters (that is to say,) pervades through its own light; prācīm diśam, the eastern quarter; tena, thereby, by that self-expansion – because these are pervaded by it; it sannidhatte, absorbs; raśmiṣu, into its rays which are but its own pervasive light; prācyān prāṇān, all that lives in, all creatures that happen to be included in, the eastern quarter, they being pervades by its light; that is to say, it makes them one with itself.
तथैव यत् प्रविशति दक्षिणां यत् प्रतीचीं यद् उदीचीम् अधः ऊर्ध्वं यत् प्रविशति यच् च अन्तरा दिशः कोणदिशोऽवान्तरदिशः यच् चान्यत् सर्वं प्रकाशयति, तेन स्वप्रकाशव्याप्त्या सर्वान् सर्वदिक्स्थान् प्राणान् रश्मिषु संनिधत्ते॥ Similarly, yat, the fact that; it enters into the dakṣiṇām, southern direction; yat pratīcīm, that it enters into the western direction; yat udīcīm, that it enters into the northern direction; yat, that it enters into; adhaḥ ūrdhavam, the nadir, the zenith; yat antarāḥ diśaḥ, that it enters into the inter-spaces, the other points of the zodiac; yat ca prakāśayati, and the fact that it illumines; sarvam, all other things; tena, thereby, by that pervasion through its own light; it sannidhatte, absorbs; raśmiṣu, into the rays; sarvān prāṇān, all living things that exist in the different directions.
That very one (the eater) who daily rises is vaiśvā-nara (the fire within all), who takes all forms as the life-energy (prāṇa), and is fire itself. This one is indicated by the following mantra.
स एषः अत्ता प्राणो वैश्वानरः सर्वात्मा विश्वरूपः विश्वात्मत्वाच्च प्राणः अग्निः च स एवात्ता उदयते उद्गच्छति प्रत्यहं सर्वा दिशः आत्मसात्कुर्वन्। Saḥ eṣaḥ, that very one, the eater; who is prāṇaḥ vaiśvā-naraḥ, Prāṇa (life) identified with all creatures; and who is viśva-rūpaḥ, possessed of all forms, being embodied in the universe; that is Prāṇa and agniḥ, fire. that eater, again, udayate, rises, every day, absorbing into himself all the cardinal points.तदेतत् उक्तं वस्तु ऋचा मन्त्रेणापि अभ्युक्तम्॥ Etat tat, this very entity that has been referred to above; is also abhyuktam, spoken of; ṛcā, by the (following) mantra:
(The wise knew) the one possessed of all forms, full of rays, endowed with knowledge, the resort of all, the sole light and the source of heat, to be this sun that rises, that possesses thousand(s) of rays, manifest in hundred(s) of (life) forms, and is the very life (prāṇa) of all living creatures.
● (They knew) the one possessed of all forms, full of rays, endowed with knowledge (विश्व-रूपं, हरिणं, जात-वेदसम्), ○ the resort of all, the sole light and the source of heat (परायणं, ज्योतिस् एकं तपन्तम्), ● that possesses thousand(s) of rays (सहस्र-रश्मिः), manifest in hundred(s) of (life) forms (शतधा वर्तमानः), ○ (and) the very life (prāṇa) of all living creatures (प्राणः प्रजानाम्), to be this sun that rises (उदयति एषः सूर्यः).
विश्वरूपं सर्वरूपं हरिणं रश्मिवन्तं जातवेदसं जातप्रज्ञानं परायणं सर्वप्राणाश्रयं ज्योतिः सर्वप्राणिनां चक्षुर्भूतम् एकम् अद्वितीयं तपन्तं तापक्रियां कुर्वाणं स्वात्मानं सूर्यं विज्ञातवन्तो ब्रह्मविदः। The enlightened realizers of Brahman knew, as their own soul, that sun that is viśva-rūpam, possessed of all forms; hariṇam, full of rays; jāta-vedasam, endowed with enlightenment; parāyaṇam, the resort of all lives; ekam jyotiḥ, the only one light, which is the ‘eye’ of all beings; and tapantam, the radiator of heat.
कोऽसौ यं विज्ञातवन्तः? सहस्ररश्मिः अनेकरश्मिः शतधा अनेकधा प्राणिभेदेन वर्तमानः प्राणः प्रजानाम् उदयति एषः सूर्यः॥ Who is that whom they knew? It is eṣaḥ, this; sūryaḥ, sun; that udayati, rises; – (the sun that is) sahasra-raśmiḥ, possessed of a thousand rays; śatadhā vartamānaḥ, that exists in a hundred (i.e. many) ways, in conformity with the difference of the creatures; and that is prāṇaḥ prajānām, the life of creatures.
यश्चासौ चन्द्रमा मूर्तिरन्नममूर्तिश्च प्राणोऽत्तादित्यस्तदेतदेकं मिथुनं सर्वं कथं प्रजाः करिष्यत इति, उच्यते – It is being explained how this single pair – constituted by that which is the moon, the gross, the food (on the one hand), and that which is the formless Prāṇa, the eater, the sun (on the other) – could produce the creatures:
The saṃvatsara (the year, consisting of lunar and solar days) is indeed (thus a manifestation of) Prajā-pati. Of that (Prajā-pati as the year) there are two paths, the southern and the northern (the six months from summer solstice onward as the sun tracks southward and the six months from winter solstice onward as the sun tracks northward, related to the moon and sun respectively). Concerning this, those who worship that one in the form of their ritual (iṣṭa) and charity (pūrta) acts that create (puṇya, karma merit), they go (by the southern path) to a lunar heaven alone. (When their puṇya is cashed in) they are again reborn back here. Because of that, those who see the scripture as only this much, who are desirous of more progeny, go along the southern path. This which is the path of the ancestors is indeed but food (rayi, the moon, the eaten).
तदेव कालः संवत्सरो वै प्रजापतिः, तन्निर्वर्त्यत्वात्संवत्सरस्य। चन्द्रादित्यनिर्वर्त्यतिथ्यहोरात्रसमुदायो हि संवत्सरः तदनन्यत्वाद्रयिप्राणैतन्मिथुनात्मक एवेत्युच्यते। That (couple) itself is the time called saṃvatsaraḥ, the year; (and that again is) prajā-patiḥ, the Lord of creatures; for the year is brought about of that (pair), the year being but a collection of the lunar days (tithi) and solar days and nights, caused by the moon and the sun. Being non-different from the food and Prāṇa, the year is said to be verily identical with that couple.
तत्कथम्? तस्य संवत्सरस्य प्रजापतेः अयने मार्गौ द्वौ दक्षिणं चोत्तरं च। How is that so? Tasya; of that Lord of the creatures, who the year is; there are ayane, two Courses; dakṣiṇam ca uttaram ca, the Southern and the Northern.
प्रसिद्धे ह्ययने षण्मासलक्षणे, याभ्यां दक्षिणेनोत्तरेण च याति सविता केवलकर्मिणां ज्ञानसंयुक्तकर्मवतां च लोकान्विदधत्। कथम्? तत् तत्र च ब्राह्मणादिषु ये ह वै ऋषयः तद् उपासते इति। क्रियाविशेषणो द्वितीयस्तच्छब्दः। इष्टं च पूर्तं च इष्टापूर्ते इत्यादि कृतम् एव उपासते नाकृतं नित्यम्, ते चान्द्रमसमेव चन्द्रमसि भवं प्रजापतेर्मिथुनात्मकस्यांशं रयिमन्नभूतं लोकम् अभिजयन्ते कृतरूपत्वाच्चान्द्रमसस्य। These, indeed, are the two well-known Courses consisting each of six months, along which the sun moves to the south and the north, ordaining the results for those who perform rites alone as well as for those who undertake rites along with meditation. How is that? Tat, as to that; ye ha vai, those who, from among people counting from the Brāhmaṇas; upāsate, follow; tat, in that way; iṣṭā-pūrte, sacrifices and public good; iti, etc.; that are kṛtam, products of action, but who do not follow the uncreated Eternal – the second tat, meaning ‘in that way,’ being used adverbially –; (they) abhijayante, conquer; cāndramasam eva lokam, the world of the moon alone, the world constituted by food which is a portion, called rayi (food), of the Lord of the creatures who comprises a pair. This is so because the moon is kṛta, a result of action.ते एव च कृतक्षयात् पुनरावर्तन्ते इमं लोकं हीनतरं वा विशन्तीति ह्युक्तम्। यस्मादेवं प्रजापतिमन्नात्मकं फलत्वेनाभिनिर्वर्तयन्ति चन्द्रमिष्टापूर्तकर्मणा प्रजाकामाः प्रजार्थिनः एते ऋषयः स्वर्गद्रष्टारः गृहस्थाः, तस्मात् स्वकृतमेव दक्षिणं दक्षिणायनोपलक्षितं चन्द्रं प्रतिपद्यन्ते। एष ह वै रयिः अन्नम्, यः पितृयाणः पितृयाणोपलक्षितश्चन्द्रः॥ When the result of action is exhausted there, te eva punaḥ āvartante, it is they who come back again; for it has been said, ‘They enter into this or an inferior world’ (MunU.1.2.10). Since in this way ete, these; ṛṣayaḥ, seers of heaven; prajā-kāmāḥ, who are desirous of progeny, the householders; attain (the world of) the moon – the Lord of creatures who is identified with food – as the result of their sacrificial and pious acts; tasmāt, therefore; they pratipadyante, attain; dakṣiṇam, the Southern Course, that is to say, the moon, suggested by the (term) Southern Course, which is earned by themselves. Eṣaḥ ha vai rayiḥ, this indeed is food; yaḥ pitṛ-yāṇaḥ, which is the path of the Manes, that is to say, the (world of the) moon, as suggested by the (term) path of the Manes.
However, others attain the solar heaven through the northern path by their religious disciples, their pursuit of scripture (instead of progeny) with trust, and by meditation, while appropriately seeking the self (ātman, the Lord as the prāṇa, the eater within). This is the home of all prāṇas (all lives). This is deathless and fearless. This is the final goal. From this there is no rebirth (in this universe manifestation cycle). There is blockage (the shut door of the solar orb, IsU.15, by their desire that keeps the others from seeing, much less reaching here). In regard to that, there is this verse.
अथ उत्तरेण अयनेन प्रजापतेरंशं प्राणमत्तारम् आदित्यम् अभिजयन्ते। केन? तपसा इन्द्रियजयेन। विशेषतो ब्रह्मचर्येण श्रद्धया विद्यया च प्रजापत्यात्मविषयया आत्मानं प्राणं सूर्यं जगतः तस्थुषश्च अन्विष्य अहमस्मीति विदित्वा आदित्यम् अभिजयन्ते अभिप्राप्नुवन्ति। Atha , again; uttareṇa , by proceeding along the Northern Course; they abhijayante , conquer; that part of the Lord of creatures which is Prāṇa , the eater, the sun. Through what? Anviṣya , by searching for i.e. knowing; ātmānam , the Self, that is Prāṇa , the sun, the Self of the Moving and unmoving; as ‘I am this (Prāṇa that is the sun)’; tapasā , through the control of the senses; and especially brahma-caryeṇ a, through brahma-carya ; śraddhayā , through faith; and vidyayā , through meditation, with the idea of the identity of oneself with the Lord of creatures; they abhijayante , conquer, attain; ādityam , the sun.एतद्वै आयतनं सर्व-प्राणानां सामान्यमायतनम् आश्रयः एतत् अमृतम् अविनाशि अभयम् अत एव भयवर्जितम् न चन्द्रवत्क्षयवृद्धिभयवत्; एतत् परायणं परा गतिर्विद्यावतां कर्मिणां च ज्ञानवताम् एतस्मान्न पुनरावर्तन्ते यथेतरे केवलकर्मिण इति यस्मात् एषः अविदुषां निरोधः, आदित्याद्धि निरुद्धा अविद्वांसः। Etat vai, this indeed; is the common āyatanam, resort; prāṇānām, of all that lives. [•Or ‘all the organs – eyes etc.’, according to S.•] Etat, this one is a-mṛtam, indestructible; and because of that fact, this is a-bhayam, free from fear, not subject to the fear of waxing and waning like the moon. Etat para-ayaṇam, this one is the supreme goal, for the meditators as well as for the men who combine meditation with rites; iti, for; etasmāt na punaḥ āvartante, from this (they) do not return, like the others who perform rites alone. Eṣaḥ, this one; is nirodaḥ, unrealizable, to the ignorant; for the ignorant are shut off from the sun.
नैते संवत्सरमादित्यमात्मानं प्राणमभिप्राप्नुवन्ति। स हि संवत्सरः कालात्मा अविदुषां निरोधः। तत् तत्रास्मिन्नर्थे एषः श्लोकः मन्त्रः॥ These people do not attain the year, the sun, the Self, which is Prāṇa. For that year, identical with time, proves an obstruction to the ignorant. Tat, pertaining to this idea; eṣaḥ ślokaḥ, here is a verse:
Some say this (Prajā-pati as the year) is the (progenitor) father, having five feet (seasons: bright spring, hot summer, monsoon, fall, and the combined late-fall and winter), with twelve forms (months), which is in a region beyond the sky, as the giver of the rains (via clouds). But other eminent ones say it is the all-seeing, having seven runners (horses, or seven cycling wheels), with six (seasons as) spokes, in which is fixed (as spokes in its hub).
● Having five feet (seasons: bright spring, hot summer, monsoon, fall, and the combined late-fall and winter) (पञ्च-पादं), the (progenitor) father (पितरं), having twelve forms (months) (द्वा-दश-आकृतिम्), ○ they say is in a region beyond the sky (दिवः आहुः परे अर्धे), as the giver of the rains (via clouds) (पुरीषिणम्). ● But as the all-seeing, other eminent ones (अथ इमे अन्ये उ परे विचक्षणम्) ○ say is having seven runners (horses, or seven cycling wheels), with six (seasons as) spokes, in which is fixed (as spokes in its hub) (सप्त-चक्रे षडरे आहुः अरर्पितम् इति).
पञ्चपादं पञ्च ऋतवः पादा इवास्य संवत्सरात्मन आदित्यस्य, तैर्ह्यसौ पादैरिव ऋतुभिरावर्तते। हेमन्तशिशिरावेकीकृत्येयं कल्पना। पितरं सर्वस्य जनयितृत्वात्पितृत्वं तस्य; द्वादशाकृतिं द्वादश मासा आकृतयोऽवयवा आकरणं वा अवयविकरणमस्य द्वादशमासैः तं द्वादशाकृतिम्, दिवः द्युलोकात् परे ऊर्ध्वे अर्धे स्थाने तृतीयस्यां दिवीत्यर्थः; पुरीषिणं पुरीषवन्तम् उदकवन्तम् आहुः कालविदः। The calculators of time āhuḥ, call him, pañca-pādam, possessed of five feet, the five seasons [•Currently, six Ṛtus: Spring (mid-March to mid-May), Vasanta (bright); Summer, Grīṣma (hot); Monsoon, Varṣa (rain); Autumn, Śarad (ripe); Pre-Winter, Hemanta (cool); Winter, Śiśira (cold).•] being the feet, as it were, of the sun as identified with the year; for he revolves with the help of those seasons, which are as though his feet. In this imagery, late autumn and winter (Hemanta and Śiśira) are taken as but one season. (They call him) pitaram, father. He is the father because he is the generator of all. (They call him) dvā-daśa-kṛtim, as possessed of twelve forms – he who has the twelve months as his limbs, or he who is made an embodied being by the twelve months. They call him purīṣiṇam, full of water (purīṣa, moisture); [•The sun causes clouds, from which rain comes•] ardhe pare divaḥ, in the place above heaven (i.e. above the sky) [•It is third counting from this earth, the second being the sky. Heaven in this context does not mean the dwelling place of the gods, but the sky; else, there will be a conflict with the commentary – 'in the third place which is above the sky.'-A.G.•] that is to say, in the third place which is above the sky.अथ तम् एव अन्ये इमे उ परे कालविदः विचक्षणं निपुणं सर्वज्ञं सप्तचक्रे सप्तहयरूपे चक्रे संततगतिमति कालात्मनि षडरे षडृतुमति आहुः सर्वमिदं जगत्कथयन्ति – अर्पितम् अरा इव रथनाभौ निविष्टम् इति। यदि पञ्चपादो द्वादशाकृतिर्यदि वा सप्तचक्रः षडरः सर्वथापि संवत्सरः कालात्मा प्रजापतिश्चन्द्रादित्यलक्षणो जगतः कारणम्॥ Atha u, but; on the other hand anye ime pare, these others, other calculators of time; (āhuḥ, call) that very one, vicakṣaṇam, adept, omniscient. (And they) āhuḥ, say; that like spokes fixed on the nave of a wheel the whole universe is arpitam, fixed; on him who, as the embodiment of time, is ever on the move; – on him sapta-cakre, who is possessed of seven wheels, in the form of seven horses; and ṣaḍ-are, who is endowed with six spokes, the six seasons. Whether he be possessed of five feet and twelve limbs or seven wheels and six spokes, from either point of view it is the year, the embodiment of time, the Lord of all creatures, constituted even by the sun and the moon, which is the cause of the world.
यस्मिन्निदं प्रोतं विश्वं स एव प्रजापतिः संवत्सराख्यः स्वावयवे मासे कृत्स्नः परिसमाप्यते – He by whom the whole world is sustained is called the year, the Lord of all creatures; and He is wholly evolved into the twelve months which are His limbs:
The month is indeed Prajā-pati. The dark (waning) fortnight is His food, and the bright (waxing) fortnight is His prāṇa. Therefore, those who see the scripture (for gaining the bright prāṇa) perform their rituals (as if it is always) in the bright fortnight. The others perform them (as if it is always) in the other fortnight (always for food, reward, etc.).
मासो वै प्रजापतिः यथोक्तलक्षण एव मिथुनात्मकः। तस्य मासात्मनः प्रजापतेरेको भागः कृष्णपक्ष एव रयिः अन्नं चन्द्रमाः अपरो भागः शुक्लः शुक्लपक्षः प्राणः Māsaḥ vai, the month verily; which is also prajā-patiḥ, the Lord of all creatures, as described before; is constituted by a pair. Tasya, of him, of that Lord of creatures who is marked by the month; one part, viz kṛṣṇa-pakṣaḥ, the dark fortnight; is rayiḥ, food, the moon; the other part, viz śuklaḥ, the bright (fortnight); is Prāṇa, the sun, the eater, fire.
आदित्योऽत्ताग्निर्यस्माच्छुक्लपक्षात्मानं प्राणं सर्वमेव पश्यन्ति, तस्मात् प्राणदर्शिन एते ऋषयः कृष्णपक्षेऽपि इष्टं यागं कुर्वन्तः शुक्ल-पक्ष एव कुर्वन्ति। प्राणव्यतिरेकेण कृष्णपक्षस्तैर्न दृश्यते यस्मात्; Since they look upon Prāṇa identified with the bright fortnight, as everything; tasmāt, therefore, ete ṛṣayaḥ, these seers, who realize Prāṇa; śuklaḥ iṣṭam kurvanti, perform their sacrifice (really in) the bright fortnight, even though they may be performing it in the dark half, because they do not perceive any dark fortnight existing apart from Prāṇa.इतरे तु प्राणं न पश्यन्तीत्यदर्शनलक्षणं कृष्णात्मानमेव पश्यन्ति। इतरे इतरस्मिन् कृष्णपक्ष एव कुर्वन्ति शुक्ले कुर्वन्तोऽपि॥ On the other hand, whereas the others do not see Prāṇa, and as a result see only that which is marked by darkness and obstructs vision. Therefore itare, the others; kurvanti, perform; (their sacrifice, really) itarasmin, in the other half, in the dark fortnight, although they may be doing so in the bright half.
सोऽपि मासात्मा प्रजापतिः स्वावयवे अहोरात्रे परिसमाप्यते – The Lord of all creatures, marked by the month, gets again circumscribed by the day and night which are His own limbs:
Day and night are indeed Prajā-pati. The day is surely His prāṇa, and the night is His food. (For whose who desire progeny) they waste their prāṇa (as sexual energy) when they have sex during the day, whereas if they have sex at night (related to the evening’s food and the seed, PrasU.1.14), then it is equivalent to brahma-carya (the celibacy of a religious student, even while being a householder).
अहोरात्रो वै प्रजापतिः पूर्ववत्। तस्य अपि अहरेव प्राणः अत्ता अग्निः रात्रिरेव रयिः पूर्ववदेव। प्राणम् अहरात्मानं वै एते प्रस्कन्दन्ति निर्गमयन्ति शोषयन्ति वा स्वात्मनो विच्छिद्यापनयन्ति। Aho-rātraḥ vai prajā-patiḥ, day and night are verily the Lord of all creatures, just as before. Tasya, of Him, too; ahar eva prāṇaḥ, the day is surely Prāṇa, the eater and fire; rātriḥ eva rayiḥ, night is certainly the food, just as before. Ete, these people; praskandanti, eject, exhaust, waste away by separating from themselves; prāṇam, Prāṇa, identified with day.
के? ये दिवा अहनि रत्या रतिकारणभूतया सह स्त्रिया संयुज्यन्ते मैथुनमाचरन्ति मूढाः। यत एवं तस्मात्तन्न कर्तव्यमिति प्रतिषेधः प्रासङ्गिकः। Who are they? Ye, those who, the fools who; divā, during the day time; saṃyujyante ratyā, indulge in passion, that is to say unite with women who cause passion....Since this is so, therefore that should not be done. This is a prohibition enjoined by the way.यत् रात्रौ संयुज्यन्ते रत्या ऋतौ ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तद् इति प्रशस्तत्वात् रात्रौ भार्यागमनं कर्तव्यमित्ययमपि प्रासङ्गिको विधिः॥ The fact that they saṃyujyante ratyā, give play to passion; rātrau, at night, at (the proper) time; yat tat, that; is brahma-caryam eva, as good as continence. Since this has been praised, therefore, this too is an injunction enunciated in passing, that it is one’s duty to unite with one’s wife in due time.
प्रकृतं तूच्यते सोऽहोरात्रात्मकः प्रजापतिर्व्रीहियवाद्यन्नात्मना व्यवस्थितः एवं क्रमेण परिणम्य – As for the relevant topic, it is this: That Lord of all creatures, who has evolved into day and night, exists as identified with such food as rice and barley. Evolving thus in succession:
Anna (food, especially cooked rice) is indeed Prajā-pati. From that is the human seed. From that seed are born all these progeny.
तत् अन्नं वै प्रजापतिः। कथम्? ततः तस्मात् ह वै रेतः नृबीजं तत् प्रजाकारणं तस्मात् योषिति सिक्तात् इमाः मनुष्यादिलक्षणाः प्रजाः प्रजायन्ते यत्पृष्टं कुतो ह वै प्रजाः प्रजायन्त इति। तदेवं चन्द्रादित्यमिथुनादिक्रमेण अहोरात्रान्तेन अन्नरेतोद्वारेण इमाः प्रजाः प्रजायन्त इति निर्णीतम्॥ Prajā-patiḥ, the Lord of all creatures; became that annam vai, food to be sure. How? Tataḥ ha vai, from that (food) indeed, is formed; tat retas, that human seed, which is the origin of creatures. Tasmāt, from that (seed), when deposited in a woman; prajāyante, are born; imāḥ prajāḥ, these creatures, distinguished as men and others. The question that was raised, ‘From what indeed are the beings born?’, has thus been answered by saying that these creatures are born by passing in succession through the pairs starting with the sun and the moon and ending with day and night, and then by proceeding through food, blood and semen.
In that case, those who undertake that Prajā-pati vow (consisting of procreating only in the evening) produce a pair (both son and daughter). For those alone who keep to their religious disciplines, observe chastity (during the day), in whom truthfulness abides, etcetera (for the southern path, PrasU.1.9), is there a lunar heaven within brahman.
● In that case, that Prajā-pati vow (consisting of procreating only in the evening) those who (तद् ये ह वै तद् प्रजा-पति-व्रतम्) ○ undertake, they produce a pair (both son and daughter) (चरन्ति, ते मिथुनम् उत्पादयन्ते) ● For those alone is there a lunar heaven within brahman, who also keep to their religious disciplines (तेषाम् एव एषः ब्रह्म-लोकः येषां तपस्), ○ observe chastity (during the day), in whom truthfulness abides, etcetera (for the southern path) (ब्रह्म-चर्यं येषु सत्यं प्रतिष्ठितम्).
तत् तत्रैवं सति ये गृहस्थाः। ह वै इति प्रसिद्धस्मरणार्थौ निपातौ। तत् प्रजापतेर्व्रतं प्रजापतिव्रतम् ऋतौ भार्यागमनं चरन्ति कुर्वन्ति, तेषां दृष्टं फलमिदम्। Tat, this being so; ye, those, the householders who – ha and vai are two indeclinables calling up to mind some well-known fact –; caranti, undertake; tat prajā-pati-vratam, that vow of the Lord of all creatures, consisting in uniting with one’s wife at the proper time, for them this is the visible result.
किम्? ते मिथुनं पुत्रं दुहितरं च उत्पादयन्ते। अदृष्टं च फलमिष्टापूर्तदत्तकारिणां तेषामेव एषः यश्चान्द्रमसो ब्रह्मलोकः पितृयाणलक्षणः येषां तपः स्नातकव्रतादि ब्रह्मचर्यम् ऋतोरन्यत्र मैथुनासमाचरणं येषु च सत्यम् अनृतवर्जनं प्रतिष्ठितम् अव्यभिचारितया वर्तते नित्यमेव॥ What is that? Te, they; utpādayante, beget; mithunam, a pair, both son and daughter. This unseen result consisting in eṣaḥ brahma-lokaḥ, this world of Brahman, the world of the moon, that is indicated by the path of the Manes; is teṣām eva, for those people alone, for those who undertaken sacrifices and public good and offer gifts; yeṣām, in whom; there are tapas, vows as for instance those vows undertaken by one who has completed his study; brahma-caryam, continence, consisting in not living with one’s wife at times other than the proper season; yeṣu, in whom, again; satyam, truthfulness, avoidance of falsehood, pratiṣṭhitam, exists invariably for ever.
यस्तु पुनरादित्योपलक्षित उत्तरायणः प्राणात्मभावो – As for the Northern Course, marked out by the sun, which consists of self-identification with Prāṇa:
(Whereas) the pure (no waxing and waning) brahma-loka is there for those who have no dishonesty, no falsehood, no deception (and who undertake the rituals with meditation to qualify for the northern path, PrasU.1.10).
● (Whereas) the pure (no waxing and waning) brahma-loka is there for those (तेषाम् असौ विरजः ब्रह्म-लोकः) ○ who have no dishonesty, no falsehood, no deception (and do as above for entering the northern path) (न येषु जिह्मम् अनृतं न माया च इति).
विरजः शुद्धो न चन्द्र-ब्रह्मलोकवद् रजस्वलो वृद्धिक्षयादियुक्तः असौ तेषाम्, केषामिति, उच्यते – यथा गृहस्थानामनेकविरुद्धसंव्यवहारप्रयोजनवत्त्वात् जिह्मं कौटिल्यं वक्रभावोऽवश्यंभावि तथा न येषु जिह्मम्, यथा च गृहस्थानां क्रीडादिनिमित्तम् अनृतम् अवर्जनीयं तथा न येषु तत् तथा माया गृहस्थानामिव न येषु विद्यते। And (the Northern Course) is vi-rajaḥ, pure, not tainted like the lunar Brahma-loka and not subject to waxing and waning; asau, that one; is teṣām, for them. For whom? That is being said: (For those) na yeṣu jihmam, in whom there is no fraud, no crookedness, unlike the householders in whom it becomes inevitable owing to the exigencies of many contradictory social situations. Also, those in whom an-ṛtam, falsehood, does not become unavoidable as it is with of householders in the course of play or merriment. Similarly, those in whom, unlike the householders, there does not exist any māyā.
माया नाम बहिरन्यथात्मानं प्रकाश्यान्यथैव कार्यं करोति, सा माया मिथ्याचाररूपा। Māyā, dissimulation, is a kind of false behaviour consisting in showing oneself publicly in some way and acting quite contrariwise.
मायेत्येवमादयो दोषा येष्वेकाकिषु ब्रह्मचारिवानप्रस्थभिक्षुषु निमित्ताभावान्न विद्यन्ते, तत्साधनानुरूप्येणैव तेषामसौ विरजो ब्रह्मलोक इत्येषा ज्ञानयुक्तकर्मवतां गतिः। पूर्वोक्तस्तु ब्रह्मलोकः केवलकर्मिणां चन्द्रलक्षण इति॥ For those competent persons – the brahma-cārīs (celibates), forest-dwellers, and mendicants – in whom such blemishes as māyā do not exist because there is no occasion for them; is this untainted world of Brahman, just in consonance with the disciplines they undertake. This is the goal for those who undertake rites in conjunction with meditation. But the Brahma-loka indicated by the moon, mentioned earlier, is for those who perform rites alone.
प्राणोऽत्ता प्रजापतिरित्युक्तम्। तस्य प्रजापतित्वमत्तृत्वं चास्मिञ्शरीरेऽवधारयितव्यमित्ययं प्रश्न आरभ्यते – It has been said the Prāṇa is the eater and the Lord of all creatures. It has to be determined how He is the Lord of all creatures as well as the eater in this body. Hence is the Question begun. [•In this chapter it will be shown that prāṇa is the chief, the eater, and the Lord of all creation. The next chapter will enjoin His meditation.•]
Now, Bhārgava from Vidarbha asked, “Venerable sir, How many deities sustain a creature? Which of them boast this greatness? And who is superior in this to those deities?”
अथ अनन्तरं ह किल एनं भार्गवः वैदर्भिः पप्रच्छ – हे भगवन् कत्येव देवाः प्रजां शरीरलक्षणां विधारयन्ते विशेषेण धारयन्ते। कतरे बुद्धीन्द्रियकर्मेन्द्रियविभक्तानाम् एतत् प्रकाशनं स्वमाहात्म्यप्रख्यापनं प्रकाशयन्ते। कः असौ पुनः एषां वरिष्ठः प्रधानः कार्यकरणलक्षणानाम् इति॥ Atha ha, next in order; bhārgavaḥ vaidarbhiḥ, a scion of the line of Bhṛgu, who was born in Vidarbha; papraccha, asked; enam, this one: Bhagavan, O adorable sir; kati eva devāḥ, how many deities indeed; vidhārayante, chiefly sustain; prajām, a creature, so far as the body is concerned. Katare, which of them, which of those deities divided among the organs of sense and action; prakāśayante, exhibit; etat, this, this manifestation of their own glory; kaḥ punaḥ, which again; is variṣṭhaḥ, the chief; eṣām, among these that exist as body and organs.
To him Pippalāda said: This deity is space, as well as air, fire, water, earth, and speech, mind, eye, and ear. Boasting, they say, “By supporting this reed of a body, we sustain the creature.”
एवं पृष्टवते तस्मै स ह उवाच – आकाशः ह वै एषः देवः वायुः अग्निः आपः पृथिवी इत्येतानि पञ्च महाभूतानि शरीरारम्भकाणि वाङ्मनश्चक्षुः श्रोत्रम् Tasmai, to him, who had asked thus; saḥ, he; uvāca ha, said: Ākāśaḥ ha vai eṣaḥ devaḥ, space is in fact this deity; as also are vāyuḥ, air; agniḥ, fire; āpaḥ, water; pṛthivī, earth – these five elements that are the material causes of the body; (and) vāk, speech; manas, mind; cakṣuḥ, eye; śrotram, ear.
इत्यादीनि कर्मेन्द्रियबुद्धीन्द्रियाणि च। कार्यलक्षणाः करणलक्षणाश्च ते देवा आत्मनो माहात्म्यं प्रकाश्यं प्रकाश्य अभिवदन्ति स्पर्धमाना अहंश्रेष्ठतायै। कथं वदन्ति? वयमेतत् बाणं कार्यकरणसंघातम् अवष्टभ्य प्रासादमिव स्तम्भादयः अविशिथिलीकृत्य विधारयामः विस्पष्टं धारयामः। मयैवैकेनायं संघातो ध्रियत इत्येकैकस्याभिप्रायः॥ These and others that are the organs of action and knowledge, te, they (that is to say), the gods (presiding over these and) identifying themselves with the body and organs; abhivadanti prakāśya, speak by way of exhibiting their own glory, while vying for pre-eminence. How do they speak? ‘It is vayam, we; who, like the pillars of a palace, vidhārayāmaḥ, unquestionably hold together; etat bāṇam, this aggregate (reed) of body and organs; avaṣṭabhya, by holding it aloft, and not allowing it to be disintegrated.’ The idea of each one is this: ‘It is indeed by me alone that this aggregate is upheld.’ This is the idea.
Prāṇa (the life-force), who is superior, said to them, “Do not fall to this delusion. I alone, dividing myself five ways (as prāṇa, outward exhalation; apāna, downward inhalation and energy; vyāna, dispersing circulation; udāna, upward ejecting energy including the ejecting of the subtle body upon death; and samāna, uniting digestion) to support this reed of a body and sustain the creature.” They did not trust (this truth).
तान् एवमभिमानवतः वरिष्ठः मुख्यः प्राणः उवाच उक्तवान् – मा मैवं मोहम् आपद्यथ अविवेकितयाभिमानं मा कुरुत; यस्मात् अहमेव एतद् बाणम् अवष्टभ्य विधारयामि पञ्चधा आत्मानं प्रविभज्य प्राणादिवृत्तिभेदं स्वस्य कृत्वा विधारयामि इति Tān, to them, to those who had such egotism; variṣṭhaḥ prāṇaḥ, the chief Prāṇa; uvāca, said: ‘Mā āpadyatha moham, do not fall into delusion, do not cherish in this way any vanity resulting from non-discrimination; for aham eva, it is I who; vidhārayāmi etat bāṇam avaṣṭabhya, sustain this aggregate of body and organs by not allowing it to disintegrate; I support it, pañcadhā ātmanām pravibhajya, by dividing myself fivefold, by dividing my functions into those of the outgoing breath etc.’
उक्तवति च तस्मिन् ते अश्रद्दधानाः अप्रत्ययवन्तः बभूवुः – कथमेतदेवमिति॥ Although he said so, still te, they; babhūvuḥ, remained; a-śrad-dadhānāḥ, incredulous, thinking, ‘How can this be so?’
Confidently prāṇa starts rising out of the body. When he arises, then (helplessly) all the others rise; when he settles back, every one of them settles back. In the same way all bees (praise) the royal bee, who arises, by their rising and sit when (s)he sits, so too speech, mind, eye, and ear, being satisfied, praise prāṇa.
स च प्राणः तेषामश्रद्दधानतामालक्ष्य अभिमानात् ऊर्ध्वम् उत्क्रामत इव उत्क्रामतीव उत्क्रान्तवानिव स रोषान्निरपेक्षः। Noticing their incredulity, saḥ, that prāṇa; on his part, became indifferent, and utkrāmate iva, seemed to rise up, seemed to have risen up from this (body); abhimānāt, out of indignation.तस्मिन्नुत्क्रामति यद्वृत्तं तद्दृष्टान्तेन प्रत्यक्षीकरोति – तस्मिन् उत्क्रामति सति अथ अनन्तरमेव इतरे सर्व एव प्राणाश्चक्षुरादयः उत्क्रामन्ते उत्क्रामन्ति उच्चक्रमुः। तस्मिंश्च प्राणे प्रतिष्ठमाने तूष्णीं भवति अनुत्क्रामति सति, सर्व एव प्रातिष्ठन्ते तूष्णीं व्यवस्थिता बभूवुः। तत् यथा लोके मक्षिकाः मधुकराः स्वराजानं मधुकरराजानम् उत्क्रामन्तं प्रति सर्वा एव उत्क्रामन्ते तस्मिंश्च प्रतिष्ठमाने सर्वा एव प्रातिष्ठन्ते प्रतितिष्ठन्ति। What followed his ascent is being made vivid with the help of an illustration. Tasmin utkrāmati, when he began to rise up; atha, then, immediately after; itare sarve eva, all the others without exception, all the organs such as the eye; utkrāmante, ascend(ed); ca tasmin pratiṣṭhamāne, and when he, the Prāṇa, stayed on, remained quiet, did not rise up; sarve eva prātiṣṭhante, all of them remain(ed) quietly in position. Tat, with regard to this matter, the illustration is: Yathā, as; in the world; makṣikāḥ, bees; sarvāḥ eva, all of them; utkrāmante, take to flight; madhukara-rājānām utkrāmantam, as the king (i.e. the queen) of bees, their own king, takes to his wings; ca sarvāḥ eva prātiṣṭhante, and all settle down; tasmin pratiṣṭhamāne, as he settles down–.
यथायं दृष्टान्तः एवं वाङ्मनश्चक्षुः श्रोत्रं च इत्यादयः ते उत्सृज्याश्रद्दधानतां बुद्ध्वा प्राणमाहात्म्यं प्रीताः प्राणं स्तुन्वन्ति स्तुवन्ति॥
As is this illustration, so (did) vāk, speech; manaḥ, mind; cakṣuḥ, eye; śrotram, ear; and others (behave). Te, they; having given up their lack of faith, and having realized the greatness of Prāṇa, and becoming prītāḥ, delighted; stunvanti prāṇam, praise Prāṇa.
This (prāṇa) as fire burns, as the sun (it shines), as Parjanya (Lord of the rain-clouds, it rains), as Maghavan (Indra, it reigns); it is the wind. This deity is the earth and moon, whatever has form or is formless (sad or a-sad), and what is immortal.
● This (prāṇa) as fire burns (एषः अग्निः तपति), as the sun (एषः सूर्यः) (it shines, तपति) , ○ as Parjanya (Lord of the rain-clouds, it rains) (एषः पर्जन्यः), as Maghavan (Indra, it reigns) (मघवान्); it is the wind (एषः वायुः). ● This deity is the earth and moon (एषः पृथिवी रयिः देवः), ○ whatever has form or is formless (sad or a-sad) (सद् अ-सद् च), and what is immortal (अ-मृतं च यत्).
एषः प्राणः अग्निः सन् तपति ज्वलति। तथा एषः सूर्यः सन् प्रकाशते। तथा एषः पर्जन्यः सन् वर्षति। किंच मघवान् इन्द्रः सन् प्रजाः पालयति जिघांसत्यसुररक्षांसि। किंच, एषः वायुः आवहप्रवहादिभेदः। किंच, एषः पृथिवी रयिः देवः सर्वस्य जगतः सत् मूर्तम् असत् अमूर्तं च अमृतं च यत् देवानां स्थितिकारणम्॥ Eṣaḥ, this one, this Prāṇa; in the form of agniḥ, fire; tapati, burns. Similarly, he shines as sūryaḥ, the sun. So also, as parjanyaḥ, cloud; he rains, Moreover, as maghavān, Indra, he protects the creatures and endeavours to kill the demons and ogres. Eṣaḥ, this one; is vāyuh, air, diversified as different currents like āvaha, pravaha. Furthermore, eṣaḥ devaḥ, this deity; is pṛthivī, the earth; (and) rayiḥ, food, of the whole world; [•As the earth, He supports all; and as food, He nourishes all.•] sat, the gross; a-sat, the subtle (not gross); ca, and; yat a-mṛtam, that which is nectar that ensures the sustenance of the gods. The point needs no further elaboration.
Like spokes fixed in the hub of a wheel, prāṇa is all these: the Ṛg, Yajus and Sāmanmantras (i.e., verse, prose, and sung forms, respectively), and the sacrifice along with its kṣatriyas (protectors) and brāhmaṇas (performers).
● Like spokes (fixed) in the hub of a wheel (अराः इव रथ-नाभौ), ○ fixed in prāṇa are all these (प्राणे सर्वं प्रतिष्ठितम्): ● the Ṛg, Yajus and Sāmanmantras (i.e., verse, prose, and sung forms, respectively) (ऋचः यजूग्ँषि सामानि ), ○ and the sacrifice along with its kṣatriyas (protectors) and brāhmaṇas (performers) (यज्ञः क्षत्त्रं ब्रह्म च).
अरा इव रथनाभौ श्रद्धादि नामान्तं सर्वं स्थितिकाले प्राणे एव प्रतिष्ठितम्। तथा ऋचः यजूंषि सामानि इति त्रिविधा मन्त्राः तत्साध्यश्च यज्ञः क्षत्त्रं च सर्वस्य पालयितृ ब्रह्म च यज्ञादिकर्मकर्तृत्वेऽधिकृतं च एष एव प्राणः सर्वम्॥ Arāḥ iva ratha-nābhau, as spokes are fixed on the hub of a chariot wheel; so sarvam, everything, starting from faith and ending with name (PrasU.6.4); pratiṣṭhitam, is fixed; verily, prāṇe, on Prāṇa; during the time of the existence of the world. Similarly, the three kinds of mantras – ṛcaḥ, ṛks; yajūṃṣi, yajus; sāmāni, sāmans – (metrical, prose, and musical Veda texts); and the yajñaḥ, sacrifice that is performed with those mantras; and the kṣatram, kṣatriya class that protects all; ca, and even brahman, the Brāhmaṇa class that is qualified for the performance of duties like sacrifice. This Prāṇa is everything.
Prāṇa as Prajā-pati, it is you who moves (as the father’s seed and the child) in the womb. You indeed are born (in the form of all these). O prāṇa, these creatures bring the oblation (the sense objects through the senses) to you (as their eater) who dwells in the form of these prāṇas (the senses).
● (Prāṇa as) Prajā-pati, it is you who moves (as the father’s seed and the child) in the womb (प्रजापतिः चरसि गर्भे). ○ You indeed are born (in the form of all these) (त्वम् एव प्रतिजायसे). ● O prāṇa, these creatures, the oblation (the sense objects through the senses) to you (as their eater) (तुभ्यं, प्राण, प्रजाः तु इमाः बलिम्) ○ who dwells in the form of these prāṇas (the senses), they bring (the oblation) (हरन्ति यः प्राणैः प्रतितिष्ठसि).
यः प्रजापतिः अपि स त्वमेव गर्भे चरसि, पितुर्मातुश्च प्रतिरूपः सन् प्रतिजायसे; प्रजापतित्वादेव प्रागेव सिद्धं तव मातृपितृत्वम्; सर्वदेहदेह्याकृतिच्छन्नः एकः प्राणः सर्वात्मासीत्यर्थः। तुभ्यं त्वदर्थाय इमाः मनुष्याद्याः प्रजास्तु हे प्राण चक्षुरादिद्वारैः बलिं हरन्ति, यः त्वं प्राणैः चक्षुरादिभिः सह प्रतितिष्ठसि सर्वशरीरेषु, अतस्तुभ्यं बलिं हरन्तीति युक्तम्। भोक्तासि यतस्त्वं तवैवान्यत्सर्वं भोज्यम्॥ Even He who is called prajā-patiḥ, the Lord of creatures; tvam eva, is but you. It is you who carasi, move; garbhe, in the womb – of the father (as seed) and of the mother (as child); and (it is you, again, who) pratijāyase, take birth after the image of (the parents). Since you are the Lord of creatures, your parenthood is a pre-established fact. The purport is this: You, Prāṇa, who are one, are identical with all in the guise of the form of all bodies and embodied beings. Prāṇa, O Prāṇa; it is tubhyam, to you alone; that imāḥ prajāḥ tu, all these creatures that there are, counting from human beings; balim haranti, carry presents, through the eyes etc. Since it is you yaḥ, who; pratitiṣṭhasi, reside; prāṇaiḥ, with the organs, eyes etc., in all the bodies, therefore it is proper that they should carry presents to you. As you are in fact the eater, so all else is food for you only.
This being the first food offering to the ancestors, you are the best carrier of this offering to the gods. You are the unfailing active principle within the seer-senses, called the atharva-aṅgiras-es (the keepers, priests, of the fire, or the essences of the body which are the prāṇas).
● You are the best carrier of this offering to the gods (देवानाम् असि वह्नितमः), ○ the first food offering to the ancestors (पितॄणां प्रथमा स्वधा). ● The unfailing active principle within the seer-senses (ऋषीणां चरितं सत्यम्), ○ (called) the atharva-aṅgiras-es (the keepers, priests, of the fire, or the essences of the body which are the prāṇas) (अथर्वाङ्गिरसाम्), you are (असि).
देवानाम् इन्द्रादीनाम् असि भवसि त्वं वह्नितमः हविषां प्रापयितृतमः। पितॄणां नान्दीमुखे श्राद्धे या पितृभ्यो दीयते स्वधा अन्नं सा देवप्रदानमपेक्ष्य प्रथमा भवति। तस्या अपि पितृभ्यः प्रापयिता त्वमेवेत्यर्थः। You asi, are; vahnitamaḥ, the best carrier, the best transmitter, of libations; devānām, to the celestials, beginning with Indra. The svadhā, food-offering; made pitṝṇām, to the manes, in the obsequial rite called Nāndī-mukha in honour of the manes; that is the prathamā, first, that takes precedence over the other offerings in which the deities dominate [•The reading is deva-pradhāna or deva-pradāna. The first reading is adopted in the translation. The second reading would give the meaning, ‘Over the offering to the gods’. The Nāndī-mukha has to be performed before making the sacrifices to gods.•] – of that food-offering also, it is you alone who carry it to the manes. This is the idea.
किंच, ऋषीणां चक्षुरादीनां प्राणानाम् अथर्वाङ्गिरसाम् अङ्गिरसभूतानामथर्वणाम् – ‘तेषामेव प्राणो वाथर्वा’ (?) इति श्रुतेः – चरितं चेष्टितं सत्यम् अवितथं देहधारणाद्युपकारलक्षणं त्वमेव असि॥ Furthermore, it is you who asi, are; the satyam caritam, true, right, conduct, consisting in maintaining the body etc.; ṛṣīṇām, of the organs, such as the eyes etc.; atharva-aṅgirasām, which constitute the essence of the body, and which are called the atharvan according to the Veda text, ‘Prāṇa is indeed atharvā’. [•Though Prāṇa is atharvan according to this quotation yet the sense-organs, which are but manifestations of Prāṇa, are also atharvan.•]
O prāṇa, you are Lord Indra in prowess. You are Lord Rudra in protector (mode). You are the sun who travels across the sky (when you arise), and the Lord of the luminaries (after you set).
● O prāṇa, you are Lord Indra in prowess (इन्द्रः त्वं, प्राण, तेजसा). ○ You are Lord Rudra in protector (mode) (रुद्रः असि परिरक्षिता). ● You travel across the sky (when you arise) (त्वम् अन्तरिक्षे चरसि), ○ (and) you are the sun, the Lord of the luminaries (after you set) (सूर्यः त्वं ज्योतिषां पतिः).
इन्द्रः परमेश्वरः त्वं हे प्राण, तेजसा वीर्येण रुद्रोऽसि संहरन् जगत्। Prāṇa, O Prāṇa; tvam, you; are indraḥ, Indra, the supreme Lord. Tejasā, by valour; asi, you are; rudraḥ, Rudra, engaged in destroying the world.
स्थितौ च परिसमन्तात् रक्षिता पालयिता; परिरक्षिता त्वमेव जगतः सौम्येन रूपेण। त्वम् अन्तरिक्षे अजस्रं चरसि उदयास्तमयाभ्यां सूर्यः त्वम् एव च सर्वेषां ज्योतिषां पतिः॥ Again, during the time of the existence of the universe, you, in your benign aspect, are the parirakṣitā, preserver (of the universe) on every side. Tvam, you; carasi, move, for ever; antar-ikṣe, in the sky, by rising and setting. Tvam, you; are the sūryaḥ, sun; the patiḥ, lord; joytiṣām, of all the luminaries.
When you give forth the rains, then all these propagate (prajāḥ), O prāṇa (or, read ‘prāṇate,’ “then the creatures are nourished”). They continue to be full of joy, thinking, “Food will be produced to our hearts’ content.”
● When you give forth the rains (यदा त्वम् अभिवर्षसि), ○ then (all) these propagate (prajāḥ), O prāṇa (or, read ‘prāṇate,’ “then the creatures are nourished”) (अथ इमाः, प्राण, ते प्रजाः). ● They continue to be full of joy (आनन्द-रूपाः तिष्ठन्ति), ○ (thinking) “Food will be produced to our hearts’ content” (कामाय अन्नं भविष्यति इति).
यदा पर्जन्यो भूत्वा अभिवर्षसि त्वम्, अथ तदा अन्नं प्राप्य इमाः प्रजाः प्राणते प्राणचेष्टां कुर्वन्तीत्यर्थः। Yadā, when; tvam, you; abhivarṣasi, pour down by becoming a rain cloud; atha, then; getting food, imāḥ prajāḥ, these creatures; prāṇate, live, that is to say, resort to activities characteristic of vitality.
अथवा, हे प्राण, ते तव इमाः प्रजाः स्वात्मभूतास्त्वदन्नसंवर्धितास्त्वदभिवर्षणदर्शनमात्रेण च Or (reading prāṇa te, in place of prāṇate), prāṇa, O Prāṇa; at the very sight of the rain you pour down, imāḥ prajāḥ te, these creatures of yours – which are one with you and which are nourished by your food;आनन्दरूपाः सुखं प्राप्ता इव सत्यः तिष्ठन्ति। कामाय इच्छातः अन्नं भविष्यति इति एवमभिप्रायः॥ Tiṣṭhanti, (they) continue to be; ānanda-rūpaḥ, like people possessed of happiness; their idea being this: ‘Annam bhaviṣyati, food will be produced; kāmāya, to our hearts’ content.’
You are (like) an outlaw (beyond scriptural injunctions, or, as first born, you are unanointed), O prāṇa, the (Atharva-Veda) ekarṣi fire, the (oblation) eater, the good (or, existence) Lord of everything. We are the givers of the food oblation to you. You are our father and the one who grows in the mother (or, read ‘mātariśvanaḥ,’ “the father of the wind [or of the embryo]”).
● You are (like) an outlaw (beyond scriptural injunctions, or, as first born, you are unanointed), O prāṇa (व्रात्यः त्वं, प्राण), the (Atharva-Veda) ekarṣi fire (एक-ऋषिः), ○ the (oblation) eater (अत्ता), the good (or, existence) Lord of everything (विश्वस्य सत्-पतिः). ● We are the givers of the food oblation (to you) (वयम् आद्यस्य दातारः). ○ You are our father and the one who grows in the mother (or, read ‘mātariśvanaḥ,’ “the father of the wind [or of the embryo]”) (पिता त्वं मातरि-श्व नः).
प्रथमजत्वादन्यस्य संस्कर्तुः, अभावादसंस्कृतो व्रात्यः त्वम्, स्वभावत एव शुद्ध इत्यभिप्रायः। हे प्राण, एकर्षिः त्वम् आथर्वणानां प्रसिद्ध एकर्षिनामा अग्निः सन् अत्ता सर्वहविषाम्। त्वमेव विश्वस्य सर्वस्य सतो विद्यमानस्य पतिः सत्पतिः; साधुर्वा पतिः सत्पतिः। Prāṇa, O Prāṇa; tvam, you; are vrātyaḥ, unpurified – having been born first, you had none to anoint you; the idea is that you are naturally pure. As the fire called ekarṣiḥ, Eka-ṛṣi, that is well known among the followers of the Atharva-veda; you become the attā, eater, of all oblations. You are the sat-patiḥ viśvasya, the lord of all that exists – sat-patiḥ, being derived in the sense of the lord (pati) of what exists (sat). Or sat-patiḥ may mean holy lord.वयं पुनः आद्यस्य तव अदनीयस्य हविषो दातारः। त्वं पिता मातरिश्व हे मातरिश्वन्, नः अस्माकम् अथवा, मातरिश्वनः वायोः पिता त्वम्। अतश्च सर्वस्यैव जगतः पितृत्वं सिद्धम्॥ Vayam, we, again; are dātāraḥ, the givers, to you; ādyasya, of food, of oblations that you partake of. Mātar-iśva, O Mātar-iśvan (Air); tvam, you; are naḥ pitā, our father (the word mātar-iśva being taken as a Veda use for mātar-iśvan). Or, if the reading be mātar-iśvanaḥ, the meaning (of the sentence) will be: Tvam, you; are the pitā, father; mātar-iśvanaḥ, of Mātar-iśvan (Air) [•Since you are identified with ākāśa (space), the source of air.•] Hence also is established your fatherhood of the whole Universe.
The body of yours which abides in the organ of speech, in the hearing, in the sight, and which pervades the mind, please make that body of yours calm, do not let it (prematurely) ascend out of my body.
● The body of yours which abides in (the organ of) speech (या ते तनूः वाचि प्रतिष्ठिता), ○ which is in the hearing, which is in the sight (या श्रोत्रे, या च चक्षुषि), ● and which pervades the mind (या च मनसि संतता), ○ please make that (body of yours) calm (शिवां तां कुरु), do not let it (prematurely) ascend (out of my body) (मा उत्क्रमीः).
या ते त्वदीया तनूः वाचि प्रतिष्ठिता वक्तृत्वेन वदनचेष्टां कुर्वती, या च श्रोत्रे या चक्षुषि या च मनसि सङ्कल्पादिव्यापारेण संतता समनुगता तनूः, तां शिवां शान्तां कुरु; मा उत्क्रमीः उत्क्रमणेनाशिवां मा कार्षीरित्यर्थः॥ Yā tanūḥ te, that aspect of yours; which is pratiṣṭhitā, lodged; vāci, in speech, which makes the effort of speaking as a speaker; yā śrotre, that which is in the ear; ca yā cakṣuṣi, and that which is in the eye; ca yā, and that which , the aspect which; is santatā, pervasive; manasi, in the mind, as acts of thinking etc.; kuru, make; tām, that (aspect); śivām, calm; Mā utkramīḥ, do not ascend, that is to say, do not make it inactive [•This is according to A.G. Some translate it as unholy.•] by ascending.
किं बहुना अस्मिंल्लोके – In short, whatever (enjoyable_ thing there is in this world:
All this is under the control of prāṇa, and all which exists in the third world (heaven, beyond the earth sphere and the atmosphere). Please protect us, like a mother her children. Provide us what we need (śrī, śreyas) and wisdom.
● All this is under the control of prāṇa (प्राणस्य इदं वशे सर्वम्), ○ (and all) which exists in the third world (heaven, beyond the earth sphere and the atmosphere) (त्रि-दिवे यद् प्रतिष्ठितम्). ● Please protect (us) like a mother her children (माता इव पुत्रार् रक्षस्व). ○ Provide us what we need (śreyas) and wisdom (श्रीः च प्रज्ञां च विधेहि नः इति).
प्राणस्य एव वशे सर्वम् इदं यत्किंचिदुपभोगजातं त्रिदिवे तृतीयस्यां दिवि च यत् प्रतिष्ठितं देवाद्युपभोगलक्षणं तस्यापि प्राण एव ईशिता रक्षिता। Sarvam idam, all this; is verily prāṇasya vaśe, under the control of Prāṇa. And Prāṇa is even the ruler and protector of yat, whatever – in the form of enjoyment for gods and others; is pratiṣṭhitam, located; tri-dive, in the third heaven, in the form of enjoyment for gods and others.
अतो माता इव पुत्रान् अस्मान् रक्षस्व पालयस्व। त्वन्निमित्ता हि ब्राह्म्यः क्षात्त्र्यश्च श्रियः ताः त्वं श्रीश्च श्रियश्च प्रज्ञां च त्वत्स्थितिनिमित्तां विधेहि नः विधत्स्वेत्यर्थः। Hence, rakṣasva, protect us; mātā iva putrān, as a mother does her sons. Since all the glories natural to the Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas are at your disposal, therefore vidhehi naḥ, ordain for us; śrīḥ ca (is the same as śriyaḥ ca), all splendour; prajñām ca, and intelligence, that accrue from your continuance. This is the meaning.इति एवं सर्वात्मतया वागादिभिः प्राणैः स्तुत्या गमितमहिमा प्राणः प्रजापतिरेवेत्यवधृतम्॥ Iti, thus, inasmuch as the greatness of Prāṇa has been disclosed by the organs such as speech through His praise as the all-pervasive entity, therefore, Prāṇa is ascertained as the Lord of creatures and the eater.
Then Kausalya, son of Aśvala, asked Pippalāda, “Venerable sir, from what is this prāṇa born? How is does it enter into this body? How does it divide itself and remain there? By what (path) does it depart? How does it relate to the external and (that external prāṇa relate to, by supporting) the internal (adhyātma)?”
अथ हैनं कौसल्यश्चाश्वलायनः प्रपच्छ। प्राणैर्ह्येवं निर्धारिततत्त्वः उपलब्धमहिमापि संहतत्वात्स्यादस्य कार्यत्वम्; Atha ha, next; kausalyaḥ ca āśvala-ayanaḥ, Kausalya, the son of Aśvala; papraccha enam, asked him, ‘Although the greatness of Prāṇa has thus been perceived by the organs which ascertained his true nature, yet he may be an effect, inasmuch as he forms a part of a composite thing.अतः पृच्छामि। हे भगवन्, कुतः कस्मात्कारणात् एषः यथावधृतः प्राणः जायते। Therefore I ask: Bhagavan, O venerable sir; kutaḥ, from what source; eṣaḥ, this one, Prāṇa, as ascertained; jāyate, is born?
जातश्च कथं केन वृत्तिविशेषेण आयाति अस्मिन् शरीरे; किंनिमित्तकमस्य शरीरग्रहणमित्यर्थः। And being born, katham, how, through what special function; does he āyāti, come; asmin śarīre, to this body? What is the cause of his being embodied? This is the idea.
प्रविष्टश्च शरीरे आत्मानं वा प्रविभज्य प्रविभागं कृत्वा कथं केन प्रकारेण प्रातिष्ठते प्रतितिष्ठति। And having entered into the body, katham, how; does he prātiṣṭhate, dwell (in the body); pravibhajya ātmānam, by dividing himself;केन वा वृत्तिविशेषेणास्माच्छरीरात् उत्क्रमते उत्क्रामति। Kena, how, through what special function; does he utkramate, depart; asmāt śarīrāt, from this body?कथं बाह्यम् अधिभूतम् अधिदैवतं च अभिधत्ते धारयति; कथम् अध्यात्मम् इति, धारयतीति शेषः॥ Katham, how; does he abhidhatte, support; the bāhyam, external things, in the context of the elements and in the divine context; and Katham, how; (does he support) adhyātmam iti, in the (individual) physical context?’ The verb ‘support’ has to be supplied.
To him Pippalāda said: You are asking a lot of questions, but I think you are an eminent brāhmaṇa, so I will answer all these questions.
तस्मै स होवाच आचार्यः। प्राण एव तावद्दुर्विज्ञेयत्वाद्विषमप्रश्नार्हः; तस्यापि जन्मादि त्वं पृच्छसि; अतः अतिप्रश्नान् पृच्छसि। ब्रह्मिष्ठोऽसीति अतिशयेन त्वं ब्रह्मवित्, अतस्तुष्टोऽहम्, तस्मात् ते तुभ्यम् अहं ब्रवीमि यत्पृष्टं शृणु॥ Saḥ, he, the teacher; uvāca ha, said; tasmai, to him: To begin with, Prāṇa himself, being inscrutable, is a subject-matter of intricate questioning. You inquire about the birth etc. even of that Prāṇa. Hence pṛcchasi, you ask; ati-praśnān, supernormal question; [•Questions about transcendental verities.•] Thereby I am pleased. Tasmāt, hence; aham bravīmi, I speak; te, to you, what you ask for. Listen:
From the (parama, limitless) ātman this prāṇa (life energy) manifests in the world. In the same way a person’s shadow (chāyā) is naturally wherever the person (puruṣa) is, similarly this prāṇa is fixed here. It is fixed in this body owing to the (past) actions of the person’s mind.
आत्मनः परस्मात्पुरुषादक्षरात्सत्यात् एषः उक्तः प्राणः जायते। Ātmanaḥ, from the Self – from the supreme Puruṣa, the Immutable, (or) Reality; jāyate, is born; eṣaḥ, this Prāṇa spoken of before (MunU.2.1.2-3).
कथमित्यत्र दृष्टान्तः। यथा लोके एषा पुरुषे शिरःपाण्यादिलक्षणे निमित्ते च्छाया नैमित्तिकी जायते, तद्वत् एतस्मिन् ब्रह्मणि एतत् प्राणाख्यं छायास्थानीयमनृतरूपं तत्त्वं सत्ये पुरुषे आततं समर्पितमित्येतत्। छायेव देहे मनोकृतेन मनःकृतेन मनःसङ्कल्पेच्छादिनिष्पन्नकर्मनिमित्तेनेत्येतत्। वक्ष्यति हि पुण्येन पुण्यमित्यादि। ‘तदेव सक्तः सह कर्मणैति’ (BrhU.4.4.6) इति श्रुत्यन्तरात्। आयाति आगच्छति अस्मिञ्शरीरे॥ Here is an illustration to show how. Yathā, as in the world; there issues eṣā, this; chāyā, shadow, as an effect; puruṣe, when a man, possessed of head, hands, etc. is there as the cause; similarly, etasmin, on this, on Brahman, on Puruṣa, on Reality; ātatam, is spread, i.e. fixed; etat, this one, this principle that is false by nature, is analogous to a shadow, and is called Prāṇa, just as a shadow is linked to a body. He āyāti, comes; asmin śarīre, to this body; mano-kṛtena, owing to the actions of the mind, that is to say, as the result of actions accomplished through the thought or wish of the mind, for the text will say later, ‘Virtue results from virtue’ etc. (PrasU.3.7); and there is another Veda text (on this point): ‘Being attached, he, together with the work, attains (that) result to which the subtle body or mind is attached)’ (BrhUEng.4.4.6).
In the same way a king alone appoints officers saying, “Over this village, over that village you rule,” this prāṇa individually delegates the different life energies (to be in charge of specific organs in this body).
यथा येन प्रकारेण लोके राजा सम्राडेव ग्रामादिषु अधिकृतान् विनियुङ्क्ते। कथम्? एतान् ग्रामान् एतान् ग्रामान् अधितिष्ठस्वेति। एवमेव यथायं दृष्टान्तः। एषः मुख्यः प्राणः इतरान् प्राणान् चक्षुरादीनात्मभेदांश्च पृथक्पृथगेव यथास्थानं संनिधत्ते विनियुङ्क्ते॥ In the world, yathā, as, in the way in which; samrāṭ eva, it is the king alone; who viniyuṅkte, employs; adhikṛtān, the officers, in the villages etc. – how? – by ordering, Adhitiṣṭhasva, preside over; etān grāmān, these villages; etān grāmān, these villages; evam eva, just so, as is the case in the illustration, so; eṣaḥ prāṇaḥ, this chief Prāṇa; sannidhatte, places, engages; pṛthak pṛthak eva, separately indeed, in the respective posts; itarān prāṇān, the other organs, the eye etc. which are its own manifestations.
Prāṇa placed apāna (downward energy) below in the anus and genital organ, and prāṇa itself above in the eyes and ears and from it issues out the breath energy through the mouth and nostrils, whereas in the middle is placed samāna (digestion and circulation energy). Since this samāna distributes equally the food offered (into the fire of prāṇa), from that samāna these seven flames (of prāṇa issue out through the mouth and the two eyes, ears, and nostrils).”
पायूपस्थे पायुश्च उपस्थश्च पायूपस्थं तस्मिन्। अपानम् आत्मभेदं मूत्रपुरीषाद्यपनयनं कुर्वन् संनिधत्ते तिष्ठति। Pāyu-upasthe, in the two lower apertures; he places apānam, Apāna, which is a division of himself and which exists engaged in the work of ejecting faeces, urine, etc.
तथा चक्षुःश्रोत्रे चक्षुश्च श्रोत्रं च चक्षुःश्रोत्रं तस्मिश्चक्षुःश्रोत्रे। मुखनासिकाभ्यां मुखं च नासिका च मुखनासिके ताभ्यां मुखनासिकाभ्यां निर्गच्छन् प्राणः स्वयं सम्राट्स्थानीयः प्रातिष्ठते प्रतितिष्ठति। So also prāṇaḥ svayam, Prāṇa himself, who occupies the place of the sovereign; prātiṣṭhate, resides; cakṣuḥ-śrotre, in the eyes and the ears; issuing out mukha-nāsikābhyām, through the mouth and nostrils.मध्ये तु प्राणापानयोः स्थानयोः नाभ्याम्, समानः अशितं पीतं च समं नयतीति समानः। Madhye tu, in the middle, however, in between the places of Prāṇa and Apāna, in the navel; there is samānaḥ, Samāna, which is so called because it assimilates all that is eaten or drunk.एषः हि यस्मात् यद् एतत् हुतं भुक्तं पीतं चात्माग्नौ प्रक्षिप्तम् अन्नं समं नयति, तस्मात् अशितपीतेन्धनादग्नेरौदर्याद्धृदयदेशं प्राप्तात् एताःसप्त-सङ्ख्याका अर्चिषः दीप्तयो निर्गच्छन्त्यो भवन्ति। शीर्षण्यप्राणद्वारा दर्शनश्रवणादिलक्षणरूपादिविषयप्रकाश इत्यभिप्रायः॥ Hi, since; eṣaḥ, this one; nayati samam, distributes equally (in all parts of the body); etat hutam annam, all this that is eaten or drunk, the food that is poured (as a libation) on one’s bodily fire; tasmāt, therefore; from the burning of what is eaten and drunk, from the fire in the stomach, when it has reached the region of the heart, [•The imagery is thus brought out: The digestive power in the stomach is the sacrificial fire; food is the oblation; and sense-knowledge is the flame. The seven organs in the head are: two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and the mouth. These derive their capacity to act from the energy supplied by food.•] bhavanti, there issue; etāḥ sapta arciṣaḥ, these seven flames, that are lodged in the head. The idea is that the revelation of objects like form (or colour) etc. that constitutes what is known as seeing, hearing, etc. is caused by Prāṇa.
This self (as the subtle body) is surely in the heart. In that heart are one hundred and one of the (chief) nāḍīs (energy pathways). Each one of these is divided into one hundred branches. Each of these branches is divided into seventy-two thousand sub-branches. Among them moves vyāna (dispersing energy circulation).
हृदि ह्येषः पुण्डरीकाकारमांसपिण्डपरिच्छिन्ने हृदयाकाशे एषः आत्मा आत्मसंयुक्तो लिङ्गात्मा, जीवात्मेत्यर्थः; अत्र अस्मिन्हृदये एतत् एकशतम् एकोत्तरशतं संख्यया प्रधान-नाडीनां भवति। Hi eṣaḥ ātmā, this Self – this subtle body associated with the Self – is in fact; hṛdi, in the heart, in the space in the heart, which is circumscribed by the lump of flesh shaped like a lotus. Atra, in this heart; there are in number, etat eka-śatam, this one hundred and one; nāḍīnām, of the chief nerves.तासां शतं शतम् एकैकस्याः प्रधाननाड्या भेदाः; पुनरपि द्वासप्ततिर्द्वासप्ततिः द्वे द्वे सहस्रे अधिके सप्ततिश्च सहस्राणि, सहस्राणां द्वासप्ततिः, प्रतिशाखानाडीसहस्राणि प्रतिप्रतिनाडीशतं संख्यया प्रधाननाडीनां सहस्राणि भवन्ति। Tāsām, of those chief nerves; eka-ekasyāḥ, each one has; śatam śatam, a hundred divisions. Again, prati-śākhā-nāḍī-sahasrāṇi, the thousands of sub-branches into which each of the (one hundred of) branch nerves is sub-divided are, in each case; dvā-saptatiḥ, dvā-saptatiḥ, seventy-two, seventy-two. Each of the hundred branches of the main nerves becomes (seventy-two) thousand in number. [•To sum up: There are 101 main nerves; each is divided into one hundred branches; and each of these branches is sub-divided into 72,000 sub-branches. Thus the sub-branches are 727,200,000 and the total number of all nerves is 727,210,201.•]आसु नाडीषु व्यानो वायुः चरति। व्यानो व्यापनात्। आदित्यादिव रश्मयो हृदयात्सर्वतोगामिनीभिर्नाडीभिः सर्वदेहं संव्याप्य व्यानो वर्तते। संधिस्कन्धमर्मदेशेषु विशेषेण प्राणापानवृत्त्योश्च मध्ये उद्भूतवृत्तिर्वीर्यवत्कर्मकर्ता भवति॥ Āsu, among these nerves; carati, moves; the vital energy called vyānaḥ, Vyāna, the name being derived in the sense of pervasiveness. Vyāna exists wholly pervading the body through the nerves, which like rays from the sun, issue in all directions from the heart. And by becoming particularly active in the joints, shoulders, and vital parts, and in the interim between the functioning of Prāṇa and Apāna, it becomes the performer of deeds requiring strength.
(Udāna is the upward and ejecting energy, which, since it also is the vomiting energy, is likely centered in the throat area for this upward and ejecting energy to sit in wait, while also being the energy to do the one-time job of ejecting the subtle body out one of the nāḍī paths depending on where is the next body to enter.) Now then udāna when it is moving upward through one of the nāḍīs, (having collected the other prāṇas), it leads the subtle body to a virtuous world due to predominant karma merit, (otherwise it goes differently), due to predominant karma demerit to a non-virtuous world, or by an equal mixture of both to a human world.
अथ या तु तत्रैकशतानां नाडीनां मध्ये ऊर्ध्वगा सुषुम्नाख्या नाडी, तया एकया ऊर्ध्वः सन् उदानः वायुः आपादतलमस्तकवृत्तिः सञ्चरन् पुण्येन कर्मणा शास्त्रविहितेन पुण्यं लोकं देवादिस्थानलक्षणं नयति प्रापयति। पापेन तद्विपरीतेन पापं नरकं तिर्यग्योन्यादिलक्षणम्। उभाभ्यां समप्रधानाभ्यां पुण्यपापाभ्याम् एव मनुष्यलोकं नयतीत्यनुवर्तते॥ Atha, now then; ekayā, through that one among those one hundred and one nerves, which proceeds upward and is known as Suṣumnā; the vital force called udānaḥ, Udāna, which moves everywhere from the sole of the feet to the head; ūrdhaḥ (san), when it has an upward trend; it nayati, leads; puṇyam lokam, to a virtuous world, such as the world of the gods; puṇyenakarmaṇā, as a result of deeds that are virtuous, that are enjoined by the scriptures; (it leads) pāpam, to a sinful world, to hell, to birth among beasts and so on; pāpena, as a result of sin, which is opposed to those (virtuous deeds); (and it leads) manuṣya-lokam, to the human world; ubhābhyām eva, as a result of both virtue and vice, when they predominate equally. The verb ‘leads’ has to be supplied (everywhere).
The sun is indeed the external prāṇa. By the sun rising, it favors (blesses) the prāṇa in the eye (the organ of sight). The earth deity (devatā) by gravity-attracting (avaṣṭabhya) favors apāna (downward, evacuating energy). The intermediate space (the atmosphere, not the element space) (favors) samāna (by its being in the external middle region, like where the digestion in the body presides). The wind (favors) vyāna (by its circulation movement paralleling the activity of vyāna within the body).
आदित्यः ह वै प्रसिद्धो ह्यधिदैवतं बाह्यः प्राणः स एष उदयति उद्गच्छति। एष हि एनम् आध्यात्मिकं चक्षुषि भवं चाक्षुषं प्राणं प्रकाशेन अनुगृह्णानः रूपोपलब्धौ चक्षुष आलोकं कुर्वन्नित्यर्थः। Ādityaḥ ha vai, it is the well-known sun indeed, in the divine context; that is the bāhyaḥ prāṇaḥ, external Prāṇa (i.e. Prāṇa in external manifestation). Eṣaḥ, this one, that is such; udayati, rises up; it is this one indeed (that rises) anugṛhṇānam, favouring; enam prāṇam, this Prāṇa; cākṣuṣam, that exist in the eye, in the bodily context; that is to say, it favours by vouchsafing light for the eye in the matter of its perception of form.
तथा पृथिव्याम् अभिमानिनी या देवता प्रसिद्धा सैषा पुरुषस्य अपानम् अपानवृत्तिम् अवष्टभ्य आकृष्य वशीकृत्याध एवापकर्षणेनानुग्रहं कुर्वती वर्तत इत्यर्थः। Similarly, yā devatā pṛthivyām, the deity that is well known as identified with the earth; sā eṣā, that very one, exists by vouchsafing favour; avaṣṭabhya, by attracting, keeping under control – by the fact of pulling down. apānam puruṣasya, the vital function called Apāna in a human being; this is the idea.
अन्यथा हि शरीरं गुरुत्वात्पतेत्सावकाशे वोद्गच्छेत्। यद् एतत् अन्तरा मध्ये द्यावापृथिव्योः यः आकाशः तत्स्थो वायुराकाश उच्यते, मञ्चस्थवत्। स समानः समानमनुगृह्णानो वर्तत इत्यर्थः। For otherwise the body would fall because of its weight or would fly up into the sky if left free. Yat (rather yaḥ) antarā, that which is the middle, in the space that exists in between heaven and earth, the air there being referred to by the word space on the analogy of one sitting on a scaffolding; [•In the sentence, ‘The scaffolding is shouting’, ‘scaffolding’ stands for the men sitting on it. Similarly ‘space’ here stands for the ‘air’ in space.•] saḥ, it, that air; which is samānaḥ, Samāna – that exists there, helping the vital function called Samāna – this is idea.
समानस्यान्तराकाशस्थत्वसामान्यात्। सामान्येन च यो बाह्यो वायुः स व्याप्तिसामान्यात् व्यानः व्यानमनुगृह्णानो वर्तत इत्यभिप्रायः॥ For, in common with the air (in the interspace), Samāna has the similarly of existing in the space within. [•Vāyu resides in the space between earth and heaven, and Samāna in the space within the body. The point of resemblance is residence within space.•] And vāyuh, the air in general, that exists externally is Vyāna, because of the similarity of pervasiveness. [•Air pervades the world, and Vyāna pervades the body.•] That is to say, it stays there helping the (vital function called) Vyāna.
The well known light (tejas, in general, not just from the sun) is the external prāṇa called udāna. Therefore, one whose “light” is extinguished (so to speak, upon death this tejas favors the bodily udāna) by gathering together the subtle organs into the mind for ejection to a rebirth.
यद्बाह्यं ह वाव प्रसिद्धं सामान्यं तेजः तच्छरीरे उदानः उदानं वायुमनुगृह्णाति स्वेन प्रकाशेनेत्यभिप्रायः। यस्मात्तेजःस्वभावो बाह्यतेजोनुगृहीत उत्क्रान्तिकर्ता तस्मात् यदा लौकिकः पुरुषः उपशान्ततेजाः भवति, उपशान्तं स्वाभाविकं तेजो यस्य सः। तदा तं क्षीणायुषं मुमूर्षुं विद्यात्। सः पुनः भवं शरीरान्तरं प्रतिपद्यते। कथम्? सह इन्द्रियैः मनसि सम्पद्यमानैः प्रविशद्भिर्वागादिभिः॥ That which is tejaḥ ha vai, well known as common [•As distinguished from its special manifestation as the sun.•] luminosity outside; is udānaḥ, Udāna, in the body; that is to say, it favours the vital function called Udāna with its light. Since the agency (viz Udāna) that causes one’s leaving the body is of the nature of luminosity, and (while staying in the body) it is favoured by external light, tasmāt, therefore; when an ordinary man upaśānta-tejaḥ, gets his natural light extinguished, then it is to be understood that his life is exhausted and he is about to die. Saḥ, he; attains punar bhavam, another body (rebirth). How? Indriyaiḥ, together with the organs, counting from speech; sampadyamānaiḥ manasi, which enter into the mind.
With whatever dominant thought one has (or can muster by one’s will, near the time of death when one normally would take stock of one’s life) the person enters into prāṇa. That prāṇa gets associated with one’s tejas udāna (the rocket fuel to the next world). Along with the jīva-ātman (the individual identified therein), this prāṇa leads the person to the next world according to one’s dominant thinking (in keeping with one’s karma merit and demerit).
मरणकाले यच्चित्तो भवति तेन एषः जीवः चित्तेन सङ्कल्पेनेन्द्रियैः सह प्राणं मुख्यप्राणवृत्तिम् आयाति। मरणकाले क्षीणेन्द्रियवृत्तिः सन्मुख्यया प्राणवृत्त्यैवावतिष्ठत इत्यर्थः। तदा हि वदन्ति ज्ञातय उच्छ्वसिति जीवतीति। Yac-cittaḥ, whatever thought he might have had, at the time of death; tena, together with that very thought, and together with the organs; eṣaḥ āyāti prāṇam, he (the creature) enters into Prāṇa, the chief vital function. The purport is that at the time of death, the activities of the organs having declined, he continues to live only through the functioning of the chief Prāṇa (vital energy). Then the relatives say, ‘He breaths’, ‘He is alive.’
स च प्राणः तेजसा उदानवृत्त्या युक्तः सन् सहात्मना स्वामिना भोक्ता स एवमुदान उदानवृत्त्यैव युक्तः प्राणस्तं भोक्तारं पुण्यपापकर्मवशात् यथासङ्कल्पितं यथाभिप्रेतं लोकं नयति प्रापयति॥ That prāṇaḥ, Prāṇa, again, again; yuktaḥ tejasā, in association with the function called Udāna; and saha ātmanā, along with the soul, the master that enjoys; – that Prāṇa, thus associated only with the function called Udāna –, nayati, leads – that enjoyer (of the fruits of work)–, makes him reach, under the influence of virtuous and vicious actions; lokam yathā-saṅkalpitam, a world as was desired by him. [•As an aspirant, he had desired heaven etc. when engaged in sacrifices and meditation. That thought becomes again prominent at the time of death and result in the attainment of that very world.•]
When one has this knowledge of prāṇa (and has arranged his or her life activities accordingly), then the person will be blessed with a line of progeny that does not have untimely death. (Eventually this knowledge with proper meditations can lead one to the highest heaven, brahma-loka, wherein) one gains immortality. In regard to that, there is this verse.
यः कश्चित् एवं विद्वान् यथोक्तविशेषणैर्विशिष्टमुत्पत्त्यादिभिः प्राणं वेद जानाति तस्येदं फलमैहिकमामुष्मिकं चोच्यते। न ह अस्य नैवास्य विदुषः प्रजा पुत्रपौत्रादिलक्षणा हीयते च्छिद्यते। Yaḥ vidvān, any illumined man who; veda, knows; prāṇam, Prāṇa; evam, thus, as possessed of the descriptions set forth before, viz origin etc.; for that man is being stated this result accruing in this world and the next. Asya, for him, for that man of knowledge; prajā, line of progeny consisting of sons, grandsons, etc.; na ha hīyate, certainly sustains no break.
पतिते च शरीरे प्राणसायुज्यतया अमृतः अमरणधर्मा भवति; तत् एतस्मिन्नर्थे संक्षेपाभिधायक एष श्लोकः मन्त्रो भवति॥ And when his body falls, he bhavati, becomes; a-mṛtaḥ, immortal, through his identity with Prāṇa. Tat, pertaining to this idea; bhavati, there occurs; eṣaḥ ślokaḥ, this mantra, in the form of brief statement expressive of this idea:
Having known the source, the entering, the location, the fivefold overlordship, and the external and internal connections of prāṇa (PrasU.3.1), one achieves immortality.
● The source (उत्पत्तिम्), the entering (आयतिं), the location (स्थानम्), ○ the fivefold overlordship (विभुत्वं च एव पञ्चधा), ● (the external) and the internal connections of prāṇa (अध्यात्मं च एव प्राणस्य), ○ having known (विज्ञाय), one achieves immortality (अमृतम् अश्नुते, विज्ञाय अमृतम् अश्नुते इति).
उत्पत्तिं परमात्मनः प्राणस्य आयतिम् आगमनं मनोकृतेनास्मिञ्शरीरे स्थानं स्थितिं च पायूपस्थादिस्थानेषु विभुत्वं च स्वाम्यम् एव सम्राडिव प्राणवृत्तिभेदानां पञ्चधा स्थापनम्। बाह्यमादित्यादिरूपेण अध्यात्मं चैव चक्षुराद्याकारेणावस्थानं विज्ञाय एवं प्राणम् अमृतम् अश्नुते इति। विज्ञायामृतम् अश्नुत इति द्विर्वचनं प्रश्नार्थपरिसमाप्त्यर्थम्॥ Vijñāya, having known the Prāṇa thus: prāṇasya utpattim, the origin of Prāṇa, from the supreme Self (PrasU.3.3); āyatim, (his) coming to this body, through the actions of the mind (PrasU.3.3); sthānam, (his) lodgement, in such places as the lower apertures (PrasU.3.5); ca pañcadhā vibhutvam, and (his) fivefold overlordship, (his) ordering, like a sovereign, of the different functions of Prāṇa in five ways like a sovereign, of the different functions Prāṇa is five ways like a sovereign (PrasU.3.4); his existence externally in the form of the sun etc., and adhyātmam, in the body as the eye etc.; – (one) aśnute, achieves; a-mṛtam, immortality. The repetition of ‘vijñāya a-mṛtam aśnute, having known, he achieves immortality’ is by way of concluding the Question.
Then Gārgya, descendent of Garga and grandson of Surya, asked Pippalāda, “Venerable sir, in this person (puruṣa), which go to sleep? In this person, which awake? Which is the bright one (the deva, deity) that sees the dream objects? Which has this happiness? And in what do all these get merged?
अथ ह एनं सौर्यायणी गार्ग्यः पप्रच्छ प्रश्नत्रयेणापरविद्यागोचरं सर्वं परिसमाप्य संसारं व्याकृतविषयं साध्यसाधनलक्षणमनित्यम्। अथेदानीं साध्यसाधनविलक्षणमप्राणममनोगोचरमतीन्द्रियमविषयं शिवं शान्तमविकृतमक्षरं सत्यं परविद्यागम्यं पुरुषाख्यं सबाह्याभ्यन्तरमजं वक्तव्यमित्युत्तरं प्रश्नत्रयमारभ्यते। Atha, next; sauryāyāṇī gārgyaḥ, the grandson of Sūrya, born of the family of Garga; papraccha ha, asked; enam, this one. All about the impermanent, mundane existence, that relates to manifested things, that is comprised within the domain of lower knowledge (i.e. of ignorance), and that consists of ends and means, have been fully dealt with in the three (previous) Questions; now are begun the succeeding three Questions, since it is necessary to speak about that auspicious, calm, unchanging, immutable Truth which is called Puruṣa, who cannot be thought of in terms of ends and means, is beyond the vital force, the mind and the senses, exists everywhere internally and externally, and is birthless and the subject-matter of superior knowledge.
तत्र सुदीप्तादिवाग्नेर्यस्मात्परस्मादक्षरात्सर्वे भावा विस्फुलिङ्गा इव जायन्ते तत्र चैवापियन्तीत्युक्तं द्वितीये मुण्डके; के ते सर्वे भावा अक्षराद्विस्फुलिङ्गा इव विभज्यन्ते। कथं वा विभक्ताः सन्तस्तत्रैवापियन्ति। किंलक्षणं वा तदक्षरमिति। एतद्विवक्षया अधुना प्रश्नानुद्भावयति – As to that, the questions are now being raised with a view to stating of what characteristics is that Immutable, from which supreme Immutable, as stated in the second Muṇḍaka, all objects are born like sparks from a blazing fire, and into which they merge again (MunU.2.1.1); which are all those things that emanate from the Immutable; and how, becoming separated, they merge there itself.भगवन्, एतस्मिन् पुरुषे शिरःपाण्यादिमति कानि करणानि स्वपन्ति स्वापं कुर्वन्ति स्वव्यापारादुपरमन्ते; Bhagavan, O adorable sir; kāni (karaṇāni), which organs; asmin puruṣe, in this person, possessed of head, hands, etc.; svapanti, go to sleep, desist from their own functions.कानि च अस्मिन् जाग्रति जागरणमनिद्रावस्थां स्वव्यापारं कुर्वन्ति। And kāni, which; asmin, in this one; jāgrati, keep awake, continue in the state of sleeplessness, go on performing their functions? Among those characterized as body and organs, [•Kārya, effect, is the body or Prāṇa, and karmāṇi, the organs, with the mind at their head. In the reading kārya-kāraṇāni, kāraṇāni, cause, means the elements from which the body etc. are produced.•]कतरः कार्यकरणलक्षणयोः एष देवः स्वप्नान्पश्यति। स्वप्नो नाम जाग्रद्दर्शनान्निवृत्तस्य जाग्रद्वदन्तःशरीरे यद्दर्शनम्। तत्किं कार्यलक्षणेन देवेन निर्वर्त्यते, किं वा करणलक्षणेन केनचिदित्यभिप्रायः। Kataraḥ eṣaḥ devaḥ, which is this deity, who; paśyati svapnān, experiences dreams? Dream means the perception (of objects) within the body, like those in the waking state, by one who has ceased from the perception of the waking state. The idea is this: Is that activity performed by a deity identified with the effect (viz body or Prāṇa), or by someone identified with the senses (and mind)?
उपरते च जाग्रत्स्वप्नव्यापारे यत्प्रसन्नं निरायासलक्षणमनाबाधं सुखं कस्य एतत् भवति। Kasya, to whom; bhavati, occurs; etat sukham, this happiness, that is calm (i.e. taintless), effortless (i.e. undisturbed), and unobstructed, [•Taintless, untouched by external objects; effortless, expressing itself when all disturbances cease, as does the light of a lamp placed in a windless place; unobstructed, unending, it being one with the supreme Bliss.•] and that emerges on the cessation of the activities of the dream and waking states?
तस्मिन्काले जाग्रत्स्वप्नव्यापारादुपरताः सन्तः कस्मिन्नु सर्वे सम्यगेकीभूताः सम्प्रतिष्ठिताः। मधुनि रसवत्समुद्रप्रविष्टनद्यादिवच्च विवेकानर्हाः प्रतिष्ठिता भवन्ति संगताः सम्प्रतिष्ठिता भवन्तीत्यर्थः। At that time, kasmin nu sarve sampratiṣṭhitāḥ, bhavanti, in whom do they all remain completely unified, after desisting from the activities of the dream and waking states? The idea is this: like the juices (collected from various flowers) merging in the honey (of a beehive), or the river entering into the sea, they bhavanti, become; sampratiṣṭhitāḥ, blended without the possibility of being distinguished. [•There are five questions here: The first relates to the perceiver of the waking state. That entity whose cessation from activity leads to dream, must be the actor in the waking state. The second question is, ‘Whose function is it to maintain the body in all the three states?’ The third relates to the perceiver of the dream; the fourth to the enjoyer of sleep. The fifth asks about the Turīya, the Fourth, the Self, free from the three states of wakefulness, dream, and sleep.•]
ननु न्यस्तदात्रादिकरणवत्स्वव्यापारादुपरतानि पृथक्पृथगेव स्वात्मन्यवतिष्ठन्त इत्येतद्युक्तम्; कुतः प्राप्तिः सुषुप्तपुरुषाणां करणानां कस्मिंश्चिदेकीभावगमनाशङ्कायाः प्रष्टुः? Objection: Since on the analogy of a discarded implement, a scythe for instance, it can be held that the organs desist from their respective duties and rest separately, each in itself, during sleep, therefore, whence can arise in the questioner the surmise that the organs of the sleeping person get merged somewhere?
युक्तैव त्वाशङ्का; यतः संहतानि करणानि स्वाम्यर्थानि परतन्त्राणि च जाग्रद्विषये; तस्मात्स्वापेऽपि संहतानां पारतन्त्र्येणैव कस्मिंश्चित्संगतिर्न्याय्येति; तस्मादाशङ्कानुरूप एव प्रश्नोऽयम्। Answer: The surmise (of the questioner in the text) is quite reasonable. Since in relation to the objects of the waking state the organs (are seen to) stand as a composite whole for the benefit of a master and are not independent, therefore, in consonance with the very fact that composite things are dependent on someone else, it is but reasonable to assume that they become unified in someone even in sleep. Hence this question is quite in keeping with that conjecture.
अत्र तु कार्यकरणसंघातो यस्मिंश्च प्रलीनः सुषुप्तप्रलयकालयोः, तद्विशेषं बुभुत्सोः स को नु स्यादिति कस्मिन्सर्वे सम्प्रतिष्ठिता भवन्तीति॥ In the present context the question, ‘In whom do they all remain completely unified,’ is meant to imply, ‘Who may he be?’ – the question being put by one who wants to know something special about the entity in which all the aggregate of body and organs get merged during sleep and cosmic dissolution. [•It is the absolute Self that the questioner wants to know, and not the conditioned Self that supports all.•]
To him Pippalāda said: O Gārgya, like all the rays of the setting sun appear to merge back into this glowing orb (withdrawn from the outward daily world), and again they appear to come back out from it as it rises again, so too all of those (which you ask) merge back into the mind (manas), as their high deity (deva). Hence at that time (in dream and then in deep sleep) this person (puruṣa, here the waker) does not hear, does not see, does not smell, does not taste, does not touch, does not speak, does not grasp, does not sexually enjoy, does not excrete, and does not move (by means of the five senses and five organs of action). The others say, “He is sleeping.”
तस्मै स ह उवाच आचार्यः। शृणु हे गार्ग्य, यत्त्वया पृष्टम्। यथा मरीचयः रश्मयः अर्कस्य आदित्यस्य अस्तम् अदर्शनं गच्छतः सर्वाः अशेषतः एतस्मिन् तेजोमण्डले तेजोराशिरूपे एकीभवन्ति विवेकानर्हत्वमविशेषतां गच्छन्ति, ताः मरीचयस्तस्यैवार्कस्य पुनः पुनः उदयतः उद्गच्छतः प्रचरन्ति विकीर्यन्ते यथायं दृष्टान्तः। Tasmai, to him; saḥ, he, the teacher; uvāca ha, said: O Gārgya, hear what you asked about. Yathā, as; the marīcayaḥ, rays; arkasya, of the sun; astam gacchataḥ, that is setting, becoming invisible; sarvāḥ, all, without exception; ekī-bhavanti, become unified, inseparable, indistinguishable; etasmin tejo-maṇḍale, in this luminous orb, in this sun that is like a mass of light; punaḥ, again; tāḥ, they, the rays of that very sun; udayataḥ punaḥ, while it is rising again; pracaranti, disperse; – as is this illustration –,एवं ह वै तत् सर्वं विषयेन्द्रियादिजातं परे प्रकृष्टे देवे द्योतनवति मनसि चक्षुरादिदेवानां मनस्तन्त्रत्वात्परो देवो मनः, तस्मिन्स्वप्नकाले एकीभवति मण्डले मरीचिवदविशेषतां गच्छति। जिजागरिषोश्च रश्मिवन्मण्डलान्मनस एव प्रचरन्ति स्वव्यापाराय प्रतिष्ठन्ते Evam ha vai, in a similar way indeed; sarvam tat; all that, all the senses and their objects; ekī-bhavati, become unified; pare deve manasi, in the high deity, in the fully luminous mind – since the deities of the eye etc. are dependent on (that of) the mind, the latter is their high deity; in that (mind) they become united, lose their distinction, during dream (and sleep), like the rays in the solar orb. And when a man is about to wake up, they emanate – they proceed to their respective functions – from the mind itself just like the rays radiating from the orb.
यस्मात् स्वप्नकाले श्रोत्रादीनि शब्दाद्युपलब्धिकरणानि मनस्येकीभूतानीव करणव्यापारादुपरतानि तेन तस्मात् तर्हि तस्मिन्स्वापकाले एषः देवदत्तादिलक्षणः पुरुषः न शृणोति न पश्यति न जिघ्रति न रसयते न स्पृशते न अभिवदते न आदत्ते न आनन्दयते न विसृजते न इयायते स्वपिति इति आचक्षते लौकिकाः॥ Since the ears etc., which are the organs of perception of sound etc., desist from their function as organs, and thus seem to be unified in the mind, [•The senses cannot actually become identified with the mind, since the mind is not their material cause. They simply give up their activities and continue to exist in their dependence on the mind.•] tena, therefore; tarhi, at that time, during the time of sleep; eṣaḥ puruṣaḥ, this person – to wit, a person named Deva-datta; na śṛṇoti, does not hear; na paśyati, does not see; na jighrati, does not smell; na rasayate, does not taste; na spṛśate, does not touch; na abhivadate, does not converse; na ādatte, does not grasp; na ānandayate, does not enjoy; na visṛjate, does not eject; na iyāyate, does not move; ācakṣate, they, the common people, say: svapiti iti, he is asleep.
The prāṇas, likened to the home fires (with three altars and activities of offering and reaching the sacrificial results, see Dharmawiki-Agnihotram), alone remain watchful (even at night) in this (nine-gated, BhG.5.13) city of the body. The apāna (inward breath) resembles the gārha-patya fire (the kitchen fire in the western altar direction, into which the morning and evening oblations of ghee to agni for agni-hotra are offered, from which the other altar fires are rekindled, and which is always kept alive, watchful, until the householder passes away), vyāna (circulation, since it is said to issue from below, from the south, of the heart) resembles the anvāhārya-pacana fire (the dakṣiṇa-agni, southern fire, used for the new-moon srāddha sacrifice distributing gifts to all the ancestors). Since extracted from the gārha-patya fire (related to apāna, the in-breath), then prāṇa (the outward breath, which comes from the inward breath) likewise resembles this extracted āhavanīya fire (which is also in the western arrangement of altars, out of which most of the śrauta rituals are performed).
सुप्तवत्सु श्रोत्रादिषु करणेषु एतस्मिन् पुरे नवद्वारे देहे प्राणाग्नयः प्राणा एव पञ्च वायवोऽग्नय इवाग्नयः जाग्रति। अग्निसामान्यं हि आह – When the organs, such as the ear, sleep etasmin pure, in this city of the body, which is possessed of nine gates; prāṇa-agnayaḥ, the five divisions of the vital function counting from Prāṇa, which are comparable to fires; jāgrati, keep awake. The resemblance with fire is being stated:गार्हपत्यो ह वा एषोऽपानः कथमिति, आह। यस्मात् गार्हपत्यात् अग्नेरग्निहोत्रकाले इतरोऽग्निः आहवनीयः प्रणीयते प्रणयनात्, प्रणीयते अस्मादिति प्रणयनो गार्हपत्योऽग्निः, Esaḥ apānaḥ ha vai gārha-patyaḥ, this Apāna is really (the sacrificial fire called) Gārha-patya. How that can be so is being stated: Since the other the fire called Āhavanīya is praṇīyate, obtained (extracted) – at the time of the Agni-hotra sacrifice –; gārha-patyāt praṇayanāt, from the Gārha-patya fire which is the (former’s) source of extraction, therefore, from the derivative sense of ‘that from which something is taken away’, Gārha-patya fire is the praṇayana, the source of extraction.
तथा सुप्तस्यापानवृत्तेः प्रणीयत इव प्राणो मुखनासिकाभ्यां सञ्चरति अत आहवनीयस्थानीयः प्राणः। Similarly, for a man in sleep, Prāṇa moves through the mouth and nostrils, having been extracted, as it were, from the function called Apāna. Therefore Prāṇa is comparable to Āhavanīya.व्यानः तु हृदयाद्दक्षिणसुषिरद्वारेण निर्गमाद्दक्षिणदिक्संबन्धात् अन्वाहार्यपचनः दक्षिणाग्निः॥ As for vyānaḥ, Vyāna, since it moves out from heart through the dakṣiṇa, right, orifice, and is thus associated with the dakṣiṇa, southern direction, therefore it is (the fire called) Dakṣiṇa-agni, known otherwise as Anvāhārya-pacana.
अत्र च होता अग्निहोत्रस्य – Here, too, there is the priest to perform the duties at the Agni-hotra:
Because it unites both to fairly and equally distribute (samaṃ nayati) the digestion energy stoked by exhalation and inhalation, like the two (agni-hotra) oblations (āhutis, of heated ghee, one in the morning and one in the evening), this samāna (uniting digestion) is like the hotṛ priest (who presides over the sacrifice and officiates over the proper duties of the other priests). The mind is verily the yajamāna (the one who is the beneficiary of the sacrifice, in the agni-hotra it would be the householder). The desired result (of the daily offerings) is the udāna which then leads this yajamāna sacrificer daily to brahman (since udāna also ejects the person between the states of waking, dream and deep sleep, the brahman is here the daily refreshing bliss in the deep sleep, as we are still here in the dream state where the physical activities of the prāṇas are first united into the mind, but still subtly functioning therein for the dreamer).
यत् यस्मात् उच्छ्वासनिःश्वासौ अग्निहोत्राहुती इव नित्यं द्वित्वसामान्यादेव तु एतौ आहुती समं साम्येन शरीरस्थितिभावाय नयति यो वायुरग्निस्थानीयोऽपि होता चाहुत्योर्नेतृत्वात्। कोऽसौ? स समानः। The two oblations consisting of ucchvāsa-niḥśvāsau, exhaling and inhaling; are the āhutī, two oblations, of the Agni-hotra sacrifice, as it were, just because of the similarity of being two in number. Yat, since – since these are oblations; and since that vital function (called Samāna) samam nayati, strikes a balance, for ever; between etau āhutī, these two oblations, so as to ensure the maintenance of the body; iti, therefore, it is here verily the priest called the Hotā, because of the similarity of carrying the oblations (like the priest), and this despite the fact that it is called a fire (in the earlier paragraph). Which is it? Saḥ samānaḥ, it is Samāna.
अतश्च विदुषः स्वापोऽप्यग्निहोत्रहवनमेव। तस्माद्विद्वान्नाकर्मीत्येवं मन्तव्य इत्यभिप्रायः। सर्वदा सर्वाणि च भूतानि विचिन्वन्त्यपि स्वपत इति हि वाजसनेयके। And therefore, the sleep of an illumined man is verily a performance of the Agni-hotra sacrifice. Therefore the idea implied is that the illumined man is not to be considered a non-performer of rites. It is thus that in the Vāja-saneyaka it is said that all the component parts of the body and organs of this illumined man perform sacrifices at all times even while he sleeps. [•By the text, ‘Vāk citaḥ, prāṇaḥ citaḥ, cakṣuḥ citaḥ,’ etc. in the Vāja-saneyaka, it is enjoined that one should think of the activity of each function of the Prāṇa as a performance of sacrifice. And so it is pointed out that the organs of knowledge and action continue their sacrifices even during the sleep of a man who knows thus. The text there is meant as a praise of this knowledge. Similarly, in the present context the purpose is not to enjoin a meditation, it being out of place under this topic of transcendental knowledge, but to eulogise illumination.•]
अत्र हि जाग्रत्सु प्राणाग्निषूपसंहृत्य बाह्यकरणानि विषयांश्चाग्निहोत्रफलमिव स्वर्गं ब्रह्म जिगमिषुः मनो ह वाव यजमानः जागर्ति। यजमानवत्कार्यकरणेषु प्राधान्येन संव्यवहारात्स्वर्गमिव ब्रह्म प्रति प्रस्थितत्वाद्यजमानो मनः कल्प्यते। Such being the case, manaḥ ha vāva yajamānaḥ it is the mind that is the sacrificer, which keeps awake after having poured (as oblation) the external organs and their objects into the wakeful fires of Prāṇa, and which seeks to reach Brahman, like (an actual yajamāna, sacrificer, seeking to reach) heaven which is the result of Agni-hotra. The mind is imagined to be the sacrificer, because, like the sacrificer, it acts as the chief among the aggregate of body and senses, and because it set out for Brahman, just as the sacrificer does for heaven.इष्टफलं यागफलम् एव उदानः वायुः। उदाननिमित्तत्वादिष्टफलप्राप्तेः। कथम्? सः उदानः एनं मनआख्यं यजमानं स्वप्नवृत्तिरूपादपि प्रच्याव्य अहरहः सुषुप्तिकाले स्वर्गमिव ब्रह्म अक्षरं गमयति। अतो यागफलस्थानीयः उदानः॥ Iṣṭa-phalam eva, the result itself of the sacrifice; is udānaḥ, the vital function called Udāna, because the achievement of the result of a sacrifice depends on Udāna. How? Saḥ, he, Udāna; ahaḥ ahaḥ, every day; gamayati, leads; yajamānam, the sacrificer, called the mind; to brahma, Brahman, the Immutable, as though to heaven, during the time of sleep, after causing the mind to cease even from the dream activities. Hence Udāna takes the place of the result of the sacrifice.
एवं विदुषः श्रोत्राद्युपरमकालादारभ्य यावत्सुप्तोत्थितो भवति तावत्सर्वयागफलानुभव एव, नाविदुषामिवानर्थायेति विद्वत्ता स्तूयते। न हि विदुष एव श्रोत्रादीनि स्वपन्ति, प्राणाग्नयो वा जाग्रति। जाग्रत्स्वप्नयोर्मनः स्वातन्त्र्यमनुभवदहरहः सुषुप्तं वा प्रतिपद्यते। समानं हि सर्वप्राणिनां पर्यायेण जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तगमनम्; Thus is praised the illumination of the enlightened man by showing that, starting from the time of cessation from activity of the ear etc., till the time that he rises up from sleep, he enjoys the fruit of all sacrifices, and his sleep is not a source of evil as it is in the case of an unenlightened man; (and all this is meant as a praise), for (on a contrary view) it cannot be held that in the enlightened man alone the ears etc. sleep, or that the fires of the Prāṇas keep awake, or that (only) his mind alone enjoys freedom in the dream and wakeful states and then goes to sleep every day; for the fact of passing through the three states of waking, dream, and sleep is similar for all creatures.
अतो विद्वत्तास्तुतिरेवेयमुपपद्यते। Hence it is reasonable to say that this is only a eulogy of enlightenment.
यत्पृष्टं कतर एष देवः स्वप्नान्पश्यतीति; तदाह – As for the question, ‘Which is the deity who experiences dream?’, that is being answered:
Here (in dream) the deity (the mind) (undergoes the experience) of the vastness (of the dream world). Whatever is seen (before) is seen again (in the dream); whatever it hears was only heard before in a different place, etcetera and it experiences again and again. Whatever was seen and unseen, heard and unheard, experienced and not experienced (since the mind is also aware of what it doesn't experience – just ask it), and whatever is real and unreal – all this it perceives over and over here in dream.
अत्र उपरतेषु श्रोत्रादिषु देहरक्षायै जाग्रत्सु प्राणादिवायुषु प्राक्सुषुप्तिप्रतिपत्तेः एतस्मिन्नन्तराल एषः देवः अर्करश्मिवत्स्वात्मनि संहृतश्रोत्रादिकरणः स्वप्ने महिमानं विभूतिं विषयविषयिलक्षणमनेकात्मभावगमनम् अनुभवति प्रतिपद्यते। Atra svapne, in this state of dream, when the organs, such as that of hearing, cease to function, and the vital forces, counting from Prāṇa, keep awake for the maintenance of the body – in this intermediate state (between waking and sleep) before entering into deep sleep; eṣaḥ devaḥ, this deity (the mind), that has withdraw into itself all the organs such as the ear, like the rays of the setting sun; anubhavati, experiences, attains; mahimānam, greatness, consisting in assuming diverse forms of subject and object.
ननु महिमानुभवने करणं मनोऽनुभवितुः; तत्कथं स्वातन्त्र्येणानुभवतीत्युच्यते? स्वतन्त्र हि क्षेत्रज्ञः। Objection: The mind is an instrument of the perceiver is the matter of experiencing greatness. Hence, how is it said that the mind experiences independently? It is, indeed, the soul, (conscious of the body), that can be free (in dream).
नैष दोषः। क्षेत्रज्ञस्य स्वातन्त्र्यस्य मनउपाधिकृतत्वात्। न हि क्षेत्रज्ञः परमार्थतः स्वतः स्वपिति जागर्ति वा। मनउपाधिकृतमेव तस्य जागरणं स्वप्नश्च। उक्तं वाजसनेयके ‘सधीः स्वप्नो भूत्वा’ (बृ. मा. ४-३-७) ‘ध्यायतीव लेलायतीव’ (BrhU.4.3.7) इत्यादि। Answer: That is no defect, for that freedom of the soul is a result of its being conditioned by the mind, inasmuch as the soul by itself does not in reality either dream or keep wake. That its wakefulness and dream are caused by the limiting adjunct of the mind has been stated in the (following text of the) Vāja-saneyaka Upaniṣad: ‘Being associated with the mind, and being identified with dream’, etc. (BrhUEng.4.3.7).
तस्मान्मनसो विभूत्यनुभवे स्वातन्त्र्यवचनं न्याय्यमेव। मनउपाधिसहितत्वे स्वप्नकाले क्षेत्रज्ञस्य स्वयंज्योतिष्ट्वं बाध्येत इति केचित्। Therefore it is quite logical to speak of the independence of the mind in dream, its self-luminosity [•As show in BrhUEng.4.3.9: ‘When he dreams, he takes away a little of the impressions of this all-embracing world (the waking state), he himself puts the body aside and himself creates (a dream body) revealing his own lustre by his own light....In this state he becomes self-effulgent.’ If the Self continues to be conditioned by the mind in dream, one may well suspect that the effulgence of knowledge revealed there does not belong to the Self.•] will remain unestablished.
तन्न। श्रुत्यर्थापरिज्ञानकृता भ्रान्तिस्तेषाम्। यस्मात्स्वयंज्योतिष्ट्वादिव्यवहारोऽप्यामोक्षान्तः सर्वोऽप्यविद्याविषय एव मनआद्युपाधिजनितः; ‘यत्र वा अन्यदिव स्यात्तत्रान्योऽन्यत्पश्येन्मात्रासंसर्गस्त्वस्य भवति’ (BrhU.4.3.31) ‘यत्र त्वस्य सर्वमात्मैवाभूत्तत्केन कं पश्येत्’ (BrhU.4.5.15) इत्यादिश्रुतिभ्यः। अतो मन्दब्रह्मविदामेवेयमाशङ्का, न त्वेकात्मविदाम्। (But) that is not so. That is a false notion of theirs, caused by non-comprehension of the drift of the Upaniṣads, inasmuch as even all such talk about the Self – starting with (the texts dealing with) self-luminosity and ending with emancipation – is within the range of ignorance. It is caused by such conditioning factors as the mind. And this conclusion is arrived at according to such Veda text as: ‘When there is something else, as it were, then one can see something....’ (BrhUEng.4.3.31); ‘For him there is no contact with sense-objects’; ‘But when to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self, then what should one see and through what?’ (BrhUEng.2.4.14). Accordingly, this doubt arises only in those who have imperfect knowledge of Brahman, but not in those who have realised the non-dual Self.
नन्वेवं सति ‘अत्रायं पुरुषः स्वयंज्योतिः’ (BrhU.4.3.14) इति विशेषणमनर्थकं भवति। Objection: If such be the explanation, the specific statement, ‘In this state (i.e. dream) he becomes self-effulgent’ (BrhUEng.4.3.9), becomes meaningless.
अत्रोच्यते। अत्यल्पमिदमुच्यते ‘य एषोऽन्तर्हृदय आकाशस्तस्मिञ्शेते’ (BrhU.2.1.17) इति अन्तर्हृदयपरिच्छेदकरणे सुतरां स्वयंज्योतिष्ट्वं बाध्येत। The answer to this is being given: This objection of yours falls far short of your mark, since the self-effulgence will be much more meaningless if the Self is (really) delimited within the heart according to the Veda text, ‘lies in the Space [•The ‘space’ (ākāśa) here stands really for the supreme Self; but a literal interpretation leads us astray.•] that is within the heart’ (BrhUEng.2.1.17).
सत्यमेवम्; अयं दोषो यद्यपि स्यात्स्वप्ने केवलतया स्वयंज्योतिष्ट्वेनार्धं तावदपनीतं भारस्येति चेत्, Objection: Though, as a matter of fact, this defect does arise from that point of view, yet half the weight (of this defect) is removed in dream by the fact that the Self becomes then self-effulgent in Its isolation (i.e. dissociation from the mind). [•The remaining defect will be removed in the state of sleep, where the Self alone exists – this is the implied idea.•]
न; तत्रापि ‘पुरीतति नाडीषु शेते’ इति श्रुतेः पुरीतन्नाडीसम्बन्धादत्रापि पुरुषस्य स्वयंज्योतिष्ट्वेनार्धभारापनयाभिप्रायो मृषैव। Answer: Not so; for even there (in sleep), persists the association (of the Self) with the nerves extending up to the pericardium (i.e. the whole body) in accordance with the Veda text, ‘(When it becomes fast asleep,....it comes back extend from the heart to the pericardium), and sleeps (i.e. remains) in the body’ (BrhUEng.2.1.19); and therefore it is a vain intention to remove the (remaining) half weight even is sleep through your reliance on the argument of the self effulgence of the person.
कथं तर्हि ‘अत्रायं पुरुषः स्वयंज्योतिः’ (BrhU.4.3.14) इति? Objection: What then is meant by saying that ‘the person becomes self-effulgent in this state’ (BrhUEng.4.3.9)?
अन्यशाखात्वादनपेक्षा सा श्रुतिरिति चेत्, Pseudo-Vedāntin: That Veda text has no application here, since it belongs to a different branch (of the Vedas).
न; अर्थैकत्वस्येष्टत्वात्। एको ह्यात्मा सर्ववेदान्तानामर्थो विजिज्ञापयिषितो बुभुत्सितश्च। तस्माद्युक्ता स्वप्न आत्मनः स्वयंज्योतिष्ट्वोपपत्तिर्वक्तुम्, श्रुतेर्यथार्थतत्त्वप्रकाशकत्वात्। Objection: Not so, since it is desirable that the Veda texts should all lead to an identical conclusion, for it is the one Self that is the subject-matter of the Upaniṣads and that is sought to be taught and understood. Hence it is necessary that the self-effulgence of the Self in dream should be upheld, for the Vedas serve to reveal the real truth.
एवं तर्हि शृणु श्रुत्यर्थं हित्वा सर्वमभिमानम्; न ह्यभिमानेन वर्षशतेनापि श्रुत्यर्थो ज्ञातुं शक्यते सर्वैः पण्डितंमन्यैः। यथा हृदयाकाशे पुरीतति नाडीषु च स्वपतस्तत्संबन्धाभावात्ततो विविच्य दर्शयितुं शक्यत इति आत्मनः स्वयंज्योतिष्ट्वं न बाध्यते। Vedāntin: In that case, hear the purport of the Veda passage by giving up all conceit, for not through conceit can the meaning of the Vedas be mastered even in a hundred years by all the people who pose to be leaned. As the Self, sleeping in the space within the heart and in the nerves, spreading from the heart to the pericardium, can be shown to be distinct from them just because It has no (natural) association with them, and thus the Self’s self-effulgence does not become negated,
एवं मनस्यविद्याकामकर्मनिमित्तोद्भूतवासनावति कर्मनिमित्ता वासना अविद्यया अन्यद्वस्त्वन्तरमिव पश्यतः सर्वकार्यकरणेभ्यः प्रविविक्तस्य द्रष्टुर्वासनाभ्यो दृश्यरूपाभ्योऽन्यत्वेन स्वयंज्योतिष्ट्वं सुदर्पितेनापि तार्किकेण केन वारयितुं शक्यते? तस्मात्साधूक्तं मनसि प्रलीनेषु करणेष्वप्रलीने च मनसि मनोमयः स्वप्नान्पश्यतीति। Similarly, although the mind persists (in dream), together with the impressions activated by ignorance, desire, and past actions, yet the most arrogant sophist cannot deny then the self-effulgence of the Self which, while remaining totally dissociated from the entire group of body and organs, witness through ignorance the mental impressions created by past actions like something different from Itself; for the witnessing Self(then) remains distinct from the impressions that from the objects the organs merge into the mind which, however, remains unabsorbed, (the Self,) as identified with the mind, sees dreams.
कथं महिमानमनुभवतीति उच्यते। यन् मित्रं पुत्रादि वा पूर्वं दृष्टं तद्वासनावासितः पुत्रमित्रादिवासनासमुद्भूतं पुत्रं मित्रमिव वा अविद्यया पश्यति इत्येवं मन्यते। How the mind experiences its diverse manifestations is being said: Being under the influence of the impressions of any object – be it of a friend or of a son etc. – yat, which; dṛṣṭampūrvam, was seen earlier; it paśyati, sees; it seems to think through ignorance that it sees the vision resembling the son or the friend, called up by those impressions of the son, friend, etc.
शृणोति तथा श्रुतम् अर्थं तद्वासनयानु शृणोति इव। देशदिगन्तरैश्च देशान्तरैर्दिगन्तरैश्च प्रत्यनुभूतं पुनः पुनः तत् प्रत्यनुभवनि इव अविद्यया। तथा दृष्टं च अस्मिञ्जन्मनि अदृष्टं च जन्मान्तरदृष्टमित्यर्थः। अत्यन्तादृष्टे वासनानुपपत्तेः। एवं श्रुतं चाश्रुतं च अनुभूतं च अस्मिञ्जन्मनि केवलेन मनसा अननुभूतं च मनसैव जन्मान्तरेऽनुभूतमित्यर्थः। सच्च परमार्थोदकादि। असच्च मरीच्युदकादि। So also, śrutam artham, whatever was heard; anuśṛṇoti it seems to hear thereafter, under the influence of its impressions. Similarly, whatever was pratyanubhutam deṣa-dig-antaraiḥ, perceived as belonging to the different places and quarters; it pratyanubhavati, experiences, appears to experience, through ignorance; punaḥ punaḥ, time and again. So also whatever was dṛṣṭam, seen, in this birth; and a-dṛṣṭam, not seen, that is to say, seen in another birth; for no impression can be left by what is absolutely unseen. Similarly, with regard to śrutam ca a-śrutam ca, whatever was heard and not heard; anubhūtam, what was perceived, in this life through the mind alone; an-anubhūtam ca, and whatever was not perceived, that is to say, was perceived by the mind itself in another birth; ca sat, and what is true, for instance the real water etc.; ca a-sat, and what is false, for instance, water in a mirage etc.
किं बहुना, उक्तानुक्तं सर्वं पश्यति सर्वः पश्यति सर्वमनोवासनोपाधिः सन्नेवं सर्वकरणात्मा मनोदेवः स्वप्नान्पश्यति॥ To be brief, it paśyati, sees; sarvam, all, enumerated or not; sarvaḥ (san), by becoming all, by becoming conditioned by all the mental impressions. Thus the deity, the mind, sees the dreams in its unification with all the organs.
Then at that time this (deity, the mind) becomes overwhelmed (abhibhūta, and exhausted). Here the deity does not see the dream world, at which time in this body occurs this (unobstructed) bliss (of deep sleep).
सः यदा मनोरूपो देवो यस्मिन्काले सौरेण पित्ताख्येन तेजसा नाडीशयेन सर्वतः अभिभूतो भवति तिरस्कृतवासनाद्वारो भवति, तदा सह करणैर्मनसो रश्मयो हृद्युपसंहृता भवन्ति। यदा मनो दार्वग्निवदविशेषविज्ञानरूपेण कृत्स्नं शरीरं व्याप्यावतिष्ठते, तदा सुषुप्तो भवति। Yadā, when at the time when; tejasā, by the light, by the solar light, called bile (pitta) [•As also by the Consciousness, called Brahman, where the mind merges•], that is lodged in the nerves; saḥ, the deity, called mind (manas); bhavati, becomes; completely abhibhūtaḥ, overwhelmed – when the doors [•Impressions of past actions that can produce dream.•] for its tendencies are closed down; then the rays of the mind, together with the organs get collect in the heart. The mind is in sleep (suṣupta) when, like (unignited) fire in wood, it exists in the body, pervading it as a whole, in the form of general (as opposed to particularized) consciousness (a-viśeṣa-vijñāna).अत्र एतस्मिन्काले एषः मनआख्यो देवः स्वप्नान् न पश्यति दर्शनद्वारस्य निरुद्धत्वात्तेजसा। अथ तदा एतस्मिन् शरीरे एतत्सुखं भवति यद्विज्ञानं निराबाधमविशेषेण शरीरव्यापकं प्रसन्नं भवतीत्यर्थः॥ Atra, at his time; eṣaḥ, this; devaḥ, deity (lit. the luminous one), called the mind; na paśyati svapnān, does not see dreams, the doors of vision having been closed by the light (tejas). Atha, then at that time; etasmin śarīre, in this body; bhavati, occurs; etat sukham, this happiness that is of the nature of unobstructed Consciousness (nir-ābādham vijñānam); that is to say, Bliss (prasannam) then pervades the whole body in a general way and it remains undisturbed.
एतस्मिन्काले अविद्याकामकर्मनिबन्धनानि कार्यकरणानि शान्तानि भवन्ति। तेषु शान्तेष्वात्मस्वरूपमुपाधिभिरन्यथा विभाव्यमानमद्वयमेकं शिवं शान्तं भवतीत्येतामेवावस्थां पृथिव्याद्यविद्याकृतमात्रानुप्रवेशेन दर्शयितुं दृष्टान्तमाह – At this time, the body and organs that depend on ignorance, desire, and the result of past actions, become inactive. When these become quiet, the nature of the Self, that appears distorted owing to the limiting adjuncts, becomes non-dual, one, auspicious, and calm. In order to indicate this state through a process of (successively) merging into it the subtle forms of earth etc. that are creations of ignorance, the text cites an illustration:
Like this, O dear one, the birds (RigV.1.164.19-21) rest in the tree that lodges them, so all this (enumerated in the next mantra) rests in the ultimate ātman (the brahman, wherein is the daily bliss at the end of the day).
स दृष्टान्तः यथा येन प्रकारेण हि सोम्य प्रियदर्शन, वयांसि पक्षिणः वासार्थं वृक्षं वासोवृक्षं प्रति सम्प्रतिष्ठन्ते गच्छन्ति, एवं यथा दृष्टान्तः ह वै तत् वक्ष्यमाणं सर्वं परे आत्मनि अक्षरे सम्प्रतिष्ठते॥ Saḥ, that illustration, is this: Yathā, as; somya, O good looking one; vayāṃsi, birds; sampratiṣṭhante, proceed towards; vāso-vṛkṣam, the tree that provides lodging; evam ha vai, just so, just as it is the illustration; sarvam, all that will be enumerated; sampratiṣṭhate, proceeds; pare ātmani, to the supreme Self, to the Immutable.
The gross and subtle element earth, the gross and subtle water, gross and subtle fire, gross and subtle air, gross and subtle space, vision and the seen, hearing and the heard, smelling and the smelled, taste and the tasted, touch and the touched, speech and the spoken, holding and the held, sex and its enjoyment, excretion and the excreted, locomotion and the gotten to, mind and its content, intellect and its content, I-notion and its content, memory and the recollected (including dream), the tejas (the deva, PrasU.4.6, the shining one reflected in this mind) and all it reveals, and prāṇa (sūtra-ātman, in which all this is strung) and all it supports.
पृथिवी च स्थूला पञ्चगुणा तत्कारणं च पृथिवीमात्रा गन्धतन्मात्रा, Pṛthivī, the gross earth, possessed of the five attributes; [•Sound, touch, colour, taste, and smell, the last one being the essential attribute of earth. The four others are the essential qualities of space, air, fire and water respectively. These rudimentary elements combine to form the gross composite elements, their names being given according to the predominance of one or the other.•] ca, and; its cause, the pṛthivī-mātrā, rudiment of earth, the fine form of smell.
तथा आपश्च आपोमात्रा च, तेजश्च तेजोमात्रा च, वायुश्च वायुमात्रा च, आकाशश्चाकाशमात्रा च, स्थूलानि च सूक्ष्माणि च भूतानीत्यर्थः। Similarly āpaḥ ca āpo-mātrā ca, water and the rudiment of water; tejaḥ ca tejo-mātrā ca, fire and the rudiment of fire; vāyuh ca vāyu-mātrā ca, air and the rudiment of air; ākāśaḥ ca ākāśa-mātrā ca, space and the rudiment of space. That is to say, all the gross and subtle elements.
तथा चक्षुश्च इन्द्रियं रूपं च द्रष्टव्यं च, श्रोत्रं च श्रोतव्यं च, घ्राणं च घ्रातव्यं च, रसश्च रसयितव्यं च, त्वक्च स्पर्शयितव्यं च, वाक्च वक्तव्यं च, हस्तौ च आदातव्यं च, उपस्थश्च आनन्दयितव्यं च, पायुश्च विसर्जयितव्यं च, पादौ च गन्तव्यं च; बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि कर्मेन्द्रियाणि तदर्थाश्चोक्ताः। So also cakṣuh, eye, the organ; ca draṣṭavyam (i.e. rūpam), and the object of sight; śrotram ca śrotavyam ca, ear and the object of hearing; ghrāṇam ca ghrātavyam ca, the organ and the object of smell; rasaḥ ca rasayitavyam ca, the organ and the object of taste; tvak ca sparśayitvyam ca, the organ and the object of touch; vāk ca vaktavyam ca, speech and the content of speech; hastau ca ādātavyam ca, the two hands (grasping-organ) and the objects to be grasped; upa-sthaḥ ca ānandayitavyam ca, sex (-organ) and what is enjoyed; pāyuh ca visarjayitavyam ca, the organ of excretion and what is excreted; pādau ca gantavyam ca, the two feet (travel-organ) and the place walked over. Thus (it is to be understood) that the organs of knowledge and the organs of action have been enumerated.मनश्च पूर्वोक्तम्। मन्तव्यं च तद्विषयः। बुद्धिश्च निश्चयात्मिका। बोद्धव्यं च तद्विषयः। अहंकारश्च अभिमानलक्षणमन्तःकरणम्। अहंकर्तव्यं च तद्विषयः। चित्तं च चेतनावदन्तःकरणम्। चेतयितव्यं च तद्विषयः। Manaḥ ca, the mind, that has been already mentioned; mantavyam ca, and the object of the mind (what is thought of); buddhiḥ, understanding, the faculty of ascertaining; ca boddhavyam, and the object to be ascertained. Ahaṅkāraḥ, the internal organ characterized by egoism; ca, and; ahaṅkartavyam, the object of egoism. Cittam, the internal organ possessed of consciousness (i.e. cetanā); ca cetayitavyam, and the object to be conscious of.तेजश्च त्वगिन्द्रियव्यतिरेकेण प्रकाशविशिष्टा या त्वक्। तया निर्भास्यो विषयो विद्योतयितव्यम्। प्राणश्च सूत्रं यदाचक्षते तेन विधारयितव्यं सङ्ग्रथनीयम्। सर्वं हि कार्यकरणजातं पारार्थ्येन संहतं नामरूपात्मकमेतावदेव॥ Tejaḥ, the skin – as distinct from the organ of touch, and possessed of lustre [•I.e. the skin itself that is the seat of the organ of touch.•]; and the object revealed by it is vidyotayitavyam. Prāṇaḥ is what is called Sūtra (Hiraṇya-garbha, who strings together everything); vidhārayitavyam, is all that is held, strung together by Him. (All these merge in the supreme Self) for, the entire range of body and organs, combining for the sake of some one else and consisting of name and form (nāma-rūpa), extends thus far only.
अतः परं यदात्मस्वरूपं जलसूर्यकादिवद्भोक्तृत्वकर्तृत्वेनेहानुप्रविष्टम् – Next in order is that reality of the Self that has entered here (in the body) – like a reflection of the sun in water, etc. – as the enjoyer and the agent of action:
And this puruṣa (who fills all this, this one deva reflected in the mind, or, the one deva in every mind) is the seer, feeler, smeller, taster, thinking, knower, doer, and knowledge itself. This one is fixed in the ultimate, imperishable ātman (brahman).
एषः हि द्रष्टा स्प्रष्टा श्रोता घ्राता रसयिता मन्ता बोद्धा कर्ता विज्ञानात्मा, Hi, and [•According to A.G.•]; eṣaḥ, this one (this Self); is the draṣṭā (draṣṭṛ), seer; spraṣṭā, toucher (feeler); śrotā, hearer; ghrātā, smeller; rasayitā, taster; mantā, thinker; boddhā, ascertainer; kartā, doer; vijñāna-ātmā.
विज्ञानं विज्ञायतेऽनेनेति करणभूतं बुद्ध्यादि, इदं तु विजानातीति विज्ञानं कर्तृकारकरूपम्, तदात्मा तत्स्वभावो विज्ञातृस्वभाव इत्यर्थः। The word vijñāna, when derived in the (instrumental) sense of ‘that by which anything is know’, means such instruments as the intellect; but the word here is derived in the nominative sense of ‘that which knows’. So vijñāna-ātmā means the reality which has that nature or which is a knower by nature.पुरुषः कार्यकरणसंघातोक्तोपाधिपूरणात्पुरुषः। (Saḥ) he is puruṣaḥ (person), because he fills up, in its entirety, the aggregate of the body and organs that has been spoken of as a limiting adjunct.स च जलसूर्यकादिप्रतिबिम्बस्य सूर्यादिप्रवेशवज्जलाद्याधारशोषे परे अक्षरे आत्मनि सम्प्रतिष्ठते॥ And as the reflections (pratibimba) – of the sun in water, etc. –, enters; into the sun etc. (when the water etc. is removed), so this (puruṣa, like a reflection in this body-mind); sampratiṣṭhate, enters pare a-kṣare ātmani, into supreme immutable Self, which persists as the last resort of the universe.
तदेकत्वविदः फलमाह – The result achieved by one who realizes his identity with that supreme Self is being stated:
One attains the ultimate immutable brahman who simply knows that as shadowless (a-cchāya, PrasU.3.3), (hence) bodiless, colorless, pure, and imperishable (a-kṣara, PrasU.4.9), O dear one. That knower of the all, becomes all. In regard to that, there is this verse.
परमेव अक्षरं वक्ष्यमाणविशेषणं प्रतिपद्यते इति। एतदुच्यते – स यो ह वै तत् सर्वैषणाविनिर्मुक्तः अच्छायं तमोवर्जितम्, अशरीरं नामरूपसर्वोपाधिशरीरवर्जितम्, अलोहितं लोहितादिसर्वगुणवर्जितम्, यत एवमतः शुभ्रं शुद्धम्, सर्वविशेषणरहितत्वाद् अक्षरम्, सत्यं पुरुषाख्यमप्राणममनोगोचरं शिवं शान्तं सबाह्याभ्यन्तरमजं वेदयते विजानाति It is being stated that he pratipadyate, attains; param eva a-kṣaram, the supreme Immutable Itself, which has the characteristics going to be stated. Saḥ, he; (attains the Immutable); yaḥ ha vai, who perchance, having become free from all desires; vedayate, realizes; tat, that which is; a-cchāyam, free from shadow, from ignorance; a-śarīram, bodies, devoid of a body conditioned by all the limiting adjuncts constituted by name and form; a-lohitam, devoid of redness, free from all such qualities (guṇas) as redness. Since this is so, therefore (It is) śubhram, pure; being free from all attributes. It is a-kṣaram, the immutable [•I.e. does not continually change its nature, like a Falsehood does•], the True (satyam), called Puruṣa (the all-pervading, indwelling Entity) – without Prāṇa, not conceivable by the mind, auspicious, calm, coexisting with all that is within and without, and birthless.यस्तु सर्वत्यागी हे सोम्य, सः सर्वज्ञः न तेनाविदितं किञ्चित्संभवति। पूर्वमविद्यया असर्वज्ञ आसीत्। पुनर्विद्यया अविद्यापनये सर्वः भवति। Tu, again; somya, O amiable one; yaḥ, he, the renouncer of everything, who knows, becomes sarva-jñaḥ, omniscient; nothing can possibly remain unknown to him. Formerly he was not omniscient owing to ignorance; again, when ignorance is removed by knowledge, saḥ bhavati sarvaḥ, he becomes all.तत् अस्मिन्नर्थे एषः श्लोकः मन्त्रो भवति उक्तार्थसंग्राहकः॥ Tat, with regard to that point; bhavatieṣaḥ ślokaḥ, there occurs this verse, which sums up the above idea.
The one who knows, O dear one, the imperishable one in which are fixed the one whose nature is knowledge (vijñāna-ātman, the puruṣa, PrasU.4.9), along with the all the deities, the energies (prāṇas, and the elements, that one knows the all and merges into this all (the brahman).
● The one whose nature is knowledge, along with the all the deities (विज्ञान-आत्मा, सह देवैः च सर्वैः), ○ the energies, (and) the elements, (all these) into which they are fixed (प्राणाः, भूतानि संप्रतिष्ठन्ति यत्र), ● that imperishable, the one who knows (तद् अ-क्षरं वेदयते यः तु), O dear one (सोम्य), ○ that one knows the all and merges into this all (the brahman) (सः सर्व-ज्ञः सर्वम् एव आविवेश इति).
विज्ञानात्मा, सह देवैश्च अग्न्यादिभिः प्राणाः चक्षुरादयः भूतानि पृथिव्यादीनि सम्प्रतिष्ठन्ति प्रविशन्ति यत्र यस्मिन्नक्षरे, तत् अक्षरं वेदयते यस्तु हे सोम्य प्रियदर्शन, स सर्वज्ञः सर्वमेव आविवेश आविशतीत्यर्थः॥ Somya, O amiable (or good-looking) one; yaḥ tu vedayate, he who knows; tat a-kṣaram, that Immutable; yatra, into which; vijñāna-ātmā, the entity that is by nature a knower (PrasU.4.9); and prāṇāḥ, the organs, such as the eye; bhūtāni, and the elements such as earth; saha devaiḥ, together with the (or their) deities, such as Fire etc.; sampratiṣṭhanti, merge; saḥ sarva-jñaḥ, that omniscient one; āviveśa (is the same as āviśati) enters; into sarvam, everything.
Then Satya-kāma, the son of Śibi, asked Pippalāda, “Venerable sir, The rare one among all these people, who intently meditates upon that well-known Om until death, gains which world by that.”
अथ ह एनं शैब्यः सत्यकामः पप्रच्छ। अथेदानीं परापरब्रह्मप्राप्तिसाधनत्वेन ओङ्कारस्योपासनविधित्सया प्रश्न आरभ्यते। Atha ha, next; satyakāmaḥ śaibyaḥ, Satya-kāma, son of Śibi; papraccha enam, asked him. Now then, this Question is begun in order to enjoin the meditation on Om as a means to the realization of the inferior and the superior Brahman.सः यः कश्चित् ह वै भगवन्, मनुष्येषु मनुष्याणां मध्ये तत् अद्भुतमिव प्रायणान्तं मरणान्तं यावज्जीवमित्येतत्; ओङ्कारम् अभिध्यायीत आभिमुख्येन Bhagavan, O Venerable sir; saḥ yaḥ ha vai, anyone, any rare person; manuṣyeṣu, among men; who, after withdrawing the organs from external objects and concentrating his mind on Om, on which he superimposes the idea of Brahman through devotion; abhidhyāyīta, should intently meditate; oṅkāram, on Om; tat, in that wonderful way; prāyaṇa-antam, till death, that is to say, for the whole life; (which world does he conquer)?
चिन्तयेत्। बाह्यविषयेभ्य उपसंहृतकरणः समाहितचित्तो भक्त्यावेशितब्रह्मभावे ओङ्कारे आत्मप्रत्ययसंतानाविच्छेदो भिन्नजातीयप्रत्ययान्तराखिलीकृतो निवातस्थदीपशिखासमोऽभिध्यानशब्दार्थः। The meaning of the term ‘abhidhyāna, intense meditation’, is to have such an unbroken current of the idea of self-identification (with the consciousness [•I.e. the thought flow – let’s not infect the meaning of the important term ‘consciousness’-Aruna•] of a different order, and which is comparable to the (unflickering) flame of a lamp in a windless place.
सत्य-ब्रह्मचर्याहिंसा-परिग्रह-त्याग-संन्यास-शौच-संतोषा-मायावित्वाद्यनेक-यम-नियमानुगृहीतः सः एवं यावज्जीवव्रतधारणः, कतमं वाव, अनेके हि ज्ञानकर्मभिर्जेतव्या लोकास्तिष्ठन्ति; तेषु तेन ओङ्काराभिध्यानेन कतमं सः लोकं जयतीति॥ There being many worlds that can be achieved through meditation and rites, katamam vāva lokam, which of the worlds; saḥ jayati tena, does the conquer thereby, by that meditation on Om, who undertakes such a lifelong vow, aided by such multifarious forms of yama and niyama (i.e. control of body and organs, and observance of moral injunctions) as truthfulness, abstinence from sexual pleasure, non-injury, non-acceptance of presents, dispassion, monasticism, cleanliness, contentment, absence of dissimulation, etc?
To him Pippalāda said: O Satya-kāma, Om is this very brahman, the higher and the lower aspect. Therefore, the discerning person with this one support (āyatana, ālambana) alone attains either one of these two.
तस्मै स ह उवाच पिप्पलादः – एतद्वै सत्यकाम। एतत् ब्रह्म वै परं च अपरं च ब्रह्म परं सत्यमक्षरं पुरुषाख्यम् अपरं च प्राणाख्यं प्रथमजं यत् तद् ओंकार एव ओङ्कारात्मकम् ओङ्कारप्रतीकत्वात्। O Satya-kāma; etat brahma vai, this very Brahman; yat, that is ; param ca a-param ca, both superior and inferior – the superior being that which is Truth and Immutable and is called Puruṣa, and the inferior being the First Born, called Prāṇa, oṅkāraḥ eva, is but Om, is identical with Om, since Om is Its symbol (pratīka). [•Etat and yat, being neuter, are construed with Brahman, rather than with oṅkāraḥ which is masculine.-A.G.•]
परं हि ब्रह्म शब्दाद्युपलक्षणानर्हं सर्वधर्मविशेषवर्जितम्, अतो न शक्यमतीन्द्रियगोचरत्वात्केवलेन मनसावगाहितुम्। ओङ्कारे तु विष्ण्वादिप्रतिमास्थानीये भक्त्यावेशितब्रह्मभावे ध्यायिनां तत्प्रसीदतीत्यवगम्यते शास्त्रप्रामाण्यात्। As the supreme Brahman cannot be (directly) indicated by words etc. and is devoid of all distinctions created by attributes – and as It is (on that account) beyond the organs – therefore the mind by itself cannot explore It. But to those who meditate on Om, which is comparable to the images of Viṣṇu and others and on which is fixed the idea of Brahman with devotion, that Brahman becomes favourable (and reveals Itself). This is understood on the authority of scriptures.
तथापरं च ब्रह्म। तस्मात्परं चापरं च ब्रह्म यदोंकार इत्युपचर्यते। Similar is the case with the inferior Brahman. Hence it is said in a secondary sense that, that Brahman which is both inferior and superior is but Om.तस्माद् एवं विद्वान् एतेनैव आत्मप्राप्तिसाधनेनैव ओङ्काराभिध्यानेन एकतरं परमपरं वा अन्वेति ब्रह्मानुगच्छति; नेदिष्ठं ह्यालम्बनमोंकारो ब्रह्मणः॥ Tasmāt, therefore; vidvān, one who knows thus; anveti, attains; ekataram, either of the two – the superior or the inferior Brahman; etena (āyatanena) eva, through this means alone, through this that is a means for the attainment of the Self, consisting in meditation on Om. for Om is the nearest symbol of Brahman.
Should one intently meditate (until death, primarily) upon the first sound (the “a” component of the diphthong “o,” representing the universe of the senses, Virāṭ), by this alone the discerning one quickly is reborn here on earth. Ṛc mantras lead this one to a human embodiment. There, being endowed with religious discipline, Veda studentship, and trust in the Vedas, this one attains the greatness available there.
स यद्यप्योंकारस्य सकलमात्राविभागज्ञो न भवति, तथाप्योंकाराभिध्यानप्रभावाद्विशिष्टामेव गतिं गच्छति; एतदेकदेशज्ञानवैगुण्यतयोंकारशरणः कर्मज्ञानोभयभ्रष्टो न दुर्गतिं गच्छति; किं तर्हि, यदि एवमोंकारमेव एकमात्राविभागज्ञ एव केवलः अभिध्यायीत एकमात्रं सदा ध्यायीत, स तेनैव एकमात्राविशिष्टोंकाराभिध्यानेनैव संवेदितः संबोधितः तूर्णं क्षिप्रम् एवजगत्यां पृथिव्याम् अभिसम्पद्यते। किम्? मनुष्यलोकम्। Yadi, even though; saḥ, he; may not know (the full meaning of) all the letters by which Om is constituted, still through the influence of the (partial) meditation on Om, he attains an excellent goal; one who resorts to Om does not fall into evil by being denied the fruits of both rites and meditation as a consequence of the defect of such partial knowledge. What ensues then? Being merely a knower of only one part consisting of one letter, abhidhyāyīta, should he thus meditate, constantly; on Om itself as comprising one letter; saḥ, he; saṃveditaḥ, becoming (i.e. will eventually become) enlightened; tena eva, by that alone – by that meditation on Om as possessed of one letter only; tūrṇam eva, very quickly; abhisampadyate, attains; jagatyām, on the earth. What does he attain? Manuṣya-lokam, the human birth (i.e. human body).
अनेकानि हि जन्मानि जगत्यां सम्भवन्ति। तत्र तं साधकं जगत्यां मनुष्यलोकम् एव उपनयन्ते उपनिगमयन्ति ऋचः। ऋग्वेदरूपा ह्योंकारस्य प्रथमा एकमात्रा। As many kinds of birth are possible on this earth, so, among these, ṛcaḥ, the Ṛk mantras; upanayante, conduct; tam, him, that aspirant; to manuṣya-lokam, a human birth, on the earth; for the first single letter (viz a) of Om (a-u-m) was meditated on (by him) as the Ṛk mantras, which stand for the Ṛg-veda.
तेन स तत्र मनुष्यजन्मनि द्विजाग्र्यः सन् तपसा ब्रह्मचर्येण श्रद्धया च सम्पन्नःमहिमानं विभूतिम् अनुभवति न वीतश्रद्धो यथेष्टचेष्टो भवति; योगभ्रष्टः कदाचिदपि न दुर्गतिं गच्छति॥ Thereby, tatra, in that human birth; saḥ, he; becomes a prominent Brāhmaṇa, and being sampannaḥ, endued; tapasā, with self-control; brahma-caryeṇa, with continence; śraddhayā, with faith; anubhavati, experiences; mahimānam, greatness; he does not become faithless or wilful in his action. He does not ever come to grief because of any deviation – (consisting in partial knowledge) – from Yoga (i.e. application of his mind to Brahman).
If one (intently meditates until death, primarily) upon the second sound (the “u” component of the diphthong “o,” representing the universe of the mind which includes the preceding sound and world of the senses), by this one becomes identified only in the mind (the subtle body). Yajus mantras lead this one to the intermediate lunar heaven. In this lunar world one attains the greatness available there, and then is reborn (back on earth).
अथ पुनः यदि द्विमात्राविभागज्ञो द्विमात्रेण विशिष्टमोंकारमभिध्यायीत स्वप्नात्मके मनसि मननीये यजुर्मये सौमदैवत्ये सम्पद्यते एकाग्रतयात्मभावं गच्छति, Atha, now again; yadi, if, anyone conversant with Om as constituted by its second letter (viz u); abhidhyāyīta, should meditate on Om; dvi-mātreṇa, as possessed of the second letter; then as a result of that concentration, one sampadyate, becomes unified; manasi, in the mind, of which the Moon is the presiding deity, which is conceived of as the state of dream, which is identified with the Yajur mantras, and which is the object of meditation.स एवं सम्पन्नो मृतः अन्तरिक्षम् अन्तरिक्षाधारं द्वितीयमात्रारूपं द्वितीयमात्रारूपैरेव यजुर्भिः उन्नीयते सोमलोकं सौम्यं जन्मप्रापयन्ति तं यजूंषित्यर्थः। When saḥ, that man, who has become thus identified, dies; he is unnīyate, lifted; yajurbhiḥ, by the Yajur mantras, which are verily identical with the second letter; antar-ikṣam, to the intermediate space (between) heaven and earth); soma-lokam, to the world of the Moon, which is supported by the intermediate space and is represented by the second letter. That is to say, the Yajur mantras lead him to a birth in the world of the Moon.स तत्र विभूतिमनुभूय सोमलोके मनुष्यलोकं प्रति पुनरावर्तते॥ Saḥ, he; anubhūya vibhūtim, having experienced greatness there; soma-loke, in the world of the Moon; āvartate punaḥ, turns round again, towards the human world. [•According to Saṅkarānanda, the first portion of the text means this: If anyone manasi sampadyate, resorts to the mind, that is, meditates; dvi-mātreṇa, for two moments or on the two letters a, and u of Om. According to some, this text enjoins a meditation on Hiraṇya-garbha who embodies Himself in the subtle cosmos conceived of as a subtle dream state; the earlier text similarly enjoins a meditation on Virāṭ (as ‘a’), embodying Himself in the gross universe, conceived of as the waking state.•]
Again, the one who would intently meditate (until death, primarily) upon the third sound (“m,” representing the entire manifestation of the Lord which includes the preceding two sounds and worlds) as the imperishable, ultimate puruṣa, this one arrives at the brilliant solar heaven. Like a snake sloughs its dead skin, this one is freed of karma demerit (and does not return back into the human body, in this cycle of manifestation). This one is led to brahma-loka (Hiraṇya-garbha) by Sāman mantras. From this one, the totality of all jīvas, one sees (is taught to see) the ultimate puruṣa (brahman) residing in all bodies. In regard to that, there are these two verses.
यः पुनः एतम् ओङ्कारं त्रिमात्रेण त्रिमात्राविषयविज्ञानविशिष्टेन ओमित्येतेनैव अक्षरेण परं सूर्यान्तर्गतं पुरुषं प्रतीकत्वेन अभिध्यायीत तेनाभिध्यानेन प्रतीकत्वेन ह्यालम्बनत्वं प्रकृतमोंकारस्य परं चापरं च ब्रह्मेति अभेदश्रुतेः, ओङ्कारमिति च द्वितीयानेकशः श्रुता बाध्येतान्यथा। Punaḥ, again; yaḥ abhidhyāyīta, should anyone meditate; etam, on this – on Om; as param puruṣam, the supreme Puruṣa, residing within the solar orb; Om iti etena eva a-kṣareṇa, with the help of the very syllable Om, tri-mātreṇa, as associated with the knowledge of the three letters (a, u, m), and serving as a symbol (pratīka); (he becomes unified in the Sun) as the result of that meditation. In this context Om is (presented as) a symbol to aid (meditation), which conclusion is drawn from the following Veda text implying identity: ‘That which is known as the superior and inferior Brahman (is but Om)’ (PrasU.5.2).
यद्यपि तृतीयाभिधानत्वेन करणत्वमुपपद्यते, तथापि प्रकृतानुरोधात्त्रिमात्रं परं पुरुषमिति द्वितीयैव परिणेया ‘त्यजेदेकं कुलस्यार्थे’ इति न्यायेन। Moreover, on any other supposition, the frequently used accusative case in oṅkāram in the text will become unjustifiable. Although from the use of the instrumental sense is quite in order, still in conformity with the context, tri-mātreṇa etc. should be converted to the accusative from [•One might object that the instrumental case indicates that Om is not a symbol (or icon); but Saṅkara says it is so.•] thus: ‘tri-mātram param puruṣam – (meditate) on Om, associated with the knowledge of the three letters, as the supreme Puruṣa’, so as to accord with the adage, ‘The individual should be sacrificed for the family’ [•The verse in the Mahabharata reads as follows: ‘Abandon one if for the family's sake; And family in the interest of the village; Abandon the village for the cause of the society; And to win the Self, abandon the world.’-Panoli•] (Ma. Na. 37.17).सः तृतीयमात्रारूपे तेजसि सूर्ये सम्पन्नो भवति ध्यायमानः, मृतोऽपि सूर्यात्सोमलोकादिवन्न पुनरावर्तते; किंतु सूर्ये सम्पन्नमात्र एव। By that meditation, saḥ, he; becomes sampannaḥ, adsorbed – being engaged in meditation, he becomes identified with the third letter (m) and becomes unified; tejasi sūrye, in the sun consisting of light. Even after death he does not return from the Sun as one does from the lunar world; but he continues in his identity with the Sun.यथा पादोदरः सर्पः त्वचा विनिर्मुच्यते जीर्णत्वग्विनिर्मुक्तः स पुनर्नवो भवति। Yathā, just as; a pada-udaraḥ, snake; vinirmucyate tvacā, is freed from its slough, the dead skin; to become new again;एवं ह वै एष यथा दृष्टान्तः स पाप्मना सर्पत्वक्स्थानीयेनाशुद्धिरूपेण विनिर्मुक्तः सः सामभिः तृतीयमात्रारूपैः ऊर्ध्वम् उन्नीयते ब्रह्मलोकं हिरण्यगर्भस्य ब्रह्मणो लोकं सत्याख्यम्। सः हिरण्यगर्भः सर्वेषां संसारिणां जीवानामात्मभूतः। स ह्यन्तरात्मा लिङ्गरूपेण सर्वभूतानाम्। तस्मिन् हि लिङ्गात्मनि संहताः सर्वे जीवाः। तस्मात्स जीवघनः Evam ha vai, exactly in the same way, as in this illustration, so; becoming vinirmuktaḥ, freed; pāpmanā, from sin, which is a kind of impurity comparable to the slough; saḥ, he; unnīyate, is lifted up; sāmabhiḥ, by the Sāma mantras – that are identical with the third letter (m of Om); brahma-lokam, to the world of Brahmā, i.e. of Hiraṇya-garbha is identified with all the creatures that are subject to birth and death; for as (the sum total of all) the subtle bodies, He constitutes the inner soul of all; and in Him, as comprising the (cosmic) subtle body, are strung together all the creatures. [•Creatures that identify themselves with their subtle bodies.•] Hence He is jīva-ghanaḥ, a mass of creatures.स विद्वांस्त्रिमात्रोंकाराभिज्ञः एतस्माज् जीवघनात् हिरण्यगर्भात् परात्परं परमात्माख्यं पुरुषमीक्षते पुरिशयं सर्वशरीरानुप्रविष्टं पश्यति ध्यायमानः। Etasmāt jīva-ghanāt, from this totality of creatures, that Hiraṇya-garbha is; saḥ, he, the (fully) enlightened man, who has known Om as possessed of the three letters; īkṣate, sees through meditation; puruṣam, Puruṣa; puri-śayam, who has entered into all the bodies and who is called the supreme Self [•I.e. Oneself within this and all bodies.•]; being param parāt, superior to the higher One, that is to say, to Hiraṇya-garbha. [•Hiraṇya-garbha is higher than all other creatures•].तत् एतौ अस्मिन्यथोक्तार्थप्रकाशकौ श्लोकौ मन्त्रौ भवतः॥ Tat, bearing on this expressive of the foregoing idea; bhavataḥ, there occur; etau ślokau, these two verses:
The three sounds (individually, and as not indicating para brahman, PrasU.5.3–4) are within death (with rebirth). But joined with each other and not separately applied, and properly applied towards the three functions externally, internally, and in-between (i.e., waking, dream and deep sleep, per ManU.5 ceto-mukha, to move back and forth between waking and dream, one has to pass through deep sleep at least for a moment, i.e., closing down the identification with the prior state to reawaken fresh into the external world or into the internal world as “real,” KaivU.1.13), then the wise person does not waver from wisdom.
● The three sounds (individually) are within death (rebirth) (तिस्रः मात्राः मृत्युमत्यः प्रयुक्ताः). ○ (But) joined with each other (and) not separately applied (अन्य-अन्य-सक्ताः, अन्-अविप्रयुक्ताः) ● towards the three functions of external, internal, and inbetween (i.e., waking, dream, deep sleep) (क्रियासु बाह्य-अभ्यन्तर-मध्यमासु) ○ (and) properly applied, the wise person does not waver (from wisdom) (सम्यक् प्रयुक्तासु, न कम्पते ज्ञः).
तिस्रः त्रिसङ्ख्याका अकारोकारमकाराख्याः ओङ्कारस्य मात्राः। मृत्युमत्यः मृत्युर्यासां विद्यते ता मृत्युमत्यः मृत्युगोचरादनतिक्रान्ताः मृत्युगोचरा एवेत्यर्थः। Tisraḥ mātrāḥ, the three letters, viz a, u, m, of Om; mṛtyumatyaḥ, are encompassed by death, not outside the pale of death, that is to say, surely within the grasp of death. [•Viśva, the conscious Self in the waking state, is identical with Vaiśvānara (Virāṭ), and his residence is in the gross body and the waking state. Taijasa, identical with Hiraṇya-garbha, has his lodging in the subtle body and dream. Prājña, identical with Īśvara, has his locus in the Unmanifested and sleep. The Yoga processes consist in meditating on them in identification with a, u, m, respectively. If these are resorted to separately, and without the idea of Brahman, they cannot lead one beyond death.•]
ता आत्मनो ध्यानक्रियासु प्रयुक्ताः। किंच, अन्योन्यसक्ताः इतरेतरसम्बद्धाः। अनविप्रयुक्ताः विशेषेणैकैकविषय एव प्रयुक्ता विप्रयुक्ताः, न तथा विप्रयुक्ता अविप्रयुक्ताः, न अविप्रयुक्ता अनविप्रयुक्ताः। But when they are prayuktāḥ, applied; kriyāsu, in actions, in the acts of meditation on the Self; and further, (when they are) anyonya-saktāḥ, joined one to another; an-a-viprayuktāḥ, are not applied divergently to different objects, (then the yogī does not shake). Viprayuktāḥ are those that are specifically applied to a single object alone; those that are not applied thus are a-viprayuktāḥ, (i.e. diversely used); those that are not thus diversely applied are an-a-viprayuktāḥ.
किं तर्हि, विशेषेणैकस्मिन्ध्यानकाले तिसृषु क्रियासु बाह्याभ्यन्तरमध्यमासु जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तस्थानपुरुषाभिध्यानलक्षणासु योगक्रियासु युक्तासु सम्यक्प्रयुक्तासु सम्यग्ध्यानकाले प्रयोजितासु न कम्पते न चलति ज्ञः योगी यथोक्तविभागज्ञः ओङ्कारस्येत्यर्थः। न तस्यैवंविदश्चलनमुपपद्यते। यस्माज्जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तपुरुषाः सह स्थानैर्मात्रात्रयरूपेणोंकारात्मरूपेण दृष्टाः; What follows from that? When (they are applied thus) specially at the time of a single (continuous) meditation during the three kriyāsu, courses of action; bāhya-abhyantara-madhyamāsu, external, internal, and intermediate – in the course of the yoga actions consisting in the meditation on the Puruṣas as associated with the states of waking, dream, and sleep; samyak prayuktāsu, which processes are properly resorted to during the time of meditation; then the jñaḥ, enlightened one, that is to say, the yogī who knows the aforesaid divisions of Om; na kampate, does not shake. He who knows thus, cannot possibly be deflected, since the Puruṣas in the waking, dream, and sleep states, together with the states, have been seen by him as identical with the three letters and as indentical with Om.
स ह्येवं विद्वान्सर्वात्मभूत ओङ्कारमयः कुतो वा चलेत्कस्मिन्वा॥ Since a man who is thus enlightened has become the Self of all and one with Om, therefore from where can be deviate and to where?
सर्वार्थसङ्ग्रहार्थो द्वितीयो मन्त्रः – The second verse is meant to sum up all the (foregoing) ideas:
The wise seers explain that this world is by Ṛc mantras, the intermediate region is by Yajus mantras, and the other world is by Sāman mantras, through the syllable Om alone. The wise person through this same support (Om), merges into this which is peaceful, ageless, deathless, fearless, and is the ultimate brahman (beyond the three-fold universe).
● This (world) is by Ṛc mantras ( ऋग्भिः एतं), the intermediate region is by Yajus mantras (यजुर्भिः अन्तर्-इक्षम्), ○ (and) this other (world) is by Sāman mantras (सामभिः यद्), the wise seers explain that (तद् कवयः वेदयन्ते) ● is through the syllable Om alone (तम् ओं-कारेण एव). Through this same support merges (आयतनेन अन्वेति) ○ the wise person into that which is peaceful, ageless, deathless, fearless, and is the ultimate (brahman, beyond the three-fold universe) (विद्वान् यद् तद् शान्तम् अ-जरम् अ-मृतम् अ-भयं परं च इति).
ऋग्भिः एतं लोकं मनुष्योपलक्षितम्। यजुर्भिः अन्तरिक्षं सोमाधिष्ठितम्। सामभिः यत् तद् ब्रह्मलोक इति तृतीयं कवयः मेधाविनो विद्यावन्त एव नाविद्वांसः वेदयन्ते। तं त्रिविधं लोकम् ओंकारेण साधनेन अपरब्रह्मलक्षणम् अन्वेति अनुगच्छति विद्वान्। Only kavayaḥ, the intelligent, the enlightened, and not the ignorant, vedayante, know; etam, this, this world associated with men; that is attainable ṛgbhiḥ, through the Ṛk mantras; antar-ikṣam, the intermediate space, presided over by the Moon; that is attainable yajurbhiḥ, by the Yajur mantras; and tat, that, the third, i.e. the world of Brahmā; yat, which; is attainable sāmabhiḥ, by the Sāma mantras. Vidvān, the enlightened one; anveti, reaches; tam, that, that threefold world indicative of the inferior Brahman; oṅkāreṇa, through Om, with the aid of Om.
तेनैवोंकारेण यत्तत् परं ब्रह्माक्षरं सत्यं पुरुषाख्यं शान्तं विमुक्तजाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तादिविशेषं सर्वप्रपञ्चविवर्जितम्, अत एव अजरं जरावर्जितम् अमृतं मृत्युवर्जितमत एव। यस्माज्जरादिविक्रियारहितमतः अभयम्। यस्मादेव अभयं तस्मात् परं निरतिशयम्। तदप्योंकारेण एव आयतनेन गमनसाधनेनान्वेतीत्यर्थः। इति-शब्दो वाक्यपरिसमाप्त्यर्थः॥ And with the help of that very Om, he attains tat, that; yat, which is the Supreme-Brahman, the Immutable, Truth, called Puruṣa, (the all-pervasive); which is śāntam, quiet, free, devoid of all such distinctions as waking, dream, and sleep, and is transcendental to the whole universe; and is therefore a-jaram, free from old age (jarā); a-mṛtam, beyond death, since untouched by such changes as old age; and consequently a-bhayam, fearless; just because It is fearless, therefore param, unsurpassing. The idea is that he reaches this One also, oṅkāreṇaāyatanena, with the aid of Om, which is a vehicle of advance. The word ‘iti, this’, is used to imply the end of the sentence.
Then Sukeśan, son of Bharad-vāja, asked Pippalāda, “Venerable sir, Hiraṇya-nābha, a prince of Kosala, approached me and asked this question, ‘O Bhārad-vāja, do you know the puruṣa of sixteen parts?’ To that prince I replied, ‘I do not know this. If I had known this, there is no way I would not tell you.’ I then said to him, ‘Anyone who speaks an untruth dries up, root and all. Therefore, I cannot afford to speak an untruth.’ The prince silently mounted his chariot and rode away. That same question I ask you. Who is this puruṣa of sixteen parts?”
अथ ह एनं सुकेशा भारद्वाजः पप्रच्छ समस्तं जगत्कार्यकारणलक्षणं सह विज्ञानात्मना परस्मिन्नक्षरे सुषुप्तिकाले सम्प्रतिष्ठत इत्युक्तम्। तत्सामर्थ्यात्प्रलयेऽपि तस्मिन्नेवाक्षरे सम्प्रतिष्ठते जगत्तत एवोत्पद्यत इति च सिद्धं भवति। न ह्यकारणे कार्यस्य सम्प्रतिष्ठानमुपपद्यते। उक्तं च ‘आत्मन एष प्राणो जायते’ (PrasU.3.3) इति। जगतश्च यन्मूलं तत्परिज्ञानात्परं श्रेय इति सर्वोपनिषदां निश्चितोऽर्थः। अनन्तरं चोक्तम् ‘स सर्वज्ञः सर्वो भवति’ (PrasU.4.10) इति। Atha ha, next; sukeśā bhārad-vājaḥ, Sukeśan, son of Bharad-vāja; papraccha, asked; enam, him. It has been said that the entire world, consisting of cause and effect, together with the conscious soul, gets unified in the supreme Immutable during sleep (PrasU.4.11). From the logic of circumstances it follows that even during cosmic dissolution, the world merges into that Immutable alone and originates from that alone; for an effect cannot reasonable get absorbed into anything other than its origin. Besides, it has been said, ‘From the Self is born this Prāṇa’ (PrasU.3.3). And it is the well ascertained purport of all the Upaniṣads that the highest good results from the full realization of that which is the source of creation; and it has just been declared, ‘he becomes omniscient and all’ (PrasU.4.10).
वक्तव्यं च क्व तर्हि तदक्षरं सत्यं पुरुषाख्यं विज्ञेयमिति; तदर्थोऽयं प्रश्न आरभ्यते। वृत्तान्वाख्यानं च विज्ञानस्य दुर्लभत्वज्ञापनेन तल्लब्ध्यर्थं मुमुक्षूणां यत्नविशेषोपादानार्थम्। It remains now to point out where that Immutable, that Truth, called Puruṣa (the all-pervasive, indwelling entity) is to be realized. This question is begun for that purpose. And by pointing out the difficulty involved in acquiring the knowledge, the narration of the anecdote aims at inducing a special effort in those who hanker after freedom.
हे भगवन्, हिरण्यनाभः नामतः कोसलायां भवः कौसल्यः राजपुत्रः जातितः क्षत्रियः माम् उपेत्य उपगम्य एतम् उच्यमानं प्रश्नम् अपृच्छत। षोडशकलं षोडशसङ्ख्याकाः कला अवयवा इवात्मन्यविद्याध्यारोपितरूपा यस्मिन्पुरुषे, सोऽयं षोडशकलः; तं षोडशकलं हे भारद्वाज, पुरुषं वेत्थ त्वं विजानासि। तम् अहं राजपुत्रं कुमारं पृष्टवन्तम् अब्रवम् उक्तवानस्मि – न अहम् इमं वेद यं त्वं पृच्छसीति। Bhagavan, O revered sir; a rāja-putraḥ, prince, Kṣatriya by caste, named Hiraṇya-nābha; who was kausalyaḥ, born in Kosalā; upetya mām, approaching me; apṛccata, asked; etam praśnam, this question – which is being stated: ‘Bhārad-vāja, O son of Bharad-vāja; vettha, do you know; the puruṣam, Puruṣa, (the Reality pervading the body); which is ṣo-ḍasa-kalam, possessed of six-teen digits (limbs)?’ That conscious Being, the soul, is ṣo-ḍasa-kalaḥ, on which, through ignorance, are superimposed sixteen parts that appear like limbs. Aham, I; abravam, said; tam kumāram, to that prince, who had put the question: ‘Aham, I; na veda, do not know; imam, this one that you inquire about.’
एवमुक्तवत्यपि मय्यज्ञानमसंभावयन्तं तमज्ञाने कारणमवादिषम् – यदि कथंचित् अहम् इमं त्वया पृष्टं पुरुषम् अवेदिषं विदितवानस्मि, कथम् अत्यन्तशिष्यगुणवतेऽर्थिने ते तुभ्यं न अवक्ष्यं नोक्तवानस्मि न ब्रूयामित्यर्थः। भूयोऽप्यप्रत्ययमेवालक्ष्य प्रत्याययितुमब्रवम् – समूलः सह मूलेन वै एषः अन्यथा सन्तमात्मानमन्यथा कुर्वन् यः अनृतम् अयथाभूतार्थम् अभिवदति, स परिशुष्यति शोषमुपैति इहलोकपरलोकाभ्यां विच्छिद्यते विनश्यति। यत एवं जाने तस्मात् न अर्हामि अहम् अनृतं वक्तुं मूढवत्। स राजपुत्रः एवं प्रत्यायितः तूष्णीं व्रीडितः रथम् आरुह्य प्रवव्राज प्रगतवान् यथागतमेव। As he thought it impossible that there could be any ignorance in me, despite that statement of mine, I told him as a proof of my ignorance: ‘Yadi, if, perchance; aham, I; avediṣam, happened to know; imam, this one, the Puruṣa inquired about by you; katham, why; na avakṣyam, should I not have told, that is to say, should not tell; te, you, inquisitive and eminently fitted as a disciple as you are.’ Noticing his disbelief over again, I said furthermore to carry conviction to him: ‘Yaḥ,anyone who; abhivadati, utters; an-ṛtam, a falsehood, that does not accord with what is – speaks of himself as some what other than what he really is; eṣaḥ, such a man; pariśuṣyati, dries up; sa-mūlaḥ, together with roots; he is deprived of this world and the next, he is destroyed. As I know this fact, tasmāt, therefore; na arhāmi an-ṛtam vaktum, I cannot afford to utter a falsehood, like an ignoramus.’ Āruhya ratham, riding on the chariot; saḥ, he, the prince, who was thus convinced; pravavrāja, went away; to where he had come from; tūṣṇīm, silently, with abashment.
अतो न्यायत उपसन्नाय योग्याय जानता विद्या वक्तव्यैव; अनृतं च न वक्तव्यं सर्वास्वप्यवस्थास्वित्येतत्सिद्धं भवति। तं पुरुषं त्वा त्वां पृच्छामि मम हृदि विज्ञेयत्वेन शल्यमिव स्थितम्, क्व असौ वर्तते विज्ञेयः पुरुष इति॥ From this the conclusion is drawn that one who knows must impart knowledge to a disciple who is competent and approaches duly, but one should not utter a falsehood under any condition whatsoever. Tampuruṣam, about that Puruṣa – which, as an object still to be ascertained, sticks to my heart like a thorn; pṛcchāmi tvā, I ask you; ‘Kva asau puruṣaḥ iti, where does that Puruṣa (who is to be known) exist?’
To him Pippalāda said: O dear one, Here itself inside this body is that puruṣa, in whom arise these sixteen parts (kalās).
तस्मै स होवाच। इहैव अन्तःशरीरे हृदयपुण्डरीकाकाशमध्ये हे सोम्य स पुरुषः, न देशान्तरे विज्ञेयः। यस्मिन् एताः उच्यमानाः षोडश कलाः प्राणाद्याः प्रभवन्ति उत्पद्यन्त इति Tasmai, to him; saḥ, he; uvāca ha, said; iha eva, here itself; antaḥ-śarīre, inside the body, within the space inside the lotus of the heart; somya, O amiable one; exists saḥ puruṣaḥ, that Puruṣa – and He is not to be sought somewhere else; yasmin, in whom; prabhavanti, originate; etāḥ ṣo-daśa – kalāḥ these sixteen parts – Prāṇa and the rest that are being enumerated.
षोडशभिः कलाभिरुपाधिभूताभिः सकल इव निष्कलः पुरुषो लक्ष्यतेऽविद्ययेति; तदुपाधिकलाध्यारोपापनयनेन विद्यया स पुरुषः केवलो दर्शयितव्य इति कलानां तत्प्रभवत्वमुच्यते प्राणादीनाम्। The Puruṣa who is partless appears through ignorance to be possessed of limbs as a consequence of His association with the sixteen parts that are His limiting adjuncts. But this Puruṣa has to he shown as an absolute entity by eliminating, through knowledge, those parts that condition Him. That is why the parts are spoken of as originating from the Puruṣa.
अत्यन्तनिर्विशेषे ह्यद्वये विशुद्धे तत्त्वे न शक्योऽध्यारोपमन्तरेण प्रतिपाद्यप्रतिपादनादिव्यवहारः कर्तुमिति कलानां प्रभवस्थित्यप्यया आरोप्यन्तेऽविद्याविषयाः। Since no empirical pronouncement as to attainability and the means of attainment can be made unless there be the superimposition of Prāṇa and the rest on the totally attributeless, non-dual, pure principle, therefore, the origin, existence, and absorption of the parts that are within the domain of ignorance, are superimposed (on the Puruṣa);
चैतन्याव्यतिरेकेणैव हि कला जायमानास्तिष्ठन्त्यः प्रलीयमानाश्च सर्वदा लक्ष्यन्ते। अत एव भ्रान्ताः केचित् – अग्निसंयोगाद्धृतमिव घटाद्याकारेण चैतन्यमेव प्रतिक्षणं जायते नश्यतीति। तन्निरोधे शून्यमेव सर्वमिति अपरे। घटादिविषयं चैतन्यं चेतयिदुर्नित्यस्यात्मनोऽनित्यं जायते विनश्यतीत्यपरे। चैतन्यं भूतधर्म इति लौकायतिकाः। For the parts are always seen to exist in identity with Consciousness at the times of origin, continuation, and dissolution. And this is why some deluded people say, ‘just as ghee (clarified butter) melts through contact with fire, so it is consciousness stops, all things appear as void.’ Still others (e.g. the logicians) say, ‘The knowledge of pot and the rest arises and gets destroyed as a temporary phenomenon on the eternal Self which imparts consciousness.’ The materialists say, ‘Consciousness belongs to matter.’
अनपायोपजनधर्मकचैतन्यमात्मैव नामरूपाद्युपाधिधर्मैः प्रत्यवभासते ‘सत्यं ज्ञानमनन्तं ब्रह्म’ (TaitU.2.1.1) ‘प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म’ (AitU.3.1.3) ‘विज्ञानमानन्दं ब्रह्म’ (BrhU.126.96.36.199) ‘विज्ञानघन एव’ (BrhU.2.4.12) इत्यादिश्रुतिभ्यः। But Consciousness knows no decrease or increase, and yet appears diversely through the attributes of the limiting adjuncts (upādhis) as names and forms (nāma-rūpa), is nothing but the Self, which fact is borne out by such Veda texts as ‘Brahman is truth, knowledge, in finite’ (TaitU.2.1.1), ‘Brahman is Consciousness’ (AitU.3.1.3), ‘Knowledge, Bliss, Brahman’ (BrhUEng.188.8.131.52), ‘The infinite Reality is but pure intelligence’ (BrhUEng.2.4.12).
स्वरूपव्यभिचारिषु पदार्थेषु चैतन्यस्याव्यभिचाराद्यथा यथा यो यः पदार्थो ज्ञायते, Consciousness is proved to be invariable from the fact that Consciousness remains unchanged even when objects change in their essence, and because anything that is known in any way, emerges to consciousness only as such an object of knowledge. [•That things are apprehended to be what they are is owing to the fact of the apparent diversification of the underlying Consciousness by the limiting adjuncts; and things would cease to be known unless Consciousness lay behind them. This proves that things vary, while Consciousness remains unchanged. A pot may not exist even when there is consciousness of it, or objects may vary essential, while knowledge persists; but there can be no object of knowledge without Consciousness. Objection: We have no knowledge of a jar at the time that we know a cloth; so knowledge also is variable. Answer: Knowledge may vary as coloured by its objects, but not essentially, whereas things vary essentially.•]
तथा तथा ज्ञायमानत्वादेव तस्य तस्य चैतन्यस्याव्यभिचारित्वम्। वस्तुतत्त्वं भवति किञ्चित्, न ज्ञायत इति चानुपपन्नम्; रूपं च दृश्यते, न चास्ति चक्षुरिति यथा। It does not stand to reason to say that some external thing exists substantially and still remains unknown, for this is like averring that colour is perceived while the eye is non-existent.
व्यभिचरति तु ज्ञेयम्; न ज्ञानं व्यभिचरति कदाचिदपि ज्ञेयम्, ज्ञेयाभावेऽपि ज्ञेयान्तरे भावाज्ज्ञानस्य। न हि ज्ञानेऽसति ज्ञेयं नाम भवति कस्यचित्; A knowable thing may be inconstant in relation of knowledge, but knowledge is never inconstant in relation to objects, for knowledge persists in relation to some knowable thing even though a particular object may not be there; indeed, nobody can have such a thing as an object unless he has knowledge.
सुषुप्तेऽदर्शनात् – ज्ञानस्यापि सुषुप्तेऽभावाज्ज्ञेयवज्ज्ञानस्वरूपस्य व्यभिचार इति चेत्, Objection: Since even consciousness is not perceived in sleep just because it does not exist there then, therefore it follows that knowledge, in itself, is inconstant just like an object.
न; ज्ञेयावभासकस्य ज्ञानस्यालोकवज्ज्ञेयाभिव्यक्त्यर्थत्वात् स्वव्यङ्ग्याभावे आलोकाभावानुपपत्तिवत् अप्रतीतेषु वस्तुषु सुषुप्ते विज्ञानाभावानुपपत्तेः। न ह्यन्धकारे चक्षुषो रूपानुपलब्धौ चक्षुषोऽभावः शक्यः कल्पयितुमवैनाशिकेन। Answer: No, for in so far as knowledge that reveals its objects is an illuminator of its object just like a light, the absence of knowledge during sleep cannot logically be inferred, just as the absence of light cannot logically be inferred, just as the absence of light cannot be inferred from the absence of the thing to be lighted up. Certainly, the nihilist cannot imagine the absence of the eye when it fails to perceive colour in darkness.
वैनाशिको ज्ञेयाभावे ज्ञानाभावं कल्पयत्येवेति चेत्, Objection: The nihilist does, as a matter of fact, imagine the absence of knowledge where there is no knowable thing.
येन तदभावं कल्पयेत्तस्याभावः केन कल्प्यत इति वक्तव्यं वैनाशिकेन; तदभावस्यापि ज्ञेयत्वाज्ज्ञानाभावे तदनुपपत्तेः। Answer: The nihilist should explain how he would argue away the presence of that knowledge by which he imagines the non-existence of that knowledge; for the non-existence of the knowledge being itself a knowable object, it cannot be cognized unless there is knowledge of it.
ज्ञानस्य ज्ञेयाव्यतिरिक्तत्वाज्ज्ञेयाभावे ज्ञानाभाव इति चेत्, Objection: Since knowledge is non-different from the knowable, non-existence of knowledge follows from the non-existence of the knowable object.
न; अभावस्यापि ज्ञेयत्वाभ्युपगमात् – अभावोऽपि ज्ञेयोऽभ्युपगम्यते वैनाशिकैर्नित्यश्च। तदव्यतिरिक्तं चेज्ज्ञानं नित्यं कल्पितं स्यात्। तदभावस्य च ज्ञानात्मकत्वादभावत्वं च वाङ्मात्रमेव; न परमार्थतोऽभावत्वमनित्यत्वं च ज्ञानस्य। न च नित्यस्य ज्ञानस्याभावनाममात्राध्यारोपे किञ्चिन्नश्छिन्नम्। Answer: Not so, because non-existence too is admitted as cognizable. By the (Buddist) nihilist it is admitted that non-existence is also known and that is is everlasting. Now, if knowledge be non-different from (the knowable) non existence, it also will become enternal ex hypothesi; and because the non-existence of knowledge becomes essentially a knowledge, non-existence (of knowledge) is reduced to a meaningless term. In reality, knowledge is neither a non-existence, nor is it non-eternal. Nor do we lose anything if the mere epithet of non-existence is applied to knowledge that is (really) eternal).
अथाभावो ज्ञेयोऽपि सन् ज्ञानव्यतिरिक्त इति चेत्, न तर्हि ज्ञेयाभावो ज्ञानाभावः। If it be now argued that although non-existence is knowable, it is distinct from knowledge, then it that case, the non-existence of the knowable will not lead to the non-existence of knowledge. [•By such a theory nullify your view that knowledge and the knowable are identical. Hence by depending on the assumptions that knowable objects are absent in sleep and that knowledge is non-different from the knowable, you cannot argue that knowledge is non-existent in sleep. Moreover, if the non-existence knowable thing be different from knowledge, why should an existing knowable thing be different also?•]
ज्ञेयं ज्ञानव्यतिरिक्तम्; न तु ज्ञानं ज्ञेयव्यतिरिक्तमिति चेत्, Objection: An object is different from knowledge, but knowledge is not different from its object.
न; शब्दमात्रत्वाद्विशेषानुपपत्तेः। ज्ञेयज्ञानयोरेकत्वं चेदभ्युपगम्यते, ज्ञेयं ज्ञानव्यातिरिक्तम्, न ज्ञेयव्यतिरिक्तं ज्ञानम् इति तु शब्दमात्रमेव तत् – वह्निरग्निव्यतिरिक्तः, अग्निर्न वह्निव्यतिरिक्त इति यद्वत् – अभ्युपगम्यम्। ज्ञेयव्यतिरेके तु ज्ञानस्य ज्ञेयाभावे ज्ञानाभावानुपपत्तिः सिद्धा। Answer: No, since it is all mere talk that does not lead to any real distinction, for if it be held that object and knowledge are identical, then it is meaningless talk to say that the knowable object is distinct from knowledge, while knowledge is not distinct from its content; and it is comparable to the thesis that vahni (fire) is distinct from agni (fire), while agni is not distinct from vahni. If, however, knowledge be different from the content of knowledge, the conclusion arrived at is that the absence of any knowable object does not logically imply the absence of knowledge (as such).
ज्ञेयाभावेऽदर्शनादभावो ज्ञानस्येति चेत्, Objection: Since there can be no awareness (of knowledge) when there is no object to be known, it follows that knowledge itself is absent in the absence of any object.
न; सुषुप्ते ज्ञप्त्यभ्युपगमात् – वैनाशिकैरभ्युपगम्यते हि सुषुप्तेऽपि विज्ञानास्तित्वम्। Answer: Not, so, for awareness is admitted in sleep inasmuch as it is held by the (Buddhist) nihilists that consciousness persists even in sleep.
तत्रापि ज्ञेयत्वमभ्युपगम्यते ज्ञानस्य स्वेनैवेति चेत्, Objection: Even there it is held that consciousness is known to itself.
न; भेदस्य सिद्धत्वात् – सिद्धं ह्यभावविज्ञेयविषयस्य ज्ञानस्याभावज्ञेयव्यतिरेकाज्ज्ञेयज्ञानयोरन्यत्वम्। न हि तत्सिद्धं मृतमिवोज्जीवयितुं पुनरन्यथा कर्तुं शक्यते वैनाशिकशतैरपि। Answer: No, since the distinction of the two (viz knowledge and object) is already postulated. Inasmuch as the knowledge that pertains to an object of the form of nonexistence is different from that non-existent object, the different between the knowable and the knowledge stands as an established fact. That fact having been proved, it cannot be revivified like a dead man, nor can it be reversed by even a hundred nihilistic Buddhists.
ज्ञानस्य स्वाज्ञेयत्वे तदप्यन्येन तदप्यन्येनेति त्वत्पक्षेऽतिप्रसङ्ग इति चेत्, Objection: In so far as knowledge is known by some other knowledge, there crops up an infinite regress from your point of view, since that knowledge must have another knowledge to know it, and that again another.
न; तद्विभागोपपत्तेः सर्वस्य – यदा हि सर्वं ज्ञेयं कस्यचित्, तदा तद्व्यतिरिक्तं ज्ञानं ज्ञानमेवेति द्वितीयो विभाग एवाभ्युपगम्यतेऽवैनाशिकैः। न तृतीयस्तद्विषय इत्यनवस्थानुपपत्तिः। Answer: Not so, for a logical distinction between all (knowledge and objects) is possible. On the admission that everything is knowable to some knowledge, that knowledge which is different from its content remains what it is for ever. [•We hold that things knowable are objects of knowledge, but knowledge itself is not known. The knowable are ever knowable, and so is knowledge ever knowledge.•] This is second category that is admitted by all who are not nihilists, and no third category to comprehend it is admitted. Thus there is no scope for infinite regress.
ज्ञानस्य स्वेनैवाविज्ञेयत्वे सर्वज्ञत्वहानिरिति चेत्, Objection: If knowledge remains unknown to itself, then omniscience becomes untenable.
सोऽपि दोषस्तस्यैवास्तु; किं तन्निबर्हणेनास्माकम्? Answer: That defect, too, should affect him (i.e. the Buddhists) alone. What need have we to remove it? [•The Buddhist believes that knowledge is known. So if it can be proved that knowledge is unknowable, omniscience of Buddha, for instance, can no longer be sustained. But the Vedāntin is not open to that charge, as according to him knowledge can cognize only those things that are fit to be known, as otherwise non-omniscience would result from the non-comprehension of such an imaginary thing as the horn of a hare. The Vedāntin may also reply that since the very conception of omniscience is within the domain of ignorance, he is not under any obligation to prove its reality. Or he may argue that omniscience follows from the fact of one’s possessing the capacity to know everything that exists, but not necessarily from the actual awareness of everything.•]
अनवस्थादोषश्च ज्ञानस्य ज्ञेयत्वाभ्युपगमात् – अवश्यं च वैनाशिकानां ज्ञानं ज्ञेयम्। स्वात्मना चाविज्ञेयत्वेनानवस्था अनिवार्या। Besides, (for him) there is the fault of infinite regress arising from the admission that knowledge is an object of knowledge, for knowledge is certainly knowable according to the (Buddhist) nihilist. And because (a particular) knowledge cannot be known by itself, an infinite regress is inevitable.
समान एवायं दोष इति चेत्, Objection: This fault is equally in evidence (in your theory as well).
न; ज्ञानस्यैकत्वोपपत्तेः – सर्वदेशकालपुरुषाद्यवस्थास्वेकमेव ज्ञानं नामरूपाद्यनेकोपाधिभेदात् सवित्रादिजलादिप्रतिबिम्बवदनेकधावभासत इति। नासौ दोषः। तथा चेहेदमुच्यते। Answer: Not so, for consciousness (according to us) can logically be shown to be but one. Since it is but one Consciousness, existing in all places, times, persons, etc., that appears diversely because of the differences in the multifarious limiting adjuncts constituted by name, form, etc., just like the reflections of the sun etc. on water etc., therefore that objection has no force; and the statement that is under consideration here agrees with this. [•On the strength of the fact that Consciousness as an eternal entity is the basis of all appearance, the Upaniṣad talks of the superimposition of the parts (or limbs) on that Consciousness.•]
ननु श्रुतेरिहैवान्तःशरीरे परिच्छिन्नः कुण्डबदरवत्पुरुष इति, Objection: From the Upaniṣad text, ('here itself inside the body'-PrasU.6.2), it follows that the Puruṣa is contained here inside the body, like a jujube fruit in a vessel.
न; प्राणादिकलाकारणत्वात् – न हि शरीरमात्रपरिच्छिन्नः प्राणश्रद्धादीनां कलानां कारणत्वं प्रतिपत्तुं शक्नुयात्। कलाकार्यत्वाच्च शरीरस्य – न हि पुरुषकार्याणां कलानां कार्यं सच्छरीरं कारणकारणं स्वस्य पुरुषं कुण्डबदरमिवाभ्यन्तरीकुर्यात्। Answer: No, (this is wrong), because the Puruṣa is the cause of such parts as Prāṇa, and because nobody will understand the Puruṣa as the source of such parts as Prāṇa, faith, etc., if He be delimited by a mere body. And this follows from the further fact that the body is an effect of those parts; because the body, which is constituted by the parts – Prāṇa and the rest, which (in their turn) are the products of the Puruṣa – cannot contain within itself, like a jujube in a vessel, the Puruṣa who is the origin of its own source.
बीजवृक्षादिवत्स्यादिति चेत् – यथा बीजकार्यं वृक्षस्तत्कार्यं च फलं स्वकारणकारणं बीजमभ्यन्तरीकरोत्याम्रादि, तद्वत्पुरुषमभ्यन्तरीकुर्याच्छरीरं स्वकारणकारणमपीति चेत्, Objection: This is possible on the analogy of the seed and the tree. Just as a tree is the effect of a seed, and the effect of that tree is a fruit, a mango for instance, which holds within itself the (stone that is the) cause of its cause (viz the tree), similarly the body can contain within itself even the Puruṣa, though He is the cause of its own cause (viz Prāṇa etc.).
न; अन्यत्वात्सावयवत्वाच्च – दृष्टान्ते कारणाद्बीजाद्वृक्षफलसंवृत्तान्यन्यान्येव बीजानि; दार्ष्टान्तिके तु स्वकारणकारणभूतः स एव पुरुषः शरीरेऽभ्यन्तरीकृतः श्रूयते। Answer: This is untenable, because it implies difference and divisibility. In the analogy, the seeds contained in the fruits of the tree are different from the seed that produced the tree, whereas in the case to which the analogy applies, the very same Puruṣa who is the cause of the causes of the body, is heard of in the Upaniṣad to be confined within the body.
बीजवृक्षादीनां सावयवत्वाच्च स्यादाधाराधेयत्वम्; निरवयवश्च पुरुषः, सावयवाश्च कलाः शरीरं च। Moreover, things like the tree and the seeds can be related by way of the container and the thing contained, because they are composite by nature, whereas the Puruṣa is not divisible, though the parts (viz Prāṇa etc.) and the body are.
एतेनाकाशस्यापि शरीराधारत्वमनुपपन्नम्; किमुताकाशकारणस्य पुरुषस्य? तस्मादसमानो दृष्टान्तः। Hereby it is shown that inasmuch as even space cannot be contained within body, [•Objection: The body produced from divisible space contains space within itself. Answer: There too space does not enter into the body, but seems to be existing in the shape of a body as pervading the pores and empty regions there.•] much less can the Puruṣa, who is the cause of space, be confined within it. Therefore the illustration in inapt.
किं दृष्टान्तेन? वचनात्स्यादिति चेत्, Objection: Leave alone the analogy. The point is born out by the text itself.
न; वचनस्याकारकत्वात् – न हि वचनं वस्तुनोऽन्यथाकरणे व्याप्रियते; किं तर्हि, यथाभूतार्थावद्योतने। तस्मादन्तःशरीर इत्येतद्वचनम् ‘अण्डस्यान्तर्व्योम’ इतिवद्द्रष्टव्यम्। Answer: That cannot be, for texts cannot create things anew, since a text is not meant to reverse anything. What is its function then? It is concerned with expressing things as they are. Therefore the text ‘inside the body’ is to be understood in the same sense as the statement that space exists within the Cosmic Egg. [•Space is the cause of the universe, but since space pervades everything, it is perceived as confined within the universe.•]
उपलब्धिनिमित्तत्वाच्च – दर्शनश्रवणमननविज्ञानादिलिङ्गैरन्तःशरीरे परिच्छिन्न इव ह्युपलभ्यते पुरुष उपलभ्यते चात्र। अत उच्यते – अन्तःशरीरे सोम्य स पुरुष इति। Besides, that text conforms only to empirical experience in so far as from such logical grounds as (the experiences of) seeing, hearing, thinking, knowing, etc., the Puruṣa is experienced within the body, as though He is a limited being. And since (it is within the body that) He is realized, therefore it is said, ‘O amiable one, that Puruṣa is inside the body.’
न पुनराकाशकारणभूतः सन्कुण्डबदरवच्छरीरपरिच्छिन्न इति मनसापीच्छति वक्तुं मूढोऽपि; किमुत प्रमाणभूता श्रुतिः॥ When not even a fool wishes to conceive mentally that the Puruṣa, who is the cause of space, can be encompassed by the body like a jujube in a vessel, much less can a Veda text which is a valid means of knowledge do so.
यस्मिन्नेताः षोडश कलाः प्रभवन्तीत्युक्तः पुरुषविशेषणार्थः कलानां प्रभवः, स चान्यार्थोऽपि श्रुतः केन क्रमेण स्यादित्यत इदमुच्यते। चेतनपूर्विका च सृष्टिरित्येवमर्थं च। स पुरुषः षोडशकलः पृष्टो यो भारद्वाजेन – As a description of the Puruṣa, it has been said, ‘that Puruṣa in whom originate those sixteen parts’ (PrasU.6.2). Though that origination of the parts was stated (there) in the Upaniṣad in another connection, still the presented text (dealing with creation) is meant to recount the order in which the origination occurred as also to show that creation is preceded by intelligence (cetana):
The puruṣa (remembered and) envisioned, “In whose departure would I depart (from this lifeless body). And in whose presence would be able to remain (in this body)?”
सः ईक्षाञ्चक्रे ईक्षणं दर्शनं चक्रे – कृतवानित्यर्थः – सृष्टिफलक्रमादिविषयम्। कथमिति, उच्यते – कस्मिन् कर्तृविशेषे देहाद् उत्क्रान्ते उत्क्रान्तो भविष्यामि अहम् एव; कस्मिन् वा शरीरे प्रतिष्ठिते अहं प्रतिष्ठास्यामि प्रतिष्ठितः स्यामित्यर्थः। Saḥ, He, the Puruṣa endued with sixteen parts, about whom the son of Bharad-vāja inquired; īkṣāñ-cakre, made this deliberation on, that is to say, penetrated into, the subject of creation (śṛṣṭi), result, order, etc. [•Creation – of Prāṇa etc., result – such as their departure from the body; order – emergence of faith from Prāṇa and so on; etc – the relation of the container and the contained, as subsisting between the world and name etc.•] How he did so is being stated: Kasmin utkrānte, which particular agent having risen up, from the body; bhaviṣyāmi aham, shall I Myself become; utkrāntaḥ, separated? Vā, or; kasmin pratiṣṭhite, which continuing to be established in the body; pratiṣṭhāsyāmi aham, shall I remain established? This is the purport.
नन्वात्मा अकर्ता प्रधानं कर्तृ; अतः पुरुषार्थं प्रयोजनमुररीकृत्य प्रधानं प्रवर्तते महदाद्याकारेण; तत्रेदमनुपपन्नं पुरुषस्य स्वातन्त्र्येणेक्षापूर्वकं कर्तृत्ववचनम्, सत्त्वादिगुणसाम्ये प्रधाने प्रमाणोपपन्ने सृष्टिकर्तरि सति ईश्वरेच्छानुवर्तिषु वा परमाणुषु सत्सु आत्मनोऽप्येकत्वेन कर्तृत्वे साधनाभावादात्मन आत्मन्यनर्थकर्तृत्वानुपपत्तेश्च। न हि चेतनावान्बुद्धिपूर्वकारी आत्मनः अनर्थं कुर्यात् तस्मात्पुरुषार्थेन प्रयोजनेनेक्षापूर्वकमिव नियतक्रमेण प्रवर्तमानेऽचेतनेऽपि प्रधाने चेतनवदुपचारोऽयं स ईक्षाञ्चक्रे इत्यादिः; यथा राज्ञः सर्वार्थकारिणि भृत्ये राजेति, तद्वत्। Objection: Is it not a fact that the Self is not an agent of action, while the Pradhāna (primal Nature) is? Hence it is the Pradhāna that evolves as Mahat (i.e. the principle of intelligence) and the rest by setting before itself the needs of the Puruṣa (conscious soul). Therefore, in the face of the facts that Pradhāna, existing in a state of balance of its (three) constituents of sattva etc., has to be assumed on valid authority to be the creator; that there exist the minutest atoms which act according to Divine Will; that the Self has not the wherewithal to create, It being non-dual; and that the Self cannot be the author of evil to Itself, because a conscious being that acts intelligently cannot do any evil to itself; it is unjustifiable to talk of any agentship of the Puruṣa, preceded by independent deliberation. Accordingly, when, to serve the purposes of the Puruṣa, the insentient Pradhāna evolves in a regular order, as though out of deliberation, the Pradhāna is figuratively spoken of as intelligent in the statement, ‘He deliberated’ etc., just as one might say, ‘He is the king’, with regard to an officer who does everything for the king.
न; आत्मनो भोक्तृत्ववत्कर्तृत्वोपपत्तेः – यथा साङ्ख्यस्य चिन्मात्रस्यापरिणामिनोऽप्यात्मनो भोक्तृत्वम्, तद्वद्वेदवादिनामीक्षापूर्वकं जगत्कर्तृत्वमुपपन्नं श्रुतिप्रामाण्यात्। Answer: No, since it is as logical to look upon the Self as the doer, as to conceive of It as the enjoyer. Just as from the Sāṅkhya standpoint the Self which is a mere changeless Consciousness can still be the enjoyer, similarly, from the standpoint of the followers of the Vedas, Its creatorship of the world through deliberation can be justified on the authority of the Vedas.
तत्त्वान्तरपरिणामादात्मनोऽनित्यत्वाशुद्धत्वानेकत्वनिमित्तं चिन्मात्रस्वरूपविक्रियातः पुरुषस्य स्वात्मन्येव भोक्तृत्वे चिन्मात्रस्वरूपविक्रिया न दोषाय। भवतां पुनर्वेदवादिनां सृष्टिकर्तृत्वे तत्त्वान्तरपरिणाम एवेत्यात्मनोऽनित्यत्वादिसर्वदोषप्रसङ्ग इति चेत्, Objection: Any transformation, consisting in a change of (the essence of) the Self into a different category, causes Its impermanence, impurity, and multiplicity; but a mere variation within Its very nature of Consciousness does not do so. Accordingly, if enjoyership is inherent in the Puruṣa Himself, any change within that Consciousness (of enjoyment) [•Enjoyment (or suffering) consists in a direct experience of joy (or sorrow). This experience is the very nature of the soul, whereas action belongs to the intellect and the rest.•] is not open to any charge (of mutation of the Self), whereas from your standpoint, who are followers of the Vedas and admit that the Self is the creator, there does occur an essential mutation, [•By becoming the intellect etc. for the purposes of creation.•] and therefore the Self becomes subject to all such faults as impermanence etc.
न; एकस्याप्यात्मनोऽविद्याविषयनामरूपोपाध्यनुपाधिकृतविशेषाभ्युपगमात्। Answer: No, for it is held by us that though the Self is but one, still, in the state of ignorance, there occur to It apparent distinctions created by the presence or absence of the limiting adjuncts constituted by names and forms of objects.
अविद्याकृतनामरूपोपाधिनिमित्तो हि विशेषोऽभ्युपगम्यते आत्मनो बन्धमोक्षादिशास्त्रकृतसंव्यवहाराय। Some sort of a distinction in the Self, created through the limiting adjuncts of name and forms that are caused by ignorance, is admitted (as a concession), so that talk about the bondage and freedom of the Self in the scriptures may be possible.
परमार्थतोऽनुपाधिकृतं च तत्त्वमेकमेवाद्वितीयमुपादेयं सर्वतार्किकबुद्ध्यनवगम्यं ह्यजमभयं शिवमिष्यते। न तत्र कर्तृत्वं भोक्तृत्वं वा क्रियाकारकफलं वास्ति, अद्वैतत्वात्सर्वभावानाम्। In reality, however, what is desired is that one should stand by the unconditioned Entity which is one without a second, which is beyond the reach of all sophists, and which is fearless and auspicious. There can be no agentship, no enjoyership, nor any action, instrument, or result, where everything is reduced to non-duality.
साङ्ख्यास्त्वविद्याध्यारोपितमेव पुरुषे कर्तृत्वं क्रियाकारकं फलं चेति कल्पयित्वा आगमबाह्यत्वात्पुनस्ततस्त्रस्यन्तः परमार्थत एव भोक्तृत्वं पुरुषस्येच्छन्ति। The Sāṅkhyas, however, first imagine that agentship, as well as action, instrument, and result, is superimposed on the Self; but as they are outside the pale of the Vedas, they recoil from such a (monistic) position and hold that enjoyership is a real characteristic of the Self.
तत्त्वान्तरं च प्रधानं पुरुषाद्बाह्यं परमार्थवस्तुभूतमेव कल्पयन्तोऽन्यतार्किककृतबुद्धिविषयाः सन्तो विहन्यन्ते। Again, fancying that the Pradhāna is a real substance, essentially different from the Self, they fall into the snares woven by the intellect of other (dualistic) sophists and lose their bearing.
तथेतरेतार्किकाः सांख्यैः; इत्येवं परस्परविरुद्धार्थकल्पनात आमिषार्थिन इव प्राणिनोऽन्योन्यविरुध्यमानार्थदर्शित्वात्परमार्थतत्त्वाद्दूरमेवापकृष्यन्ते। Similarly are the other sophists led astray by Sāṅkhyas. Thus by postulating theories opposed to each other, like carnivores (fighting for a piece of flesh), they continually drift away from the supreme Reality owing to their proneness to discover such (distorted) interpretations of the conclusions arrived at by valid means of proof as may demolish each other’s point of view.
अतस्तन्मतमनादृत्य वेदान्तार्थतत्त्वमेकत्वदर्शनं प्रत्यादरवन्तो मुमुक्षवः स्युरिति तार्किकमतदोषप्रदर्शनं किञ्चिदुच्यतेऽस्माभिः; न तु तार्किकवत्तात्पर्येण। तथैतदत्रोक्तम् – विवदत्स्वेव निक्षिप्य विरोधोद्भवकारणम्। तैः संरक्षितसद्बुद्धिः सुखं निर्वाति वेदवित्। Therefore we disclose a few flaws in the theories of the sophists not in the spirit of the sophists, but in order that people desirous of liberation may become devoted to the true import of the Upaniṣads, viz the realization of the non-duality of the Self, by ignoring those other theories. Thus has it been said in this connection: ‘Leaving the cause of the origination of all disputes [•Apprehension of duality as true.•] amongst the disputants themselves, and keeping his good sense well protected by their example, the knower of the Vedas reposes happily.’
किंच, भोक्तृत्वकर्तृत्वयोर्विक्रिययोर्विशेषानुपपत्तिः। का नामासौ कर्तृत्वाज्जात्यन्तरभूता भोक्तृत्वविशिष्टा विक्रिया, यतो भोक्तैव पुरुषः कल्प्यते न कर्ता; प्रधानं तु कर्त्रेव न भोक्तृ इति। Moreover, no distinction can be made between the two kinds of modification (in the Self) called enjoyership and agentship. What indeed is that modification characterized as enjoyership which belongs to a class by itself and is different from agentship, depending on which the Puruṣa can be conceived of as merely the enjoyer and not the agent, while the Pradhāna can be thought of as merely an agent and not an enjoyer?
ननु उक्तं पुरुषश्चिन्मात्र एव; स च स्वात्मस्थो विक्रियते भुञ्जानः, न तत्त्वान्तरपरिणामेन। प्रधानं तु तत्त्वान्तरपरिणामेन विक्रियते; अतो नैकमशुद्धमचेतनं चेत्यादिधर्मवत्। तद्विपरीतः पुरुषः। Sāṅkhya: Did we not say that the Puruṣa consists merely of intelligence and that He changes not by transformed into some other category, but in the course of experience while still remaining what He is in essence? On the other hand, the Pradhāna changes by being evolved into some other principle, and hence it is possessed of such Puruṣa is the opposite of it.
नासौ विशेषः, वाङ्मात्रत्वात्। प्राग्भोगोत्पत्तेः केवलचिन्मात्रस्य पुरुषस्य भोक्तृत्वं नाम विशेषो भोगोत्पत्तिकाले चेत् जायते, निवृत्ते च भोगे पुनस्तद्विशेषादपेतश्चिन्मात्र एव भवतीति चेत्; महदाद्याकारेण च परिणम्य प्रधानं ततोऽपेत्य पुनः प्रधानस्वरूपेण व्यवतिष्ठत इति अस्यां कल्पनायां न कश्चिद्विशेष इति वाङ्मात्रेण प्रधानपुरुषयोर्विशिष्टविक्रिया कल्प्यते। Vedāntin: That is a distinction which is not real but merely verbal. If to the Puruṣa, who is (conceived of as) mere intelligence before the emergence of enjoyership, there accrues some special attribute called experience at the time of the occurrence of enjoyment, and if after the cessation of the enjoyment, the Puruṣa is freed from that peculiarity and becomes pure intelligence again, (then one may argue that during enjoyment, the enjoying) Pradhāna also evolves as Mahat etc., and then reversing the process (after that experience) it exists in its own nature as Pradhāna. Hence the supposition does not serve to point out any difference. Accordingly, the distinction that is sought to be made between the transformations of the Puruṣa and the Pradhāna is merely a verbal one.
अथ भोगकालेऽपि चिन्मात्र एव प्राग्वत्पुरुष इति चेत्, न तर्हि परमार्थतो भोगः पुरुषस्य। If now it is held that the Puruṣa continues as before to be pure intelligence even during enjoyment, then there is no experience, in the real sense, by the Puruṣa.
अथ भोगकाले चिन्मात्रस्य विक्रिया परमार्थैव, तेन भोगः पुरुषस्येति चेत्, Sāṅkhya: The change in the Pure Intelligence during enjoyment is certainly real. Hence, enjoyment is by the Puruṣa.
न; प्रधानस्यापि भोगकाले विक्रियावत्त्वाद्भोक्तृकत्वप्रसङ्ः। Vedāntin: That cannot be. Since the Pradhāna too under goes change during enjoyment, it may as well become the enjoyer.
चिन्मात्रस्यैव विक्रिया भोक्तृत्वमिति चेत्, Sāṅkhya: Change in the pure intelligence alone constitutes enjoyership.
औष्ण्याद्यसाधारणधर्मवतामग्न्यादीनामभोक्तृत्वे हेत्वनुपपत्तिः। Vedāntin: In that case there is no valid reason why fire and the rest that are possessed of distinct attributes like heat etc. should not be enjoyers. [•‘Change in Pure Intelligence alone’, may mean two things: (i) change in Intelligence irrespective of any change in another substance; (ii) some uncommon change in the Intelligence alone. The first position is untenable, since the Puruṣa cannot enjoy unless there be corresponding changes in the form of happiness etc. in the Pradhāna. As for the second alternative, there is no special reason why an uncommon change in an uncommon factor, viz Intelligence, should be called enjoyment; for if enjoyment is defined as ‘an uncommon change within the thing itself’, the definition becomes too wide; and thus fire may also become an enjoyer by a mere uncommon change within its uncommon quality of heat.•]
प्रधानपुरुषयोर्द्वयोर्युगपद्भोक्तृत्वमिति चेत्, Objection: Enjoyership may belong simultaneously to both Pradhāna and Puruṣa.
न; प्रधानस्य पारार्थ्यानुपपत्तेः – न हि भोक्त्रोर्द्वयोरितरेतरगुणप्रधानभाव उपपद्यते प्रकाशयोरिवेतरेतरप्रकाशने। Vedāntin: No, since in that case the (Sāṅkhya) theory that Pradhāna acts for the benefit of another (viz the Puruṣa) falls through; for among two co-enjoyers there can be no such relationship as overlordship and subordination, just as two lights cannot be so related by way of illuminating each other.
भोगधर्मवति सत्त्वाङ्गिनि चेतसि पुरुषस्य चैतन्यप्रतिबिम्बोदयादविक्रियस्य पुरुषस्य भोक्तृत्वमिति चेत्, Objection: The enjoyment of the unchanging Puruṣa consists in the production of a reflection of the Puruṣa on the mind-stuff in which the sattva quality predominates and which is by nature an enjoyer.
न; पुरुषस्य विशेषाभावे भोक्तृत्वकल्पनानर्थक्यात्। भोगरूपश्चेदनर्थः पुरुषस्य नास्मि सदा निर्विशेषत्वात्पुरुषस्य, कस्यापनयनार्थं मोक्षसाधनं शास्त्रं प्रणीयते? Vedāntin: It cannot be so; for if the Puruṣa is not affected thereby in any way, it is meaningless to posit an enjoyership for Him. If the Puruṣa has no evil in the form of experience, He being ever without attributes, then for removing what (evil) is the (Sāṅkhya) scripture written as a means for emancipation?
अविद्याध्यारोपितानर्थापनयनाय शास्त्रप्रणयनमिति चेत्, Objection: The scripture is written for the sake of removing the evil superimposed through ignorance.
परमार्थतः पुरुषो भोक्तैव, न कर्ता; प्रधानं कर्त्रेव न भोक्तृ परमार्थसद्वस्त्वन्तरं पुरुषाच्च इतीयं कल्पना आगमबाह्या व्यर्थानिर्हेतुका च इति नादर्तव्या मुमुक्षुभिः। Answer: In that case the hypotheses that in reality the Puruṣa is only an enjoyer and not an agent, that the Pradhāna is only a doer and not an enjoyer, and that the Pradhāna is a really existing entity different from the Puruṣa – which (suppositions) are outside that Veda pale – are useless and unwarranted, and hence need not be taken into consideration by people craving for liberation.
एकत्वेऽपि शास्त्रप्रणयनाद्यानर्थक्यमिति चेत्, Objection: Even from the standpoint of non-duality, such activity as the compilation of scriptures is futile.
न; अभावात् – सत्सु हि शास्त्रप्रणेत्रादिषु तत्फलार्थिषु च शास्त्रस्य प्रणयनमर्थवदनर्थकं वेति विकल्पना स्यात्। न ह्यात्मैकत्वे शास्त्रप्रणेत्रादयस्ततो भिन्नाः सन्ति; तदभावे एवं विकल्पनैवानुपपन्ना। Answer: No, for no such thing is possible in the state of non-duality. The conflicting thought as to whether the compilation of scriptures is useless or useless can arise only when there are the compliers of the scriptures and others who want to derive some benefit from them; but in the state of non-duality of the Self, apart from the Self there can be no complier of the scriptures, nor anyone else. And in their absence, this kind of hypothesis itself is altogether unjustifiable.
अभ्युपगते आत्मैकत्वे प्रमाणार्थश्चाभ्युपगतो भवता यदात्मैकत्वमभ्युपगच्छता। तदभ्युपगमे च विकल्पानुपपत्तिमाह शास्त्रम् ‘यत्र त्वस्य सर्वमात्मैवाभूत्तत्केन कं पश्येत्’ (BrhU.4.5.15) इत्यादि; From the very fact of your firm affirmation of the unity of the Self it is admitted by you pari passu (‘on equal footing’ – from your personal experience) that scriptures serve the valid purpose (of revealing the non-duality of the Self). And the following scriptural text declares with regard to that unity of the Self, to which you subscribe, that when the conviction arises, there is no scope for doubt: ‘When to the knower of Brahman everything has become the Self, then what should one see and through what?’ (BrhUEng.4.5.15).
शास्त्रप्रणयनाद्युपपत्तिं चाह अन्यत्र परमार्थवस्तुस्वरूपादविद्याविषये ‘यत्र हि द्वैतमिव भवति’ (BrhU.4.5.15) इत्यादि विस्तरतो वाजसनेयके। Similarly in the Vāja-saneyaka Upaniṣad it is shown elaborated how in the domain of ignorance which comprises things other than the supreme Reality, it is possible to do such things as the compilation of scriptures: ‘Because when there is duality, as it were, (then one sees something)’ etc. (BrhUEng.4.5.15).
अत्र च विभक्ते विद्याविद्ये परापरे इत्यादावेव शास्त्रस्य। Here again, at the very commencement of the scriptures (the Upaniṣad of the Atharva-Veda, viz MunU.1.1.4), knowledge and ignorance have been separated by calling them higher and lower.
अतो न तार्किकवादभटप्रवेशो वेदान्तराजप्रमाणबाहुगुप्ते इहात्मैकत्वविषये इति। Accordingly, the army at the command of sophistic theories cannot enter here into this domain of the non-duality of the Self that is protected by the hands [•The reasoning found in Vedānta.•] of the king who is none other than the valid proof adduced by Vedānta.
एतेनाविद्याकृतनामरूपाद्युपाधिकृतानेकशक्तिसाधनकृतभेदवत्त्वाद्ब्रह्मणः सृष्ट्यादिकर्तृत्वे साधनाद्यभावो दोषः प्रत्युक्तो वेदितव्यः, It is to be understood that hereby is refuted the fault imputed by others that Brahman lacks the necessary equipment etc. for becoming an agent in the matter of creation etc.; for Brahman can (be imagined to) be associated with differences caused by diverse powers and accessories that emerge from the limiting adjuncts created through name and form which are called up by ignorance.
परैरुक्त आत्मानर्थकर्तृत्वादिदोषश्च। And so also is set aside the other objection raised by others that the Self (of the non-dualists) becomes the originator of Its own misery. [•For God is fancied to be the creator of a world ignorantly superimposed on Him, and He is fancied to ordain good and evil for the souls which have no real separate existence.•]
यस्तु दृष्टान्तो राज्ञः सर्वार्थकारिणि कर्तरि भृत्ये उपचारो राजा कर्तेति, सोऽत्रानुपपन्नः; ‘स ईक्षाञ्चक्रे’ इति श्रुतेर्मुख्यार्थबाधनात्प्रमाणभूतायाः। तत्र हि गौणी कल्पना शब्दस्य, यत्र मुख्यार्थो न सम्भवति। As for the illustration of an officer who does everything for the king and is called by courtesy a king or a master, that has no application here because it runs counter to the (obvious) primary meaning of the Veda text, ‘He deliberated’, which is meant to impart valid knowledge; for a secondary meaning of a word is called for only where the primary meaning is inadmissible.
इह त्वचेतनस्य मुक्तबद्धपुरुषविशेषापेक्षया कर्तृकर्मदेशकालनिमित्तापेक्षया च बन्धमोक्षादिफलार्था नियता पुरुषं प्रति प्रवृत्तिर्नोपपद्यते; But here it does not stand to reason that an insentient entity (viz Pradhāna) should engage in well-regulated activity for the purpose of bondage, liberation, etc. in relation to the Puruṣa, keeping in view the difference between bound and freed souls [•That the free souls are to be left apart, and actions are to relate to the bound ones alone.•] and taking note of such distinctions as of subject, object, space, time, and causation.
यथोक्तसर्वज्ञेश्वरकर्तृत्वपक्षे तु उपपन्ना। ईश्वरेणैव॥ On the other hand, this becomes justifiable from the standpoint already stated that omniscient God is the creator. By Puruṣa alone, as by a king, [•This is according to the reading ‘Īśvareṇa iva’. An alternative reading is ‘Īśvareṇa eva’, by God Himself (who is Puruṣa). Or per Panoli, the last part belongs in the introduction to the next mantra.•]
(ईश्वरेणैव) सर्वाधिकारी प्राणः पुरुषेण सृज्यते कथम्? By Īśvara, i.e. Puruṣa, alone is Prāṇa, the chief functionary, created. How?
That puruṣa (the Lord) created (those sixteen necessary parts starting with the universal) (1.) prāṇa (Hiraṇya-garbha). From out of prāṇa (he created) (2.) trust (śraddhā, the ability to abide in learning what is helpful for life), (then the five elements) (3.) space, (4.) air, (5.) fire, (6.) water and (7.) earth, (and the means to sense them) (8.) each sense organ (indriya, counting as one to get to the number sixteen), and (9.) the mind (manas, to be in charge of them). Then (to feed them he created) (10.) food (anna). From out of food (he created) (11.) vitality (vīrya), (12.) religious discipline (tapas), (13.) mantras (the teachings of what is helpful), (14.) karma and (15.) the realms (of karma), and in those realms (16.) the nāman (name, of these kalās and of everything else by which we distinguish things and people).
सः पुरुषः उक्तप्रकारेणेक्षित्वा सर्व-प्राणं हिरण्यगर्भाख्यं सर्वप्राणिकरणाधारमन्तरात्मानम् असृजत सृष्टवान्। Having deliberated in the way stated before, saḥ, He, the Puruṣa; asṛjata, created; prāṇam, Prāṇa, [•Energy, both mental (i.e. intellectual) and physical.•] (the sum total of all Prāṇas,) called Hiraṇya-garbha, [•That is to say, the limiting adjunct through which the Self appears to be individualized and comes to be known as Hiraṇya-garbha.-A.G.•] that is the repository of the organs of all beings, and is the inner soul of all. [•As the sum total of all the subtle bodies, this limiting adjunct, called Hiraṇya-garbha, resides inside the gross bodies and is thought of as one’s self. Hence it is antar, inside, and ātman, self.•]
ततः प्राणात् श्रद्धां सर्वप्राणिनां शुभकर्मप्रवृत्तिहेतुभूताम्; Prāṇāt, from this Prāṇa, He created śraddhām, faith, that is the source of stimulus for all beings for good action.
ततः कर्मफलोपभोगसाधनाधिष्ठानानि कारणभूतानि महाभूतानि असृजत – खं शब्दगुणकम्, वायुः स्वेन स्पर्शगुणेन शब्दगुणेन च विशिष्टो द्विगुणः, तथा ज्योतिः स्वेन रूपेण पूर्वगुणाभ्यां च विशिष्टं शब्दस्पर्शाभ्यां त्रिगुणम्, तथा आपो रसगुणेनासाधारणेन पूर्वगुणानुप्रवेशेन च चतुर्गुणाः, तथा गन्धगुणेन पूर्वगुणानुप्रवेशेन च पञ्चगुणा पृथिवी, From that He created the great elements that support by becoming that material constituents of the (physical body that is the) vehicle of enjoyment of the fruits of actions. (He created) kham, space, possessed of the quality of sound; vāyuh, air, possessed of two attributes, its own attribute of touch and the attribute (sound) of its source (space); similarly jyotiḥ, fire, possessed of three qualities – its own quality of colour and the qualities of sound and touch belonging to the earlier two; similarly āpaḥ, water, possessed of four attributes – its own individual quality of taste and the infusion of the three earlier qualities (sound, touch, colour); similarly pṛthivī, earth, endowed with five qualities by virtue of its possession of smell, and the permeation of the four earlier qualities (sound, touch, colour, taste).
तथा तैरेव भूतैरारब्धम् इन्द्रियं द्विप्रकारं बुद्ध्यर्थं कर्मार्थं च दशसङ्ख्याकम्, तस्य चेश्वरमन्तःस्थं संशयविकल्पादिलक्षणं मनः। So also (He created) indriyam, the organs – constituted by those elements themselves –, which are of two kinds and are ten in number for the purposes of perception and action; and (He created) manas, the mind, the lord of those organs, which resides inside and is characterized by doubt and thought.
एवं प्राणिनां कार्यं करणं च सृष्ट्वा तत्स्थित्यर्थं व्रीहियवादिलक्षणम् अन्नम्, ततश्च अन्नात् अद्यमानात् वीर्यं सामर्थ्यं बलं सर्वकर्मप्रवृत्तिसाधनम्, Having thus created that body and the organs of the creatures, He created for their sustenance annam, food, constituted by paddy, barely, etc. Annāt, from that food, when eaten; (He created) vīryam, ability, vigour that is at the root of engaging in all works.
तद्वीर्यवतां च प्राणिनां तपः विशुद्धिसाधनं संकीर्यमाणानाम्, मन्त्राः तपोविशुद्धान्तर्बहिःकरणेभ्यः कर्मसाधनभूता ऋग्यजुःसामाथर्वाङ्गिरसः; ततः कर्म अग्निहोत्रादिलक्षणम्, ततो लोकाः कर्मणां फलम् (कर्म-लोकाः), After that (He created) tapas, self control, for the sake of the purification of those strong creatures who get involved in the intermixture of castes (through sin). Then (He created) mantrāḥ, mantras, comprising the Ṛk, Yajur, Sāman, and Atharvan texts, which are the means of (religious) activities for those who have purified their internal and external organs with the help of self-control; then karmas, rites, such as Agni-hotra; then lokāḥ, the worlds, the results of rites.
तेषु च लोकेषु सृष्टानां प्राणिनां नाम च देवदत्तो यज्ञदत्त इत्यादि। And lokeṣu in these worlds He created nāman, names, for instance Deva-datta or Yajña-datta, of the created beings.
एवमेताः कलाः प्राणिनामविद्यादिदोषबीजापेक्षया सृष्टास्तैमिरिकदृष्टिसृष्टा इव द्विचन्द्रमशकमक्षिकाद्याः स्वप्नदृक्सृष्टा इव च सर्वपदार्थाः पुनस्तस्मिन्नेव पुरुषे प्रलीयन्ते हित्वा नामरूपादिविभागम्॥ Thus, in conformity with [•Taking them as His aid.•] the seeds constituted by such defects of the creatures as ignorance, these parts were created – like two moons, mosquitoes, bees, etc. created by the blurred (i.e. double) vision of a man suffering from the disease called Timira, or like all sorts of things created by a dreamer – and these again merge into that very Puruṣa by giving up such distinctions of name and form, etc.
It is like this, these flowing rivers reach the ocean and get absorbed (astaṃ gacchanti). Their names (nāmans) and forms (rūpas) are lost, and it is only called, “ocean.” In this way, these sixteen parts of the all-seeing puruṣa have as their abode (āyana) this one puruṣa, and resolve into the puruṣa. Their names (nāmans) and forms (rūpas) are lost, and it is only called, “puruṣa.” This very one (who knows this) is this immortal, partless one (a-kala puruṣa). In regard to that, there is this verse.
सः दृष्टान्तः, यथा लोके इमा नद्यः स्यन्दमानाः स्रवन्त्यः समुद्रायणाः, समुद्र एव अयनं गतिरात्मभावो यासां ताः समुद्रायणाः, समुद्रं प्राप्य उपगम्य अस्तम् अदर्शनं नामरूपतिरस्कारं गच्छन्ति; तासां चास्तं गतानां भिद्येते विनश्येते नामरूपे गङ्गा यमुनेत्यादिलक्षणे; तदभेदेन समुद्र इत्येवं प्रोच्यते तद्वस्तूदकलक्षणम्; Saḥ, the illustration is this: In the world, yathā, as; imāḥ, these; syandamānāḥ nadyaḥ, flowing rivers; samudra-ayaṇāḥ, that have the sea as their goal, the place where they get absorbed; samudram prāpya, after reaching the sea; gacchanti astam, court disappearance, lose their names and forms; – and tāsām nāma-rūpe,the names of those (rivers), for instance, Gaṅgā, Yamunā, etc., that have become absorbed; bhidyete, get eliminated; and, as a result of that merger, their substance that is water, samudraḥ iti evam procyate, is called merely by the word ‘sea’; –एवं यथायं दृष्टान्तः उक्तलक्षणस्य प्रकृतस्य अस्य पुरुषस्य परिद्रष्टुः परि समन्ताद्द्रष्टुर्दर्शनस्य कर्तुः स्वरूपभूतस्य। यथा अर्कः स्वात्मप्रकाशस्य कर्ता सर्वतः, तद्वत् इमाः षोडश प्राणाद्या उक्ताः कलाः पुरुषायणाः नदीनामिव समुद्रः पुरुषोऽयनमात्मभावगमनं यासां कलानां ताः पुरुषायणाः पुरुषं प्राप्य पुरुषात्मभावमुपगम्य तथा एव अस्तं गच्छन्ति। भिद्येते च आसां नामरूपे कलानां प्राणाद्याख्या रूपं च यथास्वम्। भेदे च नामरूपयोर्यदनष्टं तत्तत्त्वं पुरुषः इत्येवं प्रोच्यते ब्रह्मविद्भिः। Evam, similarly, as is this illustration, so; asya, of that Puruṣa, who is possessed of the attributes mentioned before, and who is being considered here; paridraṣṭuh, of Him who is the seer on all sides, who is the agent of a vision that is identical with His real nature, just as the sun is everywhere the agent of the light that is identical with itself; imāḥ ṣo-daśa-kalāḥ, these sixteen parts – the parts, counting from Prāṇa, that have been mentioned; puruṣa-ayaṇāḥ, which have the Puruṣa as their goal, the place where they get identified, as the sea is with relation to the rivers; prāpya puruṣam, on reaching the Puruṣa, on getting identified with the Puruṣa; astam gacchanti, disappear, in that very manner; ca, and āsām, of them, of the parts (kalās); the respective nāma-rūpe, names such as Prāṇa, as well as forms; bhidyete, get destroyed. When names and forms are eliminated, the entity (tattva) that remains undestroyed, procyate, is called, by the knowers of Brahman; puruṣaḥ iti evam, as Puruṣa.
य एवं विद्वान्गुरुणा प्रदर्शितकलाप्रलयमार्गः, स एषः विद्यया प्रविलापितास्वविद्याकामकर्मजनितासु प्राणादिकलासु अकलः अविद्याकृतकलानिमित्तो हि मृत्युः; तदपगमेऽकलत्वादेव अमृतः भवति। Saḥ, he, who has become thus enlightened after being shown by his teacher the process of the absorption of the parts; bhavati, becomes; a-kalāḥ, free from the parts, when the parts, viz Prāṇa and the rest that are the creation of ignorance, desire, and action, are absorbed through knowledge; and he bhavati, becomes a-mṛtaḥ, immortal. Death is a creation of the parts originating from nescience. When those parts are gone, one becomes immortal just because of one’s partlessness.तद् एतस्मिन्नर्थे एषः श्लोकः॥ Tat, with regard to this matter; there occurs; eṣaḥ ślokaḥ, this verse.
Like spokes on a hub of a chariot wheel, that one in which these parts are fixed, the puruṣa that is to be known – I (Pippalāda) know (or, one [should] know). In this way, may you (the puruṣa), as death, not afflict* all of you others. (* “may you not afflict,” ‘pari vyathāḥ’ in form is Vedic Present Subjunctive 2nd person sg. ‘pari vyath-a-a-s’ with ‘mā’ making it negative imperative; Sankara’s commentary paraphrases it with a 3rd person sg. Imperative, “may he not afflect.”)
● Like spokes on a hub of a chariot wheel (अराः इव रथ-नाभौ), ○ that in which these parts are fixed (कलाः यस्मिन् प्रतिष्ठिताः), ● the one to be known as the puruṣa – I know (or, one [should] know) (तं वेद्यं पुरुषं वेद). ○ In this way, may you, as death, not afflict all of you (यथा मा वः मृत्युः परिव्यथाः इति).
अरा इव रथचक्रपरिवारा इव रथनाभौ रथचक्रस्य नाभौ यथाप्रवेशिताः तदाश्रया भवन्ति यथा, तथेत्यर्थः। कलाः प्राणाद्याः यस्मिन् पुरुषे प्रतिष्ठिताः उत्पत्तिस्थितिलयकालेषु, तं पुरुषं कलानामात्मभूतं वेद्यं वेदनीयं पूर्णत्वात्पुरुषं पुरि शयनाद्वा वेद जानाति; Iva, as; arāḥ, spokes, which are, as it were, the dependants of a chariot wheel; pratiṣṭhitāḥ, are transfixed; ratha-nābhau, in the nave of a chariot wheel; that is to say, as they are dependent on the hub, so; veda, one should know; tam vedyam puruṣam, that knowable Puruṣa, who is the self of the parts (limbs) and who is called Puruṣa because of all-pervasiveness (pūrṇatvam) or existence in the city (i.e. pur of the body); yasmin, in whom, in which Puruṣa; pratiṣṭhitāḥ, are transfixed; the kalāḥ, parts (limbs), during the states of origin, continuance, and dissolution.यथा हे शिष्याः, मा वः युष्मान् मृत्युः परिव्यथाः मा परिव्यथयतु। (You please know Him) yathā, so that; O disciples, mṛtyuh, death; mā vaḥ parivyathāḥ, may not afflict you on any side.
न चेद्विज्ञायेत पुरुषो मृत्युनिमित्तां व्यथामापन्ना दुःखिन एव यूयं स्थ। अतस्तन्माभूद्युष्माकमित्यभिप्रायः॥ If the Puruṣa remains unknown, you will continue to be miserable under pain inflicted by death. Hence, may that not fall to your lot. This is the idea.
To them Pippalāda said, “This much alone I know the ultimate brahman (reality). Beyond this there is nothing.”
तान् एवमनुशिष्य शिष्यान् तान् होवाच पिप्पलादः किल एतावदेव वेद्यं परं ब्रह्म वेद विजानामि अहम् एतत्। न अतः अस्मात् परम् अस्ति Having thus instructed them (i.e. the disciples), Pippalādauvāca ha, said; tān, to them, to those disciples; ‘Aham veda, I know; etāvat eva, thus far only; etat, this; param brahma, supreme Brahman, that is worthy to be known. Ataḥ param, beyond this; na asti, there is not anything higher to be known.’
प्रकृष्टतरं वेदितव्यम् इति एवमुक्तवान् शिष्याणामविदितशेषास्तित्वाशङ्कानिवृत्तये कृतार्थबुद्धिजननार्थं च॥ Iti, thus did he say this is order to remove from the disciples any doubt that there might still remain something unknown; and also in order to generate in them the conviction that they had attained the final goal.
While worshipping Pippalāda they said, “You indeed are our father who has ferried us across an ocean of ignorance to the far shore. Salutation to the great seers. Salutation to the great seers.”
ते शिष्या गुरुणानुशिष्टाः तं गुरुं कृतार्थाः सन्तो विद्यानिष्क्रयमन्यदपश्यन्तः किं कृतवन्त इत्युच्यते – अर्चयन्तः पूजयन्तः पादयोः पुष्पाञ्जलिप्रकिरणेन प्रणिपातेन च शिरसा। किमूचुरित्याह – त्वं हि नः अस्माकं पिता ब्रह्मशरीरस्य विद्यया जनयितृत्वान्नित्यस्याजरामरणस्याभयस्य। यः त्वमेव अस्माकम् अविद्यायाः विपरीतज्ञानाज् जन्मजरामरणरोगदुःखादिग्राहाद् अपाराद् अविद्यामहोदधेर्विद्याप्लवेन परम् अपुनरावृत्तिलक्षणं मोक्षाख्यं महोदधेरिव पारं तारयसि अस्मानित्यतः पितृत्वं तवास्मान्प्रत्युपपन्नमितरस्मात्। It is being stated what those disciples did when they found no recompense for their knowledge after being taught by the teacher and getting their purposes fulfilled. Te, they said; arcayantaḥ, while worshipping his feet by offering handfuls of flowers and saluting him with their heads: ‘Tvam hi, you indeed are naḥ, our; pitā, father, since you have generated through knowledge a (fresh) birth in Brahman that is eternal, ageless, deathless, and fearless. Since it is yaḥ tārayasi, you who, with the help of the raft of knowledge, have ferried; asmākam, us; a-vidyāyāḥ, across ignorance or false knowledge – as though across an ocean itself, infested with birth, old age, death, disease, sorrow, etc., which are like sea animals –, param pāram, to the other shore of the boundless ocean of nescience, called emancipation (mokṣa), consisting in absolute cessation of rebirth; therefore your fatherhood towards us is more justifiable than that of the others (i.e. our real fathers).
इतरोऽपि हि पिता शरीरमात्रं जनयति, तथापि स पूज्यतमो लोके; किमु वक्तव्यमात्यन्तिकाभयदातुरित्यभिप्रायः। The other father, who begets the body alone, is yet the most worshipful in the world, what to speak of one who guarantees absolute fearlessness? This is the purport.नमः परमऋषिभ्यः ब्रह्मविद्यासम्प्रदायकर्तृभ्यः। Namaḥ, salutation; parama-ṛṣibhyaḥ, to the great seers, the originators of the line of traditional transmission of the knowledge of Brahman. The repetition of namaḥ parama-ṛṣibhyaḥ is for showing respect.’