A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1872)
by Monier-Williams

Introduction

 A, अ   Ā through Au, आ – औ   K through Ñ, क – ञ   Ṭ through N, ट – न   P through Ph, प – फ   B through M, ब – म   Y through V, य – व   Ś through H, श – ह 

Abbreviations <End Key>

Alphabet

**Editor Note: Whereas Macdonell’s dictionary is strictly alphabetical, except verb prefixes are listed under the verb root, Monier-Williams has a different arrangement.
Monier-Williams lists all prefix-root combinations separately and alphabetically, but lists many derivations of a word including guṇa or vṛddhi of its first vowel as well as compounds starting with that word under that starting word.
This will list many words and compounds out of alphabetical order, and requires the user to have more knowledge of grammar derivations of words to find those words in this dictionary.
Also, because my source for Macdonell was with Devanāgarī then the user needs to know Devanāgarī to find words; whereas, the Monier-Williams source (different from the original PDF, which is available here) is in Transliteration, perhaps easier or necessary for beginners but perhaps harder for advanced students.

How I have used these two sources for my works is first looking at Macdonell as it is easiest to find the word. He is more selective in the essential word meanings in English, and he gives hint of the word’s derivation. If not finding or more likely unsatisfied with the given meanings, then I look in Monier-Williams work, having often gotten its derivation from Macdonell so I can more easily find it in Monier-Williams.

Another use of my dictionaries here is, when there is an English translation of a verse, sometimes Apte’s English to Sanskrit dictionary that can help me find the matching Sanskrit and importantly its synonyms. Those synonyms may be much more familiar to me and can better help me understand the less familiar Sanskrit word in the verse I am trying to understand.
Moreover, finding a synonym can help me search for that word’s usage in all these works here, where the sources explain how those authors understood the word or its concept and application in their teachings.

Format by A.K. Aruna, 2020 ver.1.0: UpasanaYoga. This is based on the IITS Cologne University digital conversion of the 1872 work by Monier-Williams. Being a machine conversion from page photos to font characters, some undetected errors still remain. This htm is reformatted from Cologne's version, which takes too long to load in a browser, by breaking up the file into multiple smaller files.
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Index to Introduction:

      Markup

      Alphabet description

      Book Copyright

      Preface

      Reasons

      Plan

      Extent

      System of Transliteration

      Sources

      Aids

      Abbreviations

      Dictioary Alphabetical Order

      Additions and Corrections

MARKUP
Headwords
Sanskrit passages
Footnotes


description:multibyte sequence:
long a ā
long A Ā
long i ī
long I Ī
long u ū
long U Ū
vocalic r
vocalic R
long vocalic r
vocalic l
vocalic L
long vocalic l
velar n
velar N
palatal n ñ
palatal N Ñ
retroflex t
retroflex T
retroflex d
retroflex D
retroflex n
retroflex N
palatal s ś
palatal S Ś
retroflex s
retroflex S
anusvara
visarga
long e ē
long o ō
l underbar
r underbar
n underbar
k underbar
t underbar

Unless indicated otherwise, accents have been dropped in order to facilitate word search.


A SANSKṚT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY
ETYMOLOGICALLY AND PHILOLOGICALLY ARRANGED
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO
GREEK, LATIN, GOTHIC, GERMAN, ANGLO-SAXON AND OTHER COGNATE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES

BY

MONIER WILLIAMS, M.A.
BODEN PROFESSOR OF SANSKṚT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.

Oxford
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS.
SOLD BY MACMILLAN AND CO., PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY,
29 AND 30, BEDFORD STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON;
AND BY W. H. ALLEN AND CO.
13, WATERLOO PLACE, LONDON.
M DCCC LXXII.
All rights reserved


PREFACE.

A WORK of the kind here submitted to the students of Sanskṛt must be left to prove its usefulness by actual experiment. Nevertheless the plan of the present Dictionary is so novel that I must crave permission to introduce it with a longer explanation than might otherwise be needed. To conduce to greater clearness I propose distributing my prefatory statements under the following separate heads:

1. Reasons for undertaking a New Sanskṛt Dictionary.

2. Plan and Arrangement of the Present Work.

3. Extent of Sanskṛt Literature comprehended.

4. Alphabet and System of Transliteration employed.

5. Principal Sources drawn upon in the Process of Compilation.

6. Aids and Encouragements received.

7. Defects and Inconsistencies acknowledged.


SECTION 1.
Reasons for undertaking a New Sanskṛt Dictionary.

In the forefront must be placed the growing importance assigned by philologists to the oldest branch of the great Indo-European speech-stem, of which English is a modern offshoot. An intricate language destined to occupy the foremost rank throughout Europe as an instrument of linguistic training needs greater facilities for its acquisition. Some may smile at the idea of any Oriental language acquiring greater weight as an instrument of training among Occidental peoples whose vigorous mental faculties require a more suitable discipline for their development. Be it remembered, however, that Sanskṛt is, in one sense, the property of Europe as well as of India. Its relationship to some of our own languages is as close as to some of the Hindū dialects. It is a better guide than either Greek or Latin to the structure, historical connection, and correlation of the whole Indo-European family. It is a more trustworthy authority in the solution of recondite philological problems. Its study involves a mental discipline not to be surpassed.

Not even the most superficial observe can possibly be blind to the educational movement now spreading everywhere. Perhaps, however, some of us, trained under the old system, are scarcely yet alive to the forces which are at work for infusing new blood (if I may be allowed the phrase) into the whole body of our teaching. Not only must Greek and Latin be taught more thoroughly and scientifically, if they are to hold their own as the best trainers of thought and enforcers of accuracy*, but modern languages and modern literature can no longer be thrust aside or only employed to fill up the gaps in our system of instruction. All the nations of the civilized world are being drawn into closer intercommunion. The rapid advance of science in England, Germany, France, and Italy has forced natural science upon us as a neceassary element of all mental culture, making also an interchange of thought between these countries indispensable. Eastern languages too, both Semitic and Āryan, are pressing peremptorily on the attention of our Universities**. Hebrew and Armaic must now be studied by all our younger clergy, if they are to hold their own in the conflict of theological parties or present a bold front towards sceptical assailants. A knowledge of Arabic is essential to a right understanding of the literature, religion, and social institutions of the millions of our Muslim fellow-subjects. Some of the dialects of India must be mastered by all who have communication with the tens of millions of our Hindū brethren. Lastly, all the branches of the two great stems of speech are now proved to be so closely interdependent, and the permutations of sounds in passing through the varying organs of varying types of the human family are shewn to obey such curiously definite laws, that a new science has been established***. This science has for its field of investigation not any one particular language, but the whole area of human speech, and as it inquires into the laws governing the living organs of utterance as well as the living organic growth of the actual sounds themselves, may be said to trench not only on Ethnology, but even on Biology. This 'science of language' might with more propriety be called 'Glossology' than Philology. In its method of investigation it has much in common with the natural sciences, and though its analogy to these ought not to be strained beyond a mere analogy, yet as a veritable science dealing with one of the grandest distinctive attributes of human nature, it can no more be left out of any modern educational programme than any of the natural sciences properly so called. With the 'Glossologist' every spoken word is like a plant or animal in the hands of a Biologist; its birth, growth, transformations, and decay must all be accounted for: its whole structure dissected limb by limb; every appendage traced to its appropriate use and function; its deepest internal constitution analyzed.
*) Thoroughness in our teaching of Greek and Latin will never be effected until we lead our pupils to look more into the intinate internal constitution of these languages in their correlation to each other and to the other members of the Āryan family. To this end Sanskṛt is indispensable. French again will never be taught as it ought to be till our boys are made to understand its connection with Latin in every part of its grammatical structure. I hail such an excellent work as the 'Historical Grammar of the French Tongue by Auguste Brachet', translated by the Rev. G.W. Kitchin, as an evidence that we are beginning to realize the defects in our present system of linguistic training.
**) See the notes on the Semitic and Āryan languages at pp. viii, ix of this Preface. Cambridge is at this moment engaged in establishing both a Semitic and Indian languages Tripos. Although our system of 'Schools' at Oxford is somewhat different, yet, I hope, we shall not be behind the Sister University in our encouragement of these languages.
***) The debt which we English scholars owe to Professor Max Müller for having first introduced us to this science by his wellknown lectures, is too universally acknowledged to require notice here. I am not sure whether twelve lectures on the principles of linguistic science by William Dwight Whitney, Professor of Sanskṛti in Yale College, are quite so well known in this country. If they are not, I here commend them to all interested in the study of language, merely remarking that their excellence is too obvious to require any praise from me.

Will it be denied, then, that Sanskṛt is destined to increasing cultivation, as the one typical scientific language whose structure is a master-key to the structure of all languages, whose very name implies 'Synthesis', and whose literature, commencing with the Ṛg-veda about 1500 B.C., extends in a continuous line for nearly 3000 years, throwing a flood of light on the operation of linguistic laws?

In point of fact the Hindūs may be said to be the original inventors of the 'science of language.' Like the Greeks, they are the only nation who have worked out for themselves the laws of thought and of grammar independently. If their system of logic is inferior to that of Aristotle, they are unequalled in their examination into the constitution of speech. The name Vyākaraṇ, which they give to their grammar, implies 'decomposition' or 'resolution of a compound into its parts', just as Saṃskaraṇa implies the re-composition or re-construction of the same decomposed elements. Every single word in their classical language is referred to a Dhātu or Root, which is also a name for any constitutent elementary substance, whether of rocks or living organisms. In short, when we follow out their grammatical system in all the detail of its curious subtleties and techincalities, we seem to be engaged, like a Geologist, in splitting solid substances, or, like a Chemist, in some elaborate process of analysis.

Having said so much in support of an effort to facilitate and generlize the study of Sanskṛt, I have now to state my reasons for having addressed myself to a task like the present.

It may not be generally known that the late Professor H.H. Wilson once intended the compilation of a Dictionary not wholly dissimilar in character and plan to that here offered to the students of Sanskṛt and its cognate languages. This I have heard from himself was what he intended by the last words of the Preface to his second edition, in which he stated that it would be his wish as Boden Professor to offer to the cultivators of Sanskṛt 'other and better assistance.'

It is perhaps also not known that he actually made some progress in carrying out this intention, though eventually debarred from its prosecution by his other numerous literary labours. He therefore, about the year 1852, when I had completed the printing of the English-Sanskṛt Dictionary compiled by me for the East-India Company, made over a large manuscript volume, containing the commencement of his new work, to me, with a request that I would continue it on the plan sketched out by himself. At the same time he generously presented me with a copious selection of examples and quotations made by Pandits at Calcutta, under his direction, from a considerable range of Sanskṛt literature. It has become necessary for me to state theses circumstances at the risk of being charged with egotism, because the publication of the first part of Professor Goldstücker's Dictionary has made Orientalists aware that Professor Wilson entrusted the printing of a third edition of his Dictionary to that learned scholar, whose recent death is felt by all Sanskṛtists to be an irreparable loss*. From what I have now notified, however, it will, I trust, be quite understood that the work committed to me by one who was first my master, and afterwards my wisest guide and truest friend, was not a new edition of his Dictionary, but an entire remodelling of his scheme of lexicography, consisting of a re-arrangement of all the words under Roots, according to native principles of etymology, with addition of the examples collected as above described. Having already completed the English-Sanskṛt part of a Dictionary of my own, I naturally undertook as a sequel the work thus assigned me, especially as the plan commended itself to my own judgement and precdilections. Moreover, I actually carried on the task for a considerable period between the intervals of other undertakings. Soon, however, it began to be manifest that the third edition of Professor Wilson's Dictionary was assuming, under Professor Goldstücker's editorship, almost interminable proportions, so as to become no longer a new edition of a previous Lexicon, but rather a many-volumed Encyclopaedia of Sanskṛt learning, which no one scholar, however persistent, could hope to carry beyond the letter A. At the same time the Sanskṛt-German Wörterbuch of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth, though conducted by two of the most energetic scholars of the day, and put forth with singular perseverance, appeared to be expanding into vast dimensions, so as to be quite beyond the compass of ordinary English students. These circumstances having forced themselves upon my observation, I suddenly determined to abandon the design of a wholly Root-arranged Dictionary--which could only be useful, like the works above-named, to the highest class of scholars--and to commence a work on a more practical plan, which, although raised as far as my powers went, to the level of modern scholarship, so as to be a sufficiently trustworthy aid in studying the chief departments of literature, including the Veda, should yet be procurable at a moderate cost, and not extend beyond the limits of one compact volume. This leads me therefore to
*) It is stated in a notice of the late Professor Goldstücker's life, which appeared in a recent number of a well-known scientific periodical, that many thousands of notes and references for the new edition of Wilson's Sanskṛt Dictionary and other works, the result of an unremitting study of the MSS. treasures at the India House &c., are left behind by Professor Goldstücker. With reference to this matter, I ought in justice to the present learned and courteous librarian of the India Office, as well as in justice to my own Dictionary, to put on record, that soon after his appointment, Dr. Rost offered to allow me also the use of any of these MSS. treasures if I would name any likely to be useful to myself. Knowing, however, that about eighty MSS., including those I needed most, were doing good service at the house of Professor Goldstücker, aiding him day by day in the elaboration of his Dictionary, I did not feel justified in interrupting the prosecution of so large a work for the sake of any advantage that might have accrued to my own less weighty performance. Moreover, I felt that I could not in justice interrupt the continuity of Professor Goldstücker's labours, when I had the use of the Wilsonian Collection belonging to the Bodleian, which, however inferior to those at the India Office in the departments required by a lexicographer, were still freely placed at my command by our own learned and obliging librarian, the Rev. H. O. Coxe.


SECTION 2.
Plan and Arrangement of the Present Work.

Those who appreciate the value of Sanskṛt in its bearing on the philosophy of language will understand my motive in endeavouring so to arrange this lexicon as to exhibit most effectively that peculiarity of construction which distinguishes the highest type of the great Indo-European line of speech. Such persons will comprehend without much explanation the plan pursued by me throughout these pages in the collocation of words connected by mutual affinities. For the benefit, however, of younger students, I now proceed briefly to point out the one grand distinctive peculiarity of the Āryan dialects which the arrangement of the present Dictionary is intended to demonstrate--a peculiarity separating them by a sharp line of demarcation from the other great family of human speech usually called Semitic*.
*) I use the term 'Semitic' out of deference to established usage, though it leads to some confusion of ideas, because if 'Semitic', or mroe properly 'Shemitic', be used for the languages of the descendants of Shem, then 'Japhetic' (instead of 'Āryan') should be used for the descendants of Japhet. We cannot, however, give up the epithet Āryan (from the Sanskṛt ārya, 'noble') for our own Indo-European languages, suited as it certainly is to that noblest of all families of speech. The Rev. F.W. Farrar suggests adopting the term 'Syro-Arabian' as well as Semitic for the other family. Still the name Semitic may well be applied to Hebrew, Aramaic [including perhaps one set of cuneiform inscriptions, Chaldee and Syriac], and Arabic, because in the tenth chapter of Genesis, Shem is represented as father of Elam (who peopled Elymais), Assur (Assyria), Lud (Lydia), Aram (Syria), and of Arphaxad, grandfather of Eber, from whom came the Hebrews--or Trans-Euphratian race, the name Hebrew really meaning 'one who lives beyond a river'--and Joktan, father of Sheba, father of Himyar, whence came the Arabians. Mr. Farrar states in his useful lectures that the Semitic nations may number about 40 millions, compared with about 400 millions of the Indo-Europeans. Among Semitic races come the people of Abyssinia. These have special languages of their own, viz. the Ethiopic or Geez, which is their sacred and literary language only, and the spoken dialects called Tigre, Tigriña, for the north and north-east, and Amharic, for the centre and south; the former being nearer to Ethiopic than the latter, and all being connected with the Semitic, as derived through the ancient Himyaritic Arabic of South Arabia (Yaman).

Happily it is now a familiar fact to most educated persons that the Indo-European or Aryan languages (of which Sanskṛt is the eldest sister*, and English one of the youngest) proceeded from a common but nameless and unknown parent, whose very home in Asia cannot be absolutely fixed, though the locality may conjecturally be placed somewhere in the region of Bokhāra, near the river Oxus. From this centre radiated, as it were, eight principal lines of speech; first, the two Asiatic lines, 1. Indian, 2. Īrānian, (the former eventually comprising Sanskṛt, Pāli, Prākṛt, and the modern Prākṛts or spoken languages of the Hindūs, such as Hindī, Marāṭhī, Gujarātī, Bengālī, &c.; the latter comprising (a) Zand, old Persian, Pahlavī, modern Persian, and Puṣtū; (b) Armenian); and then the six European lines, viz. 1. Keltic, 2. Hellenic, 3. Italic, 4. Teutonic, 5. Slavonic, 6. Lithuanian, each branching into various sub-lines or ramifications as exhibited in the present languages of Europe**. Now, if the question be asked, What most striking feature distinguishes all these languages from the Semitic? My answer is, that the main distinction lies in the character of their roots or radical sounds; for although both Āryan and Semitic forms of speech are called 'inflective'***, it should be well understood that the inflectiveness of the root in the two cases implies two wholly different processes.
*) Though the younger sisters sometimes preserve older forms.
**) As this is the first Oriental Dictionary put forth by any English scholar which attempts to introduce abundant comparisons between the various members of the Indo-European family, I here append a brief account of the Āryan cognate languages beginning with the Indian. 1. By Pāli or Pālī is meant one of the oldest forms of the ancient provincial Hindū-ī language of which Sanskṛt is the learned form, (see p. xiii of Preface.) It must have been spoken either in Magadha or in some district not far from Oude, where Buddha flourished, and being carried by the Buddhists into Ceylon became their sacred language, and is preserved in their canonical scriptures called Tri-piṭaka. Prākṛt is the name given to other and later provincial forms of Sanskṛt, which were the precursors and parents of the present Hindū dialects, Hindī, Marāṭhī, &c., see note, p. xvii. These latter may be called modern Prākṛts. 2. Now as to the Īrānian: (a) Zand or Zend (old Bactrian) is to old Persian and Pahlavī what Sanskṛt is to Pāli and Prākṛt. It is that ancient language of Persia in which the sacred books are written, called Zand Avastā, belonging to the Pārsīs (or fugitives from Persia scattered on the coast of India, and still believers in the religion founded by Zardusht or Zoroaster). Old Persian is a name given to the dialect preserved in one set of cuneiform inscriptions, about contemporaneous with Zand. Pahlavī (sometimes written Pehlevī) is a later Īrānian dialect, which once possessed an extensive literature. A more recent Īrānian dialect is Pārsī or Pāzand, leading to the modern Persian which sprang up in Perisia not long after the Muhammadan conquest (about A.D. 1000), the earliest form of which, as represented in the Ṣāh-nāmah of Firdausī, has little admixture of Arbic, while the later is flooded with it. Puṣtū is the present language of Afghānistān. (b) Armenian is of course the language of Armenia; it has two forms the old Armenian or literary language, which is dead, and the modern Armenian, said to be split into four dialects containing many Turkish words. Connected with these is the Ossetic of the Ossetes, a Caucasian tribe. We now come to the six European lines: 1. The Keltic or Celtic (of the [greek] Herod. II. 33) is the oldest of the Āryan family in Europe, and as it has had the longest life, so it presents the greatest divergence from Sanskṛt: it has been driven into a corner of the continent, viz. Brittany, by Romanic French, and into the extremities of Cornwall, Wales, Ireland, and the Highlands of Scotland by Germanic English: it has two lines, (a) the principal Keltic or Gaelic (of the Galli), comprising the Irish, Highland-Scotch, and Manx, of which the Irish is most interesting in relation to Sanskṛt; (b) the Kymric form of Keltic, including Welsh, Cornish (now extinct), and Armorican, which last is the name given to the language of Brittany. 2. The Hellenic comprises ancient Greek with its dialects (most interesting in its close affinity to Sanskṛt, and most important in its bearing on the original of the New Testament, though far less remarkable in its bearing on other European languages than Latin), and modern Greek usually called Romanic (infinitely nearer to the ancient Greek than the Romanic languages are to Latin). 3. The Italic comprises, of course, Latin with its Romanic (or Roamance) offspring, viz. Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Wallachian, and Provencal; and includes some old Italian diatlects, such as the Oscan of the Samnites in southern Italy, Umbrian spoken in north-eastern Italy and Sabine. 4. The Teutonic comprises (a) Gothic, which is the Sanskṛt of the Teutonic languages, especially of Low German; it was spoken by the ancient Gothic peoples who belonged to the Germanic race, and were divided into eastern and western Goths; a part of the latter being allowed by the Romans to settle in the province of Moesia, near the mouth of the Danube, became converts to Christinity, and happily their bishop Ulfilas fixed their language by translating nearly all the Bible; a remnant of his translation has been preserved, otherwise this dialect, sometimes called Moeso-Gothic, would have been lost, and with it a most important key to Teutonic philology: (b) German, divided into two branches, viz. 1st, Low German, which is subdivided into four, viz. Saxon (sometimes called Old Saxon), leading to Anglo-Saxon and English; Frisian, once largely spoken by the Frisian tribes (Lat. Frisii) who dwelt on the north-west coast of Germany, and closely connected with English; Dutch, current of course in Holland; Flemish, spoken in that part of Belgium called Flanders; 2ndly, High German, subdivided into old, middle, and new, the last bringing us to modern German: (c) Scandinavian, divided into four, viz. Norse, i. e. old and new Icelandic (nearly alike and most valuable as preserving the original structure of the whole Scandinavian group), Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish, the two latter only differing in pronunciation. 5. The Slavonic comprises (a) old Slavonic or old Bulgarian, being to the Slavonic what Gothic is to the Teutonic, and similarly preserved in a translation of the Bible made by Cyril: (b) Russian, divided into Russian proper, Little Russian: (c) Polish, with other less noticeable Slavonic dialects, viz. Polabian, Bohemian, Sorbian, Servian, Kroatian, and Slovenian. 6. The Lithuanian is sometimes regarded as a branch of the Slavonic line, to which it is more nearly related than to the Teutonic; it is interesting as coming nearer to Sanskṛt in some of its forms than any other member of the Āryan family, and as having a dual, like the Gothic, and seven cases; it is still spoken by a limited number in Russian and Prussian provinces on the coast of the Baltic, but is disappearing before Russian and German; a more modern form of it is Lettish, spoken in Livonia: another kindred dialect is Old Prussian, once spoken in north-eastern Prussia, but now extinct.
***) As distinguished from 'monosyllabic', like the Chinese; and 'agglutinative', like the Drāviḍian, Turkish, and other members of an immense class of languages in which the termination is easily separable from the body of the word. These are still called by some Tūrānian (from Tūr, eldest, son of Farīdūn, to whom he assigned Turkistān, thence called Tūrān).

Let me first briefly advert to the Semitic form. A Semitic root then may be described as a kind of hard frame-work consisting generally of three consonants which resemble three sliding but inflexible upright limbs, moveable hither and thither to admit on either side the intervenient vowels and certain merely ancillary consonants, usually called 'servile.' These subservient letter are, it is true, of the utmost importance to the diverse colouring of the radical idea, and the perfect precision of their operation is noteworthy, but their presence within and without the rigid frame of the root is, so to speak, almost overpowered by the ever prominent consonantal skeleton. In illustration of this we may take the Arabic triliteral root KTB, using capitals for these radical consonants to indicate their prominence; the third pers. sing. past tense is KaTaBa, 'he wrote', and from the same three consonants, by means of various vowels and servile letters, are developed a number of other forms, of which the following are specimens: KaTB, writing; KāTiB, a writer; maKTūB, written; taKTīB, causing to write; muKāTaBat, corresponding by letter; iKTāB, dictating; taKāTuB, writing to one another; mutaKāTiB, one who keeps up a correspondence; maKTaB, the place of writing, a writing-school; KiTāB, a book; KiTBat or KiTāBat, inscription*.
*) For a further insight into these Arabic formations, the student is referred to a chapter on the use of Arabic words in my 'Practical Hindūstānī Grammar', published by Longman & Co.

An Āryan root on the other hand, as best typified by a Sanskṛt radical, is generally a single monosyllable, which may be compared to a malleable substance capable of being drawn out to express every modification of an original conception. And this malleability, as it were, arises chiefly from the circumstance that the vowel is recognized as a constituent part of the radical, blending with its very substance, and even sometimes standing alone as itself the only root. Sanskṛt exhibits better than any other member of the Aryan line of speech this characteristic root-expansibility. More than this, it exemplifies better than any other that excessive root-accretiveness (if I may use the term) by which not only terminations and prefixes are grafted upon or welded into the original monosyllabic stock, but affix is affixed to affix, prefix is prefixed to prefix, derivative is derived from derivative, compound is compounded with compound in an almost interminable chain. In illustration of this the student is referred to such roots as 1. kṛ, p. 245; 1. bhū, p. 714; 1. śru, p. 1026; 1. sthā, p. 1145 of this volume.

Hence it becomes evident that the original plan of Professor Wilson, by which every single word would have been represented in regular sequence, growing, as it were, from its own parent stem, would have realized the true conception of a perfect Sanskṛt Dictionary. Verily if Greek lexicography has been occasionally so treated, much more has Sanskṛt, the great type of linguistic constructiveness, a right so to be.

I have now to show how far the present work satisfies this ideal. It is sometimes calculated, that there are about two thousand distinct roots in this language. If it be supposed that there are about eighty thousand distinct words growing out of these two thousand roots, a Dictionary on the usual alphabetical plan must have consisted of a series of eighty thousand monographs, each independent of the other; and, indeed, such a Dictionary might have been thought most agreeable to the common notion of a really practical work. It seemed to me, however, that a Dictionary so planned would have afforded little effective aid to the study of Sanskṛt, in its connection with comparative philology. On the other hand, it must be confessed that the idea of taking root by root, and writing, as it were, two thousand biographies, each giving a connected history of a distinct family allied together by a common pedigree was a philological dream too unpractical to be wholly realized. Some middle course, therefore, satisfying the requirements both of philology and of ordinary practice seemed most to be desired, and the following publication, though not answering the perfect philological ideal, is intended as an attempt at combining a partial root-arrangement with a convenient alphabetical order suited to ready reference.

In unison with this design, the roots of the language--always brought prominently before the eye by large Nāgarī type--will be found treated more exhaustively in the present work, both as regards the meanings given and the forms exhibited, than in any other Sanskṛt-English Dictionary yet published*. It is evident that a great many of these roots, or Dhātus, as they are called by native lexicographers, are not really elementary radicals, but compounds or developments of simpler elements. I have not always ventured to pronounce categorically as to which of two or more roots is the simplest form, but when roots are evidently allied, their connection is conspicuously indicated in the following pages. Thus I hope to have drawn attention to a point which English scholars have hitherto greatly overlooked**.
*)I cannot sufficiently acknowledge my debt to Westergard's Radices. The copy I have had for about thirty years tells a tale of constant reference. Indeed we have to thank Danish, quite as much as German scholars, for what they have done towards promoting linguistic culture.
**) The number of distinct radical forms in Wilkins' collection is 1750, but as many forms having the same sound have different meanings, and are conjugated differently, they are held to be distinct roots, and the number is thereby swelled to 2490. Probably, the real number of elementary radicals in Sanskṛt might be reduced to a comparatively small catalogue. Some roots containing dentals have been cerebralized or vice versa, and both forms are allowed to co-exist, as bhan and bhaṇ, dhan and dhaṇ; others whose initials are aspirated consonants have passed into other aspirated consonants or retained only the aspirate; and all forms co-exist in bhṛ, dhṛ, dhvṛ, hvṛ, &c. Again, such a root as svad is probably nothing but a compound of su and root ad, and such roots as stubh, stumbh, stambh are plainly mere modifications of each other.

Furthermore, the plan now first carried out of arranging all verbs formed from roots by prefixing prepositions in their proper alphabetical order and at the head of their own deriviatives, will be noted as a marked feature of originality and individuality. The labour entailed by the simple process of thus re-arranging the verbs in a languages sor rich in prepositions, can only be understood by other lexicographers*. But even this re-arrangement has not caused so much difficulty as the attempt to exhibit what may be termed the kinship of words, by distributing the greater part of the vocabulary of the language in families, or rather, if I may so express myself, in family-groups**. These groups are, as far as possible, collected under roots or leading words, which stand, as it were, at the head of the family, and are always distinguished from the rest by Nāgarī type in the manner more fully explained in the table of directions at the end of the Preface. Such a re-distribution of the vocabulary has often necessitated the separation of roots and homonyms under two, three, or more heads, each with its train of derivatives, subderivatives, and associated words, which in other Dictionaries would be brought together under one article***. An abundant return, however, has been reaped, if philological precision has been thus promoted, and facility afforded for viewing synoptically and comparing together the etymological history of the words so collocated.
*) Why should not Sanskṛt lexicons have been brought into harmony with Greek in this respect long ere this? Greek is almost as free in its use of prepositions, e. g. [greek]
**) Even in English this might advantageously be done, as, for example, it would be very instructive to see such words as share, shire, shore, shears, &c. arranged under 'shear', to cut off, separate. Richardson in his great Dictionary has to a certain extent carried out this idea. See on this subject 'Archbishop Trench on the Study of Words.'
***) See, for example, the roots 1. su, 2. su, 3. su, 4. su, at p. 1117, and 1. kāla, 2. kāla, at pp. 224, 225.

Besides the obvious advantage of this arrangement to the philologically-minded student, great saving of space has been thus effected; all necessity for repeating derivations under each head being thus avoided, and the power gained of leaving many meanings to be inferred from one or other member of a group, instead of constantly reiterating them. For it must be borne in mind that all the series included under the same heading in Nāgarī type are to be regarded as cohering; so that all derivatives, whether primary or secondary, and all compound words following in regular sequence, may be studied in their mutual bearing and correlation both as illustrating each other and as contributing to throw light on the modifications of meaning evolved from the radical idea. These meanings, too, have not been thrown together in a heap, as they have been hitherto in some Oriental Dictionaries, but an attempt has been made to set them forth according to their logical development. The further advantage gained in space by the free use of Roman type will be explained under Section 4.

Conspicuously, again, in an enumeration of the more noteworthy features of the present publication, should certainly be placed the introduction of abundant comparisons from cognate languages, which no other Lexicon published by English scholars has, I believe, hither to attemtpted to the same extent. I must at once distinctly notify that for these comparisons I have not trusted to my own judgment, but have followed the authority of the eminent German scholars whose names will be mentioned subsequently.

Another distinctive characteristic of this Dictionary consists in the articles on mythology, literature, religion, and philosophy, which will be found scattered everywhere throughout its pages. By consulting Professor Aufrecht's catalogues, Dr. Ballantyne's works, Dr. Fitz-Edward Hall's writings, Dr. Muir's Sanskṛt Texts, Professor M. Müller's Ancient Sanskṛt Literature, Dr. Weber's Indische Studien, Wilson's Viṣṇu-Purāṇa, some Oriental Articles in Chambers'Encyclopaedia--written, I believe, by the late Professor Goldstücker,--and my own collection of notes, I have been able to furnish the student with much valuable information on many subjects not hitherto treated of in any Dictionary. Let him observe, for instance, what is written under the words Viṣṇu, Śiva, Veda, Manas, Sāman, Soma, Sāṅkhya, Sauptika-parvan. It will be doubtless said that too many names of persons, places, and books are introduced. In excuse I have to plead that greater liberty ought to be allowed to a Sanskṛt Dictionary in this respect than to Greek and Latin Lexicons, because Oriental alphabets have no capital letters. As to the names of books, it may often be useful to have attention drawn to works, still unprinted, ascertained to exist either in Europe or India.

It may perhaps be objected that there are too many compound words; but again it may be urged that a Sanskṛt Dictionary must not be tried by ordinary laws in this respect, for here again Sanskṛt stands eminently forth as the grand typical representative of the whole Āryan line of speech, which is throughout distinguished by its love of composition. To exclude compounds from a Sanskṛt Lexicon, would be, so to speak, to 'Unsanskṛtize' it. Not only are there certain compounds quite peculiar to Sanskṛt, but in the grammar composition almost takes the place of syntax, and the various kinds of compound words are classified and defined with greater subtlety and minuteness than would be possible in any other known language of the world. When a student is in doubt whether to translate compounds like indra-śatru as Bahuvrīhis or Tatpuruṣas, the Dictionary is surely bound to aid in clearing up his perplexities. Moreover, as few examples are given or passages quoted in the present work, a limited admission of compounds, under certain restrictions, serves to illustrate the use of a leading word; for to such words, let it be observed, they have always been subordinated. After I had formulated my plan, and a large portion of the work was in type, the Sanskṛt Dictionary of Professor Benfey appeared*, and I was glad to find that, working independently, I had devised a system supported in some of these particulars by that philologist. All must agree that as Sanskṛt exceeds every other language in its infinite capacity for composition, no Sanskṛt Lexicon, if it admits compounds at all, ought to treat them as if they were independent enties entitled to a separate existence of their own.
*) The Sanskṛt-French Dictionary of M. Emile Burnouf, which also appeared after much of my work was in type, is an independent working out of some ideas similar to my own.

Nevertheless I could never have followed Professor Benfey in placing compound words under their last member. This method, however philosophical, seems to sacrifice at the shrine of logical propriety what I have set before myself as a paramount consideration in arranging my own Dictionary--facility of reference. For a further explanation of points of detail the student is referred to the table of directions at the end of the Preface. I now therefore pass on to my third point.


SECTION 3.
Extent of Sanskṛt Literature comprehended.

I have sometimes been gravely asked by men learned in all the classical lore of Europe, Has Sanskṛt any literature? Such a question proves the urgent need for a work like the present, which aims at facilitating and making more general the study of a language closely allied to our own, and still more closely connected with the spoken dialects of our great Indian Empire--a language, therefore, about whose history every well-educated Englishman ought surely to know something.

Conscious, then, as my present office has made me of the gerneral ignorance prevalent on Indian subjects, I may be excused if I preface this part of my Introduction by stating precisely what I conceive to me implied by the words Sanskṛt and Sanskṛt literature. By Sanskṛt, then, is not meant any really spoken language of India or even, I hold, any once generally spoken language. What the word Sanskṛt properly represents is, I conceive, a certain form of the language brought by the Indian branch of the great Āryan race into India, the ancient spoken language of the Hindūs being more suitably styled Hindū-ī, just as its principal later development is called Hindī*. For in fact that happened in India which has come to pass in all civilized countries. The spoken vernacular of the people has separated into two lines, the one elaborated by the learned, the other popularized and variously provincialized by the unlearned**. In India, however, from the greater exclusiveness of the educated few, the greater ignorance of the masses and the desire of a bigoted priesthood to keep the key of knowledge in their own possession, this separation became more marked, more diversified, and progressively intensified. Hence, the very grammar which with other nations was regarded only as a means to an end, came to be treated by Indian Paṇḍits as the end itself, and was subtilized into an intricate science, fenced round by a bristing barrier of technicalities. The language, too, elaborated pari passu with the grammar, rejected the natural name of Hindū-ī, or 'the speech of the Hindūs', and adopted an artificial designation, viz. Sanskṛta, or 'the perfectly constructed speech', to denote its complete severance from the common tongue (called by contrast Prākṛta), and its exclusive dedication to literary and religious purposes. This of itself is a remarkable circumstance; for although something similar has happened in Europe, yet we do not find that Latin and Greek ceased to be called Latin and Greek when they became the language of the learned, any more than we have at present two names for the common and literary languages of modern nations. These remarks will perhaps conduce to a right appreciation of the nature of a literature which, although elaborated by a learned caste, is still the only real literature of the Hindū race, the vernaculars having hitherto produced little worthy of consideration.
*) I use the word Hindū-ī as a convenient term for the ancient Bhāṣā of the Āryan settlers in the neighbourhood of the Sindhu or rather of the Hapta Hendu = sapta sindhavas. It may be thought that this Bhāṣā was identical with the language of the Vedic hymns. But even Vedic Sanskṛt represents a considerable amount of elaboration scarcely compatible with the notion of a vernacular dialect (as, for example, in the use of complicated grammatical forms like Intensives). Pāṇini, in distinguishing between the common language and the Vedic, uses the terms Bhāṣā and Loka.
**) Of course the provincialized Prākṛts, though not, as I conceive, derived directly from the learned language, borrowed largely from the Sanskṛt after it was thus elaborated.

Sanskṛt literature, it should be remembered, embraces two distinct periods, Vedic and postVedic. The former, beginning with the Ṛg-veda, and extending through the other three Vedas (viz. the Yajur-veda, Sāma-veda, and Atharva-veda), with their Brāhmaṇas, Upaniṣads, and Sūtras, is most valuable to philologists as presenting them with the nearest approach to the original Āryan language, its earlier works being composed in an ancient form of Sanskṛt, which is to the later what Chaucer's writings are to modern English. The latter commencing with the Code of Manu, with its train of subsequent important law-books, and extending through the six systems of philosophy*, the vast grammatical literature, the immense epics**, the lyric, erotic, and didactic poems, the Nīti-śāstras, moral tales and apothegms, the dramas, the various treatises on mathematics, rhetoric, prosody, music, medicine, &c., brings us at last to the eighteen Purāṇas with their succeeding Upa-Purāṇas, and the more recent Tantras, all of which are worthy of study as the great repositories of the modern mythologies and popular creeds of India. No one person, indeed, with the limited powers of mind and body, can hope to master more than one or two departments of so vast a range, in which scarcely a subject can be named, with the single exception of Historiography, not furnishing a greater number of treatises than any other language of the ancient world. In some subjects too, especially in poetical descriptions of nature and domestic affection, Indian work do not suffer by a comparison with the best specimens of Greece and Rome, while in the wisdom, depth, and shrewdness of their moral apothegms they are unrivalled. More than this, the learned Hindūs had probably made great advances in astronomy, algebra, arithmetic, botany, and medicine, not to mention their admitted superiority in grammar, long before any of these sciences were cultivated by the most ancient nations of Europe. Hence it has happened that I have been painfully reminded during the progress of this Dictionary that a Sanskṛt lexicographer ought to aim at a kind of quasi omniscience. Nor will any previous classical education, such at least as has been hitherto usual, enable him to explain correctly the scientific expressions which--not borrowed from the Greeks--are liable to be brought before him. To pretend therefore that the present work, although probably containing nearly three times as much matter as any other Sanskṛt Dictionary yet published (excepting of course the great Thesaurus of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth, and that of Rādhākānta-deva), is competent to satisfy the student in every branch of Sanskṛt literature, would manifestly display either ignorance or conceit. Perhaps the departments in which it must be admitted to be weakest are those of the Veda and philosophy with their respective native commentaries. Still an attempt has been made to supply what has hitherto been almost entirely neglected by English lexicographers.
*) The systems of philosophy are properly only three: 1. the Nyāya by Gautama, which is the most practical, and contains the Hindū system of logic; 2. the Sāṅkhya by Kapila, which is dualistic, asserting the separate existence of soul and matter; 3. the Vedānta by Vyāsa or Bādarāyaṇa, which asserts the unity of all being: but of each of these respectively there are branches, viz. (a) the Vaiśeṣika by Kaṇāda; (b) the Yoga by Patañjali; (c) the Pūrva-mīmāṃsā by Jaimini.
**) Some idea of the extent of Sanskṛt literature may be gained by comparing the two great epic or heroic poems called the Mahā-bhārata and Rāmāyaṇa with the Iliad and Odyssey, as I have attempted to do in the small volume called 'Indian Epic Poetry', published by Messrs. Williams and Norgate. The Mahā-bhārata, printed at Calcutta, contains 107,389 verses, each verse being supposed to consist of two lines. See also my edition of the 'Story of Nala', published at the Clarendon Press.

In truth, I have felt that no modern Lexicon ought to exclude Vedic words, important as these are in their philological bearings. I must nevertheless plainly confess that the interpretation of these words is often so doubtful--often so purely tentative--that I have been sorely perplexed in my efforts to furnish the student with trustworthy renderings. Of course with the Veda, as with every other profoundly obscure subject, there is a natural craving for an infallible guide. At the same time no priestly infallibility is here thought to be attainable; for although the great Brāhman and Ācārya, Sāyaṇa, lived about five hundred years ago at Vijaya-nagara, an ancient Indian capital and seat of learning, yet this eminent authority has been altogether put out of court by modern philological critics. When, however, it is found that modern scholars themselves frequently differ as much from each other as they do from that once trusted and certainly most learned Brāhman, it seems hopeless to expect security from error in any particular sect or section of modern critics and philologists. Notwithstanding these perplexities, I cannot express too strongly my appreciation of what German scholars have effected in this difficult field of research, and my gratitude for the aid received from the interpretations of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth. The authority of these scholars has been generally followed by me, though I have been careful to give, in addition, the renderings of Sāyaṇa (according to Professor Max Müller's edition*), feeling, as I do, rather enthusiastically that this great native commentator, even if he occasionally misleads, ought never to be ignored.
*) It should be mentioned, however, that for the latter part of the Ṛg-veda I have not had the advantage of Professor Max Müller's editorial skill. The first volume of his edition of this work, with Sāyaṇa's commentary, was brought out under the patronage of the East India Company in 1849. Three other volumes have since appeared, completing as far as the end of the eighth Maṇḍala. For the remainder I have been obliged to trust to an imperfect MS. of Sāyaṇa's commentary in the Wilsonian Collection belonging to the Bodleian Library. This is the only Ṛg-veda MS. of any value that I have had it in my power to employ, as I have not been able to consult the excellent MSS. belonging to the India Office Library, which others had a greater right to use than myself. I am informed that a fifth volume of the Ṛg-veda is about to appear.

The foregoing sketch of the nature of Sanskṛt literature will, I trust, explain the impossibility of covering its vast area by any Dictionary in one volume. It will also explain my non-admission into my pages of the ample store of examples made over to me by my predecessor, the late Professor H.H. Wilson. These would, at least, have swelled out my one compact volume to an inconvenient size, if they had not expanded it into two. For the same reason I have been obliged, as a rule, to forego authenticating my meanings by more than a few scattered references either to passages in the literature or to the modern authorities on which I have depended for guidance. In this I had better ground for abstention than my predecessor, seeing that the great work of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth, the completion of which may be looked for in a few years, will provide advanced scholars with abundant examples and references to every department of the literature. I should and that as my main object has been to facilitate and generalize the study of a difficult language, I have of course abstained from complicating the typography of this volume by placing accents on Vedic words*. For a knowledge of these the scholar must again apply to the great German Wörterbuch.
*) See the note on Vedic accents, p. xix of this Preface.

I come in the next place to a feature in the present publication which, as the four Governments of Indian have liberally patronized this work, demands an ample explanation.


SECTION 4.
Alphabet and System of Transliteration employed.

I fear the great Indian Paṇḍits, if they deem this Dictionary worthy of their notice, will be somewhat surprised that a work intended as an aid to the study of their literature should exhibit their venerable Sanskṛt clothed in a modern European dress*. Let me then crave leave to remind them that the Romanized character employed in these pages will be found, if its history be investigated, to be neither modern nor European, and may possibly turn out to be even more ancient than their sacred Nāgarī, and even more suited to the expression of their sacred Sanskṛt.
*) Though some Sanskṛt books--such as Profiessor Aufrecht's Ṛg-veda--printed in the Roman character are much used by European scholars, it is doubtful whether these have obtained even a limited circulation in India. I trust, therefore, that when this volume falls into the hands of any great Paṇḍit, to whom one of our Indian Governments may present it, he will not consider that I am degrading Sanskṛt like the man who pollutes cow's milk by putting it into a dog's skin. nahi pūtaṃ syād go-kṣīraṃ śva-dṛtau dhṛtam; cf. Muir's Sanskṛt Texts, vol. ii. p. 53, note 97. Of course I know that many native books are printed in which Sanskṛt words are transliterated by Roman letters, but my desire is to see some standard texts accurately printed in this character and circulated throughout India. At present the loose and careless way in which the Roman alphabet is applied tends to bring the whole system into disrepute. This is exemplified in writing the names of places and persons as well as in books. A little work called the Durga-puja [sic] by Pratapachandra Ghosha has just been received by me from Calcutta. It contains much useful information, but here we have Sanskṛt words transliterated without any attempt at exactness, e. g. Devi, Durga, puja, Purana, ashtami, Krshna, Savitri, and numberless others.

After all, we English are not only Eastern in our origin, but in many of our most important surroundings. First, we have received our religion and our Bible through an Eastern people; next, our language is certainly Asiatic in its affinities; thirdly, we are known to have derived our invaluable decimal notation, commonly called the ten Arabic numerals, from India through the Arabs; lastly, the written symbols which I am now employing, and by which this useful vernacular of ours is, as it were, materialized and sent to the ends of the earth, are certainly Asiatic too.

The East is, we must candidly own, the first source of all our light. We cannot, indeed, localize in Asia the precise spot whence issued the springs of that grand flow of speech which spread in successive waves--commencing with the Keltic--over the whole area of Europe; but the local source of the first alphabet, without which each of these waves of speech must have been in the end swallowed up and lost in its successor, is well known to have been Phoenicia. The great centre of the commerce of antiquity naturally gave birth to what was felt to be indispensable to the intercommunion of national as well as individual life. By the very necessities of trade Phoenicia invented the first, so to speak, locomotive power which enabled language, embodied in a kind of material form, to be in a manner exported to distant countries and bartered, like any other commodity, for language imported in return.

Probably the first Phoenician graphic signs were, like the Chinese, of an ideographic character, but of this there is said to be no certain evidence. However that may be, it is tolerably clear that the first Phoenician graphic system, about which we know anything, had not advanced beyond the second stage of alphabetic progress. It was, in fact, essentially syllabic, and even to this day the Semitic alphabets coming immediately from it--viz. the Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic--are very little better than syllabic systems. Such an alphabet then, though well suited to Eastern calligraphic tastes, was manifestly imperfect. It provided chiefly for consonants, as if they were the lords of sound, instead of its dependents, and often its impediments. The real want for civilized nations, eager for intercommunication, was a phonetic alphabet, by which neither ideas nor consonants, but rather sounds should be symbolized. As therefore vowels are the only real representatives of sound, and indeed the very life of the word which without them would be a mere hard and helpless skeleton, it was essential to an effective phonetic system of graphic symbols that vowels should have at least as prominent a position in a written word as their attendant consonants. This was very soon felt by the Greeks, who no sooner received a consonantal alphabet from Phoenicia than they began to remedy its defects, and forthwith invented a system by which the vowel sounds were properly symbolized and distributed side by side with their consonantal fellows --not as mere appendages, but as close companions. The Greek expansion of the Phoenician alphabet was still further developed by the more practical Romans, and by them spread everywhere throughout Europe*.
*) The Romans, however, having no proper aspirated consonantal sounds, rejected the Greek [greek] and to represent these unhappily originated the clumsy th, ph, ch, writing also ps for [greek]

Now, although the Semitic origin of Indian alphabets has not yet been satisfactorily proved, it is still probable that the Eastern branch of the Āryan stock which settled down in India, derived their first idea of symbolizing language by written marks indirectly from Phoenicia through some neighbouring country whose system was borrowed from Semitic models*. They appear also, like the Greeks, to have felt the defects of a syllabic or merely consonantal method, and just as they worked out for themselves their own theory of grammar, so they elaborated for themselves their own 'vowelized' system of writing. Note, however, how the subtle-minded Hindūs, working out their own ideas in their own philosophical way, have produced an alphabet, not only free from the defects of the Semitic, but so overdone in its abundance of vowel symbols and its theory of the mutual relationship of vowels and consonants, that this very elaboration becomes practically a serious hindrance.
*) According to Mr. Edward Thomas (Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 42), the theory by which Professor Weber has sought to establish a Phoenician origin for the Indian alphabets is untenable. There are, however, two sets of Buddhist inscriptions, and that of Kapurdigiri is decidedly traceable to a Phoenician source. Those on the rock of Girnar (Giri-nagara) in Kattywar, Gujarāt, which are said to be most important in their relation to the present Indian alphabets, are not so clearly traceable. Mr. Thomas appears to have good ground for thinking that many of the Nāgarī letters were derived from the Drāviḍians of the South.

Let me for the benefit of those who may use this Dictionary for philological purposes, without having acquired a complete familiarity with the Nāgarī letters, briefly point out the most conspicuous merits and demerits of the European and Indian systems.

From what I have before advanced, it will, I think, be clear that it ought to be a fixed rule in all good alphabets, 1st, That every vowel, short and long, should be properly symbolized and admitted to close companionship with its consonant, no vowel symbol being ever allowed to stand for any other vowel sound but its own. For example, the 'a' sound of 'ka' should be properly symbolized; it should not be supposed to inhere in 'k;' nor should it be represented by a mere dot or stroke, above or below the 'k', as if it were a simple appendage to the consonant, as in Semitic alphabets. Nor should the symbol 'a' be allowed to stand for different vowel sound short and long, as in 'tape', 'tap', 'tall', 'tar', 'mortar', in every one of which the vowel ought to be variously symbolized. 2ndly, That every simple consonant should have one single fixed symbol, and never more than one. For example, the symbol 'k' should not be interchangeable with 'c' to express the same consonantal power as in 'cap' and 'keep.' 3rdly, That modifications of any particular simple vowel or consonantal power should not be represented by two letters, but by some modification of a single symbol. For example, the long form of the vowels a, i, u should not be denoted by two letters, as in our word 'hoop', but by some mark or stroke placed over these vowels (so that 'hoop' should be written 'hūp'). Similarly, the aspiration of k, t, p, ought not to be represented by two letters as in kh, th, ph, but by some mark attached to k, t, p; thus such a word as phala should be written pala, and dhana, dana; or perhaps according to the Anglo-Saxon method with a horizontal stroke above, as in d for the dh sound of the.

Tried by these rules, the Nāgarī alphabet shows itself in many respects superior to the old Roman alphabet, and certainly to our use or abuse of the Roman symbols commonly called the English alphabet. But tried by the same rules, it will be found, I believe, inferior to the Indo-Romanic system, by which name I call the modification of Sir William Jones' method of applying the Roman alphabet to the languages of India, adopted in the present Dictionary.

The fact of the matter is, that Hindū grammarians have so overdone the true theory of the necessary vocalization of consonants, that they declare it impossible for any consonant to stand alone without its associated vowel, not only in a single word, but in a whole sentence, unless, indeed, the consonant come at the end of all, when the mark, called a Virāma or stop, must be employed. Moreover, the dependent position of a consonant is so insisted on that every simple consonant must perforce possess an inherent vowel by a necessary condition of its own existence, so that when it is written without vowel or stop the vowel 'a' must always be pronounced after it. Hence, such a word as 'bind', would have to be pronounced 'binada', unless a conjunct symbol be employed, compounding n and d into one letter, the use of the Virāma or stop, except at the end of a sentence, being an infraction of orthographic laws. Thus it arises that an immense assortment of conjunct consonants is needed. More than this, the excessive claboration of their vowel-system by the Hindūs necessitates the introduction of two new vowels, and . Again, each of the fourteen vowels (except a) has two symbols, according as it is initial or non-initial, and the form of some of these obliges them to be printed before the letter after which they are pronounced and in various awkward places, thereby exposing them to fracture, and increasing the general complication. So that with unusually numerous vowel-symbols, with thirty-five consonants and an almost indefinite number of intricate conjunct consonants, the number of distinct types necessary to equip a perfect Sanskṛt fount amounts to about 500 (see the table opposite to page 1).

Now will any one maintain, that in these days of railroads, electric telegraphs, cheap printing, and the Suez canal, such an overstraining of alphabetical precision can be maintained much longer for the expression of any language belonging to the same family as our own, and in any country forming an integral part of the British Empire? Indeed Sanskṛt ought to be made a potent instrument for uniting England more closely with India, and a powerful means for exciting more real sympathy and fellow-feeling between Englishmen and their Indian fellow-subjects; but on this very account it requires every facility to be conceded to its acquisition, and every contrivance to be adopted for harmonizing it with those kindred European tongues whose structure it is above all capable of illustrating.

Be it remebered that we are not expecting either absurdities or impossibilities. We are not so foolish as to suppose that the Hindūs will ever abandon their own national forms of speech. On the contrary, we expect that they will tenaciously adhere to them, even as their brethren of Wales hold to their own separate and distinct branch of the same speech-stem. But because we cannot change the organs of speech or fuse the twenty-two languages* of India into one common tongue, are we therefore not to do what we really can to promote intercourse and communion between kindred races united under one government and descended from the same ancestors? If our great Indian Paṇḍits are made familiar with our graphic systems, will they not be more likely to study our language and literature, to benefit by our knowledge, and to use our numerous appliances for economizing time, labour, and money? In short, is it fatuous to expect our fellow-subjects to imitate us in adopting a common system of symbols for a common line of cognate languages?--a system, be it thoroughly understood, not to be confounded with our English 'free and easy' abandonment of all system in our treatment of the Roman alphabet--but a system capable of complete adjustment to the expression of Āryan sounds, whether Roman, Greek, Welsh, English, or Indian, and probably little more different in form from the present Nāgarī than that Nāgarī is from the characters prevalent in India when Sanskṛt was first committed to writing**. For since the fact is patent, that the further we go back, the more plainly do the Indian alphabets point to a foreign origin, the power of ancient and sacred association cannot certainly be pleaded for the maintenance of the present Nāgarī.
*)Viz. Sanskṛt, with its kindred Hindī, Marāṭhī, Gujarātī, Bengālī, Uriya, Asamese, Panjābī, Gurumukhī, Sindhī, Nepalese, Kaśmīrī, the Singhalese of Ceylon; the Puṣtū of Afghānistān; the five Drāviḍian languages, Tamil, Malayālam, Telugu, Kanarese, Tulu; the half Drāviḍian Brahū-ī; the composite Urdū or Hindūstānī current throughout India; and lastly Burmese.
**) It is certainly remarkable that the whole Vyākaraṇa of Pāṇini, unlike the Greek grammar or [greek] appears to ignore written symbols, as if Sanskṛt was never intended to have any peculiar graphic system of its own. In South India Sanskṛt is written in different characters; and the first inscriptions found on rocks are in Pāli and Prākṛt, not in Sanskṛt. They are referred to the Buddhist sovereigns who possessed political power in India about three centuries B.C. The present form of Nāgarī is thought to be little older than the tenth or eleventh century of our era.

Nor can our Indian brethren shelter themselves under any plea of impossibility, when all the logic of historical facts is against them. Is any nation more tenacious of everything national than the Jews? and yet have they not abandoned their ancient character for a more modern form? Have not also the Arabs and Persians, not to mention the Keltic and Teutonic races, done the same? Have not the Hindūs themselves renounced many of their most ancient usages, and allowed the rigidity of caste to relax under the pressure of steam and other European forces. Even in the very matter of alphabets the facts of their own history are also against them, for if they deny the foreign origin of their venerated Nāgarī, they have confessedly adopted the modern Persianized Arabic alphabet--a consonantal, if not a purely syllabic system--to express Hindūstānī. Now, Hindūstānī, notwithstanding its flood of Arabic and Persian words, is as much a form of Hindī--the language of 'pakka' Hindūstān--as English with its flood of Norman French is of Anglo-Saxon. Surely then all must admit that Hindūstānī, at least, has a far better right to the Indo-Romanic alphabet derived from kindred British rulers, than it has to be saddled with the consonantal system of foreign Muslim invaders. For that system, be it noted, is wholly Semitic in its essential features, and therefore quite unsuited to the fundamental Āryan structure of a Persianized Āryan dialect.

If after what I have thus advanced, our great Indian Paṇḍits remain, as I fear some of them will, unconvinced, let any ordinary scholar who consults the pages of this work say whether they do not derive much of their typographical clearness from certain apparently trifling, but really important contrivances, possible in our Indo-Romanic, impossible in the usual Nāgarī type. One of these, of course, is the power of leaving spaces between the words of the Sanskṛt examples given. Will any student say that such an example as sādhu-mitrāṇy akuśalād vārayanti does not gain in clearness by being properly spaced*? Again, the power of using capitals and what are called italics (to say nothing of 'Egyptian' and other forms of European type) is manifestly an advantage to be placed to the credit of Indo-Romanic typography. Who will deny the gain in clearness by the ability to make a distinction between smith and Smith--brown and Brown--bath and Bath? And will any one examine the pages of this Dictionary, and then compare those of the Śabda-kalpa-druma, without admitting the advantage gained in the power of employing italic type? Lastly, the power of applying the hyphen to separate long compounds in a language where compounds prevail more than simple words** will surely be appreciated by all. I can only say, that without that most useful little mark, the present volume must have lost much of its clearness, and probably half its compactness, for besides the obvious advantage of being able to indicate the difference between such compounds as su-tapa and suta-pa, which could not be done in Nāgarī type, it is manifest that even the simplest compounds like sad-asad-viveka, sv-alpa-keśin, would have required without its use an extra line to explain their analysis***.
*) What should we think of an English Dictionary which, disdaining to aid our overtried vision by any typographical contrivances at the supposed sacrifice of euphonic propriety, should insist on presenting the corresponding example in proper phonetic conjunction thus--'goodfriendsguardfromevil?'
**) Forster gives an example of one compound word consisting of 152 syllables. I rather think this might be matched by even longer specimens from Campū composition.
***) At any rate, it is to be hoped that the hyphen will not be denied to Sanskṛt for the better understanding of the more complex words, such, for example, as vaidika-manu-ādi-praṇīta-smṛ-titvāt, karma-phala-rūpa-śarīra-dhāri-jīva-nirmitatvābhāva-mātreṇa, taken at hap-hazard from Dr. Muir's Texts. We may even express a hope that German scholars and other Europeans, who speak forms of Āryan speech, all of them equally delighting in composition, may condescend more frequently to the employment of the hyphen for some of their own Sesquipedalia Verba, thereby imitating the practical Englishman in his Parliamentary compounds, such, for example, as habeas-corpus-suspension-act-continuanceIreland-bill.

Notwithstanding all my advocacy of the Indo-Romanic graphic system, it is still my duty to point out that so long as the natives of India continue to use their own alphabets so long is it incumbent upon us Englishmen who study Sanskṛt in its bearing upon the Indian vernaculars, to master the Nāgarī character. Under any circumstances there must be a long transition period during which the Indian and Romanic systems will co-exist, and however the struggle between them may terminate, the end is not likely to be witnessed by the existing generation. For this reason the Nāgarī alphabet is by no means ignored in these pages. On the contrary, it is pressed into the service of the Romanic, and made to minister to a most useful purpose, being employed to distinguish the leading word of a group in a manner best calculated to strike the eye and arrest the attention.

Fairness, moreover, demands that a few of the obvious defects of the system of transliteration adopted in this volume should be specified. In certain cases it confessedly offends against philosophical exactness; nor does it always consistently observe the rules stated in a preceding paragraph. The vowels and ought to be represented by some one symbol--such as that used by many German scholars--though ṛ, ṝ seem to me somewhat unsuitable for vowel sounds. So again the aspirated consonants ought not to be represented by a second letter attached to them. In the case of ch employed by Sir W. Jones for c and chh for ch, the inconvenience appeared to me so great that in the third edition of my Sanskṛt Grammar, I ventured to adopt c for c, the pronunciation, however, being the same as ch in church, which might therefore be written curc. Had I dared to innovate further, I should have written k for kh, t for th, p for ph; and so with the other aspirated consonants, c being then employed for c. The fact, of course, is that an aspirated consonant is merely a consonant pronounced with an emphatic emission of the breath, much as an Irishman would pronounce p in penny, and to indicate this, a stroke placed on one side or over the letter seems more appropriate than the mark of the Greek hard breathing adopted by Bopp, which may well be used alone to utter a vowel, but is scarcely suitable to emphasize a consonant*.
*) A hint might be taken from Anglo-Saxon d, as before observed, especially if be used for long vowels. The mark is perhaps too much like that required for accentuation. I hope, however, that the system of accentuating classical Sanskṛt will never be allowed. Why complicate a subject already sufficiently intricate by introducing another element of perplexity which native scholars themselves do not sanction? Let accentuation be kept for the Veda; and in Vedic words a more upright and conspicuous stroke might, in my opinion, be used with advantage.

I also prefer the symbol for the cerebral sibilant. Should a second edition of this Dictionary be ever called for, some of these improvements may possibly be adopted. With regard to the letter w, I have discarded it, and retained only v, because the Nāgarī only possesses one character for the labial semivowel, viz. va, and to transliterate this or any other single Oriental character by two Roman representatives must certainly lead to confusion. As to the German method of using k, kh for c, ch, and g, gh for j, jh, the philological advantage gained by thus exhibiting the phonetic truth of the interchange of gutturals and palatals, appears to me outweighed by the disadvantage of representing sounds differing so greatly in acutual pronunciation by similar symbols.

Notwithstanding the shortcomings and inconsistencies thus fairly acknowledged, I have no hesitation in asseting that the Romanic system expanded by the marks and signs now generally agreed upon and still further to be improved hereafter, may be adapted to the Āryan, languages of India quite as completely and appropriately as to the Āryan languages of Europe.

Having felt obliged by the form in which this Dictionary is printed to dwell thus at length on a point of vast importance both to the general cultivation of Sanskṛt and the diffusion of knowledge in our Eastern Empire, I must now be permission to record my sense of the great assistance this cause has received from the energetic efforts of one who has ever been a true friend to the natives of India, Sir Charles E. Trevelyan. He was the first Indian officer of eminence who appreciated the real bearing of this matter upon native education, and the first writer who in his able minute, dated Calcutta, January 1834*, cleared away the confusion of ideas with which the subject was then perplexed by many prejudiced persons and even by some scholars. He also was the first to awaken an interest in the question throughout England about thirteen years ago, aided as he was by the able advocacy of 'the Times' newspaper. To him and to 'the Times' I owe the first impressions which corrected my own prejudices. Since then, many Oriental books printed on a plan substantially agreeing with Sir W. Jones' Indo-Romanic system have been published, both by eminent scholars in Europe and by missionaries in India**, and the form in which the present Sanskṛt Dictionary is now put forth affords, I trust, another evidence of the reality of the movement and of its gradual advance.
*) This will be found at p. 3 of the 'Original Papers illustrating the History of the Application of the Roman Alphabet to the Languages of India', edited by me at the request of Sir Charles Trevelyan in 1859, and published by Messrs. Longman. I commend this volume to every one interested in the diffusion of education among the natives of our Indian Empire.
**) Amongst other publications the Ṛg-veda itself, edited by Professor Aufrecht, has been printed and published in the Roman character; also part of the Kathā-sarit-sāgara by Dr. Hermann Brockhaus. Dr. Muir in his Sanskṛt Texts has also extensively used the Indo-Romanic system, as well as Dr. Weber in the Indische Studien, where some of the Upaniṣads are so transliterated. Let any one compare Professor Aufrecht's one compact and cheap octavo volume with the six massive quartos to which the Ṛg-veda will extend, now being edited in the native character. Even if the Romanized edition had the commentary, it would probably not extend beyond two moderate octavo volumes. With regard to the series of valuable Hindūstānī works printed in the Anglo-Hindūstānī character by missionaries in India, a full account of them will be found in Sir Charles Trevelyan's 'Original Papers' referred to in a previous note. The whole Bible has been beautifully printed in this form, and carried through the press by the Rev. R. Cotton Mather; also a glossary to part of the Bible by his son Mr. Cotton Mather.

SECTION 5.
Principal Sources drawn upon in the Process of Compilation.

I have now to enumerate the various works consulted by me in compilling this Dictionary. My only reason for not indicating these authorities in the body of the various articles as they have been written, has been that the volume--which even now has outgrown the dimensions originally fixed--would have thereby lost much of its convenient compactness, and could not have been produced at a moderate cost. The eye, too, would have been confused in passing from one meaning to another. Justice, however, requires that before commencing my enumeration, I should specially record my debt to particular authorities most frequently consulted and relied upon. I do so with a deep consciousness that nothing I am about to state can add to the celebrity of any one of the eminent scholars to whom I owe most. Indeed, it is impossible for me to express adequately my sense of obligation to the great work of Professors Böhtlingk and Roth. Although I have referred to every other dictionary, glossary, and vocabulary, including those of Professor Benfey and Westergard and the eight-volumed Encyclopaedia of Rādhākāntadeva, commonly called the Śabda-kalpa-druma*, and although I have striven to weigh and verify for myself all the words and meanings given by my fellow lexicographers, yet I have always considered an appeal to the St. Petersburg Wörterbuch as the most satisfactory available means for deciding doubtful questions.
*) A fine copy of this valuable work, now very difficult to procure in its perfect state, was searched for, some years ago, at Calcutta and most kindly presented to me by my friend Mr. Walter Scott Seton-Karr, Foreign Secretary to the Governments of Lord Lawrence and Lord Mayo, and Vice-Chancellor of the Calcutta University.

Naturally, I have kept Professor H.H. Wilson's Dictionary on my working-table, and have constantly had recourse to its pages. Indeed, I must own that I commenced by looking to my predecessor's labours as my chief authority. And let me here assert most emphatically, not only that, considering the condition of Sanskṛt scholarship when it was compiled, Professor Wilson's was a wonderful production, but that, like many other scholars, I could never have learnt Sanskṛt at all without its aid. Nevertheless, sincerity obliges me to confiess, what other lexicographers may perhaps admit to be not without a parallel in their own mental history, that my mind has had to pass through a kind of painful discipline involving a gradual weakening of faith in the performances of my fellow men, not excepting those of my own venerated teacher. I began, indeed, with much confidence in the thought that one man existed on whom I could lean as an almost infallible guide; but as the work grew under my hands and my sensitiveness to error sharpened, I discovered to my surprise that I was compelled to reject much of his teaching as doubtful. Moreover, the truth must be told, that as I advanced further my trustfulness in others, besides my old master, began to experience occasional disagreeable and unexpected shocks; till now that I am arrived at the end of my work, I find myself left with my confidence in the accuracy of human beings generally--certainly not excepting myself--rather painfully disturbed. Nevertheless, I am bound thankfully to acknowledge that my faith in the general scholarlike exactness of the great German authorities already named has never been materially shaken. I ought also to make particular mention of Dr. John Muir's 'Sanskṛt Texts', which have been constantly referred to by me, and have been found by experience to be invaluable, both for their general accuracy and for the judgment the author has displayed in his interpretation of Vedic words.

To these acknowledgments of special obligations I now subjoin an alphabetical list of all the principal works (not including of course all the mere texts and manuscripts) consulted by me, or in any way drawn upon for information, during the progress of my labours.
Andrew's (E. A.) Latin-English Dictionary.
Asiatic Researches.
Asiatic Society's (Royal) Journal.
Aufrecht's (Th.) Catalogue of Sanskṛt MSS. in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
--Catalogue of Sanskṛt MSS. in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge.
--Halāyudha's Vocabulary.
--Ṛg-veda-saṃhitā.
--Uṇādi-sūtras.
Ballantyne's (James) various lectures on Hindū Philosophy, and translations of some of the Aphorisms.
--translation of the Sāhitya-darpaṇa.
--Laghu-kaumudī.
Banerjea's (K.M.) Hindū Philosophy.
Banerjea's Kumāra-sambhava (with notes).
Benfey's Chrestomathie (with vocabulary).
--Sāma-veda (with vocabulary).
--Sanskṛt-English Dictionary.
--Sanskṛt Grammar.
Böhtlingk's (and Roth's) Sanskṛt-Wörterbuch.
Böhtlingk's Indische Sprüche.
--edition of Pāṇini's Grammar.
--edition of Vopa-deva's Grammar.
--(and Rieu's) Hemacandra's Glossary.
Bombay edition of the Mahā-bhārata.
--of the Rāmāyaṇa.
Bopp's Glossary (first and second editions).
--Comparative Grammar (Eastwick).
Bosworth's (Dr. J.) Anglo-Saxon Dictionary and Grammar.
Brockhaus' (Hermann) Kathā-sarit-sāgara.
Burgess' translation of the Sūryasiddhānta.
Burnouf's (Eugene) Bhāgavata-Purāṇa (books I-III, translated by Burnouf).
Burnouf's (Emile) Sanskṛt-French Dictionary.
Chambers' Encyclopaedia.
Colebrooke's Amara-kosha.
--Indian Algebra.
--Essays on the Religion and Philosophy of the Hindūs.
--Dāya-bhāga.
--Mitākṣarā.
Cowell's (E. B.) Kusumāñjali (with translation).
Cowell's (E. B.) translation of the Vikramorvaśī.
--edition of Elphinstone's History of India.
Curtius' (Georg) Grundzüge der Griechischen Etymologie.
Farrar's (F. W.) Families of Speech.
Foucaux's (Ph. Ed.) Episodes of the Mahā-bhārata.
Goldstücker's (Theodor) Sanskṛt-English Dictionary (parts I-VI).
Griffith's (Ralph T. H.) Specimens of Old Indian Poetry.
Hall's (Fitz-Edward) edition of the Sūrya-siddhānta.
--Contribution towards an Index to the Bibliography of the Indian Philosophical Systems.
--translation of Nīlakaṇṭha's Rational Refutation of the Hindū Philosophical Systems.
--Sāṅkhya-pravacana-bhāṣya.
--edition of Wilson's Viṣṇu-Purāṇa.
Haughton's (Graves C.) Bengālī Dictionary.
Haug's (Martin) Aitareya-Brāhmaṇa (with translation.)
Hilpert's (J.D.) German Dictionary.
Johnson's (Francis) Hitopacdeśa (first and second editions, with translation and vocabulary).
--Selections from the Mahā-bhārata (with vocabulary).
--Megha-dūta (1st and 2nd editions, with vocabulary).
Jones' (Sir William) translation of Manu.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society.
Lassen's Sanskṛt Anthology (with glossary).
Liddell's and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon.
Ludvig's Infinitiv im Veda.
Molesworth's (James T.) Murathee Dictionary.
Moor's Hindū Pantheon.
Müller's (Max) Ancient Sanskṛt Literature.
--Chips from a German Workshop.
--Hymns to the Maruts.
--Lectures on the Science of Language.
--Ṛg-veda-saṃhitā.
--Ṛg-veda-prātiśākhya.
--Sanskṛt Grammar.
Muir's (John) Original Sanskṛt Texts (five volumes).
Prinsep's (James) Indian Antiquities (edited with notes and addenda by Edward Thomas).
Rādhākānta-deva's Śabda-kalpa-druma.
Rājendralāla-Mitra's notices of Sanskṛt MSS.
Regnier's Etude sur l'diome des Vedas.
--Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya.
Rieu's (and Böhtlingk's) Hemacandra.
Röer's (E.) Upaniṣads (with translations).
--(and Montriou's) Hindū Law.
Roth's (and Böhtlingk's) Sanskṛt-Wörterbuch).
Roth's Nirukta.
--(and Whitney's) Atharva-veda-saṃhitā.
Schlegel's (A.G.) Rāmāyaṇa.
Scott's and Liddell's Greek-English Lexicon.
Stenzler's edition of the Raghu-vaṃśa.
--Yājñavalkya.
Tāranātha Tarkavācaspati's Dhāturūpādarśa.
Thompson's (J. C.) Bhagavad-gītā (with translation).
Thornton's Gazetteer.
Troyer's Rāja-taraṅgiṇī.
Vigfusson's (G.) Cleasby's Icelandic Dictionary.
Weber's (Albrecht) Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā.
--Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa.
--Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra.
--Indische Studien.
--Indische Streifen.
Westergaard's Radices Linguae Sanscritae.
Whitney's (W. D.) Atharva-veda-prātiśākhya.
--(and Roth's) Atharva-veda-saṃhitā.
--Language and the Study of Language (twelve lectures).
Wilson's (H.H.) Glossary of Indian Terms.
--Sanskṛt-English Dictionary.
--Sanskṛt Grammar.
--Sāṅkhya-kārikā.
--Theatre of the Hindūs.
--translation of the Ṛg-veda (vols. I-IV).
--translation of the Viṣṇu-Purāṇa.
Yates' (W.) octavo edition of Wilson's Sanskṛt Dictionary with addenda (partly edited by J. Wenger).
Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft.


SECTION 6.
Aids and Encouragements received.

My first acknowledgements are due to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, without whose kind patronage this work could never have been published. It does not become me to commend the efforts these gentlemen are making for the furtherance of education, except so far as to say that they fitly represent the mind and wishes of the University of Oxford. Nor does the Clarendon Press itself need any monument of my rearing. Let those who desire proofs of its efficiency look around and note the series of valuable educational books constantly issuing from its founts, models of clear and accurate typography, in almost every department of science.

Perhaps, however, I may be permitted to mention specially the name of one who has recently left us, but who was a member of the Press-Delegacy when the publication of this Dictionary was undertaken, the late Master of Balliol and now Dean of Rochester, Dr. Robert Scott. He has been one of my kindest friends and wisest counsellors ever since the day I went to him for advice during my first undergraduate days at Balliol, on receiving an appointment in the Indian Civil Service. It is not too much, I think, to aver that without his support, encouragement, and sympathy,--all the more prized as coming from an experienced fellow-labourer, able to estimate the difficulties of a less experienced disciple,--I could not have persevered in this work to it termination.

My next acknowledgments must be tendered to the Representatives of the Governments of Bengal, Madras, Bombay, and the North-West Provinces of India, as well as of the India Office, for the substantial aid received from them in the patronage they have accorded to this undertaking.

I have in the third place to express in the most cordial manner my thanks to each and all of the gentlemen who have aided me in the compilation of this Dictionary.

No one but those who have taken part in similar labours can at all realize the amount of tedious toil--I might almost say drudgery--involved in the daily routine of small details, such as verifying references and meanings, making indices and lists of words, sorting and sifting an ever-increasing store of materials, revising old work, arranging and re-arranging new, correcting and re-correcting proofs, writing and re-writing and interlineating 'copy', till reams upon reams of paper have been filled, putting the eye-sight, patience, and temper of compilers, readers, and compositors to a severe trial. I mention these matters, not to magnify the labours undergone, but to show that I could not have prosecuted them persistently singlehanded. This statement may also give an idea of what I owe to the presevering co-operation of my kind assitants, whose names in the chronological order of their services are as follow: the Rev. J. Wenger, who is now I believe engaged in valuable literary work connected with the Baptist Mission in Calcutta; Dr. Franz Kielhorn, who is now Superintendant of Snaskṛt Studies in Deccan College, Poona; Dr. Hermann Brunnhofer (whose assitance was not of very long duration); Mr. A. E. Gough, M. A., of Lincoln College, Oxford, now Professor of Sanskṛt at the Government College, Benares; lastly, Mr. E. L. Hogarth, M. A., of Brasenose College, and formerly Head Master of the Government Provincial School at Calicut, who has been my constant and painstaking assistant for about three years and a half, continuing with me to the termination of the work. I must also thank my old friend Professor Francis Johnson, who was one of my first instructors in Sanskṛt when a student at Haileybury, and afterwards my colleague as Professor, for the kind interest he has shown in my labours, and the aid I have received from him at various times, including recently a list of words collected by himself in preparing a new volume of Selections from the Mahā-bhārata, shortly to be published.

Finally, I must express my gratitude for the extreme care with which the reading of my often intricate manuscript has been conducted by the Oriental Reader, and the printing of the whole book executed by the Managers of the Clarendon Press.


SECTION 7.
Defects and Inconsistencies acknowledged.

When some one pointed out to Dr. Johnson the imperfections of his great Dictionary, he is said to have retorted on his critics that mere fault-finding was often an indication of ignorance. His work was too large, he affirmed, not to take in errors, and the quicksightedness to these was a symptom of the dulness which could not comprehend the merit of the performance as a whole. Without imitating this convenient way of disposing of criticism in my own case, I may yet request leave to inform any mere chidrānveṣin, of whom it may be said chidraṃ nirūpya sahasā praviśati, that no one can be more keenly alive to the flaws and defects of this volume than I am myself. No one, indeed, can be more desirous to criticize it, with a view to its improvement in a future edition.

If any real scholars--always considerate and temperate even if severe--having had practical experience of lexicography, will aid me in my efforts to attain greater accuracy, I shall be thankful. From them I do not fear but rather court criticism. Such critics will quite understand how a compiler's sense of responsibility may grow with the growth of a work like this, putting him out of conceit with his own performance, and filling him with earnest cravings after an accuracy more than human. Such critics will appreciate the difficulties besetting the production of so many closely printed pages abounding with countless dots and diacritical marks. Nor will they be surprised at inequalities of execution and occasional inconsistencies in a work representing efforts spread over numerous years. Nor will they need to be reminded that occasional distractions, trials of health and weariness of spirit, are incident not only to a human compiler but to his human assistants. Indeed it is no disparagement to those who have contributed to the detail of this work to assume that a compilation which has passed through many different hands must reflect the infirmities of all. No other apology will here be attempted for its errors and inadvertencies; nor do I ask that the blame be laid at the door of any one but myself, who alone am responsible. Some explanation, however, of a few intentional inconsistencies and almost unavoidable defects is here appended.

In the first place, there has not been absolute consistency in the collocation of words connected by a common etymology. I have not bound myself in this respect by any fixed rules. Hence some words are given in the usual alphabetical order of the Nāgarī type which might be expected to fall under a previous classification in the Indo-Romanic order. Facility of reference has been my only guide in this matter.

Again, in the arranging of a whole chain of words etymologically allied, some formations have been placed under compounds which ought properly to have a separate line assigned to them. Others again have separate lines which ought more consistently to come under compounds. For example, abstract nouns formed with the affixes and tva, and possessive adjectives formed with vat, mat, &c. are placed in the order of the compounds, when they are really not compounds at all. Still it is plain that such a word as svāmi-tā, 'ownership', is really equivalent to svāmi-bhāva, and such a word as śrī-mat, 'possessed of fortune', to śrī-yukta. In these cases my motive for sacrificing absolute consistency has rather been to gain space. Other liberties indulged in with regard to the use of the hyphen are noticed in the table of directions following the Preface.

With regard to the nominative cases of adjectives and of a few participles--such as those of Parasmai-pada Intensives--and even of a few substantives, I fear this Dictionary cannot always be quite trusted; though it may perhaps be conceded that I have improved upon my predecessor in this respect. In point of fact it has not been possible to settle with certainty the nominative cases, especially in the feminine forms, of all adjectives. The German Wörterbuch avoids exhibiting the nominative cases of adjectives and participles, and rarely gives their feminines, leaving also the nominative cases of substantives to be inferred from their gender. Although I studied Pāṇini's chapter on feminine formations with great care, I was unable to discover either in his Grammar or in any other Grammar or Dictionary a solution of all my difficulties. My rule has been to give the nominative cases both of substantives and adjectives in all their genders wherever there was ground for certainty or for a reasonable inference, and in other rare cases to exhibit only the crude base. Sometimes I have merely given the nominative case masculine of adjective, omitting the feminie when that alone appeared doubtful, and leaving the neuter to be inferred; but throughout the Dictionary the omission of a nominative case has been quite an exception. Thus I have endeavoured to increase the usefulness of this publication even at the risk of occasionally misleading.

Another point requires a few words of explanation. I shall probably be told that meanings and synonyms are needlessly multiplied; but before the book is hastily censured on this score, let it be fairly tested by a repeated and extended application to various branches of the literature. I can with truth affirm that having myself constantly put these pages to a trial during their progress through the press, so far from having to regret any superfluity or surplusage, I have too often had to lament sins of omission, and have frequently discovered, when too late, that some one meaning has been rejected, because thought to be a mere synonym, when this very apparent synonym was really the precise word required to suit a particular passage.

With reference to the philological comparisons given throughout this work, I fear that occasional inconsistencies and violations of orthography will be found. For indeed I do not pretend to even a limited knowledge of some of the numerous languages compared, and my private library has not furnished the means of verifying all the words. It should be noted that I have not generally indicated the cognate English words with the Anglo-Saxon, because these are selfevident, and will generally be found among the meanings. As to other comparisons, I can only say that when I commenced my compilation, Bopp was considered the chief authority in comparative philology. I have not generally adopted what more modern scholars substitute for his teaching, because some of these later writers have themselves yet to undergo the full test of an extended criticism, which may not always support their opinions. Besides trusting to Bopp, I have generally followed Professors Benfey and Curtius, and I request that the comparisons given be accepted on the authority of these three scholars, subject to the understanding that more recent views have been propounded on many points.

Most of the errors and omissions hitherto discovered, whether typographical or caused by my own want of knowledge, have, I trust, been corrected and supplied in the supplementary matter at the end of the volume.

With these explanations I close my present labours, profoundly conscious of their imperfection, but full of thankfulness that my life has been spared to bring them, such as they are, to a completion. MONIER WILLIAMS. OXFORD, May 1872.

DIRECTIONS TO BE STUDIED BEFORE USING THIS DICTIONARY.

THERE are two alphabetical orders: 1. that in the Nāgarī; 2. that in the Indo-Romanic type.

Roots are always in large Sanskṛt type.

Verbs formed by prefixing prepositions to roots are arranged in the alphabetical order of the prepositions so affixed, e. g. anu-kṛ must not be looked for under the root kṛ, as in other Sanskṛt Dictionaries, but in its own alphabetical order, as in Greek lexicons, and at the head of its own group of derivatives. See p. 32, col. 1.

All the Sanskṛt words in Indo-Romanic type arranged in alphabetical order under a leading word--which leading word is always either a root in large Nāgarī type or some other word in small Nāgarī type--must be regarded as mutually connected. They must be supposed to form a family of words bound together by a common origin or dependent on each other by some tie of relationship. The derivation or etymology is generally given in a parenthesis after the leading word in Sanskṛt type, and this etymology is supposed to apply to all the group which follows, until a new classification of words in introduced by a new word in Nāgarī type. Other derivations are sometimes noticed when authorities differ in explaining the etymology of particular words.

The Nāgarī type is thus employed to strike they eye and direct it to the leading word in each group. By this means also a repetition of the etymology is avoided.

All the meanings of a word belonging to a group are not always given in full, if they may be manifestly gathered from its other members; this applies especially to participles and participial formations, e. g. the meaning 'charged with', which belongs to ā-ropita, p. 128, col. 3, may readily be inferred from ā-ropa, which stands above it in the same classification.

Again, all the derivatives from a Radical or Verb at the head of a family are not always given when they may be readily supplied; this applies especially to participles, and occasionally to verbal nouns, e. g. under vi-hiṃs at the head of a group, p. 952, it is easy to supply vi-hiṃsana, am, n. the act of injuring.

Observe, that meanings which appear to be mere amplifications of preceding meanings are separated by a comma, whereas those which do not clearly run into each other are divided by a semicolon. All remarks upon meanings and all descriptive and explanatory statements are given between (); comparisons, between [].

Compound words are always arranged in alphabetical order under the first word in the compounds, a hyphen marking the division of each member of the compound, and when the final and initial vowel of two members of a compound blend, the separation of these vowels is denoted by a hyphen in brackets, (see, for example, kṛtodaka for kṛta-udaka, p. 248, col. 1, line 4.) For greater clearness, some words are thus treated, which are formed by Taddhita affixes, supposed to be added to the whole word, and which therefore ought not strictly to have a hyphen at all.

Compound words divided by a hyphen or hyphens have no etymology given because the employment of the hyphen makes their several elements manifest at once, so that it is always easy to refer to the separate members of the compound for the several etymologies, e. g. an-oka-śāyin is manifestly separable into an + oka + śāyin, to each of which it is easy to refer for an explanation of the several etymologies.

When no etymology of a simple word is exhibited its derivation is either unknown or too doubtful to deserve recording.

The nominative cases of all nouns, substantive and adjective, and of all participles, are given immediately after the crude base, except in the cases explained at the end of the preceding Preface. Thus guru, us, vī, u, means that the adjective guru makes in its nominative case masc. fem. and neut., gurus, guruvī, guru; similarly vividvas, ān, uṣī, at (P. 919, col. 2), stands for nom. masc. fem. and neut., vividvān, vividuṣī, vividvat.

Under roots and verbs the 3rd pers. singular of the various tenses is given, other forms being noticed in parentheses. The names of the tenses are generally left to be inferred, except when an unusual tense, like the Precative, is given, and the form of the 1st Future can always be inferred from the Infinitive: thus the Infinitive being veditum, the 1st Future 3rd pers. sing. will be veditā; similarly from dagdhum will be inferred 1st Future 3rd pers. sing. dagdhā.

When words really dissimilar appear similar either in Roman or Nāgarī type, the figures 1, 2, 3, &c. are placed before them; see, for example, 1. sa, 2. sa, 3. sa, 4. sa, 5. sa; 1. suta-pa, 2. su-tapa; 1. sam-āna, 2. samāna; 1. saha, 2. saha; 1. sv-ap, 2. svap.

It is believed that few common words or meanings likely to be met with in the classical literature have been omitted in this work; nevertheless the Supplement at the end of the volume should occasionally be consulted: thus in the two pages, 623, 624, one or two words and the common meaning 'affix', belonging to praty-aya, have accidently dropped out, but are supplied in the supplementary pages.


ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THE DICTIONARY.

[In the progress of a work extending over several years it has been found almost impossible to preserve uniformity in the use of symbols, but it is hoped that most of the inconsistencies are noticed in the following table.]
A. = Ātmane-pada; the long mark over the A. has been omitted for convenience in printing.
abl. or abl. c. = ablative case.
acc. or acc. c. = accusative case.
accord. = according.
Ādi-p. = Ādi-parvan of the Mahā-bhārata.
adj. = adjective.
Aeol. = Aeolic.
alg. = algebra.
Angl. Sax. = Anglo-Saxon.
anom. = anomalous, irregular.
Aor. = Aorist.
Arab. = Arabic.
arithm. = arithmetic.
Arm. or Armor. = Armorican or the language of Brittany.
Armen. = Armenian.
astrol. = astrology.
astron. = astronomy.
Atharva-v. = Atharva-veda, edited by Roth and Whitney.
Bhāgavata-P. = Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, Burnouf's edition, or Bombay edition for the later books.
Bhaṭṭi-k. = Bhaṭṭi-kāvya, Calcutta edition.
Boh. or Bohem. = Bohemian.
B.R. = Böhtlingk and Roth.
Br. = Brāhmaṇa.
Bret. = Breton.
Buddh. = Buddhist.
c. = case.
Cambro-Brit. = the language of Wales.
Caus. = Causal.
cf. = confer, compare.
chap. = chapter.
cl. = class.
Class. = Classical.
col., cols. = column, columns.
comm. = commentator or commentary.
comp., comps. = compound, compounds.
compar. = comparative degree.
Cond. or Condit. = Conditional.
cons. = consonant.
dat. or dat. c. = dative case.
defect. = defective.
Desid. = Desiderative.
dimin. = diminutive.
Dor. = Doric.
du. = dual number.
ed. or edit. = edition.
e. g. = exempli gratia.
Eng. = English.
Ep. or ep. = Epic, i. e. such works as the Mahā-bhārata, Rāmāyaṇa, &c.
epith. = epithet.
esp. = especially.
etym. = etymology.
explet. = expletive.
f. or fem. = feminine.
fr. = from.
Fut. = Future.
Gael. = Gaelic.
gen. or gen. c. = genitive case.
gend. = gender.
geom. = geometry.
Germ. = German or High-German.
Goth. = Gothic.
Gr. = Greek.
Gram. = A Practical Sanskṛt Grammar by Monier Williams, third edition, published at the Clarendon Press.
gram. = grammar.
Hib. = Hibernian or Irish.
Hind. = Hindī.
Icel. = Icelandic.
i. e. = id est.
impers. = impersonal, i. e. used impersonally.
Impf. = Imperfect tense.
Impv. = Imperative.
ind. = indeclinable, either an indeclinable participle or an adverb or a case used adverbially.
Inf. or infin. = Infinitive mood.
inst. or inst. c. = instrumental case.
Intens. = Intensive.
Ion. = Ionic.
Island. = the German form of Icelandic.
Kirāt. or Kirātārj. = Kirātārjunīya.
Kumāra-s. = Kumāra-sambhava.
Lat. = Latin.
lat. = latitude.
Lett. = Lettish.
lit. = literally.
Lith. = Lithuanian.
loc. or loc. c. = locative case.
long. = longitude.
m. or masc. = masculine gender.
Mahā-bh. &c. = Mahā-bhārata, Calcutta edition.
mathem. = mathematics.
medic. = medicine.
Megh. = Megha-dūta, Johnson's second edition.
Mod. = Modern.
MS., MSS. = manuscript, manuscripts.
N. = Name.
n. or neut. = neuter gender.
Naigh. = Naighaṇṭuka.
neg. = negative.
Nir. = Nirukta.
Nom. or nom. = Nominal verb.
nom. or nom. c. = nominative case.
num. or numb. = number.
obs. = obsolete.
occ. = occasionally.
Osc. or Osk. = Oscan or Oskan.
Osset. = Ossetic (see p. ix).
P. = Parasmai-pada.
p. = page.
-p. = parvan or section of the Mahā-bhārata.
Pāṇ. = Pāṇini.
Part. or part. = Participle.
Pass. = Passive voice.
patron. = patronymic.
Perf. = Perfect tense.
Pers. = Persian.
Pers. = person.
phil. = philosophy.
pl. or plur. = plural number.
poet. = poetry, poetic license.
Pol. = Polish.
Pot. = Potential.
Pr. = proper.
Prāk. = Prākṛt.
Prep. = Preposition.
Pres. = Present tense.
priv. = privative.
pronom. = pronominal.
Pruss. = Prussian.
q. v. = quod vide.
Raghu-v. = Raghu-vaṃśa.
Reflex. = Reflexive or used reflexively.
Ṛg-v. = Ṛg-veda.
rt., rts. = root, roots.
Russ. = Russian.
Śabda-k. = Śabda-kalpa-druma.
Sabin. = Sabine or Sabellian (old Italic dialect).
Sāma-v. = Sāma-veda.
Sans. = Sanskṛt.
Sax. = Saxon.
Sāy. = Sāyaṇa or according to Sāyaṇa.
Schol. = Scholiast or Commentator.
scil. = scilicet.
Scot. = Scotch or Highland-Scotch.
sing. = singular number.
Slav. = Slavonic or Slavonian.
subst. = substantive.
superl. = superlative degree.
s.v. = sub voce.
Them. = Thema or base.
Umbr. = Umbrian.
Uṇādi-s. = Uṇādi-sutras (Aufrecht's edition).
usu. = usually.
Vājasaneyi-s. = Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā.
Vārt. or Vārtt. = Vārttika.
Ved. = Vedic or Veda.
Viṣ.-Pur. = Viṣṇu-Purāṇa.
voc. or voc. c. = vocative case.
=, equal, equivalent to, the same as, explained by.
+ plus.
&c. = et cetera.
- denotes that a vowel or syllable is to be noted as short.
-- that a vowel or syllable is long.
- that the rest of a word is to be supplied, e. g. -ri-in- after karīndra is for kari-indra.


THE DICTIONARY ORDER OF THE NAGARI LETTERS

WITH THEIR INDO-ROMANIC EQUIVALENTS AND THEIR PRONUNCIATION EXEMPLIFIED BY ENGLISH WORDS. VOWELS. Initial. Medial. Equivalents and Pronunciation.
a -- a in mica, rural.
ā ā in tar, father (tār, fāther).
i ī i in fill, lily.
ī i ī in police (polīce).
u u in full, bush.
ū ū ū in rude (rūde).
ṛ ṛ ṛ in merrily (merṛly).
ṝ ṝ ṝ in marine (maṝne).
ḷ ḷ ḷ in revelry (reveḷ).
ḹ ḹ ḹ in the above prolonged.
e e e in prey, there.
ai ai in aisle.
o o in go, stone.
au au in Haus (German).
SIGNS OR SYMBOLS.
ṃ or ṃ either the true Anusvāra, sounded like n in French mon, or the symbol of any nasal.
ḥ symbol for the sibilant called Visarga.


CONSONANTS.
Equivalents and Pronunciation.
k k in kill, seek.
kh kh in ink-horn (inkhorn).
g g in gun, get, dog.
gh gh in log-hut (loghut).
ṅ in sing, king, sink (siṅk).
c c in dolce (in music).
ch ch in church-hill (curchill).
j j in jet, jump.
jh jh* in hedge-hog (hejhog)
*)Sometimes printed in the form jh, see pp. 147, 354.
ñ ñ in single (siñj).
ṭ in true (ṭrue).
ṭh ṭh in ant-hill (anṭhill).
ḍ in drum (ḍrum).
ḍh ḍh in red-haired (reḍhaired).
ṇ in none (ṇoṇe).
t t in water (in Ireland).
th th in nuthook (more dental).
d d in dice (more like th in this).
dh dh in adhere (but more dental).
n n in not, nut, in.
p p in put, sip.
ph ph in uphill.
b b in bear, rub.
bh bh in abhor.
m m in map, jam.
y y in yet, loyal.
r r in red, year.
l l in lull, lead.
L ḷ in (sometimes for ḍ ḍ in Veda).
Lh ḷh in (sometimes for ḍh ḍh in Veda).
v v in ivy (but like w after cons.).
ś ś in sure, session (śure, sesśion).
sh in shun, bush.
s s in saint, sin, hiss.
h h in hear, hit.

Note--The conjunct consonants are too numerous to be exhibited above, but the most common will be found at the end of 'A Practical Sanskṛt Grammar by Monier Williams.' published by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, third edition. For the correct pronunciation of the aspirated consonants, kh, ch, ṭh, th, ph, &c., see p. xix of the preceding Preface.


THE DICTIONARY ORDER OF THE INDO-ROMANIC LETTERS
WITHOUT THEIR NĀGARĪ EQUIVALENTS.

a, ā; i, ī; u, ū; ṛ, ṝ; ḷ, ḹ; e, ai; o, au;
ṃ or ṃ, ḥ;
k, kh; g, gh; ṅ;
c, ch; j, jh; ñ;
ṭ, ṭh; ḍ, ḍh; ṇ;
t, th; d, dh; n;
p, ph; b, bh; m;
y, r, l, ḷ, ḷh, v;
ś, sh, s;
h.

Observe-- represents the true Anusvāra in the body of a word before the sibilants and h, as in aṃśa, aṃsa, aṃhati: ṃ as the symbol of any nasal will often be found at the end of a word, as in dānaṃ ca; but may also represent Anusvāra, when final m is followed by initial sibilants and h, and in words formed with preposition sam, like saṃ-śaya, saṃ-hata: in the word Sanskṛt the second s is not initial, but introduced into the body of the word, so that we might properly write Saṃskṛt. Visarga as a substitute for final s is a distinctly audible aspirate, so that the at the end of devaḥ must be clearly heard.


ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.

akatham a-katham, ind. (fr. 3. a + 1. kathā), even without telling, without further words, without any dispute.

akula a-kula; add--(am), n. epithet of Śiva (with Tāntrikas; cf. kula, p. 1183).

akulī akulī, f., Ved. a cat.

akuhaka a-kuhaka, as, ā, am, not deceiving, free from deceit, guileless.

aknopana a-knopana, as, ī, am, not moistening, drying. See knopana, p. 1183.

akra akra; add--as, m. (according to B. R., probably) a standard, banner; a wall, fence (= prākāra according to Durga on Nirukta VI. 17).

akṣa 2. akṣa; add --the collar-bone (Ved.); a mesh (of a net).

akṣaka akṣaka; add --(probably) the collar-bone.

akṣadhara akṣa-dhara; for 'see sākhota' read --see śā-khoṭa.

akṣan akṣan, an organ of sense.

agastya agastya; correct thus --as, m. = agasti; and add --in Raghu-v. XIII. 36. Agastya is said to be 'the cleanser of water', as on the rising of Canopus turbid waters become clear.

agrāṅguli agrāṅguli; add --the tip of the toe.

aghāsaka a-ghāsaka, as, ā, am, without food or provisions.

aghoṣa a-ghoṣa; under as, m. add --'non-sonance', absence of all sound or soft murmur, hard articulation or effort as applied to the hard consonants and Visarga.

aghnat a-ghnat; for 'antī' read atī.

aṅkabhāj aṅka-bhāj; add--close to one's side; in one's possession, anything which is close or easy of attainment, close at hand.

aṅga aṅga; add--anything inferior or secondary, anything immaterial or unessential; (in grammar) also in Pāṇini's system a term for the base in the strong cases only, (see pada, 2. bha.)

aṅgatā aṅga-tā, f. or aṅga-tva, am, n. a state of subordination or dependence, the being of secondary importance, the being immaterial or unessential.

aṅgīkṛ aṅgī-kṛ; add--to take or espouse the side of.

ac ac; for 'carved' read curved.

ac ac, a technical term for all the vowels.

acchodya acchodya (-cha-ud-), ind. having spoken to, (Pāṇ. I. 4, 69.)

aja 1. aja; for '(as), m. pl.' read (ās), m. pl.

ajanta aj-anta, as, ā, am, ending in a vowel.

ajmadhyastha aj-madhya-stha, as, ā, am, being or occupying a place between two vowels.

añjanā añjanā; add--a kind of lizard.

añji añji; add--an ornament.

aṇḍadala aṇḍa-dala, am, n. an egg-shell.

atikrānti ati-krānti, is, f. transgression, (Kirāt. XIV. 23.)

ativāhita ati-vāhita; read ati-vāpika.

ativipina ati-vipina; add --very impenetrable.

atharvavid atharva-vid; for 'Brāhmaṇas' read Brahmans.

adakṣiṇa a-dakṣiṇa; add--inexperienced, simple-minded.

aditi 3. a-diti; add --Aditi was daughter of Daksha and wife of Kaśyapa.

adreśya a-dreśya = a-dṛśya, invisible, &c.

adhaḥkriyā adhaḥ-kriyā, f. = apa-māna, disgrace, humiliation.

adharakaṇṭha adhara-kaṇṭha; add--the lower part of the throat.

adharaya adharaya, Nom. P. adharayati, &c., to make inferior, put under; to eclipse, excel.

adhinātha adhi-nātha; add--a supreme lord, chieftain.

adhiruh adhi-ruh; add--to attack, accuse.

adhivāsa 3. adhi-vāsa; add --fumigation of a person or image with incense, &c.; fragrance, perfume; smell, odour (in general).

adhivijñāna adhi-vijñāna, am, n. the highest knowledge.

adhiśrī adhi-śrī, īs, īs, i, having great prosperity, highly prosperous or fortunate.

adhiṣṭheya adhi-ṣṭheya, as, ā, am, to be superintended or governed.

adhisenāpati adhi-senāpati, is, m. 'over-general', a commander-in-chief.

adhihasti adhi-hasti, ind. on an elephant.

adhītin adhītin; add--occupied with the study of the Veda. studying the Vedas.

adhīna adhīna; add--resting on, situated in or on, belonging to.

adhonilaya adho-nilaya, as, m. 'lower abode', the lower regions.

adhyarhaṇīya adhy-arhaṇīya, as, ā, am, to be honoured highly, very honourable.

adhyavasiti adhy-avasiti, is, f. exertion, effort, &c. (= adhy-avasāna).

adhyāvāhanika adhy-ā-vāhanika; the proper explanation of this word is given under strī-dhana.

adhyūḍha adhy-ūḍha, as, m.; add--the son of a woman pregnant before marriage [cf. 1. sahoḍha].

adhyūḍhaja adhyūḍha-ja, as, m. = adhy-ūḍha above.

adhvaryu adhvaryu; add--(us), f. the wife of an Adhvaryu priest, (Pāṇ. IV. 1, 66.)

analada anala-da, as, ā, am (see 3. da), destroying or quenching fire, (said of water, Kirāt. V. 25.)

anavakāśa an-avakāśa; add--having no other opportunity for application, inapplicable, (Pāṇ. I. 4, 1.)

anavakāśatvāt anavakāśatvāt, abl. c. from the inapplicability (of a rule), if the (present) rule does not take effect.

anita anita; read--an-ita, not gone to, not obtained.

anīlavājin anīlavājin, ī, m. 'white-horsed', epithet of Arjuna.

anukūlana anu-kūlana, am, n. kindness towards (with gen.).

anukrānta anu-krānta; add--mentioned or written down in the Anukramaṇī.

anugaṇḍikā anu-gaṇḍikā, f. a line of hills or a little hill.

anugāyas anu-gāyas, ās, ās, as, to be hymned, (Sāy. anu-gātavya.)

anugītā anu-gītā, f. an after-song; N. of part of the fourteenth book of the Mahā-bhārata (chaps. 16--92).

anuguṇaya anu-guṇaya, Nom. P. -guṇayati, &c., to favour.

anugodam anu-godam, ind. near the Godāvarī.

anugrahīkṛta anugrahī-kṛta, as, ā, am, made into a favour or benefit.

anujñātṛ anu-jñātṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, one who assents, giving leave or permission.

anutarṣula anu-tarṣula, as, ā, am, causing thirst; causing a desire or longing for.

anutiṣṭhāsu anu-tiṣṭhāsu, us, us, u, intending to do or effect anything.

anudarśa anu-darśa, as, m. remonstrance, expostulation.

anudeham anu-deham; add--behind the body, from behind.

anupakṣita an-upakṣita; add--unexhausted.

anupadeśa an-upadeśa, as, m. absence of reference to (anything else).

anupā 2. anu-pā; add --to cherish; to watch, bide one's time, wait for, expect.

anuprayuj anu-pra-yuj; add--to employ afterwards.

anupravacana anu-pravacana, am, n. the act of learning the Veda.

anupravacanīya anu-pravacanīya, as, ā, am, relating to or requisite for the learning of the Veda.

anupravaṇa anu-pravaṇa, as, ā, am, corresponding with, adequate to (at the end of a comp.).

anupraśamana anu-praśamana, am, n. the act of tranquillizing or pacifying, calming, assuaging, silencing.

anubadhnat anu-badhnat, an, atī, at, following, seeking.

anubandha anu-bandha; add--an adherent.

anubandhin anu-bandhin, ī, inī, i; add --extending, spreading; continuous, lasting, permanent.

anubhāga anu-bhāga, as, m. a subordinate division, minor part, subdivision.

anubhāṣitṛ anu-bhāṣitṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, speaking to, saying.

anumāna 2. anu-māna, as, m. (fr. anu-man), permission, consent.

anumānana anu-mānana, am, n. (fr. the Caus. of anu-man), the act of persuading, persuasion.

anumṛgya anu-mṛgya, as, ā, am, to be sought after, desirable, anything desirable. Under anumṛgya-dāśu, p. 37, col. 3, erase (rt. mṛg and ).

anumṛt anu-mṛt, t, t, t, dying after.

anuyuñjaka anu-yuñjaka, as, m. one fond of censuring others, fault-finder, a jealous or envious person.

anurañjayat anu-rañjayat, an, antī, at, dyeing, colouring; tinging with a dark colour.

anurāga anu-rāga; add--colour; red colour, redness.

anurāgavat anurāga-vat; add--red-coloured, red.

anulakṣya anu-lakṣya, ind. conforming to, conformably to.

anuvaṃśa anu-vaṃśa; add--collateral race or branch of a family; (as, ā, am), having equal birth, of the same rank.

anuvad anu-vad; add--Pass. anūdyate, to be expressed correspondingly.

anuvartman anu-vartman; add--(a), n. a path trodden by others.

anuvākya anu-vākya, as, ā, am, to be recited.

anuvādita anu-vādita, as, ā, am, translated.

anuvāsaram anu-vāsaram, ind. day by day, every day, daily.

anuvimba anu-vimba, am, n. a corresponding image or picture, counterpart.

anuṣatya anu-ṣatya, as, ā, am (fr. 3. anu + satya), Ved. following the truth, an observer of truth.

anusaṃyāna anu-saṃyāna, am, n. visiting in succession, going from one place to another.

anusaṃvatsarāt anu-saṃvatsarāt, abl. c. after the lapse of a year.

anusarga anu-sarga, as, m. an after-creation, secondary creation.

anusartavya anu-sartavya, as, ā, am, to be followed or pursued.

anusānu anu-sānu, ind. along a table-land or summit, from ridge to ridge.

anusevā anu-sevā, f. waiting on, attendance, service.

anūdara an-ūdara (for an-udara), without a belly.

anṛtadeva anṛta-deva; add--having false gods.

antaraṅga antar-aṅga; add--(am), n. an inner part (of the body); the heart.

antargiri antar-giri, among hills or mountains.

antargirya antargirya, ās, m. pl. dwellers among hills.

antarhatya antar-hatya, ind. having struck in the middle.

antarhan antar-han, cl. 2. P. -hanti, &c., to strike in the middle.

antesad ante-sad or ante-ṣada, as, m. a pupil.

annīya annīya, Nom. P. annīyati, &c., Ved. to desire food.

annīyat annīyat, an, antī, at, desiring food.

anyathaya anyathaya, Nom. P. (fr. anyathā), anyatha-yati, &c., to change, alter.

anyādṛkṣa anyā-dṛkṣa; for 'anya-dṛś, anya-dṛśa' read anyā-d-.

anvak anvak; add--behind, from behind.

apajya apa-jya, as, ā, am, loosened from the bow-string.

apajvara apa-jvara, as, ā, am, free from fever.

apatuṣāra apa-tuṣāra, as, ā, am, free from frost or mist.

apatuṣāratā apatuṣāra-tā, f. absence of mist, departure of frost.

apanidra apa-nidra; add--wide awake, expanded, blooming (said of a flower, see nidrā).

apanidhi apa-nidhi, is, is, i, treasureless, poor.

apabhāṣaṇa apa-bhāṣaṇa, as, m. one who speaks a barbarous language (other than Sanskṛt).

apamārga apa-mārga, as, m. (fr. apa-mṛj), wiping off, cleaning, removing.

aparakta apa-rakta; add--disaffected.

aparañj apa-rañj, Pass. -rajyate, to become disaffected.

aparavaktrā apara-vaktrā, f., p. 51, read apara-vaktra, am, n.

aparuṣ apa-ruṣ, ṭ, ṭ, ṭ, free from anger.

aparokṣaya aparokṣaya; add--to have ocular proof of.

apartu apartu; add--(us), m. improper season, unusual time.

apaśūla apa-śūla, as, ā, am, spearless, having no spear.

apaśruti apa-śruti, is, is, i, from which the ear is turned away, unpleasant to hear.

apasphur apa-sphur; for 'ūs, ūs, ūs', read ūr, ūr, ūr.

apasmaya apa-smaya, as, ā, am, free from pride or haughtiness.

apaharta apa-harta, as, m. = apa-hartṛ, one who takes away, a destroyer.

apahasta apa-hasta; add--as, m. the back of the hand (= hasta-pṛṣṭha).

apahastaya apa-hastaya; add--to drive away (with the back of the hand).

apākṛti apā-kṛti; add--evil conduct.

apāntaratamas apāntara-tamas (apa-an-), ās, m., N. of an ancient sage (identified with Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana).

apāra 1. a-pāra; correct thus--not the opposite bank, this side of a river, the near bank.

apāvṛttaka apā-vṛttaka, as, ā, am, running away, fugitive.

apidhāna api-dhāna; add--a bolt, bar, lock.

apivat api-vat. See rt. 2. vat; [cf. sv-api-vāta.]

apobdha apobdha, as, ā, am, bound.

apombhana apombhana, am, n. binding, a bond, fetter.

aprātirūpya a-prātirūpya, am, n. dissimilarity.

abja 2. abja, Nom. P. abjati, &c., to become a lotus flower.

abhikṣattṛ abhi-kṣattṛ; add--one who carves food, a host.

abhigṛdhna abhi-gṛdhna, as, ā, am, eagerly desiring, greedy for.

abhidevana abhi-devana, am, n. a gambling-table, dice-table.

abhipāla abhi-pāla, as, m. a protector, watcher.

abhipālana abhi-pālana, am, n. protection, watching.

abhipradharṣaṇa abhi-pradharṣaṇa, am, n. assault, ill-treatment.

abhipraveśa abhi-praveśa, as, m. entering, entrance.

abhimārutam abhi-mārutam, ind. against the wind.

abhimukha abhi-mukha; add--face to face, opposed to.

abhimukhaya abhi-mukhaya, Nom. P. -mukhayati, &c., to face, encounter.

abhiyajñagāthā abhi-yajña-gāthā, p. 66, to be erased.

abhirāma abhi-rāma; add--(as), m. pleasure, pleasure in.

abhisañjñita abhi-sañjñita, as, ā, am, called, named.

abhisara abhi-sara; add--an assailant.

abhyākarṣa abhy-ākarṣa; add--putting on clothes, dressing.

abhyucchraya abhy-ucchraya, as, m. height.

abhyucchrayavat abhyucchraya-vat, ān, atī, at, high, lofty.

amataparārthatā amata-parārtha-tā, f. the having an unacceptable second meaning.

amānuṣa a-mānuṣa; add--(as, ā, am), destitute of men.

aminat a-minat; add--not failing.

amūdṛkṣa amū-dṛkṣa; for 'ā' read ī.

ambarīṣaka ambarīṣaka, as, m. = ambarīṣa, a frying-pan.

ambuja ambu-ja; insert--(am), n. before 'a lotus', &c.

ambumuc ambu-muc, k, m. 'water-discharger', a cloud.

ayudhvin a-yudhvin to be erased.

ayuva a-yuva; add--undivided, strong; free from destruction, (Sāy. = maraṇa-rahita.)

ayuvamārin a-yuvamārin, ī, iṇī, i, Ved. (according to B. R.) not dying in youth; [cf. yuva-mārin.]

argheya argheya, as, ā, am, = arghya, having a fixed price, valuable.

arṇasa arṇasa, as, ā, am, Ved. watery, full of water, (Sāy. = udaka-vat); floating, billowy (according to B. R.).

artu artu = ṛtu, a season.

arthāntaranyāsa arthāntara-nyāsa; add--transition to another matter or subject, the turning aside from a narrative to introduce a moral reflection, &c.

arthāpatti arthāpatti; add--a disjunctive hypothetical syllogism.

ardhanārī ardha-nārī, Śiva and Pārvatī conjoined.

armaka armaka, doubtful and probably to be erased, B. R.

arvan arvan; read arvat or arvan.

arvāktana arvāktana, as, ā or ī, am, being on this side, not reaching to the other side.

arhat arhat; after 'a Buddha' add--who is still a candidate for nirvāṇa.

alambuṣa alambuṣa; for 'vomiting' read a kind of plant (= chardana).

alābu alābu; add--(u), n. the fruit of the Alābu.

avakīlaka ava-kīlaka, as, m. a peg, nail.

avacūlaka ava-cūlaka; for 'as, m.' read am, n.

avajiti ava-jiti, is, f. conquering, conquest.

avadola ava-dola, as, m. shaking, swinging.

avadyat ava-dyat, an, atī, at, breaking off.

avana avana; add--(as, ī, am), protecting, sheltering, a protector.

avapha ava-pha to be erased, B. R.

avamocana ava-mocana; add--a place of abode.

avaraśilā avara-śilā to be erased, B. R.

avaropaṇa ava-ropaṇa; add--the act of planting (trees).

avarṣa a-varṣa; for 'as, m.' read am, n.

avalekhā ava-lekhā, f. drawing, painting.

avalopa ava-lopa, as, m. breaking off, destruction.

avasarpin ava-sarpin; add--descending gradually; the Jaina Ava-sarpiṇī is a 'descending cycle' divided into six stages, (viz. good-good, good, good-bad, bad-good, bad, bad-bad.)

avasāyaka ava-sāyaka, as, ikā, am, destructive, fatal, deadly.

avasecana ava-secana; add--bathing; strewing, scattering.

avaseya ava-seya; add--to be accomplished; to be ascertained.

avaskanda ava-skanda; erase--'a camp.'

avahārika ava-hārika, am, n. spoil, booty, plunder.

avyavastha a-vyavastha, as, ā, am, irregular, without rule.

avyākṛta a-vyākṛta; add--undeveloped, unexpanded.

avyutpanna a-vyutpanna; add--underived.

aśaṅkya a-śaṅkya, as, ā, am, not to be feared or doubted.

aśanin aśanin, ī, inī, i, having a thunderbolt.

aślona a-ślona; read a-śloṇa [cf. śloṇa, śroṇa].

aśvaṣaṅgava aśva-ṣaṅgava; correct thus--aśva-ṣaḍgava.

aśvasukti aśva-sukti; read--aśva-suktin, ī, m.

aṣṭi 2. aṣṭi; for 'rt. 1. as' read rt. 1. .

aṣṭi 3. aṣṭi, is, f. (fr. rt. 2. as), seed (= aṣṭhi).

asakta a-sakta; add--uninterrupted; (am), ind. uninterruptedly.

asaścivas a-saścivas; for 'as' read at.

asāra a-sāra; under (am), n. add--chaff.

asiṛddhita asi-ṛddhita, as, ā, am, increased or extended by the sword (= khaḍga-balena ṛddhim prāpita).

asthidantamaya asthi-danta-maya, as, ī, am, made of bone or of ivory, (Manu V. 121.)

asrāma a-srāma; add--not withered (Ved.).

ahaṅkaraṇa ahaṅ-karaṇa, am, n. = ahaṅ-kāra.

ahan ahan; for 'and ahas' read--ahar, which is the proper form of the Nominative.

ahardala ahar-dala, mid-day.

ahastriyāma ahas-triyāma, am, n. day and night.

ākekara ā-kekara, as, ī, am, slightly looking askance.

āṅgārika āṅgārika, as, m. one having to do with charcoal, a charcoal-burner.

ācar ā-car; add--to examine (a witness).

āñjana āñjana; add--(as, ī, am), having the colour of ointment.

āḍambara āḍambara; add--noise, din; bombastical language; tumult, confusion.

ātmasantāna ātma-santāna, as, m. 'own offspring', a son.

āda 2. āda or ādaka, as, ā, am (fr. rt. ad), eating (at the end of comps.).

ādāya 1. ādāya to be erased.

ādārabimbī ādāra-bimbī to be erased.

ādīpaka ā-dīpaka, as, m. one who sets fire to anything, an incendiary.

ādhidaivika ādhidaivika; add--proceeding from the influence of the atmosphere or planets, proceeding from divine or supernatural agencies.

ādhīna ādhīna = adhīna, depending on (with loc.).

ādhyātmika ādhyātmika; add--proceeding from bodily or mental causes within one's self.

āparapakṣīya āparapakṣīya (fr. apara-pakṣa), belonging or relating to the second half of a month.

āptoryāma āptor-yāma, as, m. = aptor-yāma, q. v.

āpvan āpvan to be erased.

āpsarasa āpsarasa, as, ī, am, coming from an Apsaras.

āphalaka ā-phalaka, a fence made of planks, palisade.

ābdam ābdam (ā-ab-), ind. for a whole year.

ābharita ā-bharita, as, ā, am, ornamented, adorned.

āmiṣa āmiṣa; add--prey.

āmiṣatā āmiṣa-tā, f. the being a prey.

āmṛś ā-mṛś; add--Pass. mṛśyate, to be devoured or eaten (= bhakṣyate, Raghu-v. V. 9).

ārata ā-rata; add--(am), n. a kind of coitus.

ārecin ā-recin, ī, inī, i, emptying.

ārodha ā-rodha, as, m. a siege, blockade.

ārjavin ārjavin, ī, inī, i (fr. ārjava), having honesty, upright, honest, straightforward.

ārjīka ārjīka; 'milk' to be erased.

āvarjana ā-varjana, am, n. victory, conquest (= jaya).

āvigna ā-vigna; add--as, ā, am (fr. ā-vij), terrified.

āvirmaṇḍala āvir-maṇḍala, as, ā, am, manifesting the form of a circle.

āvedha ā-vedha, as, m. (fr. ā-vyadh), shaking about.

āśir āśir; for 'īs' read īr.

āśiṣṭha āśiṣṭha, as, ā, am (superl. of āśu), quickest.

āśīyas āśīyas, ān, asī, as (compar. of āśu), quicker.

āṣṭamika āṣṭamika, as, ī, am, taught in the eighth book (of Pāṇini).

āsaṃsṛteḥ ā-saṃsṛteḥ, ind. till the end of the world, as long as the course of this world lasts.

āsidhāra āsidhāra, am, n. (fr. asi-dhārā), scil. vratam, a vow as difficult as standing on the edge of a sword.

āsura āsura; under (ī), f. add--an epithet of buddhi in the Sāṅkhya philosophy.

āhaṅkārika āhaṅkārika, as, ī, am (fr. ahaṅ-kāra), belonging or relating to Ahaṅkāra.

ikṣuśākaṭa ikṣu-śākaṭa; for 'kind' read field.

iḍā iḍā; add--N. of a particular artery on the left side of the body.

indīvara indī-vara; add--(as), m. a bee [cf. indin-dira].

indragopa indra-gopa; to (as), m. add--a fire-fly.

indraputrā indra-putrā; correct thus--'having Indra for a son', i. e. the mother of Indra.

indramaha indra-maha; add--(according to a commentator) a feast in honour of Indra [cf. maha].

ibhyatilvala ibhya-tilvala; read ibhya-tilvila.

irvāruka irvāruka to be erased, B. R. [cf. mṛgervāruka].

īkṣa īkṣa, as, ā, am, looking [cf. tiryag-īkṣa]; an opening, hole, mesh, (in kṣudrekṣa, having small meshes.)

īṅkhana īṅkhana, am, n. shaking about, swinging.

īyivas īyivas; for 'as' read at.

īra īra, as, m. the wind.
     īraja īra-ja or īra-putra, as, m. 'son of the wind', Hanu-mat.

īraṇa īraṇa; add--(am), n. the act of publishing, proclaiming.

ucchotha uc-chotha (ud-ś-), as, m. (fr. rt. śvi with ud), swelling, intumescence.

ucchvasita uc-chvasita; add--unfastened, untied.

ucchvāsita uc-chvāsita; add--raised, lifted up.

ujjh ujjh; add--to let out, discharge (water), emit.

uñcha uñcha; add--also as, m.

uṇādi uṇ-ādi, a class of Kṛt affixes beginning with uṇ.

utkaca utkaca; add--hairless; full-blown.

utkuṭakāsana utkuṭakāsana; add--sitting with the legs bent underneath.

uttānapāṇidvaya uttāna-pāṇi-dvaya, as, ā, am, having the two hands with the concave of the palms turned upwards.

utthāyitva utthāyi-tva, am, n. effort, energy, activity.

utthāyin ut-thāyin; add--exerting one's self, active.

utprabāla ut-prabāla, as, ā, am, shooting out fresh foliage.

utsarpiṇī ut-sarpiṇī; add--'ascending scale', divided into six stages (beginning with bad-bad, and rising upwards in the reverse order to ava-sarpiṇī, q. v., col. 2).

utsrotas ut-srotas, ās, ās, as, having the flow of life or current of nutriment upwards (opposed to arvāk-srotas, q. v.).

udāśaya udāśaya (-da-āś-), as, am, m. n. a lake, tank.

udgāra ud-gāra; add--swelling, heaving [cf. sāgarod-gāra].

uddīpaka ud-dīpaka; add--(as), m. a kind of bird.

uddharma ud-dharma, as, m. an erroneous doctrine, heresy.

udbhāvana ud-bhāvana, am, n. the act of raising up, elevation.

udya udya, as, ā, am (fr. rt. vad), to be spoken, (udya, 'a river', is incorrect for uddhya.)

udyamita ud-yamita, as, ā, am, excited, instigated.

udvij ud-vij; for '-vejitum' read -vijitum.

unnahana un-nahana, as, ā, am, unfettered, unrestrained.

unnāmita un-nāmita, as, ā, am, raised up.

unnāha un-nāha; add--excess; unbridled conduct.

unmajjana un-majjana; add--(am), n. the act of emerging.

unmaṇi un-maṇi, is, m. a jewel found on the surface of the ground (= bahiḥ-prakaṭa).

upakrānta upa-krānta, as, ā, am, previously mentioned.

upagāna upa-gāna, am, n. an accompanying song.

upageya upa-geya; add--(am), n. a song.

upacārika upa-cārika, as, ā, am, serviceable, useful.

upacīrṇa upa-cīrṇa, as, ā, am, attended; deceived (= vañcita).

upacchanda upa-cchanda, as, m. an implement, instrument.

upajanam upa-janam, ind. near the people.

upatīrtha upa-tīrtha, am, n. steps leading down to a river.

upaduh upa-duh, -dhuk, m. a milk-pail.

upadeśa upa-deśa; add--a name, title.

upadoha upa-doha; correct thus--a milk-pail.

upadohana upa-dohana, a milk-pail.

upadhi upa-dhi; add--support.

upapada upa-pada; for 'as, m.' read am, n.; and after 'in a compound' add--but not in a Bahu-vrīhi.

upabandha upa-bandha; add--a bond, rope, cord.

upamajjana upa-majjana, am, n. ablution, bathing, a bath.

upamantrin upa-mantrin; add--(ī), m. a subordinate counsellor.

upamāt upa-māt, Ved. = upa-mit.

upamitra upa-mitra, am, n. a secondary or inferior friend.

upamekhalam upa-mekhalam, ind. about or on the slopes or sides (of a mountain).

upayat upa-yat, an, atī, at (fr. upe), flowing into, going near, approaching, tributary (as a river).

upayoga upa-yoga; add--engagement, compact, agreement.

upavrajam upa-vrajam, ind. near a cattle pen.

upaśalya upa-śalya; add--neighbouring district, environs.

upasaṅgraha upa-saṅgraha; add--a pillow, cushion, mattress.

upasikta upa-sikta, as, ā, am, sprinkled with.

upasīma upa-sīma, ind. near the boundary (of a field).

upaseka upa-seka, as, m. sprinkling upon, infusion.

upahārya upa-hārya, as, ā, am, to be presented or offered; (am), n. an offering, oblation.

upahita upa-hita; add--good in a secondary degree, somewhat good; (am), n. a secondary good.

upācīrṇa upā-cīrṇa, as, ā, am, deceived.

upānayana upā-nayana, am, n. the act of leading or conducting home.

upārata upā-rata; add--ceasing, turning back, returning.

upāsad upā-sad (upa-ā-), cl. 1. P. -sīdati, &c., to approach, walk along.

urasikṛ urasi-kṛ or urasi kṛ, cl. 8. P. -karoti, &c., to appropriate, make one's own.

urāṇa urāṇa, as, ā, am, Ved. making broad, (Sāy. = uru-kurvāṇa.)

urvaśī urvaśī; add--according to some, more properly derived fr. uru + rt. 1. , to pervade, and meaning originally 'widely-spreading.'

ulūkī ulūkī, f. an owl.

ullāsa ullāsa; add--increase, growth.

uśij uśij; add--charming, beautiful, handsome.

ṛjīṣa ṛjīṣa; add--viscid, unctuous.

ṛjvac ṛjvac; for 'āṅ' read aṅ.

ṛtajur ṛta-jur; for 'ur' read ūr.

ṛddhita ṛddhita, as, ā, am, made to prosper, prospered.

ekatāla eka-tāla, as, ā, am, having a single palm tree.

eḍī eḍī, f. a female sheep, ewe.

eṇāṅka eṇāṅka (eṇa-aṅ-), as, m. 'deer-marked', the moon.
     eṇāṅkamaṇi eṇāṅka-maṇi, is, m. the moon-gem [cf. candra-kānta].

aikaguṇya aikaguṇya, am, n. (fr. eka-guṇa), the value of a single unit, simple unity (opposed to dvaiguṇya).

aidamparya aidamparya, am, n. (fr. idam + para), 'the state of being devoted to this alone', main or only object, chief end.

aindranīla aindranīla, as, ī, am (fr. indra-nīla), made of sapphire.

aiśya aiśya, am, n. (fr. īśa), supremacy, power.

otsūryam otsūryam (ā-ut-), ind. until the sun rises.

oṣṭhajāha oṣṭha-jāha; for 'ear' read lips.

aurmileya aurmileya, as, m. a metronymic from Ūrmilā.

aurvara aurvara, as, ī, am (fr. urvarā), belonging to the earth, coming from the ground.

kaṭphala kaṭ-phala. See under kaṭu, p. 196, col. 1.

kaṇṭa kaṇṭa. See under kaṇṭaka; (these words are thought by some to be for original karnta, karn-taka, fr. rt. 2. kṛt, to cut.)

kamaṇḍalu kamaṇḍalu; in Ved. a form kamaṇḍalū, ūs, f. is allowed, (Pāṇ. IV. 1, 71.)

kamalanābha kamala-nābha, as, m. 'lotus-naveled', epithet of Viṣṇu.

karṇasrotas karṇa-srotas, as, n. 'ear-flow', the wax of the ear.

kalahat kalahat, an, antī, at (fr. a Nom. kalaha), quarreling.

kavayitṛ kavayitṛ = kavi, (Kumāra-s. II. 17, Malli-nātha.)

kastīra kastīra; said to be connected with rt. 1. kās for kāś, to shine.

kāṇabhuja kāṇabhuja, as, ī, am, composed by Kaṇa-bhuj, i. e. Kaṇāda.

kādrava kādrava, as, ī, am (fr. kadru), dark-yellow, of a reddish-brown colour.

kāniṣṭhya kāniṣṭhya, am, n. (fr. kaniṣṭha), the place or position of the youngest (opposed to jyaiṣṭhya), juniority.

kāmatāta kāma-tāta, as, m. epithet of Śiva [cf. kāma-pāla].

kāmākhyā kāmākhyā; add--a district in Assam sacred to Durgā.

kāyadaṇḍa kāya-daṇḍa, as, m. command over the body, control of the actions.

kāru kāru; for '(as)' read (us).

kālapūga kāla-pūga; transfer under 2. kāla, and correct thus--a quantity or length of time, a long time.

kāṣṭhaloṣṭamaya kāṣṭha-loṣṭa-maya, as, ī, am, made of wood and clay.

kiñcanya kiñcanya, am, n. (fr. kiñcana, 'something'), possession, property.

kintā kin-tā, f. 'the state of whom?' any despicable state or condition, contemptibleness; kintayā, with meanness, contemptibly.

kindeva kin-deva, as, m. a demi-god [cf. kin-nara].

kimprabhu kim-prabhu, us, m. a bad master.

kimbhṛtya kim-bhṛtya, as, m. a bad servant.

kimmantrin kim-mantrin, ī, m. a bad minister.

kirīṭa kirīṭa; add--(as), m. a merchant, trader.

kukṣija kukṣi-ja, as, m. a son, (Raghu-v. XV. 15.)

kutantrī ku-tantrī, īs or ī, f. a tail.

kula kula, am, n.; add--(with Śāktas), epithet of Śakti and of the rites observed in her worship [cf. kaula].

kuladharma kula-dharma; add--the observances of the Kaulas.

kulamārga kula-mārga; add--the doctrine of the Kaulas.

kulavartman kula-vartman, a, n. the doctrine of the Kaulas.

kuvid kuvid, ind. where? where at all? (Sāy.) often, frequently.

kūrcala kūrcala, as, ā, am, having a beard, bearded.

kṛtārthayat kṛtārthayat, an, antī, at, making successful.

kṛmija kṛmi-ja, am, n.; add--silk.

kelikila keli-kila; add--(as, ā, am), wanton, arrogant.

kaimutikanyāya kaimutika-nyāya, as, m. the rule of 'how much more' or a fortiori.

koṭi koṭi, is, f. a point or side in an argument.

kaulya kaulya; add--(am), n. noble origin, good family.

kauśika 1. kauśika; add--(am), n. a silk garment.

knopana knopana, as, ī, am (fr. Caus. of rt. knūy), wetting, moistening.

krakaca krakaca; under 'as, m.' add--a particular musical instrument; N. of a hell.

krāṇā krāṇā, ind. (according to B. R. inst. of krāṇa, 'desire, eagerness', and probably from a form krā = rt. 1. kṛ), Ved. willingly, gladly.

kṣīrakharjūra kṣīra-kharjūra, kṣīrikā; for 'Datura' read Date.

kṣetrasaṃhitā kṣetra-saṃhitā, f. any work on geometry.

kṣepāya kṣepāya, Nom. A. kṣepāyate, &c., to revile.

kṣepāyamāṇa kṣepāyamāṇa, as, ā, am, abusing, reviling.

kṣvelana kṣvelana, am, n. the act of playing, sport, jest.

kṣveli kṣveli, is, f. sport, jest.

khaṇḍakāvya khaṇḍa-kāvya, am, n.; add--a partial or minor poem (i. e. one not on any heroic or sacred subject, and having only one topic).

kharju kharju; for 'datura' read date.

khalakhalāya khalakhalāya, Nom. A. khalakhalāyate, to act knavishly.

khalāya khalāya, Nom. A. khalāyate, to act roguishly.

khoraka khoraka, as, m. a disease of the foot.

gajin gajin, ī, inī, i, riding on an elephant.

gatī gatī, f. = gati, going, (in Rāmāyaṇa VII. 31, 41. explained by the commentator as a Vedic lengthening of the final.)

gatvara gatvara; for 'ā' read ī.

gadi gadi, is, f. speaking, speech.

gamaka gamaka; add--making clear or intelligible.

garuḍa garuḍa; Aruṇa is the elder (not 'younger') brother, and Garuḍāgraja should be translated 'elder brother of Garuḍa.'

gavāśira gavāśira; the base should rather be gavāśir, Nom. case masc. fem. gavāśīr.

gāla gāla; add--(as, ī, am), produced in or from the throat, guttural.

guṇayoga guṇa-yoga, as, m. the application of the secondary sense of a word.

guṇavṛtti guṇa-vṛtti; for 'essential' read unessential: add--the secondary force of a word.

guṇāya guṇāya, Nom. A. guṇāyate, &c., to appear like virtues, become merits or good qualities.

guṇin guṇin; add--having a string or cord.

gup 2. gup; add--cl. 1. P. gopāyati.

gurumat guru-mat; add--(atī), f. a pregnant woman.

gurvartha gurv-artha, as, m.; add--one who seeks to provide a maintenance for his Guru.

gṛṣṭi gṛṣṭi; under 'is, m.' add--a proper N.

gocaryā go-caryā, f. seeking pasturage or food like a cow.

gocārin go-cārin; add--one who seeks his nourishment like a cow, seeking food with the mouth, (see mṛga-cārin.)

gopāya gopāya, Nom. A. gopāyate, to act like a herdsman.

goyajña go-yajña; add--a sacrifice in honour of a cow.

gauṇya gauṇya; add--the being a merit, excellence; (as), m. merit, excellence.

gras 1. gras; add--to neglect, (according to Kullūka on Manu VIII. 43. graset = upekṣeta.)

grāmaṭikā grāmaṭikā, f. (fr. grāma), a wretched village.

ghaṭotkaca ghaṭotkaca means 'bald as a jar.'

ghaṇṭa ghaṇṭa; probably for hantra as daṇḍa for dantra.

cakratuṇḍa cakra-tuṇḍa, as, m. a kind of fish (= nala-mīna).

cakhvas cakhvas, ān, m. an abbreviated perf. part., (according to Sāy. on Ṛg-veda II. 14, 4. either fr. rt. cakṣ or rt. khan, perhaps 'one who has displayed', 'displaying;' according to B. R. perhaps 'stretching out.')

caritaguṇatva caritaguṇa-tva; add--the attainment of some peculiar quality or use.

cārya 2. cārya, am, n. (fr. cara or cāra), spying out, espionage, information brought by spies.

ciccika ciccika, as, m. (onomatopoetic), Ved. a kind of bird.

cirarātra cira-rātra, (according to Halāyudha I. 108) as, m.

cūḍaya cūḍaya, Nom. P. cūḍayati, &c., to make anything (acc.) into a Cūḍā or top-knot.

cūlikā cūlikā, f.; add--the hinting of a matter or event by those behind the curtain (in the drama).

caileya caileya, as, ī, am (fr. cela), made of cloth.

corāyita corāyita, as, ā, am (fr. a Nom. corāya), acted like a thief, playing the thief.

channa channa; add--(am), n. a covering; the trappings (of an elephant).

chalitarāma chalita-rāma; for 'as, m.' read am, n.

jaḍaya jaḍaya, Nom. P. jaḍayati, &c., to make apathetic, make motionless or lifeless.

jaḍātmaka jaḍātmaka, as, ā, am, or jaḍātman (-ḍa-āt-), ā, ā, a, insensible, void of sensation, calm, placid, cool (said of the moon).

jani jani or janī; add--cf. Gr. [greek]

jalaśarkarā jala-śarkarā, f. 'water-gravel', hail.

jātī jātī, f. a kind of jasmine.

jālandhara jālandhara, as, m. = jalan-dhara, N. of an Asura.

jṛbh jṛbh or jṛmbh; add--to unbend or unstring a bow.

jyotirmilin jyotirmilin, probably for jyotirmīlin.

jvar jvar; add--connected with rt. jval.

jvalat jvalat; add--(an), m. fire, flame.

jhaṣaketana jhaṣa-ketana; add--the sea.

ṭikā ṭikā, in svarga-grāma-ṭikā-viluṇṭhana, to be erased, (see grāmaṭikā, p. 1183.)

taṭāghāta taṭāghāta (-ṭa-āgh-), as, m. = vapra-krīḍā, the butting of elephants against banks, &c.

tan 3. tan; add--to manifest, display, exhibit, show, put forth (energy &c.), make.

tanumadhya tanu-madhya, am, n. middle of body, waist.

taparloka tapar-loka = tapo-loka.

tamogu tamo-gu to be erased.

taruṇaya taruṇaya, Nom. P. taruṇayati, to make fresh.

talavāraṇa tala-vāraṇa = tala-tra.

tāmyat tāmyat; add--becoming distressed, becoming attenuated.

tāvat tāvat; add--just a little.

tiryaksrotas tiryak-srotas; for 'hurrying' read having.

tulita tulita; add--lifted up.

tulyakulya tulyakulya, as, ā, am, belonging to the same family.

tṛṇāvarta tṛṇāvarta; add--N. of a demon killed by the infant Kṛṣṇa.

tṛṣṭa tṛṣṭa, to be connected with rt. 1. tṛṣ; add --(originally) dry.

tokāya tokāya, Nom. P. tokāyati, to be like a new-born child.

tauraṅgika tauraṅgika, as, m. a horseman.

tyājana tyājana, am, n. the act of abandonment, renunciation.

trisaraka tri-saraka, am, n. the aggregate of three spirituous liquors; drinking spirituous liquors.

daṇḍa daṇḍa; add--probably for original dantra, 'the instrument of restraining.'

daṇḍavācike daṇḍa-vācike, n. du. in pāruṣye daṇḍa-vācike, the two kinds of assault, i. e. blows and abuse.

dadāśvas dadāśvas; for 'vas' read vat.

dadivas dadivas; for 'vas' read vat.

dadṛśivas dadṛśivas; for 'vas' read vat.

dandhvana dandhvana, as, m. (fr. Intens. of rt. 2. dhvan), 'sounding very much', a kind of reed or cane.

darīman darīman (fr. rt. dṝ), Ved. destruction.

dāra dāra; the meaning 'a ploughed field' to be erased; the words printed ekake dāre in Manu IX. 38. should be eka-kedāre, (see kedāra.)

dālana dālana; for 'am, n.' read as, m.

dāśvas dāśvas; for 'vas' read vat.

dugdhabandhaka dugdha-bandhaka; correct thus--as, m. the pledging of milk.

durādhi dur-ādhi; add--(is), m. anxious thought, distress of mind.

durupasada dur-upasada, as, ā, am, difficult of approach.

daurhṛdinī daurhṛdinī, f. = dauhṛdinī, a pregnant woman.

dravya dravya; add--(one of the Padārthas or categories in grammar), a word which is the name of a single object as distinguished from a Jāti or class.

draupadeya draupadeya; for 'patronymic' read metronymic.

dvairūpya dvairūpya, am, n. (fr. dvi-rūpa), duality of form, double appearance.

dhanuḥkāṇḍa dhanuḥ-kāṇḍa, dhanuḥ-khaṇḍa; these would be better written dhanuṣ-kāṇḍa, dhanuṣ-khaṇḍa, (see Pāṇ. VIII. 3, 45.)

dhuna dhuna; add--(am), n. one million billions.

dhvan 2. dhvan; add--Pass. dhvanyate, to be implied or signified.

nakṣatra nakṣatra; the order of the Nakshatras is differently given, but the following is the most usual: 1. Aśvinī; 2. Bharaṇī; 3. Kṛttikā; 4. Rohiṇī; 5. Mṛga-śiras; 6. Ārdrā; 7. Punar-vasū; 8. Pushya; 9. Āśleṣā; 10. Maghā; 11. Pūrva-Phalgunī; 12. Uttara-Phalgunī; 13. Hasta; 14. Citrā; 15. Svātī; 16. Viśākhā; 17. Anurādhā; 18. Jyeṣṭhā; 19. Mūla; 20. Pūrvāṣāḍhā; 21. Uttarāṣāḍhā; 22. Abhijit; 23. Śravaṇa; 24. Śraviṣṭhā or Dhaniṣṭhā; 25. Śata-bhishaj; 26. Pūrva-Bhādrapadā; 27. Uttara-Bhādrapadā; 28. Revatī: sometimes the twenty-second, Abhijit, is omitted, a sidereal revolution of the moon being accomplished in little more than twenty-seven days.

nara nara; in col. 2, line 3, read, the waters are called Nārā or Nārāḥ.

nartaka nartaka; add--am, n. a kind of mythical weapon.

narmagarbha narma-garbha; add--the action of the amorous hero in concealment.

nalopakhyāna nalopakhyāna; read nalopākhyāna.

nāra nāra; add--proceeding from Nara or the supreme Spirit.

nikāṣa nikāṣa = nikaṣa, the touchstone.

nigup ni-gup, cl. 1. P. -gopāyati, -gopitum, to conceal.

nimeṣaṇa ni-meṣaṇa; add--(am), n. the closing of the eyes.

nirayin nirayin, ī, m. an inhabitant of hell.

nirākranda nir-ākranda; add--having no friend or protector, affording no refuge or protection.

nirāyati nir-āyati, is, is, i, one who has no future, one whose end is at hand, soon to be destroyed.

niroṣṭhya nir-oṣṭhya, am, n. a verse containing no labial letter.

nirmārṣṭi nir-mārṣṭi, is, f., N. of the wife of Duḥsaha.

nilāyana ni-lāyana, am, n. the act of hiding one's self.

niṣeva ni-ṣeva; add--(as), m. honouring, honour, worship, respect, esteem.

niṣpāta niṣpāta, as, m. rapid stroke or dash.

nistakṣ nis-takṣ; add--to carve out; to cut up, wound (by insults &c.).

nistap nis-tap, cl. 1. P. -tapati, &c., to melt gold &c. repeatedly, (s is changed to , unless repeated action is intended, see niṣ-ṭap.)

nisva ni-sva, as, ā, am, without soul or spirit, spiritless, weak.

nītha nītha; after 'subterfuge' insert (am), n. a hymn.

nīrāga nī-rāga, as, ā, am (fr. nis + rāga), without colour, colourless; without feeling or emotion, emotionless.

nu 4. nu; add--(Ved. cl. 1. A. navate).

nutti nutti, is, f. (fr. rt. 1. nud), repelling, removal.

naihāra naihāra, as, ī, am (fr. nī-hāra), produced by fog or mist or dew; misty, dewy.

nyej ny-ej, cl. 1. A. -ejate, &c., to tremble, quake with fear.

paṅkaya paṅkaya, Nom. P. paṅkayati, -yitum, to make muddy, bemire.

paṇayitṛ paṇayitṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, one who buys, a purchaser.

para para; (at the end of comps.) sometimes to be translated by 'another word, another equivalent expression', e. g. jīva-śabdo mahat-paraḥ, the word jīva is an equivalent expression or another word for mahat.

parāṅganā parāṅganā (-ra-aṅ-), f. the wife of another, a wife.

parāmarśaka parā-marśaka referring to something (before mentioned).

parāsedha parā-sedha, as, m. (fr. rt. 2. sidh with para; cf. 2. sedha), restraint, confinement, imprisonment.

parikhaṇḍana pari-khaṇḍana, am, n. annihilating, humiliating.

parijval pari-jval, cl. 1. P. -jvalati, &c., to shine very brightly, glow.

parimaṇḍalatā parimaṇḍala-tā, whirling about or round.

parimaṇḍalita parimaṇḍalita, as, ā, am, whirled round.

parilolita parilolita, as, ā, am, shaken about, tossed about.

parivāsa 2. pari-vāsa, as, m. fragrance, perfume.

pariśāntv pari-śāntv, cl. 10. P. A. -śāntvayati, -te, &c., to console, comfort, soothe, conciliate.

pariṣikta pari-ṣikta, as, ā, am, sprinkled about, diffused.

parihṛ pari-hṛ; add--to take away, remove.

parīpsu parīpsu; add--desirous of ascertaining.

parṣa 2. parṣa, as, ā, am, = paruṣa, keen, piercing (said of the wind).

pāramārthya pāramārthya, am, n. (fr. paramārtha), the complete truth.

pitṛmātrartha pitṛ-mātrartha (-tṛ-ar-), as, m. one who seeks to provide a maintenance for his father and mother.

pitṛsadman pitṛ-sadman, a, n. the abode of the Pitṛs, a cemetery.

piśaṅgita piśaṅgita, as, ā, am, made brown or red, embrowned, reddened.

pīḍābhāj pīḍā-bhāj; possessing marks of pressure or wavy indentations.

pīyūṣabhānu pīyūṣa-bhānu, us, m. the moon.

punarbālya punar-bālya, am, n. second childhood.

pūtana pūtana, as, m. a kind of evil spirit; [cf. pūtanā.]

pūrṇamukha pūrṇa-mukha; add--a kind of bird.

pūrvin pūrvin; add--(ī), m. a particular Jaina saint.

pṛthūkṛ pṛthū-kṛ, cl. 8. P. -karoti, &c., to expand, extend, enlarge, spread out.

paitāmahasiddhānta paitāmaha-siddhānta. See siddhānta.

pragrahin pra-grahin, ī, iṇī, i, taking the reins.

praghoṣa pra-ghoṣa, as, m. noise, din, clamour; N. of a son of Kṛṣṇa.

prajvālā pra-jvālā, f. a flame, blazing up.

pratapa pra-tapa, as, m. heat, the heat of the sun.

pratapatra pratapa-tra, am, n. 'protecting from heat', a parasol, umbrella.

pratara pra-tara, as, ā, am, crossing over, going across by boat [cf. duṣ-p-, su-p-]; epithet of the joints in the vertebral column.

prataraṇa pra-taraṇa, as, ī, am, crossing over; bringing forward, carrying on, furthering, promoting, increasing; (am), n. the act of crossing over, passing over by boat.

pratarītṛ pra-tarītṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, Ved. one who causes progress, bringing on, advancing, lengthening, a promoter, furtherer.

pratitarj prati-tarj, cl. 1. P. -tarjati, &c., to menace, threaten, scold at; to challenge.

pratidantin prati-dantin = prati-nāga.

pratinadi prati-nadi, ind. at every stream.

pratipādapam prati-pādapam, ind. at every tree.

pratiśrita prati-śrita, am, n. a protected place, shelter.

pratisrotam prati-srotam, ind. = prati-srotas.

pratyaya praty-aya, as, m.; add--a grammatical affix or any suffix to roots forming derivatives.

pratyayalopa pratyaya-lopa, as, m. elision of a grammatical affix or suffix.

pratyayasvara pratyaya-svara, as, m. 'suffix accent', an accent on a suffix or affix.

pratyāvṛtti praty-āvṛtti, is, f. turning back, return.

pratyāhvaya praty-āhvaya, as, m. 'calling in reply', an echo.

prabhāvana pra-bhāvana; add--(fr. the Caus.), causing to come forth, creating; causing to prosper.

pramā 1. pra-mā; the pra of the Nāgarī type has broken off in the printing of part of the impression.

pramāṇakoṭi pramāṇa-koṭi, is, f. the point in an argument which is regarded as actual proof.

pramṛḍa pra-mṛḍa, as, ā, am (fr. rt. mṛḍ with pra), favourable, gracious.

pramoṣa pra-moṣa, as, m. carrying off, plundering, robbery.

pravīvivikṣu pra-vīvivikṣu, us, us, u, intending to pervade or embrace.

prasakta pra-sakta; add--occurred, happened, taken place.

prāñc prāñc; the meaning is 'worshipping' when the nasal is retained throughout (e. g. inst. sing. du. prāñcā, prāṅbhyām, Gram. 176. c).

phiṭsūtra phiṭ-sūtra, am, n., N. of certain Sūtras on accent by Śāntanava.

bāstika bāstika, am, n. a quantity or herd of goats.

bāhvaṭa bāhvaṭa, as, m., N. of an author.

bukkamahīpati bukka-mahīpati; for 'bhūpāta' read bhūpati.

madhuvana madhu-vana; after 'cuckoo' insert (am), n.

madhyandina madhyan-dina; for 'Pushpa-pārṇa' read puṣ-pārṇa.

mantrakuśula mantra-kuśula; read mantra-kuśala.

mayūracitraka mayūra-citraka; for 'Varāha-Brāhmaṇa' read Varāha-mihira's Vṛhat-saṃhitā.

mahallikā mahallikā, f. a female attendant in the women's apartments.

mahākṣauhiṇī mahākṣauhiṇī (-hā-ak-), f. a thousand million billions.

mahādhuna mahā-dhuna, ten million billions.

mahāhāhā mahā-hāhā, a hundred thousand billions.

māsa māsa; for 'sūrya-māsā' read sūryā-māsā.

mitākṣarāsiddhāntasaṅgraha mitākṣarā-siddhānta-saṅgraha; transfer '(as, ā, am), speaking with caution &c.', to mitārtha-bhāṣin.

mṛj 1. mṛj; add--also cl. 1. 3rd sing. mārjati, 2nd sing. Impv. A. mārjasva.

yāvat yāvat; add--iti yāvat, such is the meaning, just so far is the sense, (an expression used by commentators.)

raṅgada raṅga-da; for 'paint' read substance.

rāgin rāgin; for 'Ragiṇīs' read Rāgiṇīs.

rucita rucita; add--(am), n. an exclamation used at a Śrāddha.

rorudat rorudat; the nom. case sing. masc. ought rather to be like that of the 3rd cl., in which case it must be rorudat.

vaṭuka vaṭuka; for 'form' read youthful manifestation.

vatsa vatsa; add--according to some, properly 'a yearling;' [cf. saṃ-vat, saṃ-vatsara.]

vatsara vatsara; according to Uṇādi-s. III. 71. fr. rt. 6. vas, to abide.

varga varga; after ya-varga, 'the semivowels', add-śa-varga, the sibilants.

varṣadhara varṣa-dhara or varṣa-pa, as, or varṣa-pati, is, or varṣa-bhuj, k, m. the ruler of a Varsha.

varṣāhū varṣā-hū, ūs, f., Ved. 'calling out or croaking in the rains', a frog (= varṣā-bhū).

varṣu varṣu, us, us, u, Ved. sprouting in the rains.

varṣṭṛ varṣṭṛ, ṭā, ṭrī, ṭṛ, Ved. one who rains, pouring down.

varṣman varṣman; add--(ā), m., Ved. height, the highest; the highest point, crown of the head.

vala vala; to as, m., Ved. add--(according to B. R.) a cave, hollow; a covering.

valaka valaka, as, m. a covering, cover; (am), n. a procession, B. R.

valabhikā valabhikā, f. a particular poisonous insect.

valayin valayin; add--(ī, inī, i), having a bracelet.

valgulikā valgulikā; add--a box, chest; a kind of bat.

valgulī valgulī, f. a kind of bat.

vaśitṛ vaśitṛ, tā, trī, tṛ, one who has a strong will, independent.

vaśiman vaśiman, ā, m. the supernatural power of bringing everything under one's own will.

vaṣṭi vaṣṭi, is, is, i (fr. rt. vaś), Ved. wishing for, loving.

vasatidruma vasati-druma, as, m. a tree suitable for lodging under.

vasantatilaka vasanta-tilaka; for 'as, am, m. n.' read am, ā, n. f.

vasavāna vasavāna, as, m. (fr. vasu), Ved. an owner or holder of property.

vasāti vasāti, ayas, m. pl., N. of a people.

vasātīya vasātīya, belonging to the Vasātis; (as), m. a king of the Vasātis.

vastu vastu, us, f., Ved. the becoming light or bright, dawning, dawn, early morning, (in these senses rather to be derived fr. rt. 3. vas, to shine.)

vasnaya vasnaya, Nom. P. vasnayati, &c., Ved. to expose for sale (B. R.); to desire wealth.

vasnayat vasnayat, an, antī, at, Ved. desiring riches, (Sāy. = dhanam icchat, Ṛg-veda VI. 47, 21.)

vahyaśīvan vahya-śīvan, ā, arī, a, or vahye-śaya, as, ā, am, Ved. lying in a palanquin; reclining on a couch; [cf. talpa-śīvan.]

3. , (according to B. R.) a Vedic form of rt. 1. van (generally found in the desideratives vivāsati, vivāsate, &c., and usually with preposition ā prefixed; cf. ā-vā, p. 131), to wish to conciliate or win, (2. vāta, p. 902, may be referred to this rt.)

vācaṃyamatva vācaṃyama-tva, am, n. taciturnity, silence.

vāja vāja; add--a race, struggle for a prize; a prize or reward of a race, reward of a contest; anything gained or won, reward, prize (in general); a racehorse (especially one driven in the chariots of military heroes and gods; in the preceding senses Ved.).

vāṇīvāda vāṇī-vāda, as, ā, am, uttering words, talking, talkative; (as), m. a kind of bird.

vātathuḍā vāta-thuḍā; correct thus--vāta-huḍā, f.

vātarecaka vāta-recaka, as, m. a gust of wind.

vātaskandha vāta-skandha, as, m. one of the regions of the wind (of which there are seven); N. of a Ṛṣi.

vātāya vātāya, Nom. A. vātāyate, -yitum, to resemble the wind.

vātāyamāna vātāyamāna, as, ā, am, resembling the wind, quick as the wind.

vātika vātika; add--uttering windy or empty words; (as), m. a flatterer.

vāditavya vāditavya, am, n. instrumental music.

vādya vādya; add--(as, ā, am), to be played on, to be sounded; (am), n. a musical instrument.

vādhryaśva vādhryaśva, as, m. (fr. vadhry-aśva), a patronymic.

vāpikā vāpikā, f. an oblong tank.

vāmanaka vāmanaka, as, ā, am, = vāmana, dwarfish, a dwarf; (as), m. epithet of a man born under a particular constellation; N. of a mountain; (ikā), f., N. of one of the Mātṛs attending on Skanda; (am), n. the form of a dwarf; N. of a place of pilgrimage (called after Viṣṇu in his dwarf-incarnation).

vāyuskandha vāyu-skandha, as, m. one of the regions of the wind.

vāra 1. vāra; add--(ā), f. a harlot, prostitute.

vāraṇaśālā vāraṇa-śālā, f. a place for keeping elephants.

vārīya vārīya, Nom. A. vārīyate, &c., to be like water.

vāruṇi vāruṇi; add--(is), f. spirituous liquor.

vāryokas vāry-okas, ās, ās, as, living in the water probably (ās), f. a leech [cf. jalaukas].

vārṣala vārṣala, as, ī, am (fr. vṛṣala), proper for a Śūdra; (am), n. the occupation of a Śūdra.

vārṣikya vārṣikya, as, ā, am (fr. vārṣika), yearly, annual; (am), n. the rainy season.

vāla vāla; add--(probably only a later form of 2. vāra).

vāsavi vāsavi, is, m. (fr. vāsava), 'son of Indra', Arjuna; the ape Bālin.

vāsaveya vāsaveya, as, m. (fr. vāsavī), a metronymic of Vyāsa.

vāsiṣṭhasiddhānta vāsiṣṭha-siddhānta; see siddhānta.

vāstavā vāstavā, perhaps for vāsurā.

vāstuvidhāna vāstu-vidhāna, am, n. house-building.

vāhna vāhna, as, ī, am (fr. vahni), relating to fire.

viṃśa viṃśa; add--accompanied or increased by twenty; consisting of twenty parts; (am), n. twenty, a score.

vikalpaka vi-kalpaka; add--as, m. one who divides or distributes; one who prepares or arranges.

vikāra 2. vi-kāra, as, m. the syllable vi.

vikutsā vi-kutsā, f. violent abuse.

vikrīḍa vi-krīḍa, as, m. a play-ground; (ā), f. play, sport, jest.

viklava vi-klava; add--(am), n. confusion, perplexity.

viklavita vi-klavita, am, n. a desponding speech.

vikṣara vi-kṣara, as, ā, am, flowing away, pouring out; (as), m. the flowing away; N. of Viṣṇu; of an Asura.

vigāma vi-gāma; in regard to the Vedic passage correct thus--vi-gāman, a, n.

vigraha 2. vi-graha, as, ā, am, free from eclipse.

vicara vi-cara, as, ā, am, moving away from.

vicāraka vi-cāraka; add--a spy.

vicālana vi-cālana, as, ī, am, causing to go away, ruining, destroying.

vicikitsita vi-cikitsita, as, ā, am, doubted about, questioned.

vicintana vi-cintana, am, n. thinking about; discernment.

vicintā vi-cintā, f. thought, regard, care, anxiety.

vicūlin vi-cūlin, ī, inī, i, having no top-knot.

vicṛt vi-cṛt, t, f., Ved. loosing, releasing, B. R., (Sāy. = vimukta.)

viccika viccika, as, m. a particular bird.

vijaya vi-jaya; add--(as, ā, am), conquering, victorious.

vijeṣa vi-jeṣa, as, m., Ved. victory, conquest.

vijeṣakṛt vijeṣa-kṛt, t, t, t, Ved. causing victory.

vijya vi-jya, as, ā, am, unstrung; [cf. sa-jya.]

viḍambya vi-ḍambya, am, n. an object of derision.

viṇmūtra viṇ-mūtra, am, n. (i. e. 3. viṣ + mūtra), feces and urine, (sometimes also e, neut. du.)

vitriṣṇā vi-triṣṇā, f. freedom from desire, absence of longing; excessive desire, violent longing for.

vidiśā vi-diśā; add--intermediate point of the compass.

vidīpaka vi-dīpaka, as, m. a light, lamp, lantern.

vidyāvrata vidyā-vrata, am, n. divine knowledge and religious vows; a particular religious observance.

vidyāvratasnāta vidyā-vrata-snāta, as, m. (a Brāhman) who has completed his course of Vedic study and his religious observances.

vidyota vi-dyota, as, ā, am, glittering, gleaming, sparkling; (as), m. glitter, gleam; a proper N.; (ā), f., N. of an Apsaras.

vidruma vi-druma; add--in the first sense properly masc., though given neut. in the native lexicons, B. R.

vidvala vidvala, as, ā, am, Ved. clever, cunning, artful.

vidh 3. vidh (fr. rt. vyadh), piercing, penetrating (at the end of comps., cf. hṛdaya-v-).

vidh 4. vidh, cl. 1. A. vindhate, &c., Ved. to be deprived of.

vidhura vidhura; according to B. R. fr. rt. 4. vidh above.

vidhura vi-dhura, as, ā, am, without a pole or axle-peg.

vidhūma vi-dhūma, as, ā, am, free from smoke or vapour.

vidhūmra vi-dhūmra, as, ā, am, quite grey.

vininīṣu vi-ninīṣu, us, us, u, desirous of ruling or governing.

vininda vi-ninda, as, ā, am, censuring; (ā), f. abuse, slander.

vinibarhaṇa vi-nibarhaṇa, as, ī, am, or vi-nibarhin, ī, iṇī, i, throwing down, dashing to pieces.

vinirbāhu vi-nirbāhu, us, m. a particular kind of fighting.

vinirmukti vi-nirmukti, is, f. freedom from, deliverance from.

vinirmokṣa vi-nirmokṣa, as, m. freedom from; exclusion from.

vinivartana vi-nivartana, am, n. the act of turning back, returning, return home; the coming to an end, cessation.

vinetra vi-netra, as, m. an instructor, preceptor, teacher.

viparibhraṃśa vi-paribhraṃśa, as, m. complete failure, miscarriage; loss, ruin.

viparyak vi-paryak, ind. inversely.

vipina vipina; add--(as, ā, am), thick, dense.

vipināya vipināya, Nom. A. vipināyate, &c., to resemble a wood, turn into a forest, be counted for a forest.

vipīḍam vi-pīḍam, ind. without injury, mercifully.

vipulaya vipulaya, Nom. P. vipulayati, to extend, enlarge.

viprakarṣa vi-prakarṣa; add--dragging away, carrying off, removal; distant removal; a long interval (of time); difference, distinction, contrast.

vipraṇāśa vi-praṇāśa, as, m. complete loss, total disappearance.

vipratīpa vi-pratīpa, as, ā, am, quite contrary or opposite, obstinate, wilful, stubborn, hostile, unfriendly.

vipratyaya vi-pratyaya, as, m. want of confidence.

vipramāthin vi-pramāthin, ī, inī, i, crushing or trampling to pieces, destroying.

vipramokṣa vi-pramokṣa, as, m. the being free from, freedom or release from.

vipramokṣaṇa vi-pramokṣaṇa, am, n. the act of liberating one's self from, liberation from.

vipralāpa 2. vi-pralāpa, as, ā, am, free from talk or dispute.

vipravāda vi-pravāda, as, m. varying statement, disagreement.

viprahāṇa vi-prahāṇa, am, n. entire disappearance, total loss.

viprekṣaṇa vi-prekṣaṇa, am, n. the act of looking round.

viplava 2. vi-plava, as, ā, am, not having a vessel, without a ship.

vibubhūṣā vi-bubhūṣā, f. wish to manifest one's self.

vibubhūṣu vi-bubhūṣu, us, us, u, wishing to appear or manifest one's self.

vibhañjanu vi-bhañjanu, us, us, u, Ved. breaking to pieces, crushing, destroying, (Sāy. = viśeṣeṇa bhañjaka, Ṛg-veda IV. 17, 13.)

vibhānu vi-bhānu, us, us, u, Ved. shining forth, shining.

vibhāva 2. vi-bhāva, as, ā, am (fr. 2. vi-bhā), Ved. shining forth.

vibhāsa vi-bhāsa, as, m., N. of one of the seven suns; of a deity.

vibhīṣā vi-bhīṣā, f. desire of frightening, wish to alarm.

vibhūman vi-bhūman, ā, m. (perhaps) 'appearing in many forms', epithet of Kṛṣṇa.

vibhūrasi vibhūr-asi, is, m. 'thou art mighty', a form of fire, B. R.

vimanyu vi-manyu; add--(us), m. excessive desire, eagerness (Ved.).

vimalaya vimalaya, Nom. P. vimalayati, &c., to make pure or clean, purify, cleanse.

vimāna 1. vi-māna; add --(as, ā, am), without honour, dishonoured, disgraced.

vimṛdh vi-mṛdh, t, m., Ved. an enemy, (according to Sāy. vi-mṛdhaḥ = saṅgrāma-kārī, Ṛg-veda X. 152, 2.)

vimṛśa vi-mṛśa, as, m. consideration, reflection, examination.

vimoka vi-moka, as, m., Ved. unloosing, releasing, liberation, ending, completion; freedom from, release from.

vimoha vi-moha, as, m. infatuation, bewilderment.

virātra vi-rātra, the passing away of night.

virāvaṇa vi-rāvaṇa, as, ī, am, raising a cry or clamour.

viruj 2. vi-ruj, k, f. violent pain, severe sickness.

virūkṣa vi-rūkṣa, as, ā, am, rough, harsh.

virecaka vi-recaka, as, ikā, am, purgative, cathartic.

vilāpana 1. vi-lāpana, as, ī, am (fr. the Caus. of vi-lap), causing to bewail; (am), n. the act of causing to lament; lamentation; (as), m. a proper N.

vilāpana 2. vi-lāpana, as, ī, am (fr. the Caus. of vi-lī), causing to be dissolved, melting, &c.; causing to disappear, destroying; (am), n. dissolution, death.

vivarṣiṣu vivarṣiṣu, us, us, u (fr. the Desid. of rt. vṛṣ), inclined or disposed to rain, about to rain.

vivaha vi-vaha; add--N. of one of the seven winds.

vivārayiṣu vivārayiṣu, us, us, u (fr. Desid. of Caus. of rt. vṛ), wishing to keep back, desirous of restraining.

vivitsā vivitsā, f. (fr. the Desid. of rt. 1. vid), the wish to know or understand, desire of knowledge.

vivitsu vivitsu, us, us, u, wishing to know, desiring knowledge.

viśakala vi-śakala, as, ā, am, broken to pieces, reduced to shreds and fragments.

viśakalīkṛ viśakalī-kṛ, cl. 8. P. -karoti, &c., to reduce to fragments, break to pieces, shatter.

viśaṅkya vi-śaṅkya, as, ā, am, to be suspected, suspicious.

viśana viśana, am, n. the act of entering, entrance; penetration.

viśoṣin vi-śoṣin, ī, iṇī, i, drying up, becoming dry; drying, making dry.

viśramaṇa vi-śramaṇa, am, n. the act of reposing or taking rest after fatigue.

viṣayavāsin viṣaya-vāsin; add--one who dwells in any region or country, an inhabitant of a province.

viṣūcīna viṣūcīna, as, ā, am (fr. viṣv-añc), going on all sides, all-pervading, extending everywhere, going asunder, (opposed to samīcīna, q. v.)

visaṃsarpin vi-saṃsarpin, ī, iṇī, i, moving about, becoming spread about or diffused.

visañcārin vi-sañcārin, ī, iṇī, i, wandering about in all directions, straying.

visadṛś vi-sadṛś, k, k, k, or vi-sadṛśa, as, ī, am, unlike, dissimilar.

visargin vi-sargin, ī, iṇī, i, creating, producing; distributing, bestowing, giving.

visarman vi-sarman, ā, ā, a (fr. vi-sṛ), Ved. flowing away, transitory.

visphoṭa vi-sphoṭa; add--crashing, crash.

visphoṭana vi-sphoṭana, am, n. a loud noise or crash.

visphoṭikā vi-sphoṭikā, f. a pustule, boil.

vismāraka vi-smāraka, as, ikā, am, causing to forget.

vismāraṇa vi-smāraṇa, as, ī, am, causing to forget.

visrava vi-srava, as, m. a stream, flood, flow.

vihartṛ vi-hartṛ; add--one who amuses himself.

viharṣa 2. vi-harṣa, as, ā, am, joyless, mournful.

vihavya vi-havya; add--to be invoked or invited, (in this sense fr. hu = rt. hve.)

vihiṃsatā vihiṃsa-tā, f. injury, hurt.

vihiṃsana vi-hiṃsana, am, n. the act of injuring, injury.

vihiṃsā vi-hiṃsā, f. injury, hurt.

vihiṃsra vi-hiṃsra, as, ā, am, injurious, noxious, hurtful.

vīriṇa vīriṇa, as, am, m. n. the grass Andropogon Muricatus.

vīḷaya vīḷaya; correct--also P. A. vīḷayati, -te, to make firm or strong, be strong.

vṛttavat vṛtta-vat; add--round; having suitable occupation.

vṛddha vṛddha, as, ā, am, cut off, (see 1. vṛddhi.)

vṛdhīka vṛdhīka, as, m., Ved. an increaser, prosperer.

veṇavin veṇavin, ī, inī, i (fr. veṇu), having a flute or pipe (said of Śiva).

veṇīsaṃhāra veṇī-saṃhāra; add--'hair-binding', (the name of the Drama, though connected by some with the seizing and unloosing of Draupadī's hair by Duḥśāsana, rather refers to its being bound together again after the punishment of Duḥśāsana.)

veda veda; add--an expression for the number four.

vedanā vedanā, f. pain, &c., (this may also be am, n.)

vedas vedas; under as, n. add--knowledge; (vedās, nom. m. although given by some authorities is probably only nom. pl. of veda.)

vepa vepa, as, ī, am, swinging, moving, oscillating (Ved.); (as), m. trembling, quivering.

vaidūrya vaidūrya = vaidūrya, q. v.

vaitathya vaitathya, am, n. (fr. vi-tatha), falsehood, untruth, untruthfulness.

vaitastika vaitastika, as, ī, am (fr. vi-tasti), measuring a span.

vaittapālya vaittapālya (fr. vitta-pāla), relating to Vittapāla or Kuvera.

vaidruma vaidruma, as, ī, am (fr. vi-druma), made of coral.

vainatya vainatya, am, n. (fr. vi-nata), submissiveness, modesty.

vaināyaka vaināyaka, as, ī, am, belonging to Gaṇeśa.

vaiyāsikīya vaiyāsikīya, composed by Vyāsa.

vaisādṛśya vaisādṛśya, am, n. (fr. vi-sadṛśa), dissimilarity.

vyākṛta vy-ākṛta, as, ā, am, developed, unfolded, expanded.

vyānaśi vy-ānaśi; add--according to B. R. fr. rt. 1. naś with ā and vi.

vyālamba vy-ālamba; add--hanging down, pendulous.

vyālambin vy-ālambin, ī, inī, i, hanging down.

vyāvṛtsu vy-āvṛtsu, us, us, u, wishing to separate one's self from.

vyāśā vy-āśā, f. an intermediate quarter of the compass.

vyuda vy-uda or vy-udaka, as, ā, am, devoid of water.

vyudgranthana vy-udgranthana, am, n. the act of winding or intertwining in various ways.

vyunmiśra vy-unmiśra, as, ā, am, intermixed, commingled.

vyupakāra vy-upakāra, as, m. making good, fulfilling, performance.

vyūka vyūka, ās, m. pl., N. of a people.

vyailaba vy-ailaba, Ved. making various sounds.

vyodana vy-odana, Ved. having various kinds of grain or food.

vra vra; in Ṛg-veda I. 124, 8. vrāḥ is referred by B. R. to a form vra fr. rt. vṛ, meaning 'a collection, multitude;' see vrā, p. 984, col. 2.

vrajabhāṣā vraja-bhāṣā, f. the Braj dialect (spoken around Agra and Mathurā).

vraṇya vraṇya, as, ā, am, good or suitable for wounds.

vratasnāta vrata-snāta = vrata-snātaka, see snātaka.

vratasnāna vrata-snāna, am, n. the due performance of vowed observances.

vratādeśa vratādeśa; add--enjoining a religious observance.

vraśc vraśc, vraṭ, ṭ, ṭ, cutting, cutting off.

vraska vraska, as, ā, am (at the end of comps.), cutting.

vrādhat vrādhat; according to B. R. fr. a rt. vrādh, to excite, incite, provoke.

vlag vlag or vlaṅg, a Vedic rt., according to Sāy. meaning 'to go', &c.; used with prep. abhi, (in Ṛg-veda I. 133, 1, 2. abhi-vlagya = abhito gatvā or abhitaḥ prāpya, having approached or come near, having laid hold of; according to B. R. perhaps 'having strangled.')

śitasūka śita-sūka; read śita-śūka.

śuddhamukha śuddha-mukha, as, m. a well-trained horse.

śaunaḥśepa śaunaḥśepa, as, ī, am, relating to Śunaḥ-śepa.

śvetā śvetā; add--alum.

saṃsthānaka saṃsthānaka, as, m., N. of the Śakāra in the Mṛcchakaṭi.

saṅkara saṅkara; add--contamination, pollution; any contaminated object.

saṅgraha saṅgraha, N. of a grammatical work by Vyāḍi.

samanaga samanaga = vidyut, lightning, (according to Sāy. on Ṛg-veda I. 124, 8.)

sarvānudātta sarvānudātta (-va-an-), as, ā, am, a word which has neither Udātta nor Svarita accent.

sahasrabāhu sahasra-bāhu; add -- N. of Arjuna Kārtavīrya, (Raghu-v. VI. 38.)

suṣvāpa su-ṣvāpa = su-ṣupti, p. 1125.

somāśraya somāśraya (-ma-āś-), as, m., N. of Rudra or Śiva (as bearing or supporting the moon).