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English Upaniṣads
🙏
Īśāvāsya Upaniṣad Kena Upaniṣad Katha Upaniṣad Praśna Upaniṣad Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad Māṇḍukya Upaniṣad Taittirīya Upaniṣad Aitareya Upaniṣad Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad Kaivalya Upaniṣad

Format by A.K. Aruna, 2019 ver.4.0: UpasanaYoga. A link marked with a 🔗 will open the matching Upaniṣad Sanskrit text with Śaṅkara commentary (if available).
The following are useful resources for delving further into these translations, though having a qualified teacher who can greatly expand on these and can answer all your questions is the real key to resting your heart in these brilliant prehistoric teachings:
• The Sanskrit source text and the reliable commentaries: IsU.1, etcetera.
• A fairly reliable scholarly and heartfelt translation, such as by Swami Gambhirananda available online: Upanishads, IIT Kanpur, etcetera.
• Other translations, such as “112 Upaniṣads” translated by of Scholars, etcetera.
• Another translation and great index to topics: Sixty Upanisads of the Veda (2 Vols.) by Paul Deussen, V. M. Bedekar.
• List of words in Upanisads, such as Daśopaniṣad with Nighaṇtu compiled by Saraswati Ganesh 1970, seemly out of print but download the Nighaṇṭu part here: Daśopaniṣad with Nighaṇtu, or A Concordance of the Principal Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita by Colonol G. A. Jacob: Concordance of the Principal Upanishads, etcetera.
• Sanskrit Dictionaries: Macdonell Sanskrit-English Dictionary (MacD), etcetera.
• Sanskrit Grammar: Sanskrit Grammar (SG)

First Update to HTML Jan 2018 with Creative Commons International License:
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IsU.1
All this, whatever comes and goes in the universe, is to be known as pervaded by the Lord (Īś, the all-pervading ātman, self, within all, IsU.4–8). By that renunciation (giving up identity with everything but the Lord) may you enjoy. Do not covet a wealth of anyone or anything (as everything already is the Lord, yourself alone).🔗
IsU.2
(Short of that vision) doing just one’s duties (enjoined by the Lord’s scripture) here, one may desire to live a long life. When you are in that way (full of desires) there is no other way than one’s enjoined duties, as that action (enjoined by scripture) does not stick to a person (when performed as an offering to the Lord, it does not pile on more karma into one’s account; it is meant to neutralize the worst affects of past karma, BhG-T.2.39–51).🔗
IsU.3
(In contrast to the first vision above) inauspicious are all those worlds enveloped by blind darkness (natural ignorance and personal confused projections). Dying, the people who have lost sight of their (limitless) self (the Lord within the heart) go to (remain in) those worlds (within saṃsāra).🔗
IsU.4
The self (the Lord within all) does not move (transmigrate, etc.), is one non-dual, and (as all-pervasive consciousness-being itself) is faster than the mind. The senses do not reach it, as it has already pervaded everywhere. Standing still it outstrips those who run. Within it, the wind (prāṇa) sustains all activities (so no activity will make it come to be).🔗
IsU.5
It (as though) moves and does not move (being dimensionless). It (as though) is far and near. It (as though) is within and outside of all this which appears as other.🔗
IsU.6
The one who indeed sees in keeping with the teaching all beings as only being within oneself, and sees oneself in all beings, from this vision one would not think to have to protect oneself (as there is no other).🔗
IsU.7
When for the one who thus knows oneself is alone all beings, then what confusion, what sorrow could there be for the one who in keeping with the teaching sees the oneness.🔗
IsU.8
That Lord is all-pervading, shining, bodiless, woundless, sinewless, pure, untouched by karma demerit or merit, the all-seer, Lord of the mind, all-manifesting, self-existing, and according to their natures has variously distributed the duties to everyone and thing throughout the perennial years (every cycle of universe manifestation).🔗
IsU.9
They remain in blind darkness (ignorance of the self), who worship a-vidyā (ritual without meditation on the cosmic deity involved). Others remain in as though greater darkness (ignorance of self, because they think they know), who revel in vidyā (meditation on the cosmic deity alone without doing the ritual).🔗
IsU.10
They say vidyā (meditation for the Northern Path to the highest heaven, brahma-loka) is one thing, and a-vidyā (ritual for the Southern Path to the lower heavens) is another, thus we have heard from the discerning who have explained that to us.🔗
IsU.11
The one who knows both vidyā (meditation) and a-vidyā (ritual) are (to be done) together, then by ritual one transcends death (for an ageless time in heaven) and eventually (becoming qualified) by meditation one attains freedom from time (until the end of this time-space manifestation cycle in the highest heaven, brahma-loka).🔗
IsU.12
They remain in blind darkness (ignorance), who worship a-sambhūti (the unmanifest). Others remain in as though greater darkness (ignorance, thinking they know Om), who indeed revel in sambhūti (the manifest, here the lower aspect of Om, the total subtle body, Hiraṇya-garbha).🔗
IsU.13
They say sambhūti (the first manifest) is one thing, and a-sambhūti (the unmanifest) is another,
thus we have heard from the discerning who have explained that to us.
🔗
IsU.14
The one who knows both (a-)sambhūti (the unmanifest) and vināśa* (i.e., sambhūti, the first manifest that can be destroyed) are to be meditated successively, then by meditation on vināśa (sambhūti, the first manifest) one transcends death (in brahma-loka), and eventually by meditation on a-sambhūti (the unmanifest) attains freedom from time (as the unmanifest).
(* Otherwise, accepting sambhuti as is, then vināśa would be a-sambhuti, in which case its meditation would lead not to a heaven, but to prakṛti-laya, dissolution into the unmanifest as potentiality to be reborn again sometime later.).
🔗
IsU.15
By a golden orb (the bright sun) the face of truth (brahman) is (as though) hidden. O Puṣan the sun deity, please unveil this truth (by impelling and clarifying my mind) for me whose nature is that same truth to behold.🔗
IsU.16
O Pūṣan, the single traveler, the controller, the shinning heavenly sun, born of Prajā-pati, remove Your rays, gather up Your blinding brilliance so that this beautiful form of Yours I may behold. Whosoever is that puruṣa (the brahman as though behind Your orb, where my senses cannot go), that I am.🔗
IsU.17
May my life force now merge into the immortal cosmic life force, and this body turn to ashes. Om, O my wisdom, please remember, remember what I have done. O my wisdom, please remember, remember what I have done.🔗
IsU.18
O Agṅi (Fire, the witness of our lives), lead us by the better path to our karma wealth. O Deity, You are knowing all our deeds. Ward off our crooked transgression. We offer You our many salutations.🔗

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Khaṇḍa 1 Khaṇḍa 2 Khaṇḍa 3 Khaṇḍa 4

Kena Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 1

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KenU.1.1
(The student asks)
Impelled by what (agent, mere presence) does the mind go directed to its object? Impelled by whom does prāṇa move first (as the power in the organs)? Impelled by whom do these people utter speech? And what shining being impels vision and hearing?
🔗
KenU.1.2
(The teacher said)
Because that (deva, consciousness, the Lord within) is the hearing of hearing, the mind of mind, the speech of speech, the prāṇa of prāṇa, and the sight of sight, being freed (from identification with those) when the wise depart from this body, they are free from death.
🔗
KenU.1.3
There (to the self-shining being, brahman, the only reality) sight does not go, speech does not go, nor the mind. We do not (as an object) know this reality. We do not know in which way this reality is to be appropriately taught (through the senses and mind to students). “That reality is other than the known, and also beyond the unknown,” we have heard. Those who are of the distant past have clearly revealed through scripture that reality to us.🔗
KenU.1.4
What is not revealed by speech, but by which speech is revealed, you please know that alone to be brahman (the only reality). Brahman is not this thing or concept which people meditate upon (project as a mental object).🔗
KenU.1.5
What does not know by the mind, but by which, they say, the mind is known, you please know that alone to be brahman. Brahman is not this thing or concept which people meditate upon (project as a mental object).🔗
KenU.1.6
What does not see by sight, but by which one sees sights, you please know that alone to be brahman. Brahman is not this thing or concept which people meditate upon (project as a mental object).🔗
KenU.1.7
What does not hear by hearing, but by which this hearing is heard, you please know that alone to be brahman. Brahman is not this thing or concept which people meditate upon (project as a mental object).🔗
KenU.1.8
What does not perceive smell by the sense of smell, but by which this sense of smell is perceived (in keeping with Ādi Śaṅkarācārya, prāṇa here is contextually limited to the sense of smell, related to breath*), you please know that alone to be brahman. Brahman is not this thing or concept which people meditate upon (project as a mental object).
(* Otherwise, What does not live by prāṇa, but by which prāṇa lives, you please know…).
🔗

Kena Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 2

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KenU.2.1
(The teacher said)
If you think, "I know brahman well," then surely you know but little. You know only a form of brahman, related to you or related to the gods. So therefore you have yet to inquire.
(After awhile the student replies)
Now, I think brahman is known.
🔗
KenU.2.2
(The student continues)
I do not think, “I know brahman well” (as related to this or that). Neither, “I do not know brahman (as myself),” nor, “I know brahman (as other than myself).” The one among us who knows this fact, in this way knows that brahman. Again, neither, “I do not know brahman (as myself),” nor, “I know brahman (as other).”
🔗
KenU.2.3
For whom brahman is not known (as other), for that one brahman is known. For whom brahman is (thought to be) known (as other), that one does not know. For the knowing, it is not known (wrongly). For the non-knowing, it is known (wrongly).🔗
KenU.2.4
Brahman (reality) is rightly known when it is known in every cognition (as ‘is-is-is,’ as ‘existence-existence-existence’, the ‘is’ of oneself as brahman, BhG-T.2.16 and YS.4.20), because by that knowledge one attains the nature of being free from death (the nature of brahman). By (choosing to know brahman as) ātman (oneself), one gains the tenacity to know (KathU.1.2.12–13, MunU.3.2.4). By this knowledge, one attains the nature of being free from death.🔗
KenU.2.5
If here itself one comes to know (brahman, reality), then oneself is satya (that reality). If here itself one does not know (brahman, infinite reality), one’s loss is infinite. The discerning, knowing (the infinite reality) in every being, upon dying (turning away) from this world (renouncing possession of everything unto brahman, IsU.1), they each attain deathlessness.🔗

Kena Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 3

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KenU.3.1
(The Upaniṣad tells a story.)
Brahman indeed provided victory to the gods (devas, the natural forces of nature) (over the forces fighting against them). Towards the victory of that brahman, the gods were very proud of themselves.
🔗
KenU.3.2
Those gods perceived, “This victory belongs only to us, this glory is ours alone.” Brahman understood this about them and appeared as a form before them. The gods did not recognize it, thinking “Who is this spirit (yakṣa)?”🔗
KenU.3.3
They said to Agṅi (Lord Fire): "O Agṅi (Jāta-vedas), find out who this spirit is." "Yes," he said.🔗
KenU.3.4
He hastened to it. The spirit asked him, “Who are you?” He replied, “I am called Agṅi. I am also called Jāta-vedas.”🔗
KenU.3.5
Brahman in the form of this spirit asked, “What power is in you?” Agṅi replied, “I can burn anything on earth.”🔗
KenU.3.6
The spirit put down a blade of grass and said to him, “Burn this.” Agṅi rushed at it with full force, but was not able to burn it. Agṅi returned back from the spirit and told the others, “I was not able to find out who this spirit is.”🔗
KenU.3.7–10
Then the gods said to Vāyu (Lord Air): "O Vāyu, find out who this spirit is." "Yes," he said. He hastened to it. The spirit asked him, “Who are you?” He replied, “I am called Vāyu. I am also called Mātari-śvan.” Brahman in the form of this spirit asked, “What power is in you?” Vāyu replied, “I can lift up anything on earth.” The spirit put down a blade of grass and said to him, “Lift this.” Vāyu rushed at it with full force, but was not able to lift it. Vāyu returned back from the spirit and (perhaps glancing over at Agṅi first) told the others, “I was not able to find out who this spirit is.”🔗
KenU.3.11
Then the gods said to Indra (their leader): "O Indra (Maghavan), find out who this spirit is." "Yes," he said. He hastened to it. At the approach of Indra the spirit disappeared.🔗
KenU.3.12
Indra saw in that same place that a very beautiful female had come, who was Umā (representing Wisdom, Vidyā, Śruti), the daughter of the Himālaya (Goddess Pārvati, or the gold, heman, adorned one). Indra asked Her, “Who was that spirit?”🔗

Kena Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 4

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KenU.4.1
Umā replied, “It was brahman. Through the victory of brahman alone have you attained glory.” Thereupon, Indra understood that it was indeed brahman (by which the gods were merely instruments within the karma order of the Lord).🔗
KenU.4.2
(The Upaniṣad continues)
Because of that, these three deities, Agṅi, Vāyu and Indra, indeed excel the other gods, since they came in closest contact to this brahman, and since they were the first to know this (greatness within all) as brahman.
🔗
KenU.4.3
From this we know that Indra indeed excels all the other gods, since he came in closest contact to this brahman through Umā (the teaching), and since he alone was the first to know (and tell the others that) this (greatness within all) is brahman.🔗
KenU.4.4
This is the teaching (by analogy). It is like a flash of lightning, like a wink of the eye (momentary, as the spirit appearing and disappearing). This is adhi-daivata (a teaching concerning a form of brahman related to the gods, KenU.2.1).🔗
KenU.4.5
Now the adhi-ātma (a teaching concerning a form of brahman related to the individual). (Like Indra) it is the mind that as though approaches brahman. By this mind one repeatedly recalls (the teaching on) brahman. This is the mind’s commitment.🔗
KenU.4.6
That brahman indeed is called Tad-vana (the pleasing, vanana). It is to be contemplated as the pleasing. Everyone pays homage (in appreciation of one who is pursuing the ultimate goal in life) to this one who meditates upon brahman.🔗
KenU.4.7
(Then the student said)
“Teach me, sir, the Upaniṣad (in case there is more).”
(The teacher replied)
“I have already told you the Upaniṣad. I have certainly told you the Upaniṣad directly concerning brahman.”
🔗
KenU.4.8
(The teacher adds)
For that Upaniṣad, prayerful discipline, mastery over behavior, and ritual are its supports (feet), the Vedas (and their subsidiaries) are all the other limbs, and truthfulness is its abode.
🔗
KenU.4.9
The one who in this way knows this Upaniṣad shakes off all karma merit and demerit, and becomes established in the limitless, the higher than heaven abode (as brahman).🔗

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Vallī.1.1 (1) Vallī.1.2 (2) Vallī.1.3 (3) Vallī.2.1 (4) Vallī.2.2 (5) Vallī.2.3 (6)

Katha Upaniṣad Vallī 1.1 (1)

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KathU.1.1.1 (1.1)
(The Upaṇiṣad says)
Once upon a time, desiring (heavenly results), Vāja-śravasa gave away all his (earthly) wealth (in the Viśva-jit sacrifice). He had a son named Nachiketas.
🔗
KathU.1.1.2 (1.2)
When the dakṣiṇās (gifts to sacrifice participants) were being taken away, faith overpowered the son (Nachiketas), who was just a boy (kumāra, between 5 to 10 years old). He thought (thus).🔗
KathU.1.1.3 (1.3)
(Naciketas thought)
One goes to joyless heavens if one gives such (dakṣiṇās) as these cows which for the last time have drunk water, eaten grass and given milk, and are powerless to calve.
🔗
KathU.1.1.4 (1.4)
The boy said to his father, “O father, to whom will you give me (as dakṣiṇā)?” (When the father did not bother to answer, the boy asked) twice, thrice. (Annoyed, the father impulsively) said to him, “I give you to Lord Death.”🔗
KathU.1.1.5 (1.5)
(Naciketas thought)
Among many (students), I am first. Among many others, I am middling. What could I do for Lord Death, which father will accomplish by giving me now?
🔗
KathU.1.1.6 (1.6)
(Nachiketas implores his father to keep his word in gifting the boy as dakṣiṇā.)
See how the forefathers (kept to their sacred word). Look around at how the others (keep their word). Like a plant, a mortal perishes (but truth never dies), and like a plant one is born again (from the seed of one’s deeds and words).
🔗
KathU.1.1.7 (1.7)
(The father by the power of his truth sends the boy to report to Lord Death at His palace. But Lord Death was out for three days. The boy waits only for Lord Death himself before accepting anything. The ministers and wife of Yama then implore Lord Death upon His return.)
The Lord of Fire enters as this brāhmaṇa guest. Hosts make a peace offering to such a guest. O Lord Death, fetch water.
🔗
KathU.1.1.8 (1.8)
Hopes and expectations, the good merit of ennobling company, noble speech, rituals, social service, children and cattle, all this he plucks away from the neglectful host in whose house a brāhmaṇa stays without eating.🔗
KathU.1.1.9 (1.9)
(Lord Death said)
O brahman, since you have stayed in my house for three nights as an honorable guest without eating, let my salutations be unto you. Let well-being be unto me also, O brahman. Therefore, for the three nights choose three boons.
🔗
KathU.1.1.10 (1.10)
(Naciketas said)
(While I'm away) may father be free from anxiety, pleased, and without anger towards me, O Lord Death. Having been sent back from You (once my duties are complete here), may he greet me having easily recognized me (not aged or as a ghost). Among the three boons, I choose this as the first boon (for my father).
🔗
KathU.1.1.11 (1.11)
(Lord Death said)
He will be as before, having recognized you. Having seen you released from the jaws of death, relieved by Me, your father will sleep happily during the nights without anger.
🔗
KathU.1.1.12 (1.12)
(Next, Nachiketas starts the request for the second boon.)
In heaven there is not the least fear. You (Death) are not there, nor fear from ageing. Transcending both hunger and thirst and gone beyond sorrow, one rejoices in the heaven.
🔗
KathU.1.1.13 (1.13)
You have studied and know the Veda Fire ritual which is a means to heaven (by which you have attained this high post here), O Lord Death. Please teach what You know to me who has faith in You. The people in heaven enjoy (a degree of) immortality. I choose this as the second boon (for the people).🔗
KathU.1.1.14 (1.14)
(Lord Death said)
I am going to teach you this Fire ritual right now. Please learn from Me, O Naciketas, as I am knowing this Fire for gaining an infinite heaven, and also its basis (the meditation deity Virāṭ [Virāj], for gaining the highest heaven brahma-loka). You please know well this meditation (added to the ritual) that is established in the hearts (of upāsaka meditators).
🔗
KathU.1.1.15 (1.15)
(The Upaṇiṣad says)
Lord Death taught him the Fire (as the deity Virāṭ), the first born in the manifest universe. (For the Fire ritual altar itself, He also taught) the type of bricks, how many, and in which arrangement. Naciketas then repeated the same back to Lord Death, as it was taught. Lord Death being pleased then told more.
🔗
KathU.1.1.16 (1.16)
Being pleased, the wise Lord Death said to him, “I give you one more gift right here and now. By your name only this Fire will be known from now on. Take this multifarious gemmed necklace also.”🔗
KathU.1.1.17 (1.17)
Having done the Nācikata fire three times with the three-fold maturing association (mother-father-teacher), and having performed the three life-long duties (ritual for the Lord, scriptural studies for oneself, and charity for others), one transcends birth and death. Knowing this praiseworthy Lord Virāṭ who is all-knowing and born of Lord Brahmā (Hiraṇya-garbha, the universal subtle body) and meditating on this Virāṭ, one attains limitless peace which is this that I have here.🔗
KathU.1.1.18 (1.18)
The ritualist who performs the Nācikata fire three times, knowing those three (the kind, number, and arrangement of bricks, etc.), and who also meditates upon Virāṭ, this one transcends the noose of death, transcends sorrow, and rejoices in the highest heaven (brahma-loka).🔗
KathU.1.1.19 (1.19)
This is the Fire taught to you for gaining heaven, O Naciketas, that you asked as the second boon. The people will speak of this Fire as your name. Ask for the third boon, O Naciketas.🔗
KathU.1.1.20 (1.20)
(Naciketas said)
There is this doubt that when a person dies, some say, “It survives (death),” while others say, “It does not survive.” I wish to know this (nature of the individual that can survive death), having been instructed by You. Among the boons, this is the third boon (for me).
🔗
KathU.1.1.21 (1.21)
(Lord Death said)
Even the deities long ago entertained doubt regarding this. This subtle nature (dharma of the individual) cannot be easily known. O Naciketas, please choose another boon. Do not bind Me. Give up this demand to Me.
🔗
KathU.1.1.22 (1.22)
(Naciketas said)
Indeed, even the deities long ago entertained doubt regarding this. O Lord Death, You yourself said this is not easily known. Moreover, another teacher like You cannot be found. No other boon is equal to this.
🔗
KathU.1.1.23 (1.23)
(Lord Death said)
Please choose children and grandchildren with hundred year lives, and plenty of cattle, elephants, gold, and horses. May you also choose a vast kingdom on earth. May you yourself live for as many years as you wish.
🔗
KathU.1.1.24 (1.24)
If you think of another boon equal to this, please choose that as well as the wealth and long life. O Naciketas, may you be throughout the vast earth (as its emperor). I am going to make you an enjoyer of all enjoyments.🔗
KathU.1.1.25 (1.25)
Whichever be the pleasures not attainable in the world of mortals, all those pleasures choose as you wish. Here are pleasurable partners with their chariots and musical instruments. Such pleasurables indeed cannot be attained by mortals. By these pleasurables gifted by Me, you are going to be served. O Naciketas, do not ask Me about death.🔗
KathU.1.1.26 (1.26)
(Naciketas said)
O Death, all this is so much ephemerals lasting only till tomorrow. They waste away the power of all the senses. All life is indeed a trifling. The vehicles are Yours alone. The dance and music are Yours.
🔗
KathU.1.1.27 (1.27)
Wealth cannot satisfy a person. I will get enough wealth, just because I have seen You. I will live as long as You so rule. However, the boon I have chosen is but this.🔗
KathU.1.1.28 (1.28)
After meeting the undecaying immortals up here, such as Yourself, knowing oneself as a decaying mortal living down below on earth, and thinking over these limited enjoyments from music and pleasuring, who would revel in such a long life (full of decay and unsatisfying)?🔗
KathU.1.1.29 (1.29)
This in which people are entertaining doubts, O Lord Death, that concerns the great passage beyond, please tell that to us. This boon (this question) has become a mystery to be believed or not, so I do not choose anything else than that boon.🔗

Katha Upaniṣad Vallī 1.2 (2)

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KathU.1.2.1 (2.1)
(Lord Death teaches)
Śreyas (the beneficial) is one and preyas (the pleasurable) is another. Both these two with different goals bind the person. Between those two śreyas (the beneficial) is effective for one who is pursuing the highest goal. The one who chooses preyas (the pleasurable) falls short of that goal.
🔗
KathU.1.2.2 (2.2)
The beneficial (śreyas) and the pleasurable (preyas) confront a person. The wise person examines and differentiates the two. The discerning person such as yourself chooses the beneficial over the pleasurable. The mediocre chooses the pleasurable out of the desire for acquiring and protecting pleasurable experiences.🔗
KathU.1.2.3 (2.3)
Having considered the pleasing and attractive sense objects, you indeed discarded them both, O Naciketas. You did not accept this precious garland, in which many people lose themselves.🔗
KathU.1.2.4 (2.4)
Preyas and śreyas are widely opposed and diverging (leading to bondage and to freedom, respectively), and are also known as a-vidyā and vidyā (ignorance and knowledge). I consider Naciketas to be a seeker of knowledge, since these numerous sense objects did not tempt you.🔗
KathU.1.2.5 (2.5)
Steeped in ignorance, considering themselves to be wise, the deluded people go around continually wandering (not reaching a final goal), like the blind led by the blind they follow each other.🔗
KathU.1.2.6 (2.6)
Being distracted by an infatuation for this world’s ephemeral wealth and remaining deluded, the passage beyond is not clear to the immature. Thinking, “This (the sense-objects alone) is the world, there is nothing more,” one again and again falls under Death’s control.🔗
KathU.1.2.7 (2.7)
This nature of the person (KathU.1.1.21) is not available to many even for hearing, and which many, even having heard, do not know. The teacher of this is a wonder and still only a proper student gets it. The one who knows, traditionally instructed by a competent teacher is also a wonder.🔗
KathU.1.2.8 (2.8)
This ātman, the self, taught by an incompetent person cannot be clearly known, it being speculated in so many ways. Taught by one who is non-different from it there is no going astray. It is beyond logic, since it is subtler than any subtle means of measuring.🔗
KathU.1.2.9 (2.9)
This knowledge cannot be attained or taught by logic alone. Taught by one who is competent, it is easy to understand, O dearest one. And you got such a teacher in Me by your boon. Ah, you have true resolve. May we have more seekers like you, O Naciketas.🔗
KathU.1.2.10 (2.10)
I was knowing that what is held dear (the fruits of action) are impermanent, because the permanent cannot indeed be attained by impermanent actions. Yet still I piled up the Nāciketa fire, and attained this (relative) permanent post in heaven by these impermanent materials.🔗
KathU.1.2.11 (2.11)
Having looked at this upper limit of pleasure, the basis of the universe, the top goal of ritual plus meditation, the limit of fearlessness, the praised vastness, the most widely praised goal, O Nacikesas, being discerning you have firmly discarded this brahma-loka as a boon for yourself (though you asked it in the second boon for others).🔗
KathU.1.2.12 (2.12)
(The I, the self of the seer) that is unseen, hidden yet present in the cave (the intellect), situated in the impenetrable and ever existing, is the effulgent deva. Only by resorting to self enquiry (adhyātma-yoga) does one come to know it. Then only can the discerning person give up elation and sorrow, the ups and downs of emotion.🔗
KathU.1.2.13 (2.13)
Having listened to this teaching, a mortal clearly grasping its meaning, distinguishing the self from the not-self, and accepting as oneself this subtle nature of oneself, does this one then rejoice, having obtained the source of joy. I consider this abode (this brahman, the limitless) to be open to you, Naciketas.🔗
KathU.1.2.14 (2.14)
(Naciketas said)
What is other than dharma (virtue) and a-dharma (vice), what is other than both effect and cause, and other than past and future – that which You see, tell that to me.
🔗
KathU.1.2.15 (2.15)
(Lord Death said)
The abode (pada) which all the Vedas proclaim, which all prayerful disciplines speak, and desiring which they take to a life of seeking brahman, that abode I tell to you in brief. It is Om.
🔗
KathU.1.2.16 (2.16)
This syllable (Om) indeed is the imperishable Lord Brahmā (the first manifest Hiraṇya-garbha, KathU.1.1.17). This syllable indeed is also the ultimate brahman (neither cause nor effect, which you just asked). Meditating upon and knowing (either the lower or higher aspect of brahman, respectively) this same syllable, one gets whichever (aspect of brahman) one seeks.🔗
KathU.1.2.17 (2.17)
This basis, Om, is for the most śreyas (beneficial). This basis, Om, is for the ultimate brahman. Meditating upon this Om, one becomes exalted in brahma-loka (the highest heaven). (Or, knowing this Om as the higher aspect of brahman, one becomes exalted as brahman, manifesting as this world).🔗
KathU.1.2.18 (2.18)
This effulgent intelligence within is not born nor does it die. Neither did this come from anything, nor did it become anything else. This embodied one, which is unborn, timeless, ever the same, and is always there, is not destroyed (changed) when the body is destroyed (changed).🔗
KathU.1.2.19 (2.19)
If the individual harmer thinks it is the one harming, and if the individual to be harmed thinks it is the one being harmed, both of them do not know. This (self, I) neither harms (acts), nor is harmed (acted upon).🔗
KathU.1.2.20 (2.20)
Smaller than the small and bigger than the big, this dimensionless self is hence present in the heart (the mind) of every living being. A person without small desires sees (clearly knows) this self, and becomes free from sorrow (worry). From this unbothered clarity of the senses, one appreciates the unaffected limitlessness of the self.🔗
KathU.1.2.21 (2.21)
While the body is sitting, the dimensionless ātman (as though) travels far. While the mind is sleeping, it (as though) goes everywhere. Who could know that effulgent deva (consciousness-being) which (seems to) be the elated or depressed mind, other than a discerning person such as Me (who has this teaching)?🔗
KathU.1.2.22 (2.22)
Knowing this bodiless amist all bodies, the permanent amidst the impermanent, the brahman as the all-pervading ātman (dimensionless self), the discerning one does not grieve (there being no source of fear).🔗
KathU.1.2.23 (2.23)
This ātman is not attained by reciting scripture, nor by memory of scripture, nor by listening to many scriptures (i.e., words cannot reveal ātman, they can only remove confusions). The ātman that alone one chooses (solely commits to, as you did, Naciketas), by that ātman is this ātman attained, since this ātman self-reveals its form (as the only limitless witness-being).🔗
KathU.1.2.24 (2.24)
This ātman cannot be attained simply through learning scripture if, to a sufficient degree, one has not withdrawn from unhelpful (kliṣṭa) conduct and thoughts, has no clarity (sattva-predominance) of the senses, has no steadiness of mind, and has no peace of mind.🔗
KathU.1.2.25 (2.25)
In the above way (unqualified for this knowledge), who could know “where is this (dimensionless, unseen ātman),” for which ātman, all the brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyas (the virtuous and the brave) both are food (as it were), and Lord Death is a condiment (being endlessly consumed in the cycles of saṃsāra)?🔗

Katha Upaniṣad Vallī 1.3 (3)

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KathU.1.3.1 (3.1)
(Lord Death said)
In the body there are two (aspects of ātman, the individual and the Lord) who partake of the truth of virtuous deeds (see MunU.3.1.1–3). Both are present in the cave (the heart, intellect) in the limitless abode (the mind-space) where the presence of para brahman is to be known. The knowers of brahman, as well as householders and Nāciketa ritualists, say these two are distinct like shade and light.
🔗
KathU.1.3.2 (3.2)
(Between the two) the one being (like) a bridge to heaven for the ritualists and meditators via the lower Om, and the other via the higher Om to the imperishable ultimate brahman which is fearlessness for those who wish to cross to the shore beyond saṃsāra, we (being worldly, at this time) are only able to pile up and meditate upon the Nāciketa ritual.🔗
KathU.1.3.3 (3.3)
Know the ātman (the self) as the master of the chariot and the body as the chariot. Know the intellect (buddhi, all firm thoughts) as the driver and the mind (manas, all quick, vacillating thoughts) as the reins.🔗
KathU.1.3.4 (3.4)
They call the five sense organs the horses, and their five kind of sense objects the paths. The wise call the ātman (master) along with the body-senses-mind complex the experiencer.🔗
KathU.1.3.5 (3.5)
Whereas, for the intellect (driver) who lacks discernment and thus is ever with a mind (reins) not in control, the sense organs are unruly, like wild horses for a chariot driver.🔗
KathU.1.3.6 (3.6)
But, for the intellect (driver) who has discernment and thus is ever with a mind (reins) in control, the sense organs are under its control, like trained horses for a chariot driver.🔗
KathU.1.3.7 (3.7)
The one who has an intellect with no discernment (of helpful from unhelpful, and self from not-self), who thus is ever without a disciplined mind (manas), and who is impure (with rajas and tamas predominance), that individual person (jīva-ātman) does not attain the ultimate goal, brahman (KathU.1.3.2), and remains in saṃsāra (continuous unbecoming becoming).🔗
KathU.1.3.8 (3.8)
Whereas, the one who has an intellect with discernment (of self from not-self), who thus is ever with a disciplined mind (manas) and pure (with sattva predominance), that individual person (jīva-ātman) does attain (becomes) the ultimate goal, brahman, because of which this one is not born again (into saṃsāra).🔗
KathU.1.3.9 (3.9)
Having an intellect as chariot driver with discernment of the self from not-self, and having a controlled mind as reins, this person reaches the far shore (the end of saṃsāra), the end of the road (as it were, since ātman is all-pervading, KathU.1.2.22). That is the ultimate abode of Viṣṇu (the pervader, brahman).🔗
KathU.1.3.10 (3.10)
Than the sense organs, the objects of the mind are more subtle (i.e., more fundamental and more pervasive). Than the objects of the mind, the mind (manas) is more subtle. Than the mind, the intellect (buddhi) is more subtle. Than the intellect, the total intellect (Hiraṇya-garbha) is more subtle.🔗
KathU.1.3.11 (3.11)
Than the total intellect (mahat), the unmanifest is more subtle. Than the unmanifest, the puruṣa (the limitless self) is more subtle. Than the puruṣa, there is nothing more subtle. That maximum limit, that goal, is the ultimate.🔗
KathU.1.3.12 (3.12)
In all beings, this self (ātman), being hidden by ignorance, is not evident. However, it is evident by those with a subtle vision through a sharp and subtle intellect (informed and honed by this teaching).🔗
KathU.1.3.13 (3.13)
(As a contemplative methodology) the discerning person should resolve (reposition one’s identity from) speech (and the other organs) into the mind (manas), and should resolve that into the intellect as one’s self, then resolve one’s intellect into the total intellect as one’s self, and resolve that into the one’s peaceful self (the puruṣa, the ultimate limit).🔗
KathU.1.3.14 (3.14)
Arise and Awake (turn to this teaching and shake off your self-confusions). By approaching a choice teacher, may you all learn. As a razor sharp edge is difficult to traverse, the wise say that this path of self-knowledge is dur-ga (not traversed without a fine intellect’s attention).🔗
KathU.1.3.15 (3.15)
This (brahman) is soundless, tasteless, touchless, odorless, and formless, is changeless, constant, timeless, beginningless, and endless, and is beyond the mahat (beyond the universal intellect). Clearly knowing that, one is completely freed from the jaws of death.🔗
KathU.1.3.16 (3.16)
Having heard and repeating (to others) this ever existing teaching received by Naciketas and taught by Lord Death, a discerning person becomes glorified in brahma-loka (the highest heaven).🔗
KathU.1.3.17 (3.17)
The one who makes this very same ultimate secret heard (and understood) in an assembly of brāhmaṇas or, being purified, at the time of śrāddha (the funeral ceremony), then it makes for infinite results. The End.🔗

Katha Upaniṣad Vallī 2.1 (4)

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KathU.2.1.1 (4.1)
The self-existing ātman (as though, half) injured the five senses. Therefore, one naturally sees only the outside, not the self from within. A rare discerning person comes to see (know) the self from within also, having directed the attention within, seeking freedom from death (from the impermanent outside world).🔗
KathU.2.1.2 (4.2)
The immature go after pleasures outside. They continue towards the noose of death spread wide. The discerning ones now knowing the permanent immortality from within, do not seek it here amongst the impermanent sense objects.🔗
KathU.2.1.3 (4.3)
One knows by this ātman alone all forms, the tastes, smells, sounds, touches, and the pleasures from those contacts. What then remains here (as if apart from the self)? This self taught here is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.1.4 (4.4)
The discerning person does not grieve, knowing the brahman as the all-pervading ātman (dimensionless self, KathU.1.2.22), by which one perceives both mentally what is within dream and physically what is within waking.🔗
KathU.2.1.5 (4.5)
The one who knows the individual ātman, the consumer of the fruits of action, intimately as the Lord of the past and future, thereafter would not think to have to protect oneself (as there is no other). This is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman, KathU.1.2.14).🔗
KathU.2.1.6 (4.6)
The one who knows as oneself this total subtle being (Hiraṇya-garbha) born from the tapas of Lord Brahmā, before the waters (the elements of the universe), who entered (as it were) the cave (of the heart, the intellect) and presides amongst all beings – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.1.7 (4.7)
The one who knows She who is born as Prāṇa (Hiraṇya-garbha), the Goddess Aditi who consists of all deities, who having entered the cave of the heart and presides amongst all beings – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.1.8 (4.8)
That Fire (as Virāṭ) present in all beings, which is present in the two pieces of Arṇi wood (rubbed to kindle the ritual fire), (the kindled fire) protected like a fetus by pregnant women, to be worshipped daily by the vigilant ritualists and meditators – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.1.9 (4.9)
From whom the sun rises, and into which it sets, is that in which are based all deities. Indeed nothing exceeds that Hiraṇya-garbha – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.1.10 (4.10)
As it is here in one’s being, so it is there in brahman, the limitless reality. As it is there in brahman, so it is here in one’s being. One goes from death to death, who sees (thinks) as if there is any difference (duality) here.🔗
KathU.2.1.11 (4.11)
By the intellect alone (clarified by the teaching with a choice teacher) is this brahman to be attained as one’s self. There is no difference (duality) at all here in brahman (in reality). One goes from death to death, who sees (thinks) as if there is any difference here.🔗
KathU.2.1.12 (4.12)
The puruṣa who fills everything (KathU.1.3.11) is known in the cave of the heart as the size of the thumb, and dwells there in that intellect in the middle of the body, yet, in fact is the Lord of the past and future. Thereafter one would not think to have to protect oneself (as there is no other) – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.1.13 (4.13)
The puruṣa (as though) the size of the thumb (may be contemplated there in the intellect) as a flame without smoke (as pure awareness). It is the Lord of the past and future (the source of most of one’s imagined problems). It alone is today. It indeed is (right now) tomorrow (as one’s worries, to be resolved here now) – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.1.14 (4.14)
Just as the one water rained on a mountain runs down separately between the slopes, similarly seeing (thinking) the individual natures of the one brahman as (seemingly) separate, one runs along (lives) as the separated entities only.🔗
KathU.2.1.15 (4.15)
Just as pure water poured into pure water is but the same one water alone, similarly, for the contemplative one who knows, one is but the one self (in brahman), O Naciketas.🔗

Katha Upaniṣad Vallī 2.2 (5)

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KathU.2.2.1 (5.1)
(Lord Death said)
Contemplating on this body as a city with eleven gates (three below including the navel, seven on the face, and one at the, soft when young, top of the head) belonging to the indwelling unborn, consciousness not deviated (by a confused intellect), (like a king in the city) one does not grieve. That one (like a king) is completely independent here and now, while in this body – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).
🔗
KathU.2.2.2 (5.2)
This dwells in the heaven as the sun, in the atmosphere as the wind, on the earth as the fire, and in the house as the guest. It dwells amongst people, amongst the deities, in sacrifice, and in space. It is born in waters, on the earth, in the sacrifice as the accessories, and originates from mountains (as rivers). It is the unchanging brahman.🔗
KathU.2.2.3 (5.3)
The self draws upward from the heart the exhalation (prāṇa), and throws downward from the heart the inhalation (apāna). All the sense organ deities worship (by offering their sense object offerings to their king) the adorable one who abides within the heart, the intellect.🔗
KathU.2.2.4 (5.4)
When this self, residing in the body as the embodied one, is getting loosened, being released from the body, then what could possibly remain here alive in the body (after death)? – This is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.2.5 (5.5)
Neither by prāṇa nor by apāna does any mortal live. Whereas, by another, the self, they live, upon which both prāṇa and apāna depend (like the subjects once the king departs).🔗
KathU.2.2.6 (5.6)
Well now, I will tell you about this secret, ever existent brahman, and also in what way after death of the body, this ātman continues, O Naciketas.🔗
KathU.2.2.7 (5.7)
Being previously identified with a body, some enter a womb for acquiring (another human, animal or insect) body, others take on the status of a stationary plant, each one according to (the merit or demerit of) their mental and physical actions and to what (subtlety of) knowledge they have been exposed.🔗
KathU.2.2.8 (5.8)
When the body and senses are asleep, this puruṣa stays awake, fashioning various (dream) objects. That conscious being indeed is pure (not tainted by experiences). That one is brahman. That one alone is said to be immortal. All the material and subtle worlds are fixed in that one. Nothing indeed exists beyond the extent of that one – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.2.9 (5.9)
Just as the one nature of fire (as heat to touch, and as light and shape to sight), present throughout the universe, assumes every form in keeping with each form, so also the one self within all beings assumes every form in keeping with each form. It is also that which is the formless outside (like space, not divisible as inside or outside).🔗
KathU.2.2.10 (5.10)
Just as the one nature of air (as motion, and as the vital life force), present throughout the universe, assumes every form in keeping with each form, so also the one self within all beings assumes every form in keeping with each form. It is also that which is the (formless) outside (like the expanding space).🔗
KathU.2.2.11 (5.11)
Just as the sun, which as daylight is like the eye of this entire world, is not tainted by the impurities of our perceptions or by impurities of the outside objects, so also the one self within all beings is not tainted by the problems in the world, because it subtly transcends (the objects, senses, and mind, as pointed out).🔗
KathU.2.2.12 (5.12)
This ātman is the one non-dual controller (master), as the one self of the all beings. It is but one form, who only appears (by lack of discernment) as many. The discerning in keeping with the teaching see (know) that one dwelling in the body of all. For the discerning alone there is constant joy (freedom from problems, identified with the limitless, untainted self), not so the others (identified with the defective not-self).🔗
KathU.2.2.13 (5.13)
The timeless of the time-bound, the consciousness of the conscious. This one non-dual ātman provides (the basis for the existence and knowledge of) the pleasurable objects for all people. The discerning in keeping with the teaching see (know) that one dwelling in the body of all. For them alone there is constant joy (freedom from problems), not so the others (identified with the defective not-self).🔗
KathU.2.2.14 (5.14)
The wise recognize that limitless fulfillment which cannot be pointed to, as “The immediate this (as themselves).” How indeed can I come to know that? Does it alone shine? Does it shine distinctly elsewhere? Or not?🔗
KathU.2.2.15 (5.15)
The sun does not illumine that ātman, nor the moon or stars. These flashes of lightning do not illumine ātman. What to speak of this small flame. Everything shines after that brahman-ātman alone that has ever been the shinning. By the light of that, all this shines distinctly elsewhere.🔗

Katha Upaniṣad Vallī 2.3 (6)

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KathU.2.3.1 (6.1)
Whose tap-root is superior (in the unmanifest a-vyakta, KathU.1.3.11), whose branches are inferior (in time–space, as this manifest saṃsāra), this is the long-lasting Aśvattha (fig) tree depicting saṃsāra. Its source is that which is pure (whether saṃsāra is there or not). That is brahman. That alone is said to be immortal. In that are fixed all worlds. Nothing indeed exists beyond the extent of that one – this is the self taught here which is indeed all that (reality which you asked, that brahman).🔗
KathU.2.3.2 (6.2)
In the presence of prāṇa (here meaning brahman the source of prāṇa, cf. KathU.2.2.10) this entire universe, whatever animate or inanimate arises and moves about. (Because this brahman, like a king) is a great terror with an uplifted thunderbolt (keeping them in their natural jobs, the mandate of their nature, of their role, in this creation, the Lord’s order). Those who know this brahman become timeless.🔗
KathU.2.3.3 (6.3)
(As though) out of fear of this brahman, fire burns. Out of fear, the sun burns. Out of fear, Lord Indra, Lord Vāyu, and Lord Death as the fifth run (their jobs).🔗
KathU.2.3.4 (6.4)
Unless here one becomes able to know brahman as oneself before the fall of the body, then one is only fit for taking another body in the worlds of creatures.🔗
KathU.2.3.5 (6.5)
As clearly in (a made spotless) mirror, so in the mind (with the teaching, one can see brahman). As (full of memories) in dream, so in the world of the ancestors (one sees oneself). As was seen (moving) in water so in the (pleasurable) world of the celestial musicians. And clearly like light and shade in (the difficult to attain) brahma-loka (can brahman be taught and known).🔗
KathU.2.3.6 (6.6)
Knowing the distinct nature of the sense organs (as not the same as the one, non-composite, witness ātman), knowing both their arising and setting (upon waking and sleep) (as not the unchanging ātman), and knowing the individual manifestation of the sense organs (as simply effects from the subtle elements) – a discerning person does not grieve (that any of their defects and limitations pertains to oneself).🔗
KathU.2.3.7 (6.7)
The mind (manas) is superior to the sense organs. The intellect is superior to the mind (KathU.1.3.3–13). The total intellect (mahat) is superior to the individual intellect. And the unmanifest is superior to the total intellect.🔗
KathU.2.3.8 (6.8)
The self (puruṣa) is indeed superior to the unmanifest. The puruṣa (oneself) is all-pervasive (as the being and witness of all) and attributeless (as ever the subject and never an object). Knowing this, a mortal is now known to be free, and attains one’s factual nature as timeless.🔗
KathU.2.3.9 (6.9)
The form of this self does not fall within the purview (of the senses and thus the manas). No one sees this self by the eyes. Only by the intellect (with the teaching) is (the nature of the self) made firmly known, which, being the master of the manas, the mind follows (into contemplation). Those who know this ātman, attain their factual nature as timeless.🔗
KathU.2.3.10 (6.10)
When the five sense organs along with the (emotive identifying) manas abide in the self, and the intellect does not waiver from this knowledge of the self, that attainment is ultimate, say the wise.🔗
KathU.2.3.11 (6.11)
That steady control of the organs of action and sensing (for allowing the intellect to abide in self-knowledge) is (this ultimate attainment) they call “Yoga.” One should be alert at that time, because yoga is subject to waxing and waning (along with rajas and tamas predominance in the mind).🔗
KathU.2.3.12 (6.12)
Not indeed by speech (the organs of action), nor by the (desire and object identifying) manas, nor by the eye (the sense organs) can this self be grasped. Apart from saying (knowing) “It (deathless brahman) exists, KathU.1.1.20,” and choose it, KathU.1.2.23), how else can that deathless brahman be grasped (by one who clings as oneself to the body and the things that die)?🔗
KathU.2.3.13 (6.13)
It is first to be acknowledged as “It (deathless brahman) exists,” and then it is to be known as being the nature of all this. Of these two, for the one who first acknowledges “It (deathless brahman) exists,” then the ātman which already is of this nature will eventually bless (KathU.2.1.10, KathU.1.2.23).🔗
KathU.2.3.14 (6.14)
When objectively released from all desires which were previously fixed (clinging) in the heart (in the identifying manas), then a mortal is now known to be the timeless brahman (as alone to be chosen). Here in the heart (the buddhi) one attains brahman (alone as one’s self, and not the once desirable objects).🔗
KathU.2.3.15 (6.15)
When all the heart’s knots (the endless confusions arising from identifying with the not-self) in this (life itself) are broken (untethered, MunU.2.2.8), then a mortal is now known to be the timeless (brahman). This much alone is the traditional teaching (in keeping with the other Upaniṣad teachings).🔗
KathU.2.3.16 (6.16)
(The Upaniṣad says)
There are one hundred and one nāḍīs (subtle energy paths) connected to the heart. Of them, one nāḍī reaches to the (soft when young) top of the head (the fontanel). Upon death going up through this nāḍī, the individual (identified with the traveling subtle body, the essence of the mind with its saṃskāras and animating powers) attains (the relative, or postponed) immortality in brahma-loka. The other one hundred nāḍīs branching out become the means for going out (dying) into other possible embodiments.
🔗
KathU.2.3.17 (6.17)
The subtle puruṣa who fills everything (the brahman), which is known in the cave of the heart as the size of the thumb, is ever present in the heart of people. One should distinguish that self from one’s body, with careful attention and respect, like one separates the internal pith from the sharp tipped muñja grass. One should know that self to be pure and timeless. The End.🔗
KathU.2.3.18 (6.18)
Thereupon, Naciketas, having acquired this knowledge taught by Lord Death, as well as the instruction on yoga complete, attained brahman, and became pure and deathless as brahman. Anyone else too who in this way knows this in regard to ātman becomes that brahman alone.🔗

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Praśna Upaniṣad 1

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PrasU.1.1
Sukeśan, son of Bharad-vāja; Satya-kāma, the son of Śibi; Gārgya, descendent of Garga, and grandson of Surya; Kausalya, son of Aśvala; Bhārgava, descendent of Bhṛgu, from Vidarbha; and Ka-bandhin, descendant of Katya; these six were intent upon brahman and engaged for brahman, and (now) were desirous of traditionally inquiring into (the ultimate) brahman. They approached the revered Pippalāda with fire kindling in hand (as a show of desire to serve the teacher), thinking he certainly will tells us everything.🔗
PrasU.1.2
To them the seer, Pippalāda, said, “Stay here a year more with religious discipline, as scriptural students, and with trust. Thereafter, you may ask questions as you wish. If we know, we will answer everything.”🔗
PrasU.1.3
After that year, Ka-bandhin, descendant of Katya, approached and asked, “Venerable sir, from what indeed are all these beings born?”🔗
PrasU.1.4
To him the teacher said:
Prajā-pati (the Lord of creatures) became desirous of progeny. He contemplated what He knew (by which he attained this exalted status via rituals and meditation in an earlier life) and thereupon He created from Himself a pairing of food and life-energy (rayi and prāṇa), thinking that these two will produce for Me the variety of creatures.
🔗
PrasU.1.5
The sun is indeed the life-energy (the eater), and the moon is indeed matter to be consumed (which gets ‘eaten’ during the lunar cycles). Everything is only formed (material) and unformed (subtle) matter. Other than the latter, material matter is (in turn) food (for the subtle).🔗
PrasU.1.6
Now, the sun rises and pervades the eastern region, by that it absorbs (becomes one with) the life-energies into its rays in the east.
The same in the south, the west, the north, as well as below, above, and in-between in those regions, in all directions. By illuminating them it absorbs all the life-energies into its rays.
🔗
PrasU.1.7
That very one (the eater) who daily rises is vaiśvā-nara (the fire within all), who takes all forms as the life-energy (prāṇa), and is fire itself.
This one is indicated by the following mantra.
🔗
PrasU.1.8
That very one (the eater) who daily rises is vaiśvā-nara (the fire within all), who takes all forms as the life-energy (prāṇa), and is fire itself.
This one is indicated by the following mantra.
🔗
PrasU.1.9
The saṃvatsara (the year, consisting of lunar and solar days) is indeed (thus a manifestation of) Prajā-pati. Of that (Prajā-pati as the year) there are two paths, the southern and the northern (the six months from summer solstice onward as the sun tracks southward and the six months from winter solstice onward as the sun tracks northward, related to the moon and sun respectively).
Concerning this, those who worship that one in the form of their ritual (iṣṭa) and charity (pūrta) acts that create (puṇya, karma merit), they go (by the southern path) to a lunar heaven alone.
(When their puṇya is cashed in) they are again reborn back here. Because of that, those who see the scripture as only this much, who are desirous of more progeny, go along the southern path.
This which is the path of the ancestors is indeed but food (rayi, the moon, the eaten).
🔗
PrasU.1.10
However, others attain the solar heaven through the northern path by their religious disciples, their pursuit of scripture (instead of progeny) with trust, and by meditation, while appropriately seeking the self (ātman, the Lord as the prāṇa, the eater within).
This is the home of all prāṇas (all lives). This is deathless and fearless. This is the final goal. From this there is no rebirth (in this universe manifestation cycle). There is blockage (the shut door of the solar orb, IsU.15, by their desire that keeps the others from seeing, much less reaching here).
In regard to that, there is this verse.
🔗
PrasU.1.11
Some say this (Prajā-pati as the year) is the (progenitor) father, having five feet (seasons: bright spring, hot summer, monsoon, fall, and the combined late-fall and winter), with twelve forms (months), which is in a region beyond the sky, as the giver of the rains (via clouds). But other eminent ones say it is the all-seeing, having seven runners (horses, or seven cycling wheels), with six (seasons as) spokes, in which is fixed (as spokes in its hub).🔗
PrasU.1.12
The month is indeed Prajā-pati. The dark (waning) fortnight is His food, and the bright (waxing) fortnight is His prāṇa. Therefore, those who see the scripture (for gaining the bright prāṇa) perform their rituals (as if it is always) in the bright fortnight. The others perform them (as if it is always) in the other fortnight (always for food, reward, etc.).🔗
PrasU.1.13
Day and night are indeed Prajā-pati. The day is surely His prāṇa, and the night is His food. (For whose who desire progeny) they waste their prāṇa (as sexual energy) when they have sex during the day, whereas if they have sex at night (related to the evening’s food and the seed, PrasU.1.14), then it is equivalent to brahma-carya (the celibacy of a religious student, even while being a householder).🔗
PrasU.1.14
Anna (food, especially cooked rice) is indeed Prajā-pati. From that is the human seed. From that seed are born all these progeny.🔗
PrasU.1.15
In that case, those who undertake that Prajā-pati vow (consisting of procreating only in the evening) produce a pair (both son and daughter). For those alone who keep to their religious disciplines, observe chastity (during the day), in whom truthfulness abides, etcetera (for the southern path, PrasU.1.9), is there a lunar heaven within brahman.🔗
PrasU.1.16
(Whereas) the pure (no waxing and waning) brahma-loka is there for those who have no dishonesty, no falsehood, no deception (and who undertake the rituals with meditation to qualify for the northern path, PrasU.1.10).🔗

Praśna Upaniṣad 2

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PrasU.2.1
Now, Bhārgava from Vidarbha asked, “Venerable sir, How many deities sustain a creature? Which of them boast this greatness? And who is superior in this to those deities?”🔗
PrasU.2.2
To him Pippalāda said:
This deity is space, as well as air, fire, water, earth, and speech, mind, eye, and ear.
Boasting, they say, “By supporting this reed of a body, we sustain the creature.”
🔗
PrasU.2.3
Prāṇa (the life-force), who is superior, said to them, “Do not fall to this delusion. I alone, dividing myself five ways (as prāṇa, outward exhalation; apāna, downward inhalation and energy; vyāna, dispersing circulation; udāna, upward ejecting energy including the ejecting of the subtle body upon death; and samāna, uniting digestion) to support this reed of a body and sustain the creature.” They did not trust (this truth).🔗
PrasU.2.4
Confidently prāṇa starts rising out of the body. When he arises, then (helplessly) all the others rise; when he settles back, every one of them settles back.
In the same way all bees (praise) the royal bee, who arises, by their rising and sit when (s)he sits, so too speech, mind, eye, and ear, being satisfied, praise prāṇa.
🔗
PrasU.2.5
This prāṇa as fire burns, as the sun (it shines), as Parjanya (Lord of the rain-clouds, it rains), as Maghavan (Indra, it reigns); it is the wind.
This deity is the earth and moon, whatever has form or is formless (sad or a-sad), and what is immortal.
🔗
PrasU.2.6
Like spokes fixed in the hub of a wheel, prāṇa is all these:
the Ṛc, Yajus and Sāman mantras (i.e., verse, prose, and sung forms, respectively), and the sacrifice along with its kṣatriyas (protectors) and brāhmaṇas (performers).
🔗
PrasU.2.7
Prāṇa as Prajā-pati, it is you who moves (as the father’s seed and the child) in the womb. You indeed are born (in the form of all these). O prāṇa, these creatures bring the oblation (the sense objects through the senses) to you (as their eater) who dwells in the form of these prāṇas (the senses).🔗
PrasU.2.8
This being the first food offering to the ancestors, you are the best carrier of this offering to the gods. You are the unfailing active principle within the seer-senses, called the atharva-aṅgiras-es (the keepers, priests, of the fire, or the essences of the body which are the prāṇas).🔗
PrasU.2.9
O prāṇa, you are Lord Indra in prowess. You are Lord Rudra in protector (mode). You are the sun who travels across the sky (when you arise), and the Lord of the luminaries (after you set).🔗
PrasU.2.10
When you give forth the rains, then all these propagate (prajāḥ), O prāṇa (or, read ‘prāṇate,’ “then the creatures are nourished”). They continue to be full of joy, thinking, “Food will be produced to our hearts’ content.”🔗
PrasU.2.11
You are (like) an outlaw (beyond scriptural injunctions, or, as first born, you are unbaptized), O prāṇa, the (Atharva-Veda) ekarṣi fire, the (oblation) eater, the good (or, existence) Lord of everything. We are the givers of the food oblation to you. You are our father and the one who grows in the mother (or, read ‘mātariśvanaḥ,’ “the father of the wind [or of the embryo]”).🔗
PrasU.2.12
The body of yours which abides in the organ of speech, in the hearing, in the sight, and which pervades the mind, please make that body of yours calm, do not let it (prematurely) ascend out of my body.🔗
PrasU.2.13
All this is under the control of prāṇa, and all which exists in the third world (heaven, beyond the earth sphere and the atmosphere). Please protect us, like a mother her children. Provide us what we need (śrī, śreyas) and wisdom.🔗

Praśna Upaniṣad 3

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PrasU.3.1
Then Kausalya, son of Aśvala, asked Pippalāda, “Venerable sir, from what is this prāṇa born? How is does it enter into this body? How does it divide itself and remain there? By what (path) does it depart? How does it relate to the external and (that external prāṇa relate to, by supporting) the internal (adhyātma)?”🔗
PrasU.3.2
To him Pippalāda said:
You are asking a lot of questions, but I think you are an eminent brāhmaṇa, so I will answer all these questions.
🔗
PrasU.3.3
From the (parama, limitless) ātman this prāṇa (life energy) manifests in the world. In the same way a person’s shadow (chāyā) is naturally wherever the person (puruṣa) is, similarly this prāṇa is fixed here. It is fixed in this body owing to the (past) actions of the person’s mind.🔗
PrasU.3.4
In the same way a king alone appoints officers saying, “Over this village, over that village you rule,” this prāṇa individually delegates the different life energies (to be in charge of specific organs in this body).🔗
PrasU.3.5
Prāṇa placed apāna (downward energy) below in the anus and genital organ, and prāṇa itself above in the eyes and ears and from it issues out the breath energy through the mouth and nostrils, whereas in the middle is placed samāna (digestion and circulation energy).
Since this samāna distributes equally the food offered (into the fire of prāṇa), from that samāna these seven flames (of prāṇa issue out through the mouth and the two eyes, ears, and nostrils).”
🔗
PrasU.3.6
This self (as the subtle body) is surely in the heart. In that heart are one hundred and one of the (chief) nāḍīs (energy pathways). Each one of these is divided into one hundred branches. Each of these branches is divided into seventy-two thousand sub-branches. Among them moves vyāna (dispersing energy circulation).🔗
PrasU.3.7
(Udāna is the upward and ejecting energy, which, since it also is the vomiting energy, is likely centered in the throat area for this upward and ejecting energy to sit in wait, while also being the energy to do the one-time job of ejecting the subtle body out one of the nāḍī paths depending on where is the next body to enter.)
Now then udāna when it is moving upward through one of the nāḍīs, (having collected the other prāṇas), it leads the subtle body to a virtuous world due to predominant karma merit, (otherwise it goes differently), due to predominant karma demerit to a non-virtuous world, or by an equal mixture of both to a human world.
🔗
PrasU.3.8
The sun is indeed the external prāṇa. By the sun rising, it favors (blesses) the prāṇa in the eye (the organ of sight).
The earth deity (devatā) by gravity-attracting (avaṣṭabhya) favors apāna (downward, evacuating energy). The intermediate space (the atmosphere, not the element space) (favors) samāna (by its being in the external middle region, like where the digestion in the body presides). The wind (favors) vyāna (by its circulation movement paralleling the activity of vyāna within the body).
🔗
PrasU.3.9
The well known light (tejas, in general, not just from the sun) is the external prāṇa called udāna. Therefore, one whose “light” is extinguished (so to speak, upon death this tejas favors the bodily udāna) by gathering together the subtle organs into the mind for ejection to a rebirth.🔗
PrasU.3.10
With whatever dominant thought one has (or can muster by one’s will, near the time of death when one normally would take stock of one’s life) the person enters into prāṇa. That prāṇa gets associated with one’s tejas udāna (the rocket fuel to the next world).
Along with the jīva-ātman (the individual identified therein), this prāṇa leads the person to the next world according to one’s dominant thinking (in keeping with one’s karma merit and demerit).
🔗
PrasU.3.11
When one has this knowledge of prāṇa (and has arranged his or her life activities accordingly), then the person will be blessed with a line of progeny that does not have untimely death. (Eventually this knowledge with proper meditations can lead one to the highest heaven, brahma-loka, wherein) one gains immortality. In regard to that, there is this verse.🔗
PrasU.3.12
Having known the source, the entering, the location, the fivefold overlordship, and the external and internal connections of prāṇa (PrasU.3.1), one achieves immortality.🔗

Praśna Upaniṣad 4

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PrasU.4.1
Then Gārgya, descendent of Garga and grandson of Surya, asked Pippalāda, “Venerable sir, in this person (puruṣa), which go to sleep? In this person, which awake? Which is the bright one (the deva, deity) that sees the dream objects? Which has this happiness? And in what do all these get merged?🔗
PrasU.4.2
To him Pippalāda said:
O Gārgya, like all the rays of the setting sun appear to merge back into this glowing orb (withdrawn from the outward daily world), and again they appear to come back out from it as it rises again, so too all of those (which you ask) merge back into the mind (manas), as their high deity (deva).
Hence at that time (in dream and then in deep sleep) this person (puruṣa, here the waker) does not hear, does not see, does not smell, does not taste, does not touch, does not speak, does not grasp, does not sexually enjoy, does not excrete, and does not move (by means of the five senses and five organs of action). The others say, “He is sleeping.”
🔗
PrasU.4.3
The prāṇas, likened to the home fires (with three altars and activities of offering and reaching the sacrificial results, see Dharmawiki-Agnihotram), alone remain watchful (even at night) in this (nine-gated, SvetU.3.18) city of the body.
The apāna (inward breath) resembles the gārha-patya fire (the kitchen fire in the western altar direction, into which the morning and evening oblations of ghee to agni for agni-hotra are offered, from which the other altar fires are rekindled, and which is always kept alive, watchful, until the householder passes away), vyāna (circulation, since it is said to issue from below, from the south, of the heart) resembles the anvāhārya-pacana fire (the dakṣiṇa-agni, southern fire, used for the new-moon srāddha sacrifice distributing gifts to all the ancestors). Since extracted from the gārha-patya fire (related to apāna, the in-breath), then prāṇa (the outward breath, which comes from the inward breath) likewise resembles this extracted āhavanīya fire (which is also in the western arrangement of altars, out of which most of the śrauta rituals are performed).
🔗
PrasU.4.4
Because it unites both to fairly and equally distribute (samaṃ nayati) the digestion energy stoked by exhalation and inhalation, like the two (agni-hotra) oblations (āhutis, of heated ghee, one in the morning and one in the evening), this samāna (uniting digestion) is like the hotṛ priest (who presides over the sacrifice and officiates over the proper duties of the other priests).
The mind is verily the yajamāna (the one who is the beneficiary of the sacrifice, in the agni-hotra it would be the householder). The desired result (of the daily offerings) is the udāna which then leads this yajamāna sacrificer daily to brahman (since udāna also ejects the person between the states of waking, dream and deep sleep, the brahman is here the daily refreshing bliss in the deep sleep, as we are still here in the dream state where the physical activities of the prāṇas are first united into the mind, but still subtly functioning therein for the dreamer).
🔗
PrasU.4.5
Here (in dream) the deity (the mind) (undergoes the experience) of the vastness (of the dream world).
Whatever is seen (before) is seen again (in the dream); whatever it hears was only heard before in a different place, etcetera and it experiences again and again. Whatever was seen and unseen, heard and unheard, experienced and not experienced (since the mind is also aware of what it doesn't experience – just ask it), and whatever is real and unreal – all this it perceives over and over here in dream.
🔗
PrasU.4.6
Then at that time this (deity, the mind) becomes overwhelmed (abhibhūta, and exhausted).
Here the deity does not see the dream world, at which time in this body occurs this (unobstructed) bliss (of deep sleep).
🔗
PrasU.4.7
Like this, O dear one, the birds (RigV.1.164.19-21) rest in the tree that lodges them, so all this (enumerated in the next mantra) rests in the ultimate ātman (the brahman, wherein is the daily bliss at the end of the day).🔗
PrasU.4.8
The gross and subtle element earth, the gross and subtle water, gross and subtle fire, gross and subtle air, gross and subtle space, vision and the seen, hearing and the heard, smelling and the smelled, taste and the tasted, touch and the touched, speech and the spoken, holding and the held, sex and its enjoyment, excretion and the excreted, locomotion and the gotten to, mind and its content, intellect and its content, I-notion and its content, memory and the recollected (including dream), the tejas (the deva, PrasU.4.6, the shining one reflected in this mind) and all it reveals, and prāṇa (sūtra-ātman, in which all this is strung) and all it supports.🔗
PrasU.4.9
And this puruṣa (who fills all this, this one deva reflected in the mind, or, the one deva in every mind) is the seer, feeler, smeller, taster, thinking, knower, doer, and knowledge itself. This one is fixed in the ultimate, imperishable ātman (brahman).🔗
PrasU.4.10
One attains the ultimate immutable brahman who simply knows that as shadowless (a-cchāya, PrasU.3.3), (hence) bodiless, colorless, pure, and imperishable (a-kṣara, PrasU.4.9), O dear one.
That knower of the all, becomes all. In regard to that, there is this verse.
🔗
PrasU.4.11
The one who knows, O dear one, the imperishable one in which are fixed the one whose nature is knowledge (vijñāna-ātman, the puruṣa, PrasU.4.9), along with the all the deities, the energies (prāṇas, and the elements, that one knows the all and merges into this all (the brahman).🔗

Praśna Upaniṣad 5

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PrasU.5.1
Then Satya-kāma, the son of Śibi, asked Pippalāda,
“Venerable sir, The rare one among all these people, who intently meditates upon that well-known Om until death, gains which world by that.”
🔗
PrasU.5.2
To him Pippalāda said:
O Satya-kāma, Om is this very brahman, the higher and the lower aspect.
Therefore, the discerning person with this one support (āyatana, ālambana) alone attains either one of these two.
🔗
PrasU.5.3
Should one intently meditate (until death, primarily) upon the first sound (the “a” component of the diphthong “o,” representing the universe of the senses, Virāṭ), by this alone the discerning one quickly is reborn here on earth.
Ṛc mantras lead this one to a human embodiment. There, being endowed with religious discipline, Veda studentship, and trust in the Vedas, this one attains the greatness available there.
🔗
PrasU.5.4
If one (intently meditates until death, primarily) upon the second sound (the “u” component of the diphthong “o,” representing the universe of the mind which includes the preceding sound and world of the senses), by this one becomes identified only in the mind (the subtle body). Yajus mantras lead this one to the intermediate lunar heaven.
In this lunar world one attains the greatness available there, and then is reborn (back on earth).
🔗
PrasU.5.5
Again, the one who would intently meditate (until death, primarily) upon the third sound (“m,” representing the entire manifestation of the Lord which includes the preceding two sounds and worlds) as the imperishable, ultimate puruṣa, this one arrives at the brilliant solar heaven.
Like a snake sloughs its dead skin, this one is freed of karma demerit (and does not return back into the human body, in this cycle of manifestation). This one is led to brahma-loka (Hiraṇya-garbha) by Sāman mantras. From this one, the totality of all jīvas, one sees (is taught to see) the ultimate puruṣa (brahman) residing in all bodies.
In regard to that, there are these two verses.
🔗
PrasU.5.6
The three sounds (individually, and as not indicating para brahman, PrasU.5.3–4) are within death (with rebirth). But joined with each other and not separately applied, and properly applied towards the three functions externally, internally, and in-between (i.e., waking, dream and deep sleep, per ManU.5 ceto-mukha, to move back and forth between waking and dream, one has to pass through deep sleep at least for a moment, i.e., closing down the identification with the prior state to reawaken fresh into the external world or into the internal world as “real,” KaivU.1.13), then the wise person does not waver from wisdom.🔗
PrasU.5.7
The wise seers explain that this world is by Ṛc mantras, the intermediate region is by Yajus mantras, and the other world is by Sāman mantras, through the syllable Om alone. The wise person through this same support (Om), merges into this which is peaceful, ageless, deathless, fearless, and is the ultimate brahman (beyond the three-fold universe).🔗

Praśna Upaniṣad 6

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PrasU.6.1
Then Sukeśan, son of Bharad-vāja, asked Pippalāda,
“Venerable sir, Hiraṇya-nābha, a prince of Kosala, approached me and asked this question, ‘O Bharad-vaja, do you know the puruṣa of sixteen parts?’
To that prince I replied, ‘I do not know this. If I had known this, there is no way I would not tell you.’
I then said to him, ‘Anyone who speaks an untruth dries up, root and all. Therefore, I cannot afford to speak an untruth.’
The prince silently mounted his chariot and rode away.
That same question I ask you. Who is this puruṣa of sixteen parts?”
🔗
PrasU.6.2
To him Pippalāda said:
O dear one, Here itself inside this body is that puruṣa, in whom arise these sixteen parts (kalās).
🔗
PrasU.6.3
The puruṣa (remembered and) envisioned, “In whose departure would I depart (from this lifeless body). And in whose presence would be able to remain (in this body)?”🔗
PrasU.6.4
That puruṣa (the Lord) created (those sixteen necessary parts starting with the universal) (1.) prāṇa (Hiraṇya-garbha). From out of prāṇa (he created) (2.) trust (śraddhā, the ability to abide in learning what is helpful for life), (then the five elements) (3.) space, (4.) air, (5.) fire, (6.) water and (7.) earth, (and the means to sense them) (8.) each sense organ (indriya, counting as one to get to the number sixteen), and (9.) the mind (manas, to be in charge of them).
Then (to feed them he created) (10.) food (anna). From out of food (he created) (11.) vitality (vīrya), (12.) religious discipline (tapas), (13.) mantras (the teachings of what is helpful), (14.) karma and (15.) the realms (of karma), and in those realms (16.) the nāman (name, of these kalās and of everything else by which we distinguish things and people).
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PrasU.6.5
It is like this, these flowing rivers reach the ocean and get absorbed (astaṃ gacchanti). Their names (nāmans) and forms (rūpas) are lost, and it is only called, “ocean.”
In this way, these sixteen parts of the all-seeing puruṣa have as their abode (āyana) this one puruṣa, and resolve into the puruṣa. Their names (nāmans) and forms (rūpas) are lost, and it is only called, “puruṣa.” This very one (who knows this) is this immortal, partless one (a-kala puruṣa). In regard to that, there is this verse.
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PrasU.6.6
Like spokes on a hub of a chariot wheel, that one in which these parts are fixed, the puruṣa that is to be known – I (Pippalāda) know (or, one [should] know). In this way, may you (the puruṣa), as death, not afflict all of you others.🔗
PrasU.6.7
To them Pippalāda said, “This much alone I know the ultimate brahman (reality). Beyond this there is nothing.”🔗
PrasU.6.8
While worshipping Pippalāda they said, “You indeed are our father who has ferried us across an ocean of ignorance to the far shore. Salutation to the great seers. Salutation to the great seers.”🔗

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Khaṇḍa 1.1 Khaṇḍa 1.2 Khaṇḍa 2.1 Khaṇḍa 2.2 Khaṇḍa 3.1 Khaṇḍa 3.2

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 1.1

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MunU.1.1.1
Among the gods, Lord Brahmā (Īśvara in the role of the manifester of all this at the beginning of each creation cycle, and described as having four heads, each being a Veda, so He is all-knowledge) came into being first. He is the creator of this current universe and (like a father) the protector of all creatures (in which role Lord Īśvara is then called Lord Viṣṇu). He taught the knowledge (vidyā) of brahman (reality), which is most exalted among all forms of knowledge, to Atharva, His eldest son.🔗
MunU.1.1.2
That same brahma-vidyā which Lord Brahmā taught to Atharvan, Atharvan taught long ago to his son, Aṅgir. Then Aṅgir taught Satya-vaha, who was born in the family of Bharad-vāja. Bhārad-vāja successively taught Aṅgiras (this same knowledge which has been handed down since the beginning of each manifestation cycle).🔗
MunU.1.1.3
Saunaka, a famous householder, appropriately approached Aṅgiras and asked.
“Venerable sir, upon having known what (kasmin vijñāte) all this is (as well) known (sarvam idaṃ vijñātaṃ bhavati)?”
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MunU.1.1.4
To Śaunaka, Aṅgiras replied.
“There are two types of knowledge (vidyā) to be known, say those who know scripture (Brahman, Veda) – unlimited (para) and limited (a-para).”
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MunU.1.1.5
(Aṅgiras continues)
Concerning these two, the limited (a-para) is the Ṛc Veda, Yajus Veda, Sāman Veda, and Atharva Veda; and the sciences of pronunciation, rituals, grammar, etymology, prosody, and (Veda) astrology.
Then, the unlimited (para) is by which (brahma-vidyā, knowledge of limitless reality) one attains that imperishable (brahman).
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MunU.1.1.6
That (imperishable brahman, reality) is not the object of the sense organs, nor the object of the organs of action, nor the object of a name (any word); it has no attributes, has no eyes or ears, and has no hands or legs; it is timeless, has become everything (vibhu), is all-pervasive, and is the most subtle; it is the imperishable (a-vyaya) which is the source of all beings, and that which the wise know clearly (as well as seeing).🔗
MunU.1.1.7
Just as a ceiling spider strings out (from itself alone) and consumes back (into itself alone its single thread), just as plants come into being from the earth, and just as hair grows from a living person, similarly (as the material and intelligent cause, as from the insentient the sentient, and as from the sentient the insentient, respectively) from that undiminishing (a-kṣara, brahman, without change to itself) comes into being all this varied universe here (within itself alone).🔗
MunU.1.1.8
Through tapas (knowledge MunU.1.1.9, of what was in the prior creation and will be in the next creation) brahman expands (as this universe).
From that brahman is food (the eaten, the cosmic unmanifest potential).
From (unmanifest) food comes the (manifest) subtle being (prāṇa, Hiraṇya-garbha, the eater PrasU.1.5, the common power of knowledge and action).
(From that) comes (all these) minds (capable of naming and distinguishing forms).
(From that are perceived) the gross and subtle elements (satya, what we “take as separately real” from our projections).
(From that) comes the worlds and heavens, (on which) when actions (karma) are performed by us, there arises a lasting result (a-mṛta, their karma-phalas which can take many rebirths before fructifying in these worlds and heavens).
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MunU.1.1.9
The one who knows the all (the essential reality, MunU.1.1.3) and knows everything (the details to manifest), whose tapas is nothing but that knowledge, from that (jñāna-tapas) this (Hiraṇya-garbha) brahman is manifest as this name and form food (consisting of our experiences).🔗

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 1.2

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MunU.1.2.1
The truth is this:
May all you who desire the lasting results of karma regularly perform those rituals which the seers (kavis) saw in the Veda mantras and were spread out in the three (Vedas) in many ways. This is the means to a well-earned realm.
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MunU.1.2.2
When the flame dances in the well lit (agni-hotra) fire, then in the middle between the left and right side may one offer the oblations (throughout your life).🔗
MunU.1.2.3
But for the one whom the agni-hotra ritual is done, if not accompanied with the darśya ritual nor paurṇamāsya ritual, without cāturmāsya ritual nor āgrayaṇa ritual, nor blessed with guests, or not offered daily, without viśva-deva ritual, or offered without following stipulations, then all up to the seven heavens are lost to that person.🔗
MunU.1.2.4
The black, the terrible, the swift-as-mind, the crimson, the gray, the sparkling, and the shinning-all-over are the seven tongues of the “dancing flames” (lelāyamānas).🔗
MunU.1.2.5
For the one who offers at the appropriate times into these shinning flames, these very oblations along the rays of the sun take and lead the ritualist to where (Lord Indra) the Lord of devas alone presides.🔗
MunU.1.2.6
“Come, Come” – with these words the brilliant offerings lead and honor the sacrificer along the rays of the sun, speaking pleasing words, “This is your well-earned, sacred realm in brahman.”🔗
MunU.1.2.7
The constituents of the ritual are like fragile rafts. They are said to be eighteen in number (the sixteen priests, the sacrificer and spouse), upon which inferior acts (are laid). The immature (mūḍhas, the short-sighted), who believe this is śreyas (our good), again and again only gain old age and death (with occasional vacations in the heavens).🔗
MunU.1.2.8
Revolving in ignorance (of real śreyas), thinking themselves to be discerning and learned, these immature ones go round and round hurting themselves, like the blind being lead by the blind alone.🔗
MunU.1.2.9
Revolving variously in ignorance, the immature boast, “We have attained the goal.” Since engaged in activities out of attachment (rāga, to short-term ends), they do not try to gain knowledge. Suffering afflictions because of that, when (what it took to gain) their world (loka) is exhausted, they fall back.🔗
MunU.1.2.10
Thinking rituals and charities are the best they can do, proclaiming there is no other good (śreyas), these deluded (and deluders), after their experience at the well-earned top of heaven, (re)enter this human embodiment (loka), or lower than that.🔗
MunU.1.2.11
Those who (leave the household to) enter a disciplined life of trust (in their meditations) in the forest (as vana-prasthas), and those learned meditators (vidvats) who have gained a peace of mind (even while remaining in the household), and those learned meditators who have taken to a wandering life of alms, they, being freed of rajas (and tamas), all enter by the solar path, where is the immortal and imperishable* person (puruṣa, called Hiraṇya-garbha).
(* Until the end of this brahma-loka, said to be a bit over 311 trillion human years, see BhG-Dic Pralaya, during which the universe itself resolves every one of His nights until Hiraṇya-garbha, sometimes also named through its source as ‘Lord Brahmā’, reaches one-hundred of His ageless years span.)
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MunU.1.2.12
Examining the worlds gained by action (including meditation), the one who has been initiated in the scripture (brāhmaṇa), and being dispassionate (nirvedam āyān) by thinking, “the uncreated (reality) is not by action,” should, for clearly knowing that (brahman, reality), approach with sacrificial sticks in hand a teacher who indeed is both steeped in the scriptures (śrotriya) and established in brahman (brahma-niṣṭha) (i.e., who both knows how to teach and knows what to teach).🔗
MunU.1.2.13
To that student who has properly approached, whose mind is peacefully settled (to seek an appropriate teacher through sufficient discernment and dispassion, viveka, vairāgya, TatB.2), and is qualified with discipline of mind (śama, dama, etcetera, to learn from that teacher), may the wise guru thoroughly (tattvatas) teach the brahman-vidyā, by which one comes to know the imperishable puruṣa that is the reality and truth (satya, of even the Hiraṇya-garbha puruṣa).🔗

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 2.1

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MunU.2.1.1
The truth is this:
Just as from a well lit fire, sparks (“outward expansions”) by the thousands arise, having the very same nature (as nothing but fire itself, KathU.2.2.9), similarly from the imperishable (a-kṣara, puruṣa), O pleasing one, varieties of entities (having the very same nature) (appear as though to) arise and (eventually) go back only into it (yet there is nothing but the imperishable puruṣa alone. Similar to the universal element called fire which can be visually separated as light here and there, yet is present everywhere as heat, above absolute zero).
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MunU.2.1.2
That (imperishable) puruṣa is shinning (divya, revealing), therefore is formless (a-mūrta, not the revealed). Therefore, it is indeed both outside and inside (all forms). Therefore, is unborn (as a particular form). Therefore, is free from an individual prāṇa and mind, and is pure (nothing but itself alone). It is ultimate to the other a-kṣara (called a-vyakta, the beginningless Lord Brahmā, as the unmanifest potential for every manifestation cycle of the universe, KathU.1.2.16).🔗
MunU.2.1.3
From this (a-kṣara, para brahman), (like from the fire, without being of a different nature) arises prāṇa, mind, and all the organs of knowledge and action, as well as the elements space, air, fire, water, and earth which sustains all the life forms.🔗
MunU.2.1.4
(Physically this a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ, the universal person has) the bright heavens as His head, moon and sun as eyes, space (the directions) as ears, the well known Vedas as His organ of speech, air as His life-breath, the universe as His heart, and earth as His feet – this is the self in relation to all beings (within).🔗
MunU.2.1.5
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ) arises (samprasūta) the heavens of which the fuel is the sun. From the moon arises the rain clouds. From the plants on earth arises the male seed which is planted into the female womb. In this way, all the varieties of living beings arise from this (one) puruṣa (alone).🔗
MunU.2.1.6
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ), the Ṛc, Sāman and Yajus (mantras), the consecration rituals, all yajñas (which would not have an animal sacrifice) and rituals which do (called kratus, involving a sacrificial post, yūpa), the ritual gifts, the year, the sacrificer, and the all the worlds and heavens, where the moon and the sun sanctify the way.🔗
MunU.2.1.7
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ) arise the variety of deities, the sādhya class of celestials, humans, animals and birds, the out and in life-breaths, rice and barley, religious discipline, trust (śraddhā), truth (satya), the sole pursuit in the Vedas (brahma-carya), and religious methods and mandates.🔗
MunU.2.1.8
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ) arise the seven (apertures in the head for) prāṇas (two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, and one mouth, PrasU.3.5), their seven prāṇa flame-like (vṛttis of vision, hearing, smelling, and tasting), their fuel-like (sense objects: sights, sounds, smells and tastes, which incite the senses) and the seven oblations (sense objects which again are offered into these sensory flames).
These apertures and paths are the worlds in which these sensory flames operate.
(In sleep) all these seven by seven sensory prāṇas (apertures, etcetera) rest in the cave of the heart (the intellect alone, where they can experience dream, and still further resolve in deep sleep).
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MunU.2.1.9
From that (a-kṣara, para brahman, as Virāṭ) arise all the oceans and mountains. From this one (through those), flow all the varieties of rivers. From this one (through those), arise all the plants and their sap (rasa), by which (nourishing juice) the subtle body (antar-ātman) indeed remains (here on earth) amongst the (physical) elements.🔗
MunU.2.1.10
That puruṣa alone is all this (given world). (Also what you may choose to do, such as) ritual and religious discipline, as well as (the means to know these) the Veda (a-para Brahman, MunU.1.1.5 & MunU.2.1.4) is the ultimate (para), imperishable brahman. The one who knows (all) this as fixed (nihita, present) within the cave of the heart (within the intellect, as oneself, “All this is myself alone”), that one cuts the knot of ignorance here itself (while still living), O pleasing one (MunU.1.1.3).🔗

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 2.2

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MunU.2.2.1
The shinning one, present here itself as the well known active one in the cave of the heart (the “I”) is in fact the limitless abode in which all this is fixed – anything that moves, breathes, or winks.
May you know this which is at once formed and formless, the most desirable, and, for all people, is beyond (their own) various means of knowing, yet is what they all choose (as ānanda-rūpa, MunU.2.2.7).
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MunU.2.2.2
What is shining and is the subtle among the subtle, and in which are fixed (present) all the worlds and dwellers in these worlds, that is this immutable (a-kṣara) brahman (reality, the abode of all).
That is prāṇa, speech, and mind. That is the truth (satya) here. That is the immortal. That which is to be known, O pleasing one, please know (as your limitless self).
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MunU.2.2.3
Taking hold of the bow, the great (final) “weapon” (astra, which is wielded at a distance) gained from this teaching (Upaniṣad), one should fix on it an arrow sharpened through upāsā (meditation). Drawing it back by means of a mind totally intent on that (target, not anything else), one should hit that target alone which is the immutable one, O pleasing one.🔗
MunU.2.2.4
Om (Oṃ-kāra, praṇava) is the bow. Ātman is the arrow. Brahman is said to (as though) be its target (lakṣya, the implied meaning of Om). Without indifference it is to be understood. Like the arrow, one should become one with that (like the arrow with the target, the ātman with brahman).🔗
MunU.2.2.5
The heavens, the earth and the space between are woven in this brahman (as an expanded form that is only the thread which is its reality), along with the mind and all the prāṇas. May you know that non-dual (eka) to be oneself. Any words or ideas that differ, give them up. This alone is the bridge (setu, across the ocean of saṃsāra) to the immortal.🔗
MunU.2.2.6
Where (in the heart, the intellect) all the nāḍīs (energy pathways, PrasU.3.6) are fixed, like spokes in the hub of a chariot wheel, where this very (ātman seemly) moves about as all these becoming forms, may you meditate upon this ātman in this way (as explained here) using “Om.” May this be auspicious to all of you for reaching the far shore beyond the darkness (ignorance).🔗
MunU.2.2.7
This (ātman, brahman) is (by nature) knowing the all (sarva-jña) and knowing everything (sarva-vid), in detail). All this on earth is its glory. This ātman abides in the shining “city of brahman” (the place where brahman can be known), in this space (vyoman, in the heart, in the intellect).
The individual (jīva) who has the mind as a limiting adjunct), who is the leader of the subtle body, abides in this food-body providing the basis (existence-consciousness) for the heart (intellect). By assimilated knowledge of that (brahman), the discerning clearly see that immortal one as the nature of ānanda (fulfillment) which always shines.
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MunU.2.2.8
The knots of the heart (the endless confusions arising from identifying with the not-self) are broken (untethered, KathU.2.3.15), and all doubts (regarding the meaning and implications of the teaching) are removed, and one’s karma wastes away (unclaimed as being only “mine”) (can only happen) once one knows as clear as seeing this (brahman) as both the para (the one and only ultimate reality, which has to include me) and the apara (the lower effects as nothing but that same para, therefore, the clouds of ignorance and doubts gone, “I clearly see am all this”).🔗
MunU.2.2.9
In the shinning (hiraṇyamaya), most (interior) kośa (location, the ānandamaya-kośa, PrasU.4.6 & TaitU.2.5.1) is that free from impurities and partless brahman. It is pure, the light of lights. Those who know ātman, they know that (brahman).🔗
MunU.2.2.10
The sun does not illumine that ātman, nor does the moon or stars. These flashes of lightning do not illumine ātman. What to speak of this small flame. Everything shines after that brahman-ātman alone that has ever been the shinning. By the light of that, all this shines distinctly elsewhere.🔗
MunU.2.2.11
The immortal Brahman alone is all this in front (purastāt). Brahman alone is all this in back (paścsāt). Brahman alone is all this to the right (dakṣiṇatas) and to the left (uttareṇa). Brahman alone pervades all this below (adhas) and above (urdhva). This (brahman) universe is the (reality ānanda, MunU.2.2.7) which everyone chooses (variṣṭha, MunU.2.2.1).🔗

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 3.1

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MunU.3.1.1
Two beautifully winged birds (RigV.1.164.19-21) are (always born) together as companions (and as having the same name, “I,” sa-khāya, samāna-ākhyāna). Both are perched on the same tree (of saṃsāra, depicted as the Peepal tree, the aśvattha tree). Of the two, one enjoys the pleasant fruit (of action) of the Peepal tree. The other simply witnesses without experiencing.🔗
MunU.3.1.2
On the same tree, one person is depressed (nimagna), and without lordship (over hardly anything), this deluded one grieves. When this one knows as clear as seeing the other one, the worshipful Lord (Īśa) as “the one who has (all) the glory,” this one becomes free from grief (replacing the misplaced “I” from the individual to the total).🔗
MunU.3.1.3
When the experiencer (the individual) knows as clear as seeing the shinning person (puruṣa, him or herself as the) Lord who is the (only) doer and as the source of even Lord Brahmā, then this wise one, shaking off (as “mine”) all karma merit and demerit, is freed of impurities, and attains ultimate sameness (oneness).🔗
MunU.3.1.4
This (Lord) indeed is prāṇa (the life-energy) which sustains all life forms. Clearly knowing this, the wise person no longer is one who speaks or thinks differently (ati-vādin, MunU.2.2.5). This one in the self only (physically) plays, in the self only (mentally) revels, while (the body and mind are) engaged (in the Lord’s manifestation, this one “has action,” the body and mind act, but I am not “the doer”). This is the one to choose (as a teacher, MunU.1.2.12) among those who know the Veda.🔗
MunU.3.1.5
This ātman (self) is indeed attained by satya (truthfulness, to this teaching mentally and vocally), by tapas (religious discipline), as well as by samyak jñāna (clear knowledge) and brahma-carya (pursuit solely for the teaching), nitya (all of these with persistence). Indeed, as the light in the heart, those who can know this as clear as seeing would be those who put in the effort (yatis) and free themselves from defects (that keep them from seeing this truth).🔗
MunU.3.1.6
(Even relatively) by truth alone one wins, never by untruth (short of the truth, factually or absolutely). The path leading to the celestials is covered by satya (truthfulness). By this satya, the wise who complete their desires ascend to whatever is the final goal of that truth.🔗
MunU.3.1.7
That limitless (brahman) is the shining one (in the intellect, MunU.3.1.5), not available as a form of thought (to be lit up), yet variously reveals (itself) as the subtlest of the subtle (in each and every thought). Existing very far from what is remote (in distance or time) and close to (i.e., closer than) here (than every thought right now), it exists (as though) hidden here itself in the conscious intellect.🔗
MunU.3.1.8
It is not attained by the eye, nor by speech, nor by the other devas (senses), nor by prayerful discipline or ritual. By the blessing that is knowledge (alone) does one become free from the clouds (of doubts) in the mind (sattva). From that (clarity in knowledge), contemplating (if necessary to further subside unconscious sources of doubts), one comes to know as clear as seeing that partless one (brahman, MunU.2.2.9).🔗
MunU.3.1.9
This subtle ātman has to be understood only by the mind (cetas), while one is (alive) in this (body) where the prāṇa has entered fivefold. The entire mind along with the prāṇas of living beings is woven (ota, MunU.2.2.5, in this subtle ātman, in consciousness). When this mind is free of confusions and doubts (viśuddha, free of obstacles to knowledge, MunU.2.2.8), this ātman reveals itself.
(There is no need to travel to some heaven to find ātman.)
🔗
MunU.3.1.10
Whatever experience (loka) is revealed by the mind, and whatever desires it entertains, the one whose mind is free from confusions and doubts wins over (has already attained the ānanda, fulfillment, MunU.2.2.7, of) that experience and those desires. Therefore, all those desirous of prosperity praise the one who knows oneself.🔗

Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 3.2

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MunU.3.2.1
That wise one knows brahman as this ultimate abode (dhāman), in which is fixed the universe, and which always reveals itself with clarity (śubhra). Those who are free from all (other) desires respectfully approach (upāsate, as students) that person, and being discerning, they too cross over to this (far shore of) clarity (śukra).🔗
MunU.3.2.2
The one who dwells on (manyamāna) and desires objects (BhG-T.2.62) is born again and again in wherever place has those desirable objects. Whereas, for the one who has fulfilled all desires by having discovered the (already fulfilled) ātman, here itself all desires dissolve (are absorbed within the fulfillment of ātman).🔗
MunU.3.2.3
This ātman is not attained by reciting scripture, nor by memory of scripture, nor by listening to many scriptures (i.e., words cannot reveal ātman, they can only remove confusions). The ātman that alone one chooses (solely commits to), by that ātman is this ātman attained, since this ātman self-reveals its form (as the only limitless witness-being).🔗
MunU.3.2.4
This ātman is not attained by one who lacks the strength (of commitment), nor by one who is inattentive, nor by one whose discipline (tapas, of studentship to this teaching) that does not show (a-liṅga) (a renunciation of all other pursuits). Whereas, the discerning one who makes effort through these means (upāyas), for him or her, the self (ātman) (as though) enters (as not other than) brahman as the (ultimate) abode (dhāman).🔗
MunU.3.2.5
Having completely attained this (brahman), the sages were satisfied in knowledge. Their mind being prepared, they were free of attachments (vīta-rāga) and naturally cheerful (praśānta). Having gained everywhere the all-pervasive and (always) united in (contemplation of the limitless) ātman, those wise ones become everything.🔗
MunU.3.2.6
Those who make proper effort due to the above means (yoga, upāyas) that show a renunciation (of all other pursuits), and who have thus gained a clarity of mind (MunU.3.1.8), they reach a well ascertained understanding of the Vedānta (Upaniṣad) teaching (i.e., the true identity of the individual and the Lord). Into this abode (loka) that is brahman, when the (physical and subtle body’s) time is finished, all these wise people are completely free (from any birth), being the ultimate immortal (brahman only).🔗
MunU.3.2.7
The fifteen parts (of the puruṣa enumerated in PrasU.6.4*) merge back into their separate respective cosmic bases (pratiṣṭhās), and all the senses (devas) into each of their presiding deities (space, etcetera, TatB.20), and all one’s karma and their owner the “I” (vijñānamaya ātman, the intellect which includes the I-notion) – all these merge back to one (ekī-bhavanti) in the highest imperishable one (into the total unmanifest, a-kṣara a-vyakta**).
(* “(1.) prāṇa (Hiraṇya-garbha). From out of prāṇa (he created) (2.) trust (śraddhā, the ability to abide in learning what is helpful for life), (then the five elements) (3.) space, (4.) air, (5.) fire, (6.) water and (7.) earth, (and the means to sense them) (8.) each sense organ (indriya, counting as one to get to the number sixteen), and (9.) the mind (manas, to be in charge of them).
Then (to feed them he created) (10.) food (anna). From out of food (he created) (11.) vitality (vīrya), (12.) religious discipline (tapas), (13.) mantras (the teachings of what is helpful), (14.) karma and (15.) the realms (of karma)”. Except the sixteenth part, nāman, which may be taken here as the same as “I” that is our name for jīva-ātman and so not a part.)
(** Whose reality itself is but brahman, i.e., this individual person is no longer there to carve out these parts as separate from the total, belonging only to “Me,” PrasU.6.5.)
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MunU.3.2.8
Like flowing rivers into the ocean get absorbed, losing their names (nāmans) and forms (rūpas). In this way, the wise person is freed from these names and forms, and attains the shinning, ultimate puruṣa (brahman) which is superior to that (a-kṣara a-vyakta).🔗
MunU.3.2.9
The very person who comes to know that ultimate brahman (reality), is (at this time finally known to be) that brahman alone. In his or her lineage there is none who could not be a knower of brahman. This one crosses beyond sorrow and everything unwanted (pāpmāna). Freed from the knots (confusions) of the heart, this one is now free of death.🔗
MunU.3.2.10
The following has been stipulated by a Rik Veda mantra:
To those who adhere to their duties, have studied their (family) Veda (for this Upaniṣad, it would usually be the Atharva Veda), are committed to the study of brahman, and with trust (in this teaching) have themselves daily performed the eka-ṛṣi ritual (the name for agni-hotra in Atharva Veda) – for them definitely this teaching of brahman can be told. Along with those also who have performed śiras-vrata*.
(* The vow involving the placing of a fire-pot on the head, or elsewhere described in purāṇa as chanting six mantras stating that each of the five elements and the universe is ashes, then applying ashes to the body thrice daily until knowledge is gained. In effect ritually acting out the teaching in this Upaniṣad, imposing the varied universe onto the body, and then reducing this variety to its singular reality as oneself.)
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MunU.3.2.11
This is the truth (satya) which the seer Aṅgiras told long ago. One who has not completed (the equivalent of) this vow does not study this (in detail, though it may be recited or heard, since even one’s neighbor will hear the student daily chanting it).
Salutations to the great seers (repeated).
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mn.01 mn.02 mn.03 mn.04 mn.05 mn.06 mn.07 mn.08 mn.09 mn.10 mn.11 mn.12

ManU.1
This very syllable “Om” is all this. Here is an exposition of that Om. All this past, present and future is only Oṃ-kāra.
Anything else that is beyond time is also only Oṃ-kāra.🔗
ManU.2
All this is indeed brahman (total reality). This self (ātman, yourself) is Brahman. This self (ātman) which is that brahman is endowed with four quarters (catuṣ-pād).🔗
ManU.3
(Now starts the exposition of the four quarters of ātman)
The first quarter (pāda) is called “vaiśvā-nara” (the one who dwells in the common world), its realm is the waking state (jāgarita, yet asleep to one’s real nature), it is consciousness identified with the external (bahis, in relation to the senses), it has seven limbs (aṅgas, from the individual perspective, viśva, and the from cosmic perspective, Virāṭ, consisting of the head, the eyes, mouth, prāṇa, body, bladder and feet, representing the heavens, sun, fire, air, space, water and earth, respectively, ChanU.5.18.2 commentary, ManU.3 commentary) and nineteen openings (mukhas, 5+5+5+4 openings to the external, consisting of the five organs each of sensing and of action, the five prāṇas, plus the four forms of thinking, namely, mind, intellect, I-notion and memory, PrasU.4.8), and is the experiencer of sense objects (sthūla).
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ManU.4
The second quarter (pāda) is called “taijasa” (the one who dwells in the light of the mind), its realm is the dream state (svapna, asleep [supta] to the waking world), it is consciousness identified with the internal (antar, in relation to the waking senses), it has seven (dream projected) limbs (aṅgas, from the individual perspective, tejas in PrasU.5.8 or taijasa here, and from the cosmic perspective, Hiraṇya-garbha, consisting of the dreamer’s head, etcetera, ManU.3 mula) and nineteen (dream projected) openings (mukhas, 5+5+5+4 openings to the dream, consisting of the five organs each of sensing and of action of the dreamer’s body, etcetera, ManU.3 mula), and is the experiencer of the other objects (other than the sthūla, i.e., the subtle objects, sūkṣma, which in the dream are only the vāsanas, the memories and what one makes out of those).🔗
ManU.5
Where, being asleep (supta, to waking or dream), one desires no desirable object, and sees no dream object, that is suṣupti (deep sleep).
The third quarter is called “prājña” (prakarṣeṇa jānāti, the potential to know without any object to know, SG.6.12 Irregular prefixing; it is unhelpful to take this as pra-a-jñā “ignorant” as this may work for the individual, but fails to denote the matching cosmic form, Īśvara, the Lord, ManU.6).
Its realm is the deep sleep state (suṣupta, suṣupti).
It is merged into one (ekī-bhūta, though others may see that the sleeper’s brain and body are relatively active*).
It is an impenetrable mass of consciousness alone (prajñāna-ghana, not śūnya, a void, per Buddhist teaching or a contemporary materialist after-death nothingness belief), a saturated state of bliss (due simply to a lack of any reason to be sad, thank God).
Hence it is the experiencer of this bliss state (ānanda-bhuk, a subtle experience, saṃskāra, that we only recollect upon waking, as in, “That sleep felt good”).
And it is ceto-mukha (the opening into the other two states of experience, the experienced or assumed forgetting of identification with the previous waker or dreamer perspective to allow entry as a dreamer into the dream or as a waker into the waking experience, respectively; in other words, we often dream several different times at night, so the sequence may be, awake - deep sleep - dream - deep sleep - dream - deep sleep - awake).
(* The mind is subtle so it is not the same as the physical brain. Nor is the mind considered in this teaching to be just an effect of the brain, but they are clearly linked. The mind will cause the brain to change and sometimes the brain may cause the mind to react. Science can speculate about a subtle world which is not available to the senses, though, based on instrumentation readings of the brain. But the data can only be seen by the senses, and the researcher’s mind will then speculate thereupon. Your mind only is what you yourself can directly experience. For the most part, researchers are only reporting what is going on in their mind about whatever they are experiencing, however knowledgeable. The discussion in this Upaniṣad is for a different purpose and is only for you yourself to verify or not. It is not at all trying to propose a theory of the mind or brain.)
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ManU.6
(From the cosmic perspective relating to all three states)
This third quarter of Om is the Lord (Īśvara) of all. This one is omniscient. This one is the inner ruler. This one is the source (yoni, material cause) of all, as well as (the efficient cause of) its manifestation (prabhāva) and its dissolution (apyaya) of all beings (like for a pot, clay is the material cause and the intelligent pot-maker is its efficient cause in the role of its manifestion and its destruction).
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ManU.7
They consider the fourth (caturtha, “quarter,” so to speak) to be consciousness not identified with the internal (na antar, dream), nor identified with the external (na bahis, waking), nor identified with the in-between (na ubhayatas, deep sleep). It is not an impenetrable mass of consciousness (na prajñāna-ghana), because it is na prajña (neither a consciousness of something or nothing), na a-prajña (nor a non-consciousness of anything).
It is neither an object of the organs of sensing (a-dṛśya, not perceivable), nor an object of the organs of acting (a-vyavahārya, not transactionable), nor an object of the mind (a-cintya), nor an object of a name (a-vyapadeśya, describable in words, so it is not an object of “Om,” though “Om” may be considered a name for the cosmic, samaṣṭi, Lord, as the third quarter). Yet it is the continuing essence (sāra) of the one and only (eka) I-notion (ātma-pratyaya). It is the calm of the five-fold universe (prapañca-upaśama, the peaceful basis of the world of sense objects), and thus the calm (śānta, of the mind). Therefore, it is auspicious (śiva). It is nondual (a-dvaita, hence it is not a quarter fraction of ātman), but is the very (whole) self (ātman) which is to be known (vijñeya).
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ManU.8
This was the self (ātman) related to the syllable “Om” (adhyakṣara). Now Oṃ-kāra with reference to each component sound (adhi-mātra). The quarters are the component sounds, and the component sounds are the quarters. These component sounds are indicated by the letters ‘a’ (a-kāra), ‘u,’ and ‘m.’
(* It is phonetically incorrect to prounounce the Sanskrit vowel ‘o’ as “a-u,” i.e., it is not a non-Sanskrit phonetic “glide” of “a” morphing into “u.” So in pronouncing ‘Om’ there are only two phonetic sounds “o-m.” The ‘a-u-m’ is only broken into three sounds conceptually by those who know Sanskrit phonetics and grammar, and who wish here to connect it to the three states of experience. The pronunciation length of Om is two and one-half mātras, SG.1.19, though it could be lengthened, called pluta, further when one is, instead, singing or it is so marked with the Veda indicator of lengthing x-times, e.g., ओ ३ म्, ओ ४ म्, i.e., o(3)m, o(4)m, etcetera.)
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ManU.9
The letter ‘a’ is the first sound. It stands for the first quarter, the waking world (jāgarita) and the waking person (vaiśvā-nara, the one who dwells in the common world). (Note: The letter ‘a’ starts the two words: ‘āpti’ and ‘ādimat’). Because ‘a’ (said to be phonetically the basic sound of all other sounds) is āpti (it “pervades” language, and vaiśvā-nara as Virāṭ “pervades” the entire physical world), moreover because ādimat (it is “first,” the “first” sound in “Om,” and vaiśvā-nara as Virāṭ is the “first” form of the person at creation). The meditator who knows in this way obtains (āpnoti) all he or she desires, and becomes first (ādi) among others (cf. PrasU.5.3).🔗
ManU.10
The letter ‘u’ is the second sound. It stands for the second quarter, the dream world (svapna) and the dreamer (taijasa, the one who dwells in the light, of the mind). (Note: The letter ‘u’ starts the words: ‘utkarṣa’ and ‘ubhaya’). Because ‘u’ is utkarṣa (it “raises over” and swallows the initial a into the diphthong ‘o,’ and Hiraṇya-garbha, the total subtle, “raises over” and swallows Virāṭ, the total physical world), moreover because it is ubhaya (it is “in-between,” the “in-between” sound in “Om,” and Hiraṇya-garbha is “in-between” Virāṭ and Īśvara). The meditator who knows in this way raises over (utkarṣati, others in terms of his or her knowledge), becomes moderate (samāna, getting along between others), as well as none in his lineage would not raise enough to be knowers of brahman (cf. PrasU.5.4).🔗
ManU.11
The letter ‘m’ is the third sound. It stands for the third quarter, the deep sleep (suṣupta) and the deep sleeper (prājña, the potential to know without any object to know). (Note: The letter ‘m’ starts the word ‘miti’). Because ‘m’ is miti (it “measures,” by having all the preceding sounds flow, like grain into a measuring cup, into the closed mouth “m” then comes back out when it reopens with a following “Om,” and all this flows into Īśvara and reemerges, like the measured grain, upon the next manifestation of the universe or individually of the next dream or waking experience), moreover because all this is apīti (the “dissolution,” the silence of the closed mouth “m” into which the sounds “dissolve,” as well as Īśvara into which the entire universe “dissolves.” The meditator who knows in this way properly measures (minoti) the value and reality of all this, and will go into dissolution (apīti) not to be reborn until the next manifestation cycle (cf. PrasU.5.5).🔗
ManU.12
The fourth (caturtha, “so called” quarter) has no letter (a-mātra, and has no measure). It is a-vyavahārya (not transactionable, this and the following words are a purposeful repetition of ManU.7 for showing their importance, as well as a conclusion of this Upaniṣad). It is prapañca-upaśama (the calm of the five-fold universe), and thus the calm (śānta, of the mind). Therefore, it is auspicious (śiva). It is nondual (a-dvaita, hence it is not a quarter fraction of ātman), but is the very (whole) self (ātman) which is Om. The one who knows ātman in this way “enters” (saṃviśati, so to speak) ātman as ātman (as one’s very nature, as a-mātra awareness itself).🔗

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Śīkṣā Vallī (1) Brahma Vallī (2) Bhṛgu Vallī (3)

Taittirīya Upaniṣad Śīkṣā Vallī (1)

mn.1.01 mn.1.02 mn.1.03 mn.1.04 mn.1.05 mn.1.06 mn.1.07 mn.1.08 mn.1.09 mn.1.10 mn.1.11 mn.1.12

Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.1

TaitU.1.1.1
Om, May Mitra (the Friend) bless us. May Varuṇa (the Encompasser) bless us.
May Aryaman (the Intimate) bless us. May Indra (the Chief) bless us. May Bṛhas-pati (Devotion) bless us. May Viṣṇu (the Active), with long strides bless us.
Salutations unto Brahman (as Hiraṇya-garbha, Intelligence).
O Lord Vāyu (the Deity of Movement), salutations unto You. You indeed are the perceptible brahman (the second element after Dimension, that allows Feeling). I would call You Ṛta (Honesty, TaitU.2.4.1, the Cosmic Order, TaitU.3.10.6). I would call You Satya (Truth, Reality).
May He (brahman, as prāṇa, the life-energy) protect me. May He protect my teacher. Protect me (after the teaching). (Keep) protecting the teacher.
Om, Peace (amongst the deities, ādhi-daivaka), Peace (amongst the environment around, ādhi-bhautika), Peace (within us, ādhi-ātmika).
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.2

TaitU.1.2.1
We shall now expound the elements of phonetics:
The letter (varṇa), the intonation (svara), the length (mātrā), the effort (bala), the modulation (modulation), and the flow (santāna). Thus has been taught the lesson on phonetics.
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.3

mn.1.3.1 mn.1.3.2 mn.1.3.3 mn.1.3.4

TaitU.1.3.1
May there be fame (yaśas) for both of us (me as the student and my teacher). May there be scriptural brilliance (brahma-varcasa) for both of us.
Now, therefore, we (the teaching lineage) will expound the sacred teaching (upaniṣad, the topics for meditation) on conjunction (saṃhitā, the joining together of two with a junction, sandhi, and a linking medium, sandhāna) in five locations (adhikaraṇas): with reference to the worlds (lokas), to the luminaries (jyotis), to knowledge (vidyā), to progeny (prajā), and to one’s body (ātman). These are called the great conjunctions.
Now, in regard to the worlds:
The Earth is the previous letter (rūpa, varṇa), the heavens is the latter letter, (intermediary) space (ākāṣa) is the junction (sandhi).
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TaitU.1.3.2
And vāyu (air) is the linking medium (sandhāna). Thus is (the sacred teaching) in regard to the worlds.
Now, in regard to the luminaries:
Fire (agni) is the previous letter, the sun (āditya) is the latter letter, water (clouds) is the junction, and lightning is the linking medium. Thus is (the sacred teaching) in regard to the luminaries.
Now, with in regard to knowledge:
The teacher (ācārya, the one to be approached) is the previous letter.
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TaitU.1.3.3
The student (anti-vāsin, the one who has come to stay, with the teacher) is the latter letter, knowledge (vidyā) is the junction, and the teaching (pravacana, the instructions) is the linking medium. Thus is (the sacred teaching) in regard to knowledge.
Now, with regard to progeny:
Mother is the previous letter, father is the latter letter, progeny is the junction, and procreation is the linking medium. Thus is (the sacred teaching) in regard to progeny.
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TaitU.1.3.4
Now, in regard to one’s body (ātman):
The upper jaw is the previous letter, the lower jaw is the latter letter, the organ of speech (vāc) is the junction, and the tongue is the linking medium. Thus is (the sacred teaching) in regard to one’s body (notice that it is the facility of communication that is the most important feature of the human body in regard to conjunctions).
These are the great conjunctions.
The one who knows (meditates upon) these great conjunctions so expounded is united with progeny, wealth (livestock, etcetera), scriptural brilliance, food and everything connected to it, and a heavenly world.
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.4

mn.1.4.1 mn.1.4.2 mn.1.4.3

TaitU.1.4.1
That which is prominent amongst all Veda mantras (Chandas) and is all forms (namely, Om-kara, ManU.1), and which manifests from the perennially eternal Vedas (which comes with every manifestation cycle of the universe), may that (Om) as Indra (the Lord of the indriyas, of the senses) bless me with intelligence (medhā, retention of what is known). O Lord, may I become the upholder of the eternal (Vedas). May my body be active (vi-car-ṣ-aṇa or vi + kṛṣ, in this pursuit of knowledge). May my tongue be most sweet (with pleasing truth). With my ears may I listen more (to the teaching). You (Om) are the locus (kośa) of brahman, (seemingly) veiled in the intellect (medhā). May You protect what I have heard. May You be (Śrī) the one who brings prosperity (in the following way).🔗
TaitU.1.4.2
Who quickly brings about clothes for this body and cows for me, as well as food and water all around, from this, may You bring me śrī (wealth), along with wooly livestock (sheep, etcetera). Svāhā (with blessing, may this offering be accepted by You)!
May students come to me (ā mā ayantu). Svāhā! May the students come from various directions. Svāhā! May the students come with intelligence (pramā). Svāhā! May the students come with discipline (dama, over their senses). Svāhā! May the students come with discipline (śama, over their mind). Svāhā!
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TaitU.1.4.3
May I be famous among the people. Svāhā! May I be wealthier than the wealthy. Svāhā! O Lord (Bhaga, Bhagavān), may I merge into You. Svāhā! O Lord, may You merge into me. Svāhā! O Lord, may I purify myself in You with thousands of forms. Svāhā! Just as the waters (naturally) go along the slopes, just as the months (regularly) go into the year (ahar-jara), in this way, O Lord (Dhātṛ, the one who distributes karma and supports all) may the students come to me (naturally and regularly) from everywhere. Svāhā! You are the resting place. Reveal Yourself to me. Please enter into me. 🔗

Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.5

mn.1.5.1 mn.1.5.2 mn.1.5.3

TaitU.1.5.1
Bhūr Bhavaḥ Suvaḥ” These indeed are the three vyāhṛtis (declarations, by the Lord at the start of creation). Along with them, long ago sage Māhācamasya revealed a fourth vyāhṛti, “Mahaḥ.” That (mahat) is (to be meditated upon as) brahman. That (mahat) is its ātman (body). These other deities (devatās, the three vyāhṛtis) are its limbs.
(Upon) “Bhū” is (to be meditated, is to be envisioned as encompassing) this world (seen and unseen). (Upon) “Bhuvas” is (to be meditated, is to be envisioned as encompassing) the intermediary space (seen and unseen). (Upon) “Suvar” is (to be meditated, is to be envisioned as encompassing) that yonder (unseen) world (heaven).
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TaitU.1.5.2
(Upon) “Mahat” is (to be meditated, is to be envisioned as encompassing) the sun (āditya). By the sun alone all the (three) worlds are (seen as) vast.
(Upon) “Bhū” is (to be meditated the devatā) Fire (Agni, here). (Upon) “Bhuvas” is (to be meditated the devatā) Wind (Vāyu, in between). (Upon) “Suvar” is (to be meditated the devatā) Sun (Āditya, yonder). (Upon) “Mahat” is (to be meditated the devatā) Moon (Candramas). With the moon indeed all the luminaries (at night are seen as) vast.
(Upon) “Bhū” is (to be meditated) Ṛc Veda. (Upon) “Bhuvas” is (to be meditated) Sāman Veda. (Upon) “Suvar” is (to be meditated) Yajus Veda.
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TaitU.1.5.3
(Upon) “Mahat” is (to be meditated) brahman (the syllable Om, TaitU.1.4.1). By this brahman (Om-kara) indeed all the Vedas are glorified.
(Upon) “Bhū” is (to be meditated) the out-breath (prāṇa). (Upon) “Bhuvas” is (to be meditated) the in-breath (apāna,). (Upon) “Suvar” is (to be meditated) circulation-energy (vyāna). (Upon) “Mahat” is (to be meditated) food (anna). By food indeed all the prāṇas are made great. These four vyāhṛtis indeed are to be meditated (veda) in the four different ways (caturdhā, by lokas etcetera, by Agni etcetera, by Ṛc Veda etcetera, and by prāṇa etcetera), four each (vyāhṛti). The one who knows (meditates) on these four vyāhṛtis (will come to) know brahman (further in the next mantras), and all the deities will bring offerings to this meditator.
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.6

mn.1.6.1 mn.1.6.2

TaitU.1.6.1
(Upon) this very (shinning) space in the heart is (to be meditated) the immortal person, Hiraṇya-garbha, consisting of all minds.
(From that space in the heart arising up) between the two sides of the palate where hangs down like a teat (the uvula, between the tonsils at the throat) and where is the roots of the hairs, piercing out through the skull of the head (śīrṣa-kapāla) – this is the Indra-yoni (the source path for reaching Indra, who is Hiraṇya-garhba, which pathway is also called the suṣumṇā nāḍī and there onwards called the śukla-gati, the bright or northern path through the sun, KathU.2.3.16, PrasU.3.6–7, PrasU.1.10).
(After death) one is fixed (merged) in Agni symbolized by “Bhū,” in Vāyu symbolized by “Vāyu.”
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TaitU.1.6.2
(Fixed, merged) in Āditya (the sun) symbolized by “Suvar,” and finally into brahman (Hiraṇya-garbha, the total mind) symbolized by “Mahat.” There, this one attains independent rulership as the lord of all minds, the lord of speech, the lord of sight, the lord of hearing, and the lord of intelligence (vijñāna). And beyond that as brahman (Hiraṇya-garbha) whose body is space (ākāśa), whose body is truth or reality (satya, both formed and unformed), whose pleasure ground (ārāma) is prāṇa, whose joy is this mind, who is peace and prosperity, and eternal.
O Ancient Yogin (prācīna-yogin), may you thus meditate (do this upāsana).
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.7

TaitU.1.7.1
The earth, atmosphere, heavens, the four main quarters (east, etcetera), and four intermediary quarters (south-east, etcetera); the fire, air, sun, moon and stars; the waters, plants, trees, space and Ātman (Virāṭ). These are in regard to the external (adhi-bhūta).
Now, in regard to the internal (adhi-ātman). prāṇa, vyāna, apāna, udāna, and samāna, PrasU.2.3; the sight, hearing, mind, speech, the sense of touch; skin (carman), flesh (māṃsa), tendon (snāva), bone (asthi), and marrow (majjan). Having divided like this, the sage said, “Every one of these is a fivefold grouping (pāṅkta). By the (internal) fivefold groupings is gained (in meditation) the (matching external) fivefold groupings.”
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.8

TaitU.1.8.1
(Upon) “Om” (one should meditate as) brahman (Hiraṇya-garbha). Since Om is all this (TaitU.1.4.1). Om indeed is a well known expression of agreement (anukṛti, acknowledgement, e.g., it can mean “Yes (this is true).”). Moreover, they make the person recite, “O śrāvaya” (“O, make [the gods] hear…”). They start a Sāma mantra with “Om.” They recite the (Ṛc scriptures with “Oṃ śom… (= Oṃ śam).” The adhvaryu (Yajus priest) acknowledges permission with “Om.” The brahman (the chief priest) sanctions with “Om.” One permits the start of the agni-hotra with “Om.” About to start reciting, a brāhmaṇa utters “Om” (with the wish) “May I attain this brahman (Veda knowledge).” This one does indeed attain this brahman (śabda-brahman).” .🔗

Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.9

TaitU.1.9.1
Ṛta (honesty to the teaching) with study (svādhyāya) and practice or teaching (pravacana) (of this). Satya (truth or reality) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Tapas (religious discipline) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Dama (mastery over senses) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). śama (mastery over mind) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Maintaining the fire rituals with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Agni-hotra (ritual) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Honoring guests (atithis) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Social service (mānuṣa) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Prajā (progeny) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Prajana (procreation) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this). Prajāti (getting grand children) with svādhyāya and pravacana (of this).
Satya (truth) is (foremost), thinks sage Satya-vacas, in the lineage of Rathītara.
Tapas (religious discipline) is (foremost), thinks sage Tapo-nitya, son of Puru-śiṣṭi.
Svādhyāya and pravacana are (foremost), thinks sage Nāka, son of Mudgalya, because these two indeed are tapas, (yes) these are tapas.
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.10

TaitU.1.10.1
“I am the prime mover of the tree (of saṃsāra, of the universe). My fame is like a mountain peak (as much as in the entire universe). I am ultimate purity, like the perfect nectar (su-amṛta) in the swift (steed-like sun). I am the wealth (draviṇa, the satya reality, or as Virāṭ) and effulgence (sa-varcasa, the jñāna consciousness, or as Hiraṇya-garbha), ripe with wisdom (su-medhā), immortality, and without loss (a-kṣita).” This was declared by sage Tri-śaṅku after (anu) he knew (this teaching).🔗

Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.11

mn.1.11.1 mn.1.11.2 mn.1.11.3 mn.1.11.4

TaitU.1.11.1
After teaching the chanting of the Veda, (the teacher) instructs the student (ante-vāsin):
Speak truth (satyaṃ vada). Adhere to dharma (what supports the individual, society, environment, and deities). Do not fail to continue these studies (svādhyānas). After properly rewarding the teacher, may you not break the line of progeny. Do not neglect the truth. Do not neglect dharma.
Do not neglect (individual and cultural) propriety (kuśula). Do not neglect well-being (bhūti, resources).
Do not neglect study and practice or teaching (svādhyāya and pravacana).
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TaitU.1.11.2
May you not neglect the duties to the deities and ancestors. Take mother as a deity. Take father as a deity. Take the teacher as a deity. Take the guest as a deity.
Those actions which are not faulty are to be served, not the others. Those actions which are considered virtuous by us (the teachers) are to be respectfully followed by you…
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TaitU.1.11.3
…Not the other (actions). To those who are cultured (brāhmaṇas) or are superior (śreyas) to us should be given rest by a seat, etcetera. Charity should be done whole heartedly (with śrad-dhā, hṛdaya-pradānena), not without heart. Charity should be given in keeping with one’s means (śrī), given with modesty (hrī), given with deference (bhī), and given with understanding.
Now, suppose there might be a situation where there is a doubt about karma (an action or ritual), or a doubt about vṛtta (one’s conduct or the direction of one’s path in life).
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TaitU.1.11.4
At that time and place there would be cultured people (brāhmaṇas) who grasp the applicable teaching (saṃmarśin), who themselves are experienced (yukta), who are not harsh (a-lūkṣa, a-rūkṣa, SG.1.5.d:, i.e., who would be considerate), and who are committed to dharma. In whatever way they act in that situation, like that you should act in your situation.
This is the instruction (ādeśa, injunctions according to Śruti). This is the instruction (upadeśa, further guidance according to Smṛti) . This is the essential teaching (upaniṣad) on the Vedas . This is the (Lord’s) natural order (anuśāsana). In this manner upāsitavya (one should live one’s life as a worship of that Lord). Again, in this manner one should live worshipfully.
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 1.12

TaitU.1.12.1
(This prayer is the same as given in TaitU.1.1.1)
May Mitra (the Friend) bless us. May Varuṇa (the Encompasser) bless us.
May Aryaman (the Intimate) bless us. May Indra (the Chief) bless us. May Bṛhas-pati (Devotion) bless us. May Viṣṇu (the Active), with long strides bless us.
Salutations unto Brahman (as Hiraṇya-garbha, Intelligence).
O Lord Vāyu (the Deity of Movement), salutations unto You. You indeed are the perceptible brahman (the second element after Dimension, that allows Feeling). I would call You Ṛta (Honesty, TaitU.2.4.1, the Cosmic Order, TaitU.3.10.6). I would call You Satya (Truth, Reality).
May He (brahman, as prāṇa, the life-energy) protect me. May He protect my teacher. Protect me (after the teaching). (Keep) protecting the teacher.
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad Brahma Vallī (2)

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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.1

TaitU.2.1.1
The knower of brahman attains para (the ultimate, nothing better). About that is this (mantra):
“Reality (satya), knowledge (jñāna, consciousness), unlimited (an-anta) is brahman (that ultimate). The one who knows (that brahman, limitless reality-consciousness) as fixed (nihita, present) in the vast space of the intellect (guhāyāṃ parame vyoman), that one attains simultaneously as everything desirable (kāmān, as ānanda, MunU.2.2.1, 2.2.7, 2.2.11 & 3.1.10), as brahman knowing the all (vipaścit, sarva-jña).”
From that (brahman, having the potentiality of everything) which is this (ātman, self) arises (the possibility of) ākāśa (“space,” the subtle universal element of dimension, MunU.2.1.3). From ākāśa arises (the cumulative possibility of) vāyu (“air,” the subtle universal element of movement). From vāyu arises (the cumulative possibility of) agni (“fire,” the subtle universal element of both heat and light). From agni arises (the cumulative possibility of) āp (“water,” the subtle universal element of liquidity). From āp arises (the cumulative possibility of) pṛthivī (“earth,” the subtle universal element of solidity, YS.3.41).
From pṛthivī arises (the possibility of) ośadhis (plants). From plants arises anna (grains as food). From the grains as food arises puruṣa (the physical body of a person). This very body of a person is anna-rasa-maya (predominantly the essence of that food).
Of that (body) this (up here) is the head. This (over here) is the right (dakṣiṇa) side (pakṣa, like a “wing”). This (over here) is the left (uttara) side. This (here in the middle) is the ātman (the center, trunk). This (here below the navel) is the support puccha (the hips and legs, like a “tail,” the bird imagery being for meditation, upāsana, purposes to gain better karma, other than the reality teaching here). About that is this verse:
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.2

TaitU.2.2.1
All creatures which reside on Earth are born from anna (food). Moreover, they survive by food, and they go back into that (food) upon their death.
Food indeed is the elder to all creatures (an elder sibling from ākāṣa-brahman). Because of that, it is said to be the (pre-existing) medicine (auṣadha, the required cure for natural hunger of the food-body) for all creatures. All those who worship (are intent upon) food as being brahman (their ultimate, their reality, i.e., that this food-body is “I”), they become food (“I am this food,” or they gain an abundance of food).
(Again) because food is the elder to all creatures, therefore it is said to be the medicine for all creatures. All creatures are born from food. Being born, they grow by food. (Food) both is eaten and it eats the creatures (upon death, and as a food-body-eater). Therefore, it is called “anna” (from the root ‘ad’ “to eat,” which can be taken in the passive as well as the active voice).
Apart from this (body-ātman) that is anna-rasa-maya (predominantly the essence of that food), there is another ātman (“I”) called prāṇa-maya (predominantly life-energy, “I am this life-energy, not this body”). By that, this (body-ātman) is completely encompassed (pūrṇa). (Therefore) this (prāṇa-maya) can indeed be like a person’s body (puruṣa). Following the likeness of a person, this is its being like a body.
Prāṇa (breath, in and out) is its head. Vyāna (dispersing circulation) is its right side. Apāna (downward energy) is its left side. Ākāśa (i.e., samāna prāṇa, the digestion in the space of the stomach) is its trunk (ātman). Pṛthivī (i.e., udāna praṇa the subtle body ejector that by not firing allows one to stay on Earth, Pṛthivī, with the attractive blessing of the Earth deity, until death, PrasU.2.3) is its support tail (puccha, until death). About that is this verse:
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.3

TaitU.2.3.1
Only after prāṇa (starts enlivening this body) do the sensory devas (illumined hearing, sight, etcetera) survive here. So too do all people and other creatures survive (whether some of their senses may fail or not). Since prāṇa (determines) the life span (āyus) of all beings, therefore it is called the “life span” of all. All those who worship (are intent upon) prāṇa as being brahman (their ultimate, their reality, i.e., that this energy-body is “I”), they become this (one) life span (“I am this life,” or they gain a long life).
(Again) because prāṇa (determines) the life span (āyus) of all beings, therefore it is called the “life span” of all.
As it was for the previous (anna-rasa-maya) this (prāṇa-maya) becomes the embodied (śārīra, identified with this location, this kośa) ātman (“I am this life-force, this life span”).
Apart from this (prāṇa-ātman) that is prāṇa-maya (consisting of the life energy), there is another ātman (“I”) called manomaya (consisting of manas, the entire mind, anta-karaṇa, “I am this mind, not this energy body, but that which thinks about this energy body”). By that, this (energy-ātman) is completely encompassed (pūrṇa, in thought). (Therefore) this (manomaya) can indeed be like a person’s body (puruṣa). Following the likeness of a person, this is its being like a body.
Yajus (memory thought of Yajus Veda mantra) is its head. Ṛc (memory thought of Ṛc Veda mantra) is its right side. Sāman (memory thought of Sāma Veda mantra) is its left side. Ādeśa (memory thought of instruction, Veda Brāhmaṇa prose that explains how to use the Veda mantras in particular rituals) is its trunk (ātman). Atharva-aṅgiras (memory thoughts of Atharva Veda mantras and Brāhmaṇas, with its purification mantras for peace and prosperity) is its support tail (puccha). About that is this verse:
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.4

TaitU.2.4.1
“From which (brahman) speech (words) along with this mind (thoughts) turn back (fall short) without obtaining, the one who instead knows (vidvat, as oneself) the (an-anta, limitless) ānanda fullness of that brahman does not fear at any time (there being nothing other than oneself, BrhU.1.4.2).”
As it was for the previous (prāṇa-maya) this (manomaya) becomes the embodied (śārīra, identified with this location, this kośa) ātman (“I am this mind”).
Apart from this (manas-ātman) that is manomaya (consisting of the thoughts), there is another ātman (“I”) called vijñāna-maya (consisting of intellect, only those thoughts which we call knowledge, “I am this intellect, not this murky and unruly mind, but that which clearly knows”). By that, this (mind-ātman) is completely encompassed (pūrṇa, clearly known). (Therefore) this (vijñāna-maya) can indeed be like a person’s body (puruṣa). Following the likeness of a person, this is its being like a body.
Śraddhā (conviction) is its head. Ṛta (honesty) is its right side. Satya (truth) is its left side. Yoga (contemplative disposition) is its trunk (ātman). Mahat (the total cosmic subtle body, Hiraṇya-garbha, KathU.2.3.7) is its support tail (puccha). About that is this verse:
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.5

TaitU.2.5.1
Vijñāna (intellect) informs (tanute, fills in) yajña (ritual) and intellect informs karma (actions to be done). All the deities worship (upāsate, are intent upon) jyeṣṭha vijñāna (Hiranya-garbha their elder) as being brahman (their ultimate, their reality, i.e., that this cosmic intellect is their identity).
If one knows vijñāna as brahman, and thereupon does not lose sight of this, then, abandoning (identifications with) the karma demerits of the physical body, one is said to attain all (mental) desirables.
As it was for the previous (manomaya) this (vijñāna-maya) becomes the embodied (śārīra, identified with this location, this kośa) ātman (“I am this intellect”).
Apart from this (vijñāna-ātman) that is vijñāna-maya (consisting of the intellect), there is another ātman (“I”) called ānanda-maya (consisting of joy, the various degrees of joy whether there are thoughts or not, whether one is awake, dreaming or deep asleep). By that, this (intellect-ātman) is encompassed (pūrṇa, satisfied). (Therefore) this (ānanda-maya) can indeed be like a person’s body (puruṣa). Following the likeness of a person, this is its being like a body.
Priya (the pleasurable, ānanda-vṛtti, fullness limited through a thought) is its head. Moda (the more pleasurable, fullness less limited through a thought) is its right side. Pramoda (the most pleasurable, fullness least limited through a thought) is its left side. Ānanda (joy in general) is its trunk (ātman). Brahman (satyam jñānam anantam brahman, TaitU.2.1.1) is its (so called) “support tail” (puccha, actually it is all this from ākāśa to ānanda-maya that supports, as reality itself, all these names and forms in the universe). About that is this verse:
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.6

TaitU.2.6.1
“If anyone thinks that brahman (unlimited existence-knowledge, TaitU.2.1.1) is either non-existent or unmanifest only (a-sat, or is false), that would only make that one himself or herself non-existent or unmanifest (or false). If, on the other hand, one knows (through a means of knowledge such as this Upaniṣad) that brahman exists and is manifest (as all this) (or is at least true and these words of the Upaniṣad are true), from recognizing that, then oneself exists (as brahman) and is manifest (as all this) (or at least has available the Veda and Upaniṣads as a means of striving to know more, he or she is an āstika) – say those who know (brahman).”
As it was for the previous (vijñāna-maya) this (ānanda-maya, the joyful) is the embodied (śārīra) ātman. Now, from this (on how to reach the ultimate joy) there are the following questions (KathU.1.1.20).
After departing (from this life) does an ignorant person (who has no trust in the Veda) go to an other world (heaven), or not? Or rather, does one who knows (i.e., who is an āstika, has trust in the Veda) after departing (from this life) go to another world (heaven), or not?
(Regarding questions on matters within the manifestation, let us start from the beginning, MunU.1.1.8–9, PrasU.1.3–10.) It (the Lord, the Person) pulled up a desire (from the unmanifest, from past karma) “Let Me be many. Let Me be born” (BrhU.1.4.1–16). It contemplated (tapas). Having contemplated, It manifested all this. After manifesting whatever is there, It “entered into” (as its self) that very thing (ChanU.6.3.2). After entering that, It became the formed (sat, i.e., sensible form) and the formless (tyad, the “other,” Veda pronominal stem equal to tad), the defined and the undefined (a-nirukta), that which stays put (to have a form) and that which does not stay put (to not have a form, a-nilaya), what has a mind and what has not a mind (a-vijñāna), and what is real (satya, brahman, “unlimited existence-knowledge,” TaitU.2.1.1) and an-ṛtam (falsely taken as real, mithyā-satya-jñāna, falsely taken as reality, though the names and forms are nothing but brahman). Satya (brahman) became all this. They call it (the only) satya (reality). About that is this verse:
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.7

TaitU.2.7.1
“In the beginning, all this was the a-sat (unmanifest brahman, here a-sat cannot have the meaning “total nonexistence” since the next statement says that everything came from that). From that (unmanifest brahman) indeed arose the sat (manifest brahman). That (a-sat, unmanifest brahman) created (akuruta) its self (ātman, as sat, manifest brahman, manifest reality). Therefore, it is called su-kṛta (perfectly created, since it requires absolutely no other source or factor to recreate itself, as it is self-created, svayaṃ kṛta, uncaused, in this case it would also be the “self-creator” too).”
That which is known as the perfectly created is indeed that rasa (enjoyed thing), because one becomes (temporarily) self-satisfied (ānandin) upon acquiring an enjoyed thing (rasa). Indeed, who would breath in and breath out, if this (hope for glimpses of) satisfaction within (ākāśe ānanda, in the vast space of the mind) was not there. This (self-created ātman) alone is that which manifests satisfaction. For only when one finds the abiding-place (pratiṣṭhā) that is fearlessness (a-bhaya) in this invisible, bodiless, indefinable, and formless (a-nilaya, TaitU.2.6.1, or is itself without a separate support) (brahman), then one reaches fearlessness. Indeed, when one sufficiently rises (ud aram) a notion of separation (antara) in (or from) this (brahman), then one has fear. On the other hand, for a person who is learned but does not keep in mind (or know for a fact this teaching) there is fear. About that is this verse:
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.8

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TaitU.2.8.1
“Out of bhīṣā (fear, or rather the mandate of their nature, of their role, in this creation, the Lord’s order, like servants follow the mandate of their king) of that (brahman, the source of all) the wind blows (the element movement moves), the sun shines, similarly, Lord Fire, Lord Indra, Lord Death as the fifth do their job (dhāvati).”
Now here is the analysis on ānanda (ānanda-brahman). Suppose there is a lad who is virtuous (sādhu), in his youthful prime (yuvat), a student (adhyāyaka, unencumbered by household and professional duties), most expeditious (āśiṣṭha), most steadfast (dṛḍhiṣṭa), and most powerful (baliṣṭha). Suppose this entire earth full of wealth is his. That would be one unit of (maximal) human joy (ānanda). Now, one-hundred of those joys:
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TaitU.2.8.2
That would be the joy of a heaven music concert goer (manuṣya-gandharva), as well as be included in the joy of the one who is learned in this teaching (śrotriya) and (hence) unafflicted by any desire (a-kāma-hata). That would be one unit of heaven concert goer’s joy (ānanda).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of a heaven concert patron (deva-gandharva), as well as be included in the joy of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of a one dwelling in ancestor heaven for a very long time, as well as be included in the joy of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of a one who is one of the ājānaja devas (who gain a post as a deity in heaven through special Smṛti pūjā rituals).
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TaitU.2.8.3
And would as well as (be included in the joy) of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of one of the karma-devas who gains a deity post in heaven through Veda yajña ritual, as well as of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of one of the (thirty-three) Ṛc Veda deities (the twelve Ādityas, eleven Rudras, eight Vasus, Indra, and Prajāpati), as well as of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of Lord Indra.
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TaitU.2.8.4
And would as well as (be included in the joy) of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of Bṛhas-pati (counselor to the deities), as well as of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of Prajā-pati (equivalent to Virāṭ, per the continuing list), as well as of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata).
Now, one-hundred of those joys would be the joy of brahman (since the calculus continues, this is Lord Brahman, equivalent to Hiraṇya-garbha, which being the total, cosmic mind and thus all-knowing would of course, even by position, have this same knowledge as our śrotriya a-kāma-hata fellow), as well as of the one who is learned in this teaching and hence unafflicted by any desire (śrotriya a-kāma-hata, by nature, sva-rūpa alone, not by embodiment or hierarchy position, this nature is limitless, TaitU.2.1.1).
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TaitU.2.8.5
The very one in a person (the brahma-ātman who has entered into everything including into this body here, TaitU.2.6.1) and which is in the sun, is one only (not many ātmans).
The one who knows in this way, having departed from this world, pervades (as the one reality of) this body consisting of food (anna), pervades this body consisting of energy (prāṇa), pervades this individual consisting of mind (manas), pervades this body consisting of intellect (vijñāna), and pervades this body consisting of joy (ānanda) (or, upasaṃkrāmati could be taken as transcends, in which case, this indicates the one who knows transcends the limited at every level of subtility). About that is this verse:
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.9

TaitU.2.9.1
“From which, words along with thought return having not grasped, that fullness (ānanda) of brahman the wise person (knows as one’s self). This person has no fear from anything (as there is no second thing to fear).”
This one is not afflicted towards any of this (the virtue or fault of these bodies, śarīras) – “Whatever good I have not done, or whatever bad I have done.”
The one who knows in this way, loves (spṛnute, prīṇīte) both these as oneself, because one knows in this way (cannot but) love both these as oneself (since it is a fact of this knowledge).
This is the Upaniṣad (the sacred teaching).
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad Bhṛgu Vallī (3)

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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.1

TaitU.3.1.1
Bhṛgu, the well-known son of Varuṇa, properly approached his father Varuṇa and requested, “O Venerable Sir, please teach me brahman.”
To him Varuṇa said this, “Food and life-energy (the eaten and the eater, MunU.1.1.8), also sight, hearing, mind, and speech (anna, prāṇa, cakṣus, śrotra, manas, vāc – each of these are where brahman is to be recognized, TaitU.2.1–6).” Then he said to him, “From which all these beings arise, by which the arisen survive, and into which they merge. That is what you want to know. That (indirectly) is brahman (unlike the direct teaching, ‘satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahman,’ TaitU.2.1.1).”
Bhṛgu contemplated this. Having contemplated…
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.2

TaitU.3.2.1
He (Bhṛgu) came to know anna (food, the entire universe of sensible matter, as Virāṭ) is brahman, since from food all these beings arise, by food the arisen survive, and into food they merge (TaitU.2.2.1). Knowing thus (yet knowing food itself has a cause), he again approached his father Varuṇa and requested, “O Venerable Sir, please teach me brahman.”
To him Varuṇa said this, “By tapas (religious discipline including inquiry and contemplation) you should know brahman (that this is the methodology to understand the teaching in TaitU.2 Brahma Vallī). Tapas indeed is brahman.”
Bhṛgu contemplated this. Having contemplated…
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.3

TaitU.3.3.1
He (Bhṛgu) came to know prāṇa (life-energy, the consumer of all food, as Hiraṇya-garbha) is brahman, since from life-energy all these beings arise, by life-energy the arisen survive, and into life-energy they merge (TaitU.2.3.1). Knowing thus (yet knowing life-energy itself has a cause), he again approached his father Varuṇa and requested, “O Venerable Sir, please teach me brahman.”
To him Varuṇa said this, “By tapas (religious discipline) you should know brahman. Tapas indeed is brahman.”
Bhṛgu contemplated this. Having contemplated…
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.4

TaitU.3.4.1
He (Bhṛgu) came to know manas (mind) is brahman, since from mind all these beings arise, by mind the arisen survive, and into mind they merge. Knowing thus (yet knowing mind itself has a cause), he again approached his father Varuṇa and requested, “O Venerable Sir, please teach me brahman.”
To him Varuṇa said this, “By tapas (religious discipline) you should know brahman. Tapas indeed is brahman.”
Bhṛgu contemplated this. Having contemplated…
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.5

TaitU.3.5.1
He (Bhṛgu) came to know vijñāna (intellect) is brahman, since from intellect all these beings arise, by intellect the arisen survive, and into intellect they merge. Knowing thus (yet knowing intellect itself has a cause), he again approached his father Varuṇa and requested, “O Venerable Sir, please teach me brahman.”
To him Varuṇa said this, “By tapas (religious discipline) you should know brahman. Tapas indeed is brahman.”
Bhṛgu contemplated this. Having contemplated…
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.6

TaitU.3.6.1
He (Bhṛgu) came to know ānanda (fullness, ānanda-maya-pratiṣṭhā, ānanda-maya-puccha) is brahman, since from fullness all these beings arise, by fullness the arisen survive, and into fullness they merge (finally).
This indeed is the knowledge in the form of a dialogue between Śrī Varuṇa and his son Śrī Bhṛgu. It is firmly established (by religious discipline including inquiry and contemplation) in the vast space of the intellect. The one who knows thus gets firmly established (as ānanda brahman). (Like for Bhṛgu) one becomes great, gains and enjoys plenty of food, has good progeny and wealth, is brilliant in self-confidence, with the far-reaching respect (of being a wise person).
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.7

TaitU.3.7.1
This one would revere and respect food (Īśvara as food) as a vow. Food is indeed prāṇa (life-energy). This body is the eater of food. This body is fixed in prāṇa. Prāṇa is fixed in this body. Thus this food (as the body and as life-energy, as mutually the eater and the eaten) here is fixed in food. The one who knows that this food here is fixed in food, is oneself well-fixed.
(Again) one becomes great, gains and enjoys plenty of food, has good progeny and wealth, is brilliant in self-confidence, with the far-reaching respect (of being a wise person).
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.8

TaitU.3.8.1
This one would not discard food as a vow. Food is indeed āp (a component of food). Fire (in the belly) is the eater of food. Fire is fixed in water. Water is fixed in fire. Thus this food (as water and as fire, as mutually the eater and the eaten) here is fixed in food. The one who knows that this food here is fixed in food, is oneself well-fixed.
(Again) one becomes great, gains and enjoys plenty of food, has good progeny and wealth, is brilliant in self-confidence, with the far-reaching respect (of being a wise person).
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.9

TaitU.3.9.1
This one would produce sufficient food as a vow. Food is indeed pṛthivī (a component of food). Space is the eater of food. Space is fixed in earth. Earth is fixed in space. Thus this food (as earth and as space, as mutually the eater and the eaten) here is fixed in food. The one who knows that this food here is fixed in food, is oneself well-fixed.
(Again) one becomes great, gains and enjoys plenty of food, has good progeny and wealth, is brilliant in self-confidence, with the far-reaching respect (of being a wise person).
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Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.10

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TaitU.3.10.1
In regard to shelter, as a vow, one should not turn away anyone. Therefore, in any way one can (beg, borrow, barter, or buy) acquire sufficient amount of food (for guests). They say, “Food has succeeded for such a person.” In the beginning (of life, or in the foremost manner), the food offered is received in return. In the middle (of life, or in the middling manner), the food offered is received in return. In the end (of life, or in the least manner), the food offered is received in return.🔗
TaitU.3.10.2
The one who knows in this way, there is preservation in respect to speech. There is acquiring and preservation in respect to breathing out and in. Karma is in one’s hands. Movement is there in one’s feet. Evacuation is there in one’s anus. These are the recognitions (the meditations, of brahman) in regard to the person.
Now in regard to the deities (are the following meditations). Satisfaction is there in the rains. Strength is there in the lightning.
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TaitU.3.10.3
Fame is there in livestock. As the light in the stars and planets. (Recognize the Lord in) procreation and its continuity, and the joy in the sexual organ, and all this in space.
One should meditate (upon the Lord) as the support, then one has this support.
On should meditate (upon the Lord) as great, then one becomes great.
One should meditate (upon the Lord) as one’s mind, then one becomes mindful.
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TaitU.3.10.4
One should meditate (upon the Lord) as prostration (namas), then desirables prostrate to this one. One should meditate (upon the Lord) as the vast (brahman), then one becomes vast.
One should meditate (upon the Lord) as the blowing away (the removal), then whatever competing (distracting) thing one does not want gets blown away. Any unpleasant adversarial is blown away.
(Again, TaitU.2.8.5, back to the reality knowledge of this teaching)
The very one in a person (the brahma-ātman who has entered into everything including into this body here) and which is in the sun, is one only (not many ātmans).
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TaitU.3.10.5
The one who knows in this way, having departed from this world, pervades (as the one reality of) this body consisting of food (anna), pervades this body consisting of energy (prāṇa), pervades this individual consisting of mind (manas), pervades this body consisting of intellect (vijñāna), and pervades this body consisting of joy (ānanda) (or, upasaṃkrāmati could be taken as transcends, in which case, this indicates the one who knows transcends the limited at every level of subtility).
This one moves around (in knowledge without having to travel) getting food at will, taking any form at will in this world (as all forms of the Lord are one’s own form, TaitU.2.1.1). Sitting, this one sings the song (sāman, i.e., happily declares), “Hā u, Hā u, Hā u,…
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TaitU.3.10.6
“(As a wonder) I am food. I am food, I am food.
I am the eater of food, I am the eater of food. I am the eater of food.
I am the composer. I am the composer. I am the composer.
I am the first born of this cosmic order (ṛta).
Before the gods, I am the navel (nābhi, source) of immortality.
The one who gives me (as food), protects me (mā āvāḥ) as this (food).
I am food. As food I eat (admi) food and the eater of food.
I overcome the entire universe.
The one who know in this way, shines (as consciousness, an-antam jñānam), like the sun. This is the teaching (Upaniṣad).
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Khaṇḍa 1.1 (1) Khaṇḍa 1.2 (2) Khaṇḍa 1.3 (3) Khaṇḍa 2.1 (4) Khaṇḍa 3.1 (5)

Aitareya Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 1.1 (1)

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AitU.1.1.1 (1.1)
Ātman (the self) indeed, one only (eka), was all this in the beginning. That one envisioned, “I now create the worlds.”🔗
AitU.1.1.2 (1.2)
That (ātman) manifested (itself) as these worlds (lokas): ambhas, marīcīḥ, mara, and āpaḥ.
What is above (pareṇa) the heavens is called that ambhas (the Milky Way cloud above the solar luminaries). Heaven is its support (pratiṣṭhā, base). (Below) that is the intermediate space called marīcīḥ (the rays, the area where the rays of solar luminaries shine down). This (surface of the) earth is called mara (where death presides). Below (adhastāt) is that which is called āpaḥ (the waters, the water world).
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AitU.1.1.3 (1.3)
The ātman thought, “Now, there are these worlds. Now, I manifest (sṛjai = sṛje) the protectors of these worlds.” (The ātman) gathered up from the water world and shaped (amūrchayat) a human form (puruṣa, Virāṭ the manifest cosmic Person).🔗
AitU.1.1.4 (1.4)
That (ātman) did tapas on (envisioned, MunU.1.1.8, TaitU.2.6.1) that (cosmic human form). The mouth of that envisioned form opened, like an egg. From that mouth emerged speech (vāc). From speech (language, from names) emerged the deity Fire (Agni, the earliest deity of the perceptible elements, space-wind-fire-water-earth, dimension-movement-heat-fluidity-solidity).
The nostrils opened. From the nostrils emerged breath (prāṇa, along with the sense of smell). From prāṇa emerged the deity Air (Vāyu).
The eyes opened. From these eyes emerged sight. From sight emerged the deity Sun (Āditya).
The ears opened. From the ears emerged hearing. From hearing emerged the Directions (Diś).
The skin (tvac) opened. From skin emerged hairs (lomans). From the hairs emerged the deity Plants (Oṣadhis) and the deity Trees (Vanas-patis).
The heart (hṛdaya) opened. From the heart emerged mind (manas). From the mind emerged the deity Moon Candramas.
The navel opened. From the navel emerged apāna (the downward life energy). From apāna emerged Death (Mṛtyu).
The penis (śiśna) opened. From the penis emerged the semen (retas, the means for future procreation). From the semen emerged the deity Waters (Āpaḥ).
(Full circle, originally from the waters to releasing back the waters. In the process, is originated the organs and the presiding deities of the organs, and the protectors of these worlds, all from the limbs of Virāṭ.)
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Aitareya Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 1.2 (2)

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AitU.1.2.1 (2.1)
These deities (Agni, Vāyu, etcetera) that have been manifested (then) fell (prāpatan) back into this vast ocean (arṇava, the water world).
(The ātman, manifester, as though) afflicted Him (Virāṭ and thus the deities) to hunger (aśanāyā) and thirst (pipāsā). They (the devatās) pleaded to this one (the ātman), “Give us an abode (āyatana) in which we may (be able to) eat food (anna, the objects for the senses and organs and their deities to feed upon).”
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AitU.1.2.2 (2.2)
For them, (the ātman) brought a cow (to inhabit as their abode). They said, “This is indeed not enough (alam, of a complete abode to fulfill all the natural desires) for us.”
For them, (the ātman) brought a horse. They said, “This is indeed not enough (alam) for us.”
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AitU.1.2.3 (2.3)
For them, (the ātman) brought a human form (to inhabit as their abode). They said, “This is indeed well made (su kṛta). The human form (puruṣa, in the same form as Virāṭ) indeed is well made.” (The ātman) said to them, “May you each enter into your respective abode (yathā āyatana, in this human form).”🔗
AitU.1.2.4 (2.4)
The deity Agni (Fire) entered into the mouth, becoming speech. Vāyu (Wind deity) entered into the nostrils, becoming the sense of smell. Āditya (Sun deity) entered into the eyes, becoming the sight. Diś (Space deity) entered into the ears, becoming hearing. The deities Plants and Trees entered the skin, becoming the hairs (i.e., the sense of touch). Candramas (Moon deity) entered into the heart, becoming the mind (the changeable one, reflecting the light of consciousness). Death (Mṛtyu) entered into the navel, becoming apāna (the downward life-energy, which allows the person to remain on this Earth, PrasU.3.8). And the deity Āpaḥ (Waters) entered into the penis, becoming the semen (the organ for procreation of future generations).🔗
AitU.1.2.5 (2.5)
To that one (the ātman), Hunger and Thirst said, “Please envision for us both (an abode).” That (ātman) said, “I envision that among these deities alone I will have you two be sharers along with them (when they eat). Therefore, for whichever deity one offers oblation (food), both Hunger and Thirst are indeed sharers through this (asyām, in this deity as your abode).
(So in offering back to the deities through your sacred duties one also directly and indirectly, by engaging in the world and by ritual, satisfies one’s own natural desires).
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Aitareya Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 1.3 (3)

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AitU.1.3.1 (3.1)
That (ātman) envisioned, “(Having created) these worlds (lokas) and the protectors of these worlds, now I shall create (sṛjai = sṛje) food (anna) for them.”🔗
AitU.1.3.2 (3.2)
That (ātman) envisioned (abhyatapat) the waters. From the waters envisioned was manifested a form (mūrti). The form which manifested indeed became the food.🔗
AitU.1.3.3 (3.3)
That very manifested food turned (parāñc) and attempted to get way (ati-ajighāṃsat, SG.5.30.2.c: reduplicated-aorist of √han ati-gatau).
That (first born, the puruṣa) tried to catch it with vāc (speech), but was not able to catch it with speech. If anyone would be indeed able to catch it with speech, then one would be satisfied simply by speaking (abhivyāhṛtya, to food).
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AitU.1.3.4 (3.4)
That (first born, the puruṣa) tried to catch it with prāṇa (with the sense of smell), but was not able to catch it with smelling. If anyone would be indeed able to catch it with smelling, then one would be satisfied simply by smelling (food).🔗
AitU.1.3.5 (3.5)
That (first born, the puruṣa) tried to catch it with cakṣus (with sight), but was not able to catch it with sight. If anyone would be indeed able to catch it with sight, then one would be satisfied simply by seeing (food).🔗
AitU.1.3.6 (3.6)
That (first born, the puruṣa) tried to catch it with śrotra (with hearing), but was not able to catch it with hearing. If anyone would be indeed able to catch it with hearing, then one would be satisfied simply by hearing (food).🔗
AitU.1.3.7 (3.7)
That (first born, the puruṣa) tried to catch it with tvac (with touch), but was not able to catch it with touch. If anyone would be indeed able to catch it with touching, then one would be satisfied simply by touching (food).🔗
AitU.1.3.8 (3.8)
That (first born, the puruṣa) tried to catch it with manas (with thinking), but was not able to catch it with thinking. If anyone would be indeed able to catch it with thinking, then one would be satisfied simply by thinking about (food).🔗
AitU.1.3.9 (3.9)
That (first born, the puruṣa) tried to catch it with śiśna (with the penis, by procreating), but was not able to catch it by procreating. If anyone would be indeed able to catch it by procreating, then one would be satisfied simply by procreating.🔗
AitU.1.3.10 (3.10)
That (first born, the puruṣa) tried to catch it with apāna (the downward-energy, including ingestion and evacuation) and consumed it. This grasper (graha) of food is what vāyu (i.e., prāṇa, AitU.1.1.4, the ingesting prāṇa) is. This one whose life-span is by food (anna-āyus) indeed is what vāyu (prāṇa) is.🔗
AitU.1.3.11 (3.11)
(The ātman) envisioned, “Now, how could all this be without me (mad ṛte)?” (The ātman) envisioned, “With which of these should I enter (prapadyai)? (The ātman) envisioned, “If by speech there is speaking, if by prāṇa there is breathing, if by sight there is seeing, if by hearing there is hearing, if by touch there is touching, if by mind there is thinking, and if by the penis there is procreating, then what (purpose) am I.”🔗
AitU.1.3.12 (3.12)
(The ātman) broke through this hairy part (of the skull, the crown) and entered through this doorway (and down into the heart, as the jīva-ātman, the individual). That doorway is called vidṛti (the cleft, on the crown of the head). This entrance (dvār) is a place of joy (nāndana, from which one may reach the joy in brahma-loka, KathU.2.3.16).
For this (individual) there are three abodes (āvasthās) and three dreams (svapnas, the temporary, unreal “dream-like” experiences in each of the āvasthās). This (waking state, or the father’s body) is one abode. This (dream state, or the mother’s body) is another abode. This (deep sleep state, or the born one’s own body) is another abode (constantly moving between these abodes, within saṃsāra). This it has been said (iti, ManU.3–5, PrasU.1.1, MunU.2.1.5 & AitU.1.4.1–4).
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AitU.1.3.13 (3.13)
The (individual) having been born, (with the help of the teaching and a teacher) carefully enquired (abhivyaikhyat, √abhi-vi-ā-khyā) into all these beings (bhūtas) and wanted to speak (vāvadiṣat) of what here could be other (anya). This one indeed saw this very puruṣa, oneself) as the brahman, the total being, as being the ultimate (ta-tama), (exclaiming) “I have seen (come to know) this.”🔗
AitU.1.3.14 (3.14)
Therefore, its name is “Idan-dra” (the one who sees all this, idam paśyati). Idan-dra indeed is its name, and they call the one who is Idan-dra indirectly as “Indra” (Lord Indra). Indeed, the gods seem to love indirect (names, parokṣa). Indeed, the gods seem to love indirect (names).🔗

Aitareya Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 2.1 (4)

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AitU.2.1.1 (4.1)
In a male person’s body (puruṣa) indeed this individual (the jīva-ātman) begins as a embryo (garbha, initially as the male seed, about half of the DNA for the individual body). That which is this seed (retas) is the vigor (tejas) produced from all the limbs (of the male). The (male) carries (bibharti) this ātman (the jīva-ātman) in his ātman (the male body, not as different from him). When he sprinkles that into the female, then he procreates this (individual). That is its first birth (janman, starting from the passage through the individual’s parents, though jīva-ātman is beginningless in the saṃsāra cycle, consisting of individual’s past bodies, reaching up to heavenly bodies, then catching a ride back through rain, earth and food into the father’s body, etcetera, BhG.3.14).🔗
AitU.2.1.2 (4.2)
That (retas, the seed) transforms into the ātman (the body) of the female (as not different from her). It becomes as though her own limb. Therefore, it does not harm her (her body does not reject it as foreign). She nourishes (bhāvayati) this ātman.🔗
AitU.2.1.3 (4.3)
As the nourisher (of this ātman) she becomes one to be nourished (by the male). The female bears (bibharti) that embryo. The male nourishes (bhāvayati, protects) the child (kumāra) indeed before (agre), and at the start of the birthing (janmanaḥ agre) and onwards (adhi). The fact that (tad) he protects the child indeed before, and at the start of the birthing and onwards, is that he protects himself alone (ātmānam eva) as the continuance (santa) of these worlds (of progeny). For thus are these worlds continued. That is its second birth (janman, from the mother).🔗
AitU.2.1.4 (4.4)
That one (who is born, as a son) is appointed (pratidhīyate) as his (the father’s) self (as successor) for (continuance of) beneficial deeds and rituals (as well as the daughter is the successor of her mother).
Then this (father, or mother, as) the other self (of the child), having done all the duties and attaining old age, then indeed departs from this (world) and is reborn (in another world). That is its (the jīva-ātman’s) third birth (into the next world).
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AitU.2.1.5 (4.5)
As to this it has been said by sage (Vāma-deva):
“Even while in the womb (garbha), I knew (avedam) the births of all the deities. A hundred iron fortified cities (purs, prior city-like bodies, KathU.2.2.1) had bound (arakṣan, protected yet bound) me down (adhas).
(Knowing what I know, the source of all these deities as but myself:)
Like a hawk (śyena) forcefully I am freed (nir-adīyam, am delivered out by this knowledge).”
Indeed, Vāma-deva even while lying in the womb spoke (knew) in this way.
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AitU.2.1.6 (4.6)
In this way, (Vāma-deva and anyone else who) has this knowledge (vidvat) already being beyond (ūrdhva) this distinct (distinctly identified) body (by nature, even before knowledge, like the embryo in the womb) having transcended (utkramya, this body, TaitU.2.8.5) encounters (āptvā, i.e. witnesses) all the desirable objects (in life) is immortal in one’s own sacred world (svarge loke, the limitless brahman). Indeed this one is.🔗

Aitareya Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 3.1 (5)

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AitU.3.1.1 (5.1)
Who is the one we worship (upāsmahe) as this ātman (our self)? Which of the two is that ātman (the ātman who is reborn into the father’s, mother’s and this body, and thinks its self as the waker, dreamer and deep sleeper, AitU.1.3.12 or this brahman, AitU.1.3.13, which sage Vāma-deva knew, AitU.2.1.5–6; KathU.1.2.16 & KathU.1.3.1)? Is it (the first one) that (we know well as the individual, the jīva-ātman identified with each one of the organs of sensing and acting) the seer, the hearer, the smeller of odors, the speaker, or the taster of sweet and sour?🔗
AitU.3.1.2 (5.2)
Is it this heart, the mind? Or (any of its thoughts, such as) sentience, command, erudition (vijñāna), intellection (prajñāna), retentiveness, perception, fortitude, thinking, depression (jūti), memory, impression (saṅkalpa), determination, vitality (asu, the automatic system for breathing, etc.), desire or passion?
(No) All these are only names (nāmadheyas, BrhU.1.4.7, indirect names of brahman; PrasU.6.4–5 and MunU.3.2.8) belonging to intellection (prajñāna, whose authority is only one’s opinion).
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AitU.3.1.3 (5.3)
This (ātman) is brahman (apara brahman, the cosmic envisioner of this universe, named Hiraṇya-garbha, AitU.1.1.2 thru 1.3.12); and named Indra and Prajā-pati; and is all these deities; the five great elements: earth, wind, space, water and light; all these (big things) and these small things; various seeds; those born from egg, born from womb, born from moisture (sveda-ja), born from earth; horses, cows, people and elephants; all the creatures that run, fly or stay put.
All this that is guided by consciousness (prajñā-netra), (whose reality) is fixed (pratiṣṭhita, is based, is born, survives and resolves) in consciousness (prajñāna). This universe and person (loka, what is seen and what sees), has consciousness as its eye, is (nothing but) the consciousness (prajñā) as its basis (pratiṣṭhā). (Therefore) Consciousness (prajñāna) is brahman (the entire reality, the very nature of everything).
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AitU.3.1.4 (5.4)
The one who takes oneself (ātman) as this conscious being (prajña) thus transcends this world (loka, the seen and the seer), after having encountered (āptvā, i.e. witnessed) all desirable things in the other world (in prior heavens), this one now attains the (timeless) immortality (that is brahman).🔗

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Adhyāya 1 Adhyāya 2 Adhyāya 3 Adhyāya 4 Adhyāya 5 Adhyāya 6

Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad Adhyāya 1

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SvetU.1.1
Teachers of brahman explain:
What is the cause (kāraṇa)? Is it brahman? From what were we (sma = smas) born? By what do we survive? Where is the ultimate abode (saṃpratiṣṭha)? Governed (adhiṣṭita) in pleasures and otherwise, by whom do we obey the order (vyavasthā, the way things are laid out), O knowers of brahman?
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SvetU.1.2
Time (kāla), inherent nature (sva-bhāva), law (niyati, of karma), chance (yad-ṛcchā), the elements (bhūtas), the female (yoni, female principle, the mother of the universe, Māyā or Prakṛti), or the male (puruṣa, the male principle, the father of the universe, Lord Brahmā or Hiraṇya-garbha) – these are to be considered (as possible causes, kāraṇas)? Or perhaps a combination (saṃyoga) of any of these?
No, because of their very nature (ātman, as being themselves dependent upon something else, themselves changing, and the statement of the one ātman that precedes manifestation, AitU.1.1.1). The individual ātman (i.e., jīva-ātman, who is reborn over and over also cannot be the cause), as it is itself powerless (an-īśa) over the reasons for its pleasures and pains.
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SvetU.1.3
Committed to contemplation as a means (dhyāna-yoga), they have seen (come to know) the power (śakti) behind the individual (ātman, the jīva-ātman) as the shining being (deva, the Lord) (as though) hidden by the guṇas (sattva, rajas and tamas), who alone (eka) presides in (adhitiṣṭhati) all causes related to time, etcetera, and the individual.🔗
SvetU.1.4
(We know, adhīmaḥ SvetU.1.5, that deva, Īśvara, the Lord) As the one who has one rim (eka-nemi, prakṛti) consisting of the three (tri-vṛt, the three guṇas: sattva, rajas and tamas), having sixteen end pieces (ṣoḍaśa-anta, PrasU.6.4, Prāṇa etcetera), having fifty spokes (śata-ardha-ara, a composite of fifty things said to be indicated in the Kalpopaniṣad of Brahma-Purāṇa) and twenty counter (bracing) spokes (viṃśati-pratyara, perhaps the ten karma and jñāna indriyas, plus their ten spheres of activity, which make known and interact with the fifty things), with six sets of eight things each (even more confusing divisions with which to get identified), with just one noose (pāśa, likely Death’s noose) spread wide (as many snares to catch individuals), having three paths (mārgas, after death, likely the northern/solar path and the southern/lunar path, plus the group of other paths straight into rebirths without a heavenly vacation, PrasU.1.9 & KathU.2.3.16), which is all one delusion (cycle) brought about by the two (according to one’s actions and knowledge, yathā-karma yathā-śruta, KathU.2.2.7, or the delusion which gives rise to all the pairs of opposites).🔗
SvetU.1.5
(And as) The five streams of water (the five senses) violently meandering among their five sources (the five great elements), whose waves are the five prāṇas backed (mūla) by the five (matching) perceptions (through these five senses), having the five whirlpools (varta, which are the perceptions’ five objects that continually drown you in saṃsāra: sights, sounds, etc.), impelled by the flow of five stages of pain (in the womb, and during birth, ageing, disease and death), having fifty aspects (or more likely having the five afflictions, pañca-kleśas, YS.2.3), and having five branches (parvans) – we know (adhīmaḥ).🔗
SvetU.1.6
In this vast brahma-cakra (wheel of brahman) where all live and rest, the haṃsa (the swan-like, migratory individual) roams around, thinking itself (ātman) and the creator (preritāra, the Lord who directs this cosmic order) are different (pṛthak). But once one chooses (juṣṭha, to know the Lord as oneself, KathU.1.2.23), then this one (eventually) attains immortality by this (brahma-ātman to which one commits).🔗
SvetU.1.7
This is indeed declared to be the parama brahman (the ultimate reality). In that is the ultimate basis (supratiṣṭhā, the oneness) of even this triad (the preceding Lord, world and the individual; the roles as the creator, as the created and as an individual in the creation) and is unchanging (a-kṣara, whether the world is there or not). By knowing this as the one within (as ātman, oneself) here (in this life itself, in the firm depth of one’s knowledge), the knowers of brahman, having that as their ultimate, merging (their notional individuality) into this brahman, are freed from the womb (yoni, from travelling into future births in these cycles of creation).🔗
SvetU.1.8
(Having declared brahman as the basis of both the Lord and the individual, since the Lord, naturally having all knowledge, would know this too, then like the individual knower of brahman is brahman, so too the Lord is brahman. Therefore, the Upaniṣad can use the word ‘Lord’ here in the following context as equivalent to brahman, the same as the word ‘ātman is equivalent to brahman – when the context applies and these identities need to be repeated during the teaching.)
The Lord (Īśa) supports this universe (viśva) which is a combination of the perishable and imperishable, the manifest and unmanifest. The individual (ātman) who (knows) not this Lord (an-Īśa) is bound by the nature of (believing one is just another) experiencer. Upon knowing (the oneness of) the Lord (deva) one is free from all nooses (pāśas, of Death).
🔗
SvetU.1.9
The knowing omnipotent (the Lord) and the unknowing impotent (individual jīva-ātman) are both (in fact) unborn. She (mother nature, Prakṛti, Māyā, as the manifesting power of the Lord) too is (in fact) an unborn (a-jā) one, and is involved in the form of (or for the sake of) the experiencer and the experienced. When the individual (ātman) knows this triad as (in fact) brahman, then this one is limitless (an-anta, as brahman, TaitU.2.1.1), is all forms (viśva-rūpa, as prakṛti), and a non-actor (a-kartṛ, as ātman and Īśvara).🔗
SvetU.1.10
Nature (pradhāna, prakṛti) is changing (kṣara). Lord Hara (the destroyer, into which the universe resolves) is immortal and unchanging. This is the one and only (eka) Lord (deva), who rules over both the changing (kṣara, nature) and the individual (ātman). From contemplating (abhidhyāna) on that one, from the discipline of yoga (yojana), and by finally (knowing one is) the nature of that (Lord), one is free from all illusions (viśva-māyā, the cosmic illusion, that all this is as real as oneself).🔗
SvetU.1.11
By knowing the Lord (deva, as what is identical to oneself, as all being brahman alone) all bonds (pāśas, notions of limitation) are dismissed (as mistakes, as ignorance, which is the only job of knowledge). This is a dismissal of a (believed real) birth and death, via (yoga) the weakening of the afflictions (kleśas: ignorance, limiting I-notion, attachment, aversion, and fear of death, YS.2.3–11). By contemplating that (deva) the individual gains identity to the third of the (triad) bodies (i.e., the Lord), as having total independence from (aiśvarya, no dependence on, BhG.3.18) the universe, is the one only (kevala), and has all seeking satisfied (āpta-kāma).🔗
SvetU.1.12
This which is to be known is indeed always within (ātma-stha). There is nothing better (para, to know than this, MunU.1.1.3), by knowing that the experiencer (bhoktṛ), the experienced (bhogya), and the one who keeps this in motion (preritāra), which make up the triad (the individual, the world, and the Lord) just described, is all nothing but this brahman.🔗
SvetU.1.13
Just as the manifest form (mūrti) of fire (inherently) present in its source (yoni, the lower block of wood) is not seen, still there is no loss of its subtle form (liṅga), (since) it can again be manifested from the source (yoni, the lower block of wood) by the (fire-making churning) stick. Like that, both (limitless brahman as ātman, oneself) can be made manifest (manifestly known) by (the churning of) praṇava (Om, KathU.1.2.15–18, PrasU.5.1–6, MunU.2.2.3–4, ManU.1–12, TaitU.1.4.1 and 1.8.1, etcetera) in (the heart, the intellect, of) this body.🔗
SvetU.1.14
Making one’s mind the lower block of wood (by making the intellect purified by yoga, capable of assimilation the teaching) and praṇava (Om, the summarized form of the teaching) the upper fire-starting stick, by repetition in churning which is dhyāna (repeated bring and holding in the quiet intellect the teaching summarized by Om), in this way one sees the deva (the Lord, i.e., the brahman as being the same basis as oneself and the Lord) which was as though hidden (by one’s blocking notions and saṃskāras, the lingering unconscious blocks to fully assimilating the teaching).🔗
SvetU.1.15
Just as oil in sesame seeds, butter in curds, water in a (dry) river bed, and fire in wood, in this way (with specific, effective “extraction” efforts and methods) this ātman is grasped in oneself (in the intellect, the “cave of the heart”), who can according (to the teaching, and repeatably) see (anupaśyati) this through satya (the truth of the teaching, MunU.3.1.5 thru 3.2.11) and through tapas (disciplines of action and mind that prepare for this teaching).🔗
SvetU.1.16
(…and can see) The ātman which pervades all things, like butter present in milk (which the haṃsa, swan SvetU.1.6, is said to be able to extract from milk), and (whose knowledge of which is) rooted in self-knowledge (ātma-vidyā, satya) and tapas (appropriate discipline). This much is the sacred teaching (upaniṣad) on the ultimate (para) brahman (limitless reality). The end (by repetition of the previous phrase, “This much…”).🔗

Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad Adhyāya 2

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SvetU.2.1
First disciplining (yuñjāna) the mind and senses for (revealing) the truth (tattva, the nature of things), Savitṛ (the deity within who impels, the mind) by observing that the light (jyotis, i.e., consciousness, the truth of the mind) is distinct from fire (agni, i.e., from the mind, from the mūrti, the manifest form of consciousness), (in this way) distinguished (its self, as consciousness) from earth (i.e., nature).🔗
SvetU.2.2 (18)
Under the impulse (sava) of the shining Savitṛ (Lord within), with mind disciplined we (strive) with tenacity (śaktyā) for leading to the very best of outcomes (su-vargeya).🔗
SvetU.2.3 (19)
Disciplining (yuktvāya = yuktvā, A Sanskrit Grammar, Whitney 993.b) the senses (devas) from their natural choices (su-varya-tas, from heaven, etcetera) with the mind (manas) and intellect (dhī, for an important discussion on the mind and the terminologies employed see YS-Mind), (may) Savitṛ (the Lord within) impel them (the senses, mind and intellect), so that (the mind and intellect both) make evident (kariṣyatas) the (self-)shining (div) limitless effulgence (bṛhat-jyotis, ananta-jñāna).🔗
SvetU.2.4 (20)
The inspired (vipras) discipline their mind (manas). They discipline their intellect. Great (mahī) is the glory (pariṣṭuti) of the shining Savitṛ, who is pervasive (vipra), who is vast (bṛhat, who is all-knowing (vipascit), the one only (eka id) knower of the order (viyunāvid), who makes manifest (vi-dadhe) the disciplines (hotrās, of these inspired seekers who no longer are interested in heavens within saṃsāra).🔗
SvetU.2.5 (21)
With reverences (namas) I offer the ancient brahman (the reality in the form this teaching) to you two (this mind and intellect, or you children and celestials). May this verse travel (vi-etu, reach you) like the path (pathyā) of the celestial (sūri, the sun). May all the children of the immortal (Lord) listen (to this teaching), even those who (temporarily) inhabit the heavenly abodes (may they eventually listen).🔗
SvetU.2.6 (21)
Where the fire is kindled (abhimathyate) (in the mind while contemplating on Om, etcetera), where the air is controlled (in prāṇāyāma, and other bodily disciplines), and where soma overflows (in rituals which neutralize any karma hindrances) – there the mind matures (saṃjāyate).🔗
SvetU.2.7 (22)
By the grace (prasava) that is Savitṛ, may you all honor the ancient brahman (the reality in the form this teaching). Because (if) you make (your) source (yoni) there (in this brahman), your past (karma) no longer binds.🔗
SvetU.2.8 (23)
Holding the three (trunk, neck, and head) upright (not slouched or reclined, as that habitually leads to sleep) and the body balanced (not leaning and firmly based), withdrawing the senses through the mind (YS.2.54–55) into the heart (the intellect), the wise (vidvat) should cross over all the fearful currents (srotas, of life) by the raft (uḍupa) of brahman (the small vision of brahman I have until it manifests as the vastness that brahman is).🔗
SvetU.2.9 (24)
The one whose activities are moderated (starts meditation) by restraining the senses here (in this place and time only), minimizing the (number of) in and out breaths while breathing through the nostrils, like in the illustration of the chariot (vāha) yoked to undisciplined horses (the senses in the illustration KathU.1.3.3–9), the wise one (vidvat, in the illustration this is the master of the chariot with an informed and skilled driver, the intellect), would direct (dhārayeta) the mind (manas, putting the reins in the hand of the knowledge I have) without distractions (a-pramatta, from the teaching I want in my mind at this time).🔗
SvetU.2.10 (25)
On a place that is level, clean, and without gravel, (distracting) fire or (blowing) sand, and (without) noise or wet ground, but rather is a place that is conducive to the mind, not distressing to the eye, or in a cave (shelter) that is protected from the wind – to this one should resort.🔗
SvetU.2.11 (26)
Mist (or frost), smoke, sun, fire (an-ala), wind, fire-fly, lightning, crystal, moon – these are the forms that may precede the manifest appearance of brahman during meditation (yoga, or in the yoga literature here and there).
(At least smoke to crystal seems descriptive of more clarity, whereas the rest take a lot more imagination. But the natures of these things themselves show no possible progression towards the limitless brahman as oneself, which is either all or almost nothing, like 1 + any number gets you no closer to infinity.)
🔗
SvetU.2.12 (27)
A fivefold merit of yoga occurs (pravṛtta), arising from (identification with the subtle instead of the gross natures of each of the five elements) earth, water, fire, wind and space (kha). At that time this accomplished one’s body has undergone the (knowledge-)fire of yoga (that burns the gross identifications and leaves the subtle identification) which has no disease (even the physical body may avoid disease), and no ageing or death (which can never be avoided by any physical body, though the subtle body continues relatively untouched by these three as it travels through countless new and ageing bodies).
(Even the cosmic Virāṭ’s physical body goes away after each manifestation cycle. The subtle jīva-ātman, though beginningless has an end in self-knowledge. Again, no amount of added years gets any closer to timeless brahman, which only this ātman is.)
🔗
SvetU.2.13 (28)
(When) one’s body feels light (laghutva) and healthy (ārogya), and the mind is not filled with longings (a-loluptatva), the skin is clear, the voice has vigor, the body smells pleasant, and its excretions are scant (i.e., the body, health, and mind are well fit for unhindered, long meditations without weakening for any of those reasons), (then) they say this is the initial (prathamā) stage of (full-time) yoga (life of uninterrupted contemplation and religious disciplines).
(The majority of modern yoga practitioners and even teachers views this as their own or their teaching’s summum bonum, and scantily and vaguely point out that there used to be something more, that they often explain as mystic superpowers of certain ancients. But the source authorities of yoga like here say straight out that a healthy and fit body is only the initial start in a full yoga, and now in the next two mantras the real summum bonum of yoga is pointed out. This is not to fault the individuals, but rather the available materials and methods. Currently in the world English happens to be the common language. But the one hundred years of the vast English renderings of Sanskrit texts has not yet fully and clearly reflected what these texts reveal. Yoga was never meant to be a commercial product, so the next one hundred years may not resolve this disconnect. Still here and there the original teaching survives. The seeker has to have perseverance or good fortune to stumble upon it in an English friendly version so it can be recommunicated more broadly. In my case, I just stumbled into it early enough. –A.K. Aruna)
🔗
SvetU.2.14 (29)
Just as a reflecting surface (bimba) covered by dirt, (when) it is clean, shines brilliantly, similarly the embodied one (dehin), clearly seeing the reality (tattva, brahman) that is ātman (oneself, with a transparently clear mind), is (thus) one (eka, with that limitless shining reality), then this person has achieved the goal (kṛta-artha) and is free from sorrow (vīta-śoka).🔗
SvetU.2.15 (30)
When here itself by the best light (of teaching) the yukta (the yogin) knows as clear as seeing (prapaśyet) the reality that is brahman (limitless shining reality) as being the reality that is ātman (oneself), then, by knowing the unborn and permanent Lord (deva, again, this teaching holds that the ātman and Īśvara are nothing but brahman, SvetU.1.7) which is free from the (various, limited) natures of all things, then (the yogin too, as ātman) is free from all bonds (pāśas, the limited and dying natures of all things).🔗
SvetU.2.16 (31)
This (Lord, brahman) is indeed the shining one (deva) which indwells (anu pratiṣṭhati) all directions. Is the first born (Hiraṇya-garbha). Has entered into the womb (as the jīva, the individual), who alone is born (i.e., there is no jīva that is not this very Lord), and ever will be born (i.e., there can be no evolution for this one Lord as everyone). Is present within all persons, and faces everywhere (as the only light of consciousness).🔗
SvetU.2.17 (32)
The one who is the deva (shining being) that dwells (āviveśa) in fire and in water, who dwells as the entire manifestation (bhuvana), who dwells in all (these nourishing and blessing) plants and trees – unto that shining one my salutations (namas) again and again. The end.🔗

Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad Adhyāya 3

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SvetU.3.1 (33)
The one who wields the net (of illusions, the Indra-jāla, the binding entrapments around the mind, that are but the nooses of death, pāśas), who rules as these powers (īśanīs, the devatās, deities) and thus rules all the worlds by these powers, who is one and the same at creation (ud-bhave) and at dissolution (saṃ-bhave) – those who know this one are (in this way themselves) immortals.🔗
SvetU.3.2
The one Rudra (the roarer, here being the ruling Īśvara, the Lord, KathU.2.3.1–3 wherein this one is also called ‘prāṇa’), whom there are none that could stand as a second, alone rules (īśate) through its powers (the devatās) over all these worlds. This one is present within all creatures. Manifesting and remaining as the protector (gopā) over all these worlds, withdraws (sañcukoca) (them into itself) at the end of time (the cyclic universal resolution).🔗
SvetU.3.3
Having all eyes and (uta) all faces, arms, feet everywhere, this one Lord (deva) roars them together (saṃ dhamati, from √dhmā nāde to make a sound, to blow, simply by Rudra thinking them into manifestation as the various names and forms according to their karma) with arms and roars them together (saṃ [dhamati]) with wings (patatras), while creating heaven and earth (dyāvā-bhūmī).🔗
SvetU.3.4
May the one who creates (prabhava) and supports (udbhava) these deities, who is the Lord of the universe, who is Rudra (who removes the unhelpful and who resolves everything back into itself), who is the one who sees all, and who has first manifested as Hiraṇya-garbha, please may this one endow us with only pure (śubha) thoughts (so that we can know You more clearly).🔗
SvetU.3.5
O Rudra, O Giri-śaṃ-ta (who spreads, tanoti, auspiciousness from the mountains, or who pervades as the auspicious in the voice, gir, in the form of the Vedas), with Your auspicious form (śivā tanū, from such expressions come the later Purāṇa titles of the Lord as Lord Siva and Giri-śa) which is not dreadful (a-ghorā, does not prematurely destroy us), which manifests as other than the unpleasant (a-pāpa), with only that most peaceful (śaṃtamā) form please reveal (Yourself).🔗
SvetU.3.6
O Lord of the mountains (giri-saṃ-ta, revealer of the teaching), the arrow (iṣu, myself as one who meditates upon You, MunU.2.2.4) which You hold in Your hand to shoot (astave, vedic dative infinitive, Practical Sanskrit Grammar Appendix III 13.b., MacDonell) please make it (me) auspicious (śivā). O mountain protector, may You not bring (premature) harm to mankind or the world.🔗
SvetU.3.7
Higher than that (Lord Rudra, part of the triad SvetU.1.7) knowing (jñātvā) the ultimate brahman (limitless reality, nir-guṇa-brahman) as the vast (bṛhat, all of nature), as the one (individual) hidden (mistaken) as the assembled body and mind (yathā-nikāya) in all beings, and as the one Lord (Īśa, the sa-guṇa-brahman) that pervades the universe – then one is that immortal (since there is nothing else than that brahman, I must be that).🔗
SvetU.3.8
I know this limitless puruṣa (brahman), whose brilliance is (like) the sun, beyond darkness (ignorance). Having known that alone, one goes beyond death (ignorance). There is no other means (na anyaḥ panthā) for reaching (beyond death including brahma-loka that is a heaven within saṃsāra, than knowing this puruṣa).
(Not by doing, thinking or meditating – though it takes action, thinking and meditating to come to, ponder and repeatedly try to assimilate this teaching. In other words, the goal is knowing and thus being brahman, not doing a ritual, being a scriptural scholar, or being a meditator.)
🔗
SvetU.3.9
There is nothing superior (para) or other (apara) than this. Nothing more subtle (aṇīya) or senior (jyāyas). It is present in heaven, one only, immovable like a tree. By that puruṣa all this is filled (pūrṇa).🔗
SvetU.3.10
This which is far beyond that (triad) has no form (rūpa) and thus no ailment. Those who know this one (as themselves) are immortal, but others enter (remain) only into affliction (being identified with the decaying and dying).🔗
SvetU.3.11
(Being the Lord) it is all faces, heads, and necks, resides in the heart (guhā, the intellect, as I) of all beings, is all-pervasive (sarva-vyāpin), and has all glories (bhagavat, as the Lord it has all allotments), therefore it is present everywhere (sarva-gata) and auspicious (śiva).🔗
SvetU.3.12
The puruṣa is indeed the limitless master (prabhu, the Lord). It is the prime mover (pravartaka) of the mind (sattva, all entities including the mind). As the immutable light (jyoti which is unblinking consciousness) it is the one owning (īśāna) the attainment that is this complete purity (from ignorance).
(The intellect can become a degree more pure by removing confusions, but only the conscious being which is oneself is the complete purity sought by the intellect.)
🔗
SvetU.3.13
The puruṣa (as an object of meditation) is imagined (abhikḷipta) by the mind as the heart (hṛdā) which is the intellect (man-īṣā) to be the size of the thumb, (yet) is the self within (antar-ātman) which is always present in the heart (hṛdaya) of all beings (thus lacks a size limit). Those who know this are immortal.🔗
SvetU.3.14
The puruṣa (who is yourself) has thousands of (i.e., countless) heads, thousands of eyes, and thousands of feet. This one envelops (vṛtvā) the entire universe, yet extends beyond (this largest limit) by ten fingers (i.e., is limitless, as it includes the unmanifest universe and the Lord, and thus is beyond time and space).🔗
SvetU.3.15
The puruṣa (yourself) indeed is all this, whatever was and will be. Also, it is the lord of immortality. It is whatever (mortal or deity) that grows by food (anna, all matter, everything that has a form, AitU.1.2.1 & 1.3.1–2 ).🔗
SvetU.3.16
With hands and feet everywhere, with eyes, heads, and mouths everywhere, with ears everywhere, that one remains encompassing everything in the universe (BhG.13.13).🔗
SvetU.3.17
It appears as the attributes (the functioning – seeing, etcetera) of all the organs, (yet) is free from all the organs (BhG.13.14). This one is the lord (prabhu, the power) of all, the ruler (īśāna), the refuge (śaraṇa), and friend (suhṛd) of all.🔗
SvetU.3.18
That one within this body with its nine gates (nava-dvāra, seven on the head and two below, BhG.5.13) is the haṃsa (the swan, the consciousness, via the mind and senses) who traverses (lelāyate, sports about) every world (the known universe and the heavens). That one is the (unaffected) master (vaśin) over the entire universe, both the immovable and movable.🔗
SvetU.3.19
Without hands and feet it grasps and moves, without eyes it sees, without ears it hears (cf. SvetU.3.16). That one knows (all that is) knowable, yet there is no knower of that one (consciousness itself). That one is said to exist from the beginning (agrya), the limitless puruṣa (SvetU.3.8).🔗
SvetU.3.20
Subtler than the subtlest, and greater than the greatest (i.e., limitless). The ātman (consciousness being) (seems) hidden in the cave (guhā, cave of the heart, the intellect) of the person when born (jantu). (With knowledge) one is freed from sorrow (identification with sorrowful limitations) and comes to appreciate (paśyati) that desireless (a-kratu, a-saṅkalpa) and limitless (mahiman) Lord (Īśa, brahman) from the grace (prasāda) of the creator (dhātṛ, the Lord who has provided all possibilities).🔗
SvetU.3.21
I know this undecaying (a-jara), ancient (purāṇa, ever present) self of all, that is present in all because it is all-pervasive (vibhutva, manifests variously as all, i.e., is uncontained), which the knowers of brahman declare to be the absence of birth (janma-nirodha), because it is declared to be free from time (nitya).🔗

Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad Adhyāya 4

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SvetU.4.1
The one who is formless (a-varṇa), by means of its powers (śakti-yoga) and with manifest purpose (nihita-artha), manifests (dadhāti, allots according to karma) the various, countless forms (varṇas, coverings). And in the end that Lord (deva) deconstructs (vi eti) the universe into the ādi (the beginning, into itself as the unmanifest out of which all this is manifested). Please may this one endow us with only pure (śubha) thoughts (so that we can know You more clearly, SvetU.3.4).🔗
SvetU.4.2
That alone is (the deity and manifest) Fire (Agni), is Sun (Āditya), is Wind (Vāyu), is the Moon (Candramas), is Śukra (Venus, Soma, or the Milky Way cloud above the solar luminaries), is Lord Brahman (Hiraṇya-garbha), is Water (Āp), and is Prajā-pati (Virāṭ, TaitU.2.8.4).🔗
SvetU.4.3
You are the woman, the man, the boy, and the girl. You are the old man who totters with a cane. You are the one born with Your face turned in every direction.🔗
SvetU.4.4
You are the blue winged, and the green (parrot) with red eyes. You are the thunder cloud (taḍid-garbha), the seasons (ṛtus), and the oceans. You are without beginning. You exist infinitely (vibhutvena, spacewise and timewise). You are the one from whom all worlds are born.🔗
SvetU.4.5
There is one unborn (female, prakṛti) consisting of red, white, and black (the three guṇas: rajas, sattva, tamas, respectively, ChanU.6.4.1), who produces many offspring like herself (sa-rūpa, with these three guṇas), whom the one unborn (jīva-ātman, person) loves and lies with (her, YS.2.7–8). (Whereas) there is another unborn (wise person, one who has renounced Māyā through knowledge) who after having enjoyed (her), dismisses (her).🔗
SvetU.4.6
Two beautiful winged birds are (always born) together as companions (and as having the same name, “I,” sa-khāya, samāna-ākhyāna). Both are perched on the same tree (of saṃsāra, depicted as the Peepal tree, the aśvattha tree). Of the two, one (the jīva-ātman) enjoys the pleasant (svādu) fruit (of action) of the Peepal tree. The other (the Lord, the parama-ātman) simply witnesses without experiencing (an-aśnan, MunU.3.1.1).🔗
SvetU.4.7
On the same tree, one person is depressed (nimagna), and without lordship (over hardly anything), this deluded one grieves. When this one knows as clear as seeing the other one, the worshipful Lord (Īśa) as “the one who has (all) the glory (mahiman),” this one becomes free from grief (replacing the misplaced “I” from the individual to the total) (MunU.3.1.1).🔗
SvetU.4.8
Of what use (kiṃ kariṣyati) are the Ṛcs (the Veda mantras) to the one who does not know (na veda) that (tam, Lord) in the indestructible, vast space (vyoman = vyomni, TaitU.2.1.1, in the heart, or does not know that as the space[-like brahman] in the still and vast [guhā, cave of the intellect]), in which (brahman) all the Ṛcs (Vedas) and the gods (devas) reside (adhi niṣeduḥ). Only those very ones who know that (tad brahman) reside (there as that brahman).🔗
SvetU.4.9
(Of the two in SvetU.4.7, the Lord and the individual:)
The Chandas (Vedas), yajñas (Veda rituals), kratus (non-Veda ceremonies), religious vows, what was and what will be, whatever (heavens and deities) the Vedas reveal, all the universe and us – the Māyin (the Lord wielding Māyā as its twofold power of manifestation, in the form of veiling the one reality and projecting multiplicity) manifests. The other (the individual, jīva-ātman) within that (projection) is bound (to that projection) by Māyā (the veiling).
(Since knowledge alone frees, SvetU.4.7, then it is the veiling what needs to be penetrated, the projection cannot block the knowledge, so it does not have to go away for one to remain wise, while perched on the tree of saṃsāra.)
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SvetU.4.10
One should know Māyā as mother nature (Prakṛti), and the limitless Lord as having Māyā within. This entire universe is covered as being just aspects (avayas) of that (Lord).🔗
SvetU.4.11
One completely attains this peace (sānti, freedom from grief), seeing (nicāyya) that shining (deva), worshipful, blessing-bestowing Lord (Īśāna), who is the one alone (eka) who presides in (adhitiṣṭhati) each and every source (yoni), within which all this resolves (vi [eti]) and manifests (eti).🔗
SvetU.4.12
Rudra is this creator and supporter of the deities, the viśva-adhipa (Lord, protector over all), the one who sees all, who saw Hiraṇya-garbha being (re)born. Please may this one endow us with only pure (śubha) thoughts (so that we can know You more clearly, SvetU.4.1).🔗
SvetU.4.13
Whoever is the Lord of the deities, in whom all the worlds reside, who rules the bipeds and quadrupeds in this world – unto whoever that deva is may we offer our oblations.🔗
SvetU.4.14
After knowing (jñātvā) the one who is subtler than the subtle, who in the midst of chaos (kalila, the unmanifest holding all possibilities) manifests the universe, who assumes countless forms (an-eka-rūpa), and who being one envelopes all this, then this (knower) attains complete, auspicious peace (śānti).🔗
SvetU.4.15
That one alone is the preserver of the universe in time, the Lord (adhipa) of the universe, (as though) hidden in all beings. Knowing in this way the one (Lord) in whom all the sages of the Vedas and the deities are united, one cuts the noose (pāśas) of death.🔗
SvetU.4.16
After knowing (jñātvā) the one beyond the subtle, like the essence (maṇḍa, sāra) finer than ghee (the finest that action can churn from milk), who is auspicious (śiva), (as though) hidden in all beings (yet can be revealed by knowledge), who being one envelopes all this, this knower of the Deva is freed from all nooses (pāśas, of Death).🔗
SvetU.4.17
This Deva, the creator of the universe, the ultimate ātman, always dwells in the heart (intellect) of beings. Only by the intellect (with the teaching) is (the nature of the self) made firmly known (abhikḷpta), which, being the master of the manas, the mind follows (into contemplation). Those who know this (ātman), attain (their factual nature) as timeless (KathU.2.3.9).🔗
SvetU.4.18
When the darkness (tamas, ignorance) is gone, then the (separate notions of) day and night, as well as being and nonbeing are gone (all pairs of opposites, all dualities, SvetU.5.1). The only (reality) is just this śiva (the auspicious). That is indestructible (a-kṣara). That is (the effulgence) to be worshipped of the sun (savitur vareṇyam, Gāyatrī Mantra, Ṛg Veda 3.62.10). From that, this ancient knowledge has manifested.🔗
SvetU.4.19
None can grasp this (dimensionless) one above, across or in the middle. There is no likeness (pratimā, equivalent) of that (one and only), whose name (nature) is great glory (mahat, yaśas).🔗
SvetU.4.20
It has no form that can be within the scope of vision. No one sees it with the eyes. Those who know this one by the intellect (hṛd, through the teaching), followed by the mind (SvetU.4.17), as present in the heart (the intellect, as “I,” conscious being itself), in that way are immortal.🔗
SvetU.4.21
Some out of (a healthy) fear (of these nooses of death in saṃsāra) approach (You) as the one free from death (a-jāta). O Rudra, always protect me with Your benevolent face (Your south-facing teaching form as the Daksiṇa-mūrthi form).🔗
SvetU.4.22
O Rudra, towards our children and grandchildren, our lives, our cows and horses, may you not harm (mā rīriṣaḥ). May you not kill (mā vadhīḥ) our heroes out of wrath. We invoke You always (sadam) indeed with offerings.🔗

Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad Adhyāya 5

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SvetU.5.1
Both knowledge (vidyā) and ignorance (a-vidyā) lie hidden* (not manifest) in the imperishable, limitless (an-anta), ultimate reality (brahma-para, the ultimate which is brahman). Ignorance is the perishable (kṣara, i.e., is actually a reality claim of its relative lack of survivability in time); knowledge is the immortal (a-mṛta, a relative reality status)**. Different (anya, from both) is that (Lord) which rules (īśate) both knowledge and ignorance (and which is the whole reality of both).
*(From the perspective of the whole there is only facts, only reality, only knowledge, only satyaṃ jñānam anantaṃ brahman.)
**(Degrees of distinctions enter only from the relative perspectives and opinions of individuals, as modifications of the mind. The truth of these perspectives and opinions lies in their fact of being relative and temporary. If they are taken as being absolute, this mistake keeps individuals in the relative world of saṃsāra, ruled by their own opinions. The Lord is what does not and can not fall under such a spell.)
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SvetU.5.2
The (Lord) who is one only presides over (adhitiṣṭhati) every source (yoni, womb), and who is all forms (rūpas) and all sources (they being just aspects of the Lord from different perspectives). This is the one who alone could witness (paśyet) the first born, golden (kapila) seer (ṛṣi, Hiraṇya-garbha also called Lord Brahmā, not the sage Kapila, unless he is taken as an avatāra of Hiraṇya-garbha, in which case, Him being the total Mind, we all are His avatāra) and endows (bibharti) this one being born with every kind of knowledge (the four Vedas onward that occurs in the subtle mind, MunU.1.1.1 & .5).🔗
SvetU.5.3
(Just to be sure we are not talking about sage Kapila:)
Repeatedly spreading out the net (jāla, the Indra-jāla, the blinding net of appearances) one after another, this Lord (deva) withdraws it into this ground (kṣetra, into itself). Repeatedly manifesting (sṛṣṭvā, the manifestations of creation) via the Lords of creatures (patayaḥ, Prajā-patis, AitU.3.1.3, in each cycle), the Lord (Īśa) as the limitless self (mahā-ātman) continues the over-lordship (ādhipatyaṃ kurute) of all (through these appearances).
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SvetU.5.4
Lighting up all directions – up, down, and across – the one who shines (powerfully) like a bull (in a field of cows), that Lord shining (deva, as conscious being) in this way, the one to be chosen (vareṇya, SvetU.4.18), is the one alone (eka) who presides in (adhitiṣṭhati) all that have the nature of being sources (yonis).🔗
SvetU.5.5
The (single) source (yoni) of everything who ripens (pacati, contemplates, tapas atapyata PrasU.1.4, TaitU.2.6.1) (everything’s) nature (sva-bhāva, according to the order of karma from the unmanifest) and (thus) who would (appropriately) mature all those who are to be matured (according to their karma, one way or the other). This one presides over all this universe and (thus) would appropriately distribute all the guṇas (the earned mixtures of sattva-rajas-tamas).🔗
SvetU.5.6
That one (brahman) is hidden (as it requires a teacher to unlock the teaching) in the Upaniṣads that are secreted in the Vedas (often not properly distinguished from the rest of the ritual mantras, and which throughout history required private initiation into the teaching). Lord Brahmā (Hiraṇya-garbha) knows it as the source of Brahman (the Vedas, or the source of Himself). Those devas and seers who long ago knew that one became the nature of it (tanmaya), (thus) are immortal.🔗
SvetU.5.7
(Whereas) the individual who identifies with the guṇas, who takes oneself alone (instead of the Lord) as the creator (kartṛ) and enjoyer (bhoktṛ) of the results of one’s action, wanders (saṃcarati, in saṃsāra) as every form (viśva-rūpa, thus identified with) consisting of the three guṇas within the three paths (vartmans, up to heavens, across to human births, or down to lower births), according to one’s own actions, ruling (only) one’s own life (instead of being the Lord of all life).🔗
SvetU.5.8
This one is (wrongly) considered (dṛṣṭa) as other (apara, than the Lord, than brahman): (as if) the size of a thumb (as the one only within this heart), as a form like the sun (outside), as endowed with desire and I-notion, as with the qualities of the mind, as with the qualities of the body, and as being the size of tip of an awl (ārā).🔗
SvetU.5.9
That individual (jīva) is to be known as a fraction (bhāga) of a hundredth part of the tip of a hair (bāla = vāla) divided a hundred (more) times and (at the same time) is considered limitless (ānantya, dimensionless).🔗
SvetU.5.10
That one is neither female, nor male, nor neuter. Whatever body it takes (ādatte, takes birth as), with that it is naturally identified (yujyate).🔗
SvetU.5.11
(Just as) there arises the growth of the body through the power (vṛṣṭi, aiśvarya) of food and drink (during this life), (similarly) through the (power of) desiring, experiencing, witnessing and delusion, the embodied one (dehin) successively (anukrameṇa), according to its karma takes birth as (various) forms in (various) locations (BhG.2.22).🔗
SvetU.5.12
The embodied one (dehin) (in effect) chooses (vṛṇoti, determines) the many forms (of rebirth) physical and subtle (on earth and in heavens) according to one’s innate guṇas (one’s saṃskāras, innate tendencies from prior births), and the qualities of (one’s current) actions (kriyā) and mind (ātman). The reason of this identity (saṃyoga-hetu) in these (forms) is considered as something other (apara, as other than not knowing the Lord within, or as due to nature instead of one being in fact the unborn Lord free from nature).🔗
SvetU.5.13
The one who knows (jñātvā) this deva (as oneself, SvetU.3.7), who has no beginning or end (anādi-ananta), who in the midst of chaos (kalila, the unmanifest holding all possibilities) manifests the universe, who assumes countless forms (an-eka-rūpa), and who being one envelopes all this (SvetU.4.14), then this (knower) attains freedom from all nooses (pāśas, of death, SvetU.4.16).🔗
SvetU.5.14
Those who know (viduḥ) the deva who is to be attained by owning it (bhāva-grāhya, by being it with all one’s heart), who has no abode (a-nīḍa, no nest) and is nameless (a-khya, words cannot depict), who is the cause of being and nonbeing (the pairs of opposites, SvetU.4.18), who is auspicious, who is the cause of the kalās (the sixteen parts of the universe, ṣoḍaśa-anta SvetU.1.4 & PrasU.6.4,), then these (knowers) are freed (jahuḥ) from the body.🔗

Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad Adhyāya 6

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SvetU.6.1
Some confused (parimuhyamāna, SvetU.1.2) thinkers (kavis) say nature (sva-bhāva, i.e., karma, SvetU.5.5, or the guṇas, Māyā, prakṛti, pradhāna) alone and others say time (kāla) is that by which the cycle of the universe (brahma-cakra) revolves, instead of this greatness (mahiman, SvetU.4.7) in the world that (inseparably) belongs to the deva (per SvetU.6.2).🔗
SvetU.6.2
The one by whom all this is always enveloped, who is knowing (jña, the all) and knows everything (sarva-vid in detail, MunU.2.2.7), who is that which makes time time (kāla-kāla, the Lord of time), who wields the guṇas (wields prakṛti), and that by which karma is ruled – one should know (cintya) this (deva, Lord) as the one who only appears (vivartate, without changing, since it is ultimate unchanging basis of all this, SvetU.1.7) in the form of (the elements) earth, water, fire, wind, and space.🔗
SvetU.6.3
That one (appearing) to do this action (karma) while still resting (vinivartya, as the knowing being, satyaṃ jñānam), it “enters in union” (yogaṃ sametya) as the truth (tattva, the ātman, the reality) of the nature of all these (of the tattvas) – (variously considered) as one, as two, as three, or as eight (tattvas, categories of things, BhG.7.4), as well as time or the subtle qualities (guṇas) of the mind.🔗
SvetU.6.4
The one who initiates the activities (which is the fluctuating imbalance of the guṇas’ previously flatline unmanifest state) associated with the guṇas, who orders (rules) all these entities (bhāvas, tattvas, via the guṇas fluctuations), and in their absence (a-bhāva, of their activities, when the guṇas go back into flatline equilibrium, into unmanifest potential) is the destruction (resolution) of the activities (fluctuations) that were done, and yet (all the while this one, the Lord) remains apart from (anya, apara other than, as has been told SvetU.3.9, 5.8 & 5.12, BhG.8.20) these tattvas, even after their actions have merge (into it).🔗
SvetU.6.5
At first contemplating (pūrvam upāsya) on that praiseworthy deva (Lord) as having all forms (viśva-rūpa) and being the source of all beings (bhava-bhūta), and as being present in one’s mind (citta, hṛd, the intellect), (then, from purity of intellect, by the Lord’s teaching and good grace) that one (Lord) is seen (known as clear as seeing) as the source (ādi, the beginning, the material source as Māyā) and instrumental reason for the identity (saṃyoga-nimitta-hetu, for the confusion of all these forms with the oneself, with ātman, SvetU.5.12, by being the witnessing-being present amidst the temporal forms), even though that (Lord) is beyond (para) the three periods of time (tri-kāla: past, present and future, in which case gaining or losing a form is impossible) and (therefore) has no forms (a-kala, no divisions, and since time and space is only present during the manifestation of the universe which itself comes and goes).🔗
SvetU.6.6
Knowing (jñātvā) that one as other (antya) and beyond (para, on a higher, inclusive level of reality, not just equally separate) from this tree (of saṃsāra, KathU.2.3.1, BhG.15.1) consisting of time and form (kāla-ākṛti), as this one from whom the (five-element) universe (prapañca) proceeds, the bringer (āvaha) of dharma (what supports us) and the remover (nuda) of pāpa (what we try to get away from), the Lord having all virtues, as present in oneself (ātma-stha) and immortal, (yet) the abode of everything (– then this knower is that very one, immortal).🔗
SvetU.6.7
May we know (vidāma, as ourselves) that one who is the limitless Lord (Maheśvara) superior to all other lords, the divinity (daivata) superior to all the deities, the master of masters superior to all others, the shinning one (deva), the praiseworthy Lord of creation.🔗
SvetU.6.8
That one has no effect (kārya, is uneffected) and no cause (karaṇa, is uncaused) (or, has no physical body, kārya, nor subtle body, karaṇa). An equal to it (tat-sama) or superior is not seen (known). Great power of all variety is said (by authoritative scripture) to belong only to this one (not to any other entity), which is inherent (svābhāvikī) and in the form of all knowledge, strength, and action.🔗
SvetU.6.9
That one has no master (pati, no protector or owner) in this world, nor a ruler (īśitṛ). Nor has it any indication (liṅga, by which this one can be inferred, apart from the authoritative scripture to declare the nature of this Lord and one’s identity to the Lord). That one is the cause (kāraṇa, of everything else). It is the lord of this subtle body (karaṇa, here itself). Nor does it have a father (janitṛ, or a mother), nor an overlord (adhipa) here.🔗
SvetU.6.10
The one deva who, like a spider (tūrṇa-nābha = tantu-nābha) with its threads, obscures (āvṛṇoti) itself naturally with the effects of pradhāna (nature, prakṛti). May that one grant us entry in brahman (brahma-apyaya, identity in brahman).🔗
SvetU.6.11
The one (eka) shining being (deva) is the one who is (as though) hidden in all beings, pervading all as the self (ātman) within all beings, the seer (adhyakṣa) of all activities, the inhabitant (adhivāsa) of all beings, the witness (sākṣin), the knower (cetṛ), complete (kevala), and without attributes (nir-guṇa).🔗
SvetU.6.12
This is the one controller (vaśin) of the inactive multitude (i.e., all things, since they only move by the order of cosmic intelligence, the Lord). This is the one seed (bīja) which manifests in all ways. Those discerning ones (dhīras) who accordingly know (anupaśyanti, in keeping with this teaching) that one as being present within themselves (ātma-stha), they alone have lasting satisfaction (śāśvataṃ sukham, “always in a good space,” su-kha), not so the others.🔗
SvetU.6.13
It is the nitya of the nityas (the eternal reality, satyam anantam brahma, which allows anything to be long lived or eternal). It is cetana of the cetanas (the consciousness which allows anything to be conscious). It is the one alone which variously manifests (vidadhāti, allots according to karma, SvetU.4.1) the objects of desire to the many. Knowing the deva as the cause (kāraṇa) of all these (not prakṛti, pradhāna, SvetU.4.10, SvetU.6.10), which is to be comprehended by the means of this teaching (sāṇkhya-yoga)*, one is freed from all nooses (pāśas, of death).
*(Sāṇkhya-yoga means samyak khyāti “the complete and effective teaching” here in the Upaniṣads SvetU.5.6 & BhG.2.39. It also can mean samyak khyāyate “what is completely and well told,” this brahma-ātman. It would not mean a later developing school of thought that called itself Sāṇkhya, which obviously borrowed a few phrases, including their name, from this Upaniṣad, since that philosophy accepts duality as ultimately real and does not accept a Lord which manifests as this universe, and therefore is clearly in contradiction to this teaching here. The means, yoga, for comprehending, starts with a simple, clean life leading to contemplating the teaching, SvetU.2.13, YS.1.1 & BhG.5.4–6.)
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SvetU.6.14
The sun does not illumine that (ātman), nor the moon or stars. These flashes of lightning do not illumine (ātman). What to speak of this small flame. Everything shines after that (brahma-ātman) alone that has ever been the shinning. By the light of that (limitless consciousness being), all this shines distinctly elsewhere (KathU.2.2.15, MunU.2.2.10, BhG.15.6).🔗
SvetU.6.15
That one (deva) is (yourself) the individual traveler (haṃsa, swan, i.e., the ātman, SvetU.3.18) in the midst of this universe. That one is the agni (the “small” worshipful light, the consciousness being, yourself, SvetU.6.14) present in the waters (salila, the elements water, etcetera, KathU.2.1.6). There is no other means (na anyaḥ panthā) for reaching (beyond death, than knowing this deva, SvetU.3.8).🔗
SvetU.6.16
That one is the creator of all and is the knower of the all (as itself, SvetU.6.2). That one is the source of itself (ātma-yoni, i.e., uncaused). It is what makes time time (kāla-kāla, the Lord of time), wields the guṇas (wields Prakṛti), and knows everything (sarva-vid in detail, SvetU.6.2). That one is the master (pati) of nature and the knowers of this field of nature (pradhāna-kṣetrajña, BhG.13.1). It is the Lord of the guṇas (that make up pradhāna). It is the reason for bondage (bandha) of remaining in, as well as for the freedom (mokṣa) from, saṃsāra (i.e., it is the appearance of bondage, and the appearance of the teaching which frees from that appearance, that ignorance).🔗
SvetU.6.17
It has only the nature of itself (tanmaya, not of any apparent limitation), since it is timeless (a-mṛta) and abides as the Lord (Īśa-saṃstha). It is the knower of all, all-pervading, and the protector (goptṛ) of this universe. It is ever (nityam) the ruler of this universe, and there is no other agent (hetu) for this ruling.🔗
SvetU.6.18
Desiring only freedom (mumukṣu) may I take refuge to that deva who lights my mind within (ātma-buddhi-prakāśa), who manifested in the beginning (pūrvam) Lord Brahmā (Hiraṇya-garbha) and bestowed the Vedas to Him.🔗
SvetU.6.19
…And who is partless, actionless, tranquil, faultless and taintless, and who is the ultimate bridge (setu) to deathless, and who is like a fire (an-alam) that consumes it own fuel (the knowledge that consumes my ignorance that begs to be torched).🔗
SvetU.6.20
When people (impossibly) could roll up space like an āsana pad (carman), would there be an end to misery, without clearly knowing the deva (within all).🔗
SvetU.6.21
By the power of his disciplines (tapas, karma-yoga and jñāna-yoga, a disciplined life and disciplined contemplation) and by the grace (prasāda) of the deva (the sāṅkhya, in the form of the teaching and the limitless reality which is taught), Śvetāśvatara became wise and then to those who have renounced even the notion of having a societal role (atyāśamins, those who have culminated their total renunciation) he fully taught this ultimate, purifying brahman, which the community of sages have chosen (to be their own ultimate and purifying nature, KathU.2.3.12).🔗
SvetU.6.22
This ultimate, hidden (brahman) which is proclaimed in Vedānta (the Upaniṣads) from olden times (in order to limit this teaching lineage from going wildly astray or abused over the ages) should not be given to those who have insufficient tranquility (a-praśānta), nor to an offspring who has gone astray (a-putra), nor again to someone who is not able or ready to be taught (a-śiṣya).🔗
SvetU.6.23
These truths taught (arthāḥ kathitāḥ) to an open-minded one (mahā-ātman) who has complete devotion in the deva, and as much in the teacher (guru) as in the deva, then those (truths) shine (are clear to such a one). The end.🔗

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Kaivalya Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 1

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KaivU.1.1
Thereafter (living a life that has led to and prepared the mind for this teaching), Aśvalāyana dutifully approached (upasametya) the Lord (Bhagavat) who is the ultimate creator and the ultimate sought (parameṣṭhi), and requested:
“Please teach me, O Lord, the brahma-vidyā (knowledge of ultimate reality) which is the most sought (variṣṭhā), which is kept protected (nigūḍhā, in their heart) yet ever worshiped by those committed to truth (the sadbhiḥ) (through their passing on this teaching of reality as presented in the Upaniṣads), by which, after not too long, the learned completely give up (vy-apohya) all karma demerit and attain the puruṣa (the one who fills all this universe) and who is the ultimate to the highest (in this universe).
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KaivU.1.2
That Grandfather (pitā-maha, the Lord, BhG.9.17) replied to him:
By the means (yoga) of śraddhā (trust in the teaching), bhakti (placing one’s full mind under the teaching’s direction, in full participation, bhajana), and dhyāna (ever keeping one’s mind on this teaching, living one’s life through the lens of this knowledge being taught) may one come to know (the teaching).
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KaivU.1.3
Not by action, progeny, or wealth, but by renunciation (tyāga, IsU.1, the renunciation of one’s identity with the confusions of ignorance) they (eke) have attained immortality (a-mṛtatvam, the nature of ātman) which is beyond heaven (pareṇa na-a-kam, no absence of pleasure, a lack of displeasure) and which is hidden in the cave (of the heart, the intellect as “I”). Into this (space, brahma-ātman, KathU.1.3.1, TaitU.1.6.1 & 2.1.1, SvetU.4.8) which shines there enter those who apply (appropriate) effort (yatis).🔗
KaivU.1.4
Having clearly ascertained the meaning of the science (vijñāna, the reality science) of Vedānta and who have clarity of mind (śuddha-sattva) through the yoga (discipline) of renunciation (sannyāsa), at the time of death they all are free and beyond the mortality found in the worlds of brahman (brahma-lokas, the heavens and earths manifest from brahman).🔗
KaivU.1.5
(The style of the following mantras consists of run-on a sentence that spans multiple lines, which makes the numbering and grouping of the lines into separate mantras not definitive and hence varies per the textual editors. Here, ellipses (…) are used to show the flow of linked mantras. If the style is on purpose, then it would be to mimic the continuous, unbroken flow of thought during meditation.)
In a clean, secluded space, seated comfortably (sukha-āsana-stha), with neck, head and trunk in line (BhG.6.13), who (at least during this time) are not identified with their social roles (antya-āśrama-stha), restraining all of their senses (from wandering undisciplined out into the world), with dedication (bhaktyā) and serving (praṇamya) one’s teacher (guru)…
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KaivU.1.6
…Contemplating (vicintya) (until) the lotus like heart (hṛd-puṇḍarīka, i.e., the open, mature mind arisen from the mundane mire) is free of agitation and pure, (then) madhye (within that) upon the (Lord) bright one (vi-śada), free of sorrow (vi-śoka) (i.e., the Lord there in the heart), who cannot be an object of thinking (a-cintya, since it is the consciousness that reveals all thoughts), who cannot be an object of the senses (a-vyakta, unmanifest), whose nature is limitless (an-anta-rūpa), is auspicious (śiva), peaceful (praśānta), immortal (a-mṛta), the source (yoni, the material cause) of even Lord Brahmā (the creator of this current universe, Hiraṇya-garbha, the Cosmic Mind that thinks all this into physical existence)…🔗
KaivU.1.7
…That one who has no beginning, middle or end, who is one only (eka, without a second, which is all of existence itself), exists everywhere (vibhu), who is consciousness (cit) and fullness (ānanda), has no form (a-rūpa), unprecedented (adbhuta = ati-bhuta), and who is the spouse of Goddess Umā (KenU.3.12 & 4.1), who is the ultimate Lord (Parameśvara), the Master (prabhu), the three-eyed (tri-locana), the blue-throated nīla-kaṇṭha), and clarity itself (praśānta) – contemplating (on each of these preceding expressions as contemplation mantras in the form, “The teaching is that this Lord within is the bright one, the vi-śada; I am in fact this bright one,” etcetera), such a contemplative one (muni) attains (in assimilated knowledge, “I am…”) the source of being (bhūta-yoni, the sat, satya, existence itself), the witness of all (samasta-sākṣi = -sākṣin), beyond the darkness (tamasaḥ parastāt SvetU.3.8, beyond ignorance, as knowledge, jñāna, itself; one also in the process reduces the tamas guṇa in the mind that hinders clarity).🔗
KaivU.1.8
That one is Lord Brahmā. That one is Lord Śiva (perhaps the earliest usage of Śiva as a title for the Lord in the Upaniṣads, along with the less definitive usage in Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad, ‘Śiva’ being more frequented in the Purāṇas). That one is with the title Lord Indra (KenU.3.11, the typical Veda Samhita title of the Lord of heaven, the Lord of lords). That one is the imperishable (a-kṣara, MunU.2.1.1), the ultimate (parama, most para), and is its own master (sva-rāj). That indeed is Viṣṇu (again perhaps the earliest usage of Viṣṇu as a title for the Lord in the Upaniṣads). That one is Prāṇa (PrasU.2.7, ChanU.1.11.5, BrhU.4.4.11, BrS.1.1.24). That one is time (kāla) itself. That one is the deity Agni (Fire) and Candramā (Moon).🔗
KaivU.1.9
That one is everything (sarva), whatever was (a-bhūta), is or will be (bhavya), and what always exists (sanā-tana, existing from old). Knowing that, one goes beyond death. There is no other means (na antyaḥ panthā, SvetU.3.8) to freedom.🔗
KaivU.1.10
Knowing (sampaśyan, as clear as seeing) the ultimate brahman (reality) as the ātman (self) residing in all beings (sarva-bhūta-stha), and all beings in oneself ātman, one attains (that brahman). There is no other means (na anyena hetunā, i.e., any other helpful means, such as karma, śraddhā, bhakti or dhyāna, without this knowledge, will not accomplish this highest goal)!
(Repetition of an idea or expression is the method for highlighting a most important part of the teaching.)
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KaivU.1.11
Making one’s mind (ātman) the (lower) fire-making block of wood (araṇi, adharāraṇi) and praṇava (Om) the upper churning stick, by the repetition (abhyāsa) of churning which is knowledge (jñāna, i.e., the contemplation here is not slowing or stopping the mind, or fixing it on some mental object, but rather the repetition of the teaching, the knowledge here summarized in the form of Om), the wise burn their karma demerit (or the noose, pāśa, of death).🔗
KaivU.1.12
That one alone is the (individual) one whose mind (ātman is completely confused (parimohita) by Māyā (contradicting appearances in the world, such as, “I appear to be the subject, but I also appear to be this object, as this body and mind,” a misapprehension of reality) and acts completely for continuance of (āsthāya) this body (as oneself). That one alone goes after satisfaction in the waking world (jāgrat) through various experiences of the opposite sex (strī), feast (anna), drink, etcetera (pāna-ādi, i.e., to eat, drink, and be merry).🔗
KaivU.1.13
That same is the individual (the jīva) in dream as the experiencer of joys and sorrows by its own māyā (contradicting appearances) within an imagined universe of the individual’s making. And at the time of deep sleep (suṣupti), when everything (the dream world) is resolved (from manifest to potential), one is overpowered by tamas (PrasU.4.6) and becomes that blissful ignorance therein (sukha-rūpa).
And the very same individual, by means of the karma from previous births (to continue the fructifying karma in this lifetime, i.e., with the ignorance intact), awakens (from the potential state, from blissful ignorance) and dreams again (or, the very same individual dreams again or wakes up).
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KaivU.1.14
That is the individual (jīva) who sports about in the three realms (puri-traya, the physical only when awake, the only mental when dreaming, and the only causal when in unmanifest potential of deep sleep). Whereas, (that individual is in fact the Lord) from which all varieties have sprung, who remains as the basis (ādhāra, of everything) and is the satisfaction (ānanda, in which all take rest), who is the a-khaṇḍa-bodha (the indivisible truth, wherein this knowledge resides, YS.3.35 a-khaṇḍa-ākāra-vṛtti), and in which the three realms resolve (layaṃ yāti).🔗
KaivU.1.15
From this (Lord) is (materially) born (manifests) prāṇa (life energy), mind and all the organs of sensing and acting, as well as (the elements) space (dimension), wind (movement), heat (and light), water (fluidity), and as earth (solidity, also may be considered gravity or mass) which supports all.🔗
KaivU.1.16
That which is the ultimate reality (brahman) and the self of all, which is the vast abode of the universe, more subtle than the subtle – that is you, you are that (tat tvam eva tvam eva tat, clearly, that brahman = you, a full a-dvaita, not a part of the whole, in anticipation of certain confused Vedāntins, philosophers KaivU.1.12, and most of the modern academicians).🔗
KaivU.1.17
The one who lights up this expanse consisting of the waking, dream, and deep sleep, etc. (the heavens, etc.) – that brahman (reality) am I. Knowing this, one is free from all binds.🔗
KaivU.1.18
Different (vilakṣaṇa) from whatever is the experienced, the experiencer, and the experience, I am the witness (sākṣin), pure awareness (cinmātra), ever calm (sadā-śiva).🔗
KaivU.1.19
In me alone everything is born, in me everything is sustained, and in me everything is resolved. I am that brahman, without a second.🔗
KaivU.1.20
(Since I am unlimited in everyway) I am indeed subtler than the subtle, and in that same way I am the vast, diverse universe. I am the puruṣa that is always there (purā-tana). I am the Lord who shines (hiraṇmaya), as everything). I am ever calm.🔗
KaivU.1.21
Even without hands or feet I am incomprehensible power (a-cintya-śakti). (Being knowledge itself) Without sight I see, and without hearing I hear. (As the Lord and as ātman) I know everything in detail (hence, the satisfaction in knowing my knowledge lacks nothing), (yet) there is no knower of me (i.e., I am not a limited object of another knower), (since) I am always the (one and only) consciousness (cit, alone).🔗
KaivU.1.22
I am the one to be known through the (knowledge authority of) Vedas. I am the author of the Vedānta (the Upaniṣads), and I alone am the knower of the Vedas. I have no karma merit or demerit, no destruction or birth, (since) I have no body, senses, or mind (that are susceptible to these).🔗
KaivU.1.23
For me, there is no (element) earth, water, fire, wind, or space.🔗
KaivU.1.24
By knowing in this way (as oneself) the nature of the ultimate ātman, residing in the cave (guhā, of the intellect), partless and without a second (a-dvitīya), as the witness of all, apart from being and nonbeing (sad-asad, the pairs of opposites, SvetU.4.18) – one attains that pure nature of the ultimate ātman (i.e., knowing alone, one reaches the ultimate, KaivU.1.10).🔗

Kaivalya Upaniṣad Khaṇḍa 2

KaivU.2.01
The one who studies the Śata-rudriya (mantras revealing one-hundred forms of Rudra, as part of the Taittirīya Saṃhita of the Yajur-veda, connected with this Upaniṣad) gets purified by the fire (the agni-hotra ritual, presented therein), and purified of (any present or past life karma demerit) from drinking distilled spirits or stealing gold to the killing of a Brahmāṇa (a scriptural scholar), whether directly or indirectly (kṛtya-a-kṛtya, or, by commission or omission) – by that (preparation and from knowing this Upaniṣad teaching) one attains that which can never be given up (a-vimukta, i.e., one’s nature, ātman). One who would always repeat (japet, during contemplation), or (even) once (a first-time exposure to this teaching), rises above the social roles (ati-āśramin, KaivU.1.5).🔗
KaivU.2.02
By this (Kaivalya Upaniṣad teaching regarding brahman) is attained a knowledge that dispels the ocean of saṃsāra (the life of continual unbecoming becoming). Therefore, knowing in this way, one attains the goal (pada) (called) completeness (kaivalya, mokṣa, freedom).🔗

~English Upaniṣads~