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विवेक-चूडामणि

1–6 Brahma-niṣṭhā-mahattvam 7–17 Adhikārī 18–24 Guru 25–26 Praśnam 27–33 An-ātmā 34–38 Ātmā 39–44 Bandha 45–60 Ātma-an-ātma-viveka 61–65 Tvam-pada-artha 66–73 Tat-pada-artha 74–82 Asi-pada-artham 83–94 Jīvan-mukta-lakṣaṇam 95–100 Jīvan-mukta-prārabdham 101-108 Śāsana-upasaṃhāra

Format by A.K. Aruna, 2021 ver.4.0: UpasanaYoga. If downloaded, requires installed Devanāgarī Siddhanta1.ttf font, downloadable from UpasanaYoga. If run from UpasanaYoga website, it alternatively can use online Web Font. Any Devanāgarī in parentheses () is an alternate reading of text in Red. Top button "Collapse all panels" contracts the view in which individual items can be re-expanded, or again the top button "Restore all panels" reloads page to original view.

Viveka-Cūḍāmaṇi is attributed to Śrī Śaṅkarācarya. Here is a concise set of 108 verses from the original 581 selected by Swami Paramārthānanda. The Engligh translation is adapted from Swami Mādhavānanda (www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/vivekachudamani). The 108 numbering is shown in parenthesis with the matching verse number from the original, though there are variations such that Mādhavānanda’s numbering does not quite match the version that I had first adopted. The work is a showcase for various meter styles, which becomes more evident if you "Collapse" to just the verse view. In such a text it is not too uncommon to see different editions having different line numberings.

by A.K. Aruna
First Update to HTML Jan 2018 with Creative Commons International License:
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🔗  ओं, स॒ ह ना॑व् अवतु। स॒ ह नौ॑ भुनक्तु। स॒ह वी॒र्यं॑ करवावहै। ते॒ज॒स्विना॒व् अधी॑तम् अस्तु॒ मा वि॑द्विषा॒वहै᳚। ओं शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॑॥
Om; tad, ha, asmad, √av. Tad, ha, asmad, √bhuj. Saha, vīrya, √kṛ. Tejasvin, adhīta, √as, mā, vi-√dviṣ. Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

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The greatness of abiding in Brahman

vs.001 vs.002 vs.003 vs.004 vs.005 vs.006

sarva-veda-anta-siddha-anta-go-cara, tad, a-go-cara;
go-vinda, parama-ānanda, mad-guru, praṇata, √as, asmad.

तं सद्-गुरुं गो-विन्दं [परम-आत्मानं गोविन्द-आचर्य-नाम च] परम-आनन्दम् अ-गो-चरं [तथा अपि] सर्व-वेद-अन्त-सिद्ध-अन्त-गो-चरम् अहं प्रणतः अस्मि॥
1. I bow to Govinda, whose nature is Ultimate Fullness (Ānanda, Pūrṇatvam), who is the Sat-guru, who can be known only from the import of all Vedānta, and who is beyond the reach of speech and mind (on their own).

dus-labha, traya, eva, etad, deva-anugraha-hetuka;
manuṣyatva, mumukṣutva, mahā-puruṣa-saṃśraya.

मनुष्यत्वं मुमुक्षुत्वं महा-पुरुष-संश्रयः – एतद् त्रयं देव-अनुग्रह-हेतुकं दुस्-लभम् एव॥
3. There are three things which are rare indeed and are due to the grace of the Lord – namely, a human birth, the longing for Liberation, and the protecting care of a perfected sage.

labdhā, katham-cid, nara-janman, dus-labha,
tatra, api, puṃstva, śruti-pāra-darśana;
yad, sva-ātma-mukti, na, √yat, mūḍha-dhī,
tad, hi, ātma-han, sva, vi-ni-√han, a-sat-graha.

दुस्-लभं नर-जन्म कथम्-चिद् लब्ध्वा, तत्र अपि पुंस्त्वं [स्व-तन्त्रता-आदि-पुम्-प्रधान-धर्मी स्त्रियाम् अपि] श्रुति-पार-दर्शनं [लब्ध्वा], यः मूढ-धीः स्व-आत्म-मुक्त्यै न यतेत, सः आत्म-हा हि अ-सत्-ग्रहात् स्वं विनिहन्ति॥
4. The man who, having by some means obtained a human birth, with a human body and mastery of the Vedas to boot, is foolish enough not to exert himself for self-liberation, verily commits suicide, for that one kills himself by clinging to things unreal.

√paṭh, śāstra, √yaj, deva,
√kṛ, karman, √bhaj, devatā;
ātma-aikya-bodha, vinā, vimukti,
na, √sidh, brahma-śata-antare, api.

[जनाः] शास्त्राणि पठन्तु, देवान् यजन्तु, कर्माणि कुर्वन्तु, देवताः भजन्तु [ध्यायन्तु]। आत्म-ऐक्य-बोधेन विना विमुक्तिः न सिध्यति, ब्रह्म-शत-अन्तरे अपि॥
6. Let people quote the Scriptures and sacrifice to the gods, let them perform rituals and worship the deities, but there is no Liberation without the realisation of one’s identity with the Ātman, no, not even in the lifetime of a hundred Brahmās (Creation-Gods) put together.

citta, śuddhi, karman, na, tu, vastu-upalabdhi;
vastu-siddhi, vicārya, na kim-cid, karma-koṭi.

चित्तस्य शुद्धये कर्म [कर्म-योगः स्व-कर्म स-ईश्वर-अर्पण-बुद्धिः], न तु वस्तु-उपलब्धये। [श्रवण-मनन-निदिध्यासन-रूपेण] विचारेण [ज्ञान-योगेन इत्यर्थः] वस्तु-सिद्धिः, न किम्-चिद् कर्म-कोटिभिः॥
11. Work (Karma) can lead to purification of the mind, not to perception of the Reality. The realisation (siddhi) of Truth is brought about by discrimination and not in the least by ten million of acts.

atas, vicāra, karttavya, jijñāsu, ātma-vastu;
samāsādya, dayā-sindhu, guru, brahma-vid-uttama.

अतस् [यः] दया-सिन्धुं ब्रह्म-विद्-उत्तमं [श्रोत्रियं ब्रह्म-निष्टं च] गुरुं समासाद्य, [तस्य] जिज्ञासोः आत्म-वस्तुनः विचारः कर्त्तव्यः॥
15. Hence the seeker after the Reality of the Ātman should take to reasoning, after duly approaching the Guru – who should be the best of the knowers of Brahman, and an ocean of mercy.

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The qualified student

vs.007 vs.008 vs.009 vs.010 vs.011 vs.012 vs.013 vs.014 vs.015 vs.016 vs.017

adhikārin, ā-√śās, phala-siddhi, viśeṣatas;
upāya, deśa-kāla-ādi, √as, idam, saha-kārin.

फल-सिद्धिः अधिकारिणं [साधकं] विशेषतस् आशास्ते (आकाङ्क्षति)। अस्मिन् देश-काल-आद्याः सह-कारिणः उपायाः सन्ति॥
14. Success depends essentially on a qualified aspirant; time, place and other such means are but auxiliaries in this regard.

sādhana, atra, catur, kathina, manīṣin;
yad, sat, eva, sanniṣṭhā, yad-a-bhāva, na, √sidh.

अत्र मनीषिभिः चत्वारि साधनानि कथिनानि। येषु [साधनेषु] सत्वु एव सन्निष्ठा, यद्-अ-भावे न सिध्यति॥
18. Regarding this, sages have spoken of four means of attainment, which alone being present, the devotion to Brahman succeeds, and in the absence of which, it fails.

ādi, nitya-a-nitya-vastu-viveka, pari-√gaṇ;
iha-amutra-phala-bhoga-virāga, tad-an-antaram;
śama-ādi-ṣaṭka-sampatti, mumukṣutva, iti, sphuṭam.

आदौ नित्य-अ-नित्य-वस्तु-विवेकः, तद्-अन्-अन्तरम् इह-अमुत्र-फल-भोग-विरागः, शम-आदि-षट्क-सम्पत्तिः, मुमुक्षुत्वं [च] इति [साधन-चतुष्टयं (TatB.2)] स्फुटं परिगण्यते॥
19. First is enumerated discrimination (Viveka) between the Real and the unreal; next comes aversion (Vairāgya) to the enjoyment of fruits (of one’s actions) here and hereafter; (next is) the group of six attributes, viz. calmness (Śama) and the rest; and (last) is clearly the yearning for Liberation (Mumukṣutvam).

brahman, satya, jagat, mithyā, iti, evam-rūpa, viniścaya;
tad, idam, nitya-a-nitya-vastu-viveka, samudāhṛta.

ब्रह्म सत्यं जगत् मिथ्या इति एवम्-रूपः विनिश्चयः [इति] सः अयं नित्य-अ-नित्य-वस्तु-विवेकः समुदाहृतः (TatB.3)॥
20. A firm conviction (Viniścaya, determination, not just a belief) of the mind to the effect that ‘Brahman is real and the universe unreal’ (Brahma Satyaṃ Jagan Mithyā), is designated as discrimination (Viveka) between the Real and the unreal.

tad, vairāgya, jihāsā, yad, darśana-śravaṇa-ādi;
deha-ādi-brahma-paryanta, hi, a-nitya, bhoga-vastu.

देह-आदि-ब्रह्म-पार्यन्ते हि अ-नित्ये भोग-वस्तुनि दर्शन-श्रवण-आदिभिः या जिहासा, तद् [इह-अमुत्र-फल-भोग-]वैराग्यम् (TatB.4)॥
21. Vairāgya or renunciation is the desire to give up all transitory enjoyments (ranging) from those of an (animate) body to those of Brahmā-hood (having already known their defects) from observation, instruction and so forth.

virajya, viṣaya-vrāta, doṣa-dṛṣṭi, muhur, muhur;
sva-lakṣya, niyata-avasthā, manas, śama, √vac.

मुहुर् मुहुर् दोष-दृष्ट्या विषय-व्रातात् (विषय-गणात्) विरज्य, [तस्य] मनसः स्व-लक्ष्ये नियत-अवस्था [इति] शमः उच्यते (TatB.6)॥
22. The resting of the mind steadfastly on its Goal (viz. Brahman) after having detached itself from manifold sense-objects by continually observing their defects, is called Śama or calmness.

viṣaya, parāvartya, sthāpana, sva-sva-golaka;
ubhaya, indriya, tad, dama, parikīrtita.

विषयेभ्यः परावर्त्य, [तेषाम्] उभयेषां [ज्ञान-कर्म-]इन्द्रियाणां स्व-स्व-गोलके स्थापनम् [इति] सः दमः परिकीर्तितः (TatB.7)॥
23. Turning both kinds of powers (of acting as well as sensing) away from their spheres and placing them in their respective centres (instead of uncontrollably running after their objects), is called Dama or self-control.

bāhya-an-ālambana, vṛtti, etad, uparati, uttamā;
sahana, sarva-duḥkha, a-pratikāra-pūrvaka;
cintā-vilāpa-rahita, tad, titikṣā, ni-√gad.

वृत्तेः बाह्य-अन्-आलम्बनम् [अ-प्राप्त-विषय-अन्य-धर्म-आदि-बाह्य-अन्-आसक्तिः इति] एषा उत्तमा उपरतिः (TatB.8)। सर्व-दुःखानां सहनम् अ-प्रतिकार-पूर्वकं चिन्ता-विलाप-रहितम् [इति] सा तितिक्षा निगद्यते (उच्यते ) (TatB.9)॥
23. The best Uparati or self-withdrawal consists in the mind-function of deciding not to be dependant on external objects.
24. The bearing of all afflictions without caring to redress them, being free (at the same time) from anxiety or lament on their score, is called Titikṣā or forbearance.

śāstra, guru-vākya, satya-buddhi-avadhāraṇā (satya-buddhi, avadhāraṇā);
tad, śrad-dhā, kathitā, sat, yad, vastu, upa-√labh.

शास्त्रस्य गुरु-वाक्यस्य सत्य-बुद्धि-अवधारणा (सत्य-बुद्ध्या अवधारणा) [इति] सा श्रद्-धा सद्भिः [सत्-विद्भिः] कथिता, यया [श्रद्-धया] वस्तु उपलभ्यते (TatB.10)॥
25. Acceptance by firm judgment as true (i.e., giving the benefit of doubt) of what the Scriptures and the Guru instruct, is called by sages Śraddhā (faith, taking-to-heart, or truth-taking), by means of which the Reality is perceived.

sarvadā, sthāpana, buddhi, śuddha, brahman, sarvathā;
tad, samādhāna, iti, ukta, na, tu, citta, lālana.

शुद्धे ब्रह्मणि बुद्धेः सर्वदा सर्वथा स्थापनं तद् ‘समाधानम्’ इति उक्तं, न तु चित्तस्य लालनम् (TatB.11)॥
26. Not the mere indulgence of thought (in curiosity) but the constant application of the intellect (or the affirming faculty) on the ever-pure Brahman, is what is called Samādhāna or self-settledness.

ahaṅkāra-ādi-deha-anta, bandha, a-jñāna-kalpita;
sva-sva-rūpa-avabodha, moktum, icchā, mumukṣutā.

अ-ज्ञान-कल्पितान् [सतः] अहङ्कार-आदि-देह-अन्तान् बन्धान् मोक्तुम् इच्छा स्व-स्व-रूप-अवबोधेन [इति] मुमुक्षुता॥
27. Mumukṣutam or yearning for Freedom is the desire to free oneself, by realising (avabodha, knowing) one’s true nature, from all bondages from that of egoism to that of the body – bondages superimposed by Ignorance.

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The teacher

vs.018 vs.019 vs.020 vs.021 vs.022 vs.023 vs.024

ukta-sādhana-sampanna, tattva-jijñāsu, ātman;
upa-√sad, guru, prājña, yad, bandha-vimokṣaṇa.

उक्त-साधन-संपन्नः आत्मनः तत्त्व-जिज्ञासुः प्राज्ञं गुरुं उपसीदेत्, यस्मात् [गुरोः] बन्ध-विमोक्षनं [विद्यते]॥
32. The inquirer about the truth of the Ātman who is possessed of the above-mentioned means of attainment should approach a wise preceptor, who confers emancipation from bondage.

śrotriya, a-vṛjina, a-kāma-hata, yad, brahma-vidtama;
brahman, uparata, śānta, nis-indhana, iva, an-ala;
a-hetuka-dayā-sindhu, bandhu, ānamat, sat.
tad, ārādhya, guru, bhakti, prahva-praśraya-sevana;
prasanna, tad, anuprāpya, √prach, jñātavya, ātman.

यः श्रोत्रियः, अ-वृजिनः (अ-पापः), अ-काम-हतः, ब्रह्म-वित्तमः, ब्रह्मणि उपरतः, शान्तः निर्-इन्धनः इव अन्-अलः, अ-हेतुक-दया-सिन्धुः, आनमतां सतां [मुमुक्षूणां] बन्धुः [सहायः गुरुतया च] – तं गुरुं भक्त्या आराध्य, तं [च] प्रह्व-प्रश्रय-सेवनैः (प्रणाम-विनय-सेवनैः) प्रसन्नं अनुप्राप्य, [शिष्यः] आत्मनः ज्ञातव्यं पृच्छेत्॥
33. Who is versed in the Vedas, sinless, unsmitten by desire and a knower of Brahman par excellence, who has withdrawn himself into Brahman; calm, like fire that has consumed its fuel, who is a boundless reservoir of mercy that needs no reason, and a friend of all good people who prostrate themselves before him.
34. Worshipping that Guru with devotion, and approaching him, when he is pleased with prostration, humility and service, (he) should ask him what he has got to know.

dus-vāra-saṃsāra-dava-agni-tapta,
dodhūyamāna, dur-a-dṛṣṭa-vāta;
bhīta, prapanna, pari-√pā, mṛtyu,
śaranya, anya, asmad, na, √jñā.

[गुरो], यद् (यस्मात्) अहम् अन्यं शरण्यं न जाने, [माम् तुभ्यं] प्रपन्नं परिपाहि [यं] दुस्-वार-संसार-दव-अग्नि-तप्तं (दुस्-निवार-संसार-तप्तं) [यथा अरण्य-अग्नि-अर्चिर्भिः], दुस्-अ-दृष्ट-वातैः दोधूयमानं, मृत्योः [च] भीतम्॥
36. [The student says to the teacher:]
Save me from death, afflicted as I am by the unquenchable fire of this world-forest, and shaken violently by the winds of an untoward lot, terrified and (so) seeking refuge in thee, for I do not know of any other man with whom to seek shelter.

śānta, mahat, ni-√vas, sat,
vasantavat, loka-hita, carat;
tīrṇa, svayam, bhīma-bhava-ārṇava, jana,
a-hetu, anya, api, tārayat.

शान्ताः, महान्तः, सन्तः, लोक-हीतं चरन्तः वसन्तवत्, स्वयं भीम-भव-आर्णवं तीणाः, अन्यान् जनान् अपि अ-हेतुना तारयन्तः [ईदृशाः गुरवः] निवसन्ति (विद्यन्ते)॥
37. There are good souls, calm and magnanimous, who do good to others as does the spring, and who, having themselves crossed this dreadful ocean of birth and death, help others also to cross the same, without any motive whatsoever.

mā, √bhī, vidvas, yuṣmad, na, √as, apāya,
saṃsāra-sindhu, taraṇa, √as, upāya;
yad, eva, yata, yati, idam, pāra,
tad, eva, mārga, yuṣmad, nis-√diś.

विद्वन्, मा भैष्ट। अपायः (नाशः) तव न अस्ति। संसार-सिन्धोः तरणे उपायः अस्ति। येन एव यतयः अस्य [संसारस्य] पारं याताः, तम् एव मार्गं तव निर्दिशामि॥
43. [The teacher replies:]
Fear not, O learned one, there is no death for you; there is a means of crossing this sea of relative existence; that very way by which sages have gone beyond it, I shall inculcate to you.

a-jñāna-yoga, parama-ātman, yuṣmad
hi, an-ātma-bandha, tatas, eva, saṃsṛti;
tad, viveka-udita-bodha-vahni
a-jñāna-kārya, pra-√dah, sa-mūla.

तव हि (यस्मात्) परम-आत्मनः अ-ज्ञान-योगात् अन्-आत्म-बन्धः [अस्ति]। ततस् एव संसृतिः (संसारः)। तयोः [आत्म-अन्-आत्मनोः] विवेक-उदित-बोध-वह्निः अ-ज्ञान-कार्यं स-मूलं प्रदहेत्॥
47. It is indeed through the touch of Ignorance that you who are the Ultimate Self, find youself under the bondage of non-Self, whence alone proceeds the round of births and deaths. The fire of knowledge, kindled by the discrimination between these two, burns up the effects of Ignorance together with their root.

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The question

vs.25 vs.26

kim, nāma, bandha, katham, etad, āgata,
katham, pratiṣṭhā, idam, katham, vimokṣa;
kim, adas, an-ātman, parama, kim, ātman,
tad, viveka, katham, etad, √vac.

१. कः बन्धः नाम? २. कथम् एषः आगतः? ३. कथम् अस्य प्रतिष्ठा? ४. कथं विमोक्षः? ५. कः असौ अन्-आत्मा? ६. कः परमः आत्मा? ७. कथं तयोः [आत्म-अन्-आत्मनोः] विवेकः? एतद् उच्यताम्॥
49. [The student says to the teacher:]
What is indeed is this ‘bondage’? How has it come (upon the Self)? How does it continue to exist? How is one freed from it? What is this non-Self? And who is the Ultimate Self? And how can one discriminate between them? – Do tell me about all these.

yad, boddhavya, yuṣmad, idānīm, ātma-an-ātma-vivecana;
tad, √vac, asmad, samyak, śrutvā, ātman, ava-√dhṛ.

यद् आत्म-अन्-आत्म-विवेचनं तव इदानीं बोद्धव्यं, तद् मया सम्यक् उच्यते। श्रुत्वा, आत्मनि अवधारय [बुद्धौ अवधारय स्वी-कारय इत्यर्थः]॥
71. [The teacher replies:]
Now I am going to tell you fully about what you ought to know – (the last of which you asked about) the discrimination between the Self and the non-Self. Listen to it and decide about it in your mind (not just memorize my words).

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The an-ātmā

vs.27 vs.28 vs.29 vs.30 vs.31 vs.32 vs.33

pañcī-kṛta, bhūta, sthūla, pūrva-karman;
samutpanna, idam, sthūla, bhoga-āyatana, ātman;
avasthā, jāgara, idam, sthūla-artha-anubhava, yatas.

अथ पञ्चम-प्रश्न-प्रतिवचनं (VivC.51(25) इदं स्थूलं [शरीरं] पञ्ची-कृतेभ्यः स्थूलेभ्यः भूतेभ्यः पूर्व-कर्मणा समुत्पन्नम् [जीव-]आत्मनः [च] भोग-आयतनम्। तस्य [स्थूल-शरीर-अभिमानि-आत्मनः] अवस्था जागरः, यतस् [तस्य] स्थूल-अर्थ-अनुभवः (TatB.17)॥
88. The gross (sensed) body is produced by one’s past actions out of the gross elements formed by the union of the subtle (unsensed) elements with each other, and is the medium of experience for the soul. That is its waking state in which it perceives gross objects.

vāc-ādi-pañcan, śravaṇa-ādi-pañcan,
prāṇa-ādi-pañcan, abhra-mukha, pañcan;
buddhi-ādi, a-vidyā, api, ca, kāma-karman,
puri-aṣṭaka, sūkṣma, śarīra, √ah.

वाक्-आदि-पञ्च, श्रवण-आदि-पञ्च, प्राण-आदि-पञ्च, पञ्च अभ्र-मुखानि [सूक्ष्म-आकाश-आदि], बुद्धि-आदि [बुद्धिः मनः चित्तं अहङ्कारः च], अ-विद्या [आत्म-अन्-आत्म-अध्यासः], अपि च काम-कर्मणी (कामः कर्म च) – तं पुरी-अष्टकं [पुरीवत् वाक्-आदि-अष्टकं] सूक्ष्म-शरीरम् आहुः (TatB.18)॥
96. The five organs of action such as speech etc. (grasping, procreating, excreting and movement), the five organs of knowledge beginning with the seeing (hearing, smelling, tasting and touching), the group of five Prāṇas (energies going outward, downward, circulating, upward and assimilating), Buddhi (deciding-mind) and the rest (measuring-mind, I-notion and memory) together with Nescience, desire and action – these eight "cities" make up what is called the subtle body.

idam, śarīra, √śru, sūkṣma-sañjñita,
liṅga, tu, a-pañcī-kṛta-bhūta-sambhava;
sa-vāsana, karma-phala-anubhāvaka,
sva-a-jñānatas, an-ādi, upādhi, ātman.
svapna, √bhū, idam, vibhakti-avasthā,
sva-mātra-śeṣa, vi-√bhā, yatra.

शृणु – इदं शरीरं सूक्ष्म-सञ्ज्ञितं [सूक्ष्म-शरीर-सञ्ज्ञितं] लिङ्गं [लिङ्ग-शरीर-सञ्ज्ञितं लिङ्ग्यते अनेन इति लिङ्गं येन “चक्षुषश् चक्षुस्” इति-आदि-श्रुतेः चैतन्य-आत्मा लिङ्ग्यते] तु (अथवा), अ-पञ्ची-कृत-भूत-संभवं, स-वासनं, कर्म-फल-अनुभावकं [सुख-दुःख-रूप-कर्म-फल-हेतुकं], स्व-अ-ज्ञानतस् अन्-आदिः आत्मनः [च] उपाधिः। अस्य [जीव-आत्मनः जागरित-]विभक्ति-अवस्था स्वप्नः भवति, यत्र [स्वप्ने सूक्ष्म-शरीरं] स्व-मात्र-शेषेण [स्वेन एव] विभाति॥
97. Listen – this subtle body, called also Liṅga body, is produced out of the (pure, individual) elements before their subdividing and combining with each other, is possessed of desires and causes the soul to experience the fruits of its actions. It is a beginningless superimposition (Upādhi, imposed attribution) on the soul brought on by its own ignorance.
98. Dream is a state of the soul distinct from the waking state, where it shines by itself.

sarva-vyāpṛti-karaṇa, liṅga,
idam, √as, cit-ātman puṃs;
vāsi-ādika, iva, takṣan,
tad, eva, ātman, √bhū, a-saṅga, idam.

इदं चित्-आत्मनः [चित्-स्व-रूपस्य] पुंसः [जीवस्य] लिङ्गं सर्व-व्यापृति-करणं (सर्व-व्यापार-करणं) स्यात्, तक्ष्णः (तक्षकस्य) इव वासि-आदिकं [छेदन-उपकरण-आदिकम्]। तेन [हेतुना] एव अयम् आत्मा अ-सङ्गः भवति॥
100. This subtle body is the instrument for all activities of the Ātman, who is Knowledge Absolute, like the carving tools of a carpenter. Therefore this Ātman is perfectly unattached.

a-vyakta-nāman, parama-īśa-śakti,
an-ādi-a-vidyā, tri-guṇa-ātmikā, parā;
kārya-anumeyā, su-dhiyā, eva, māyā,
yad, jagat, sarva, idam, pra-sū.

[किं कारण-शरीरम्]? [यद् अ-व्यक्ततया माया-समष्टि-कारणात् अन्-अन्यं] (VivC.122(33)), [सा] – अ-व्यक्त-नाम्नी, परम-ईश-शक्तिः, अन्-आदि-अ-विद्या [अ-कृता च अ-विद्या च न विद्या अ-सत् इति अ-विद्या अपि च विद्यया बाध्या इति अ-विद्या], त्रि-गुण-आत्मिका, परा, सु-धिया एव कार्य-अनुमेया [जगत्-रूप-कार्यात् कारणतया शास्त्र-अनुरूप-अनुमेया] माया, यया इदं सर्वं जगत् प्रसूयते॥
108. Avidyā (Nescience) or Māyā (Magic), called also the Undifferentiated (A-vyakta neuter Unmanifest Potentiality), is the power of the Lord. She (the Projecting Power, feminine only by the gender of its most popular appellations) is without beginning, is made up of the three Guṇas and is superior to the effects (as their cause). She is to be inferred by one of clear intellect only from the effects She produces. It is She who brings forth this whole universe.

sat, na, api, a-sat, na, api, ubhaya-ātmikā, na, u,
bhinnā, api, a-bhinnā, api, ubhaya-ātmikā, na, u;
sa-anṅgā, api, an-aṅgā, hi (api), ubhaya-ātmikā, na, u,
mahā-adbhutā, a-nirvacanīya-rūpā.

[सा माया] न अपि सत् न अपि अ-सत् न उ उभय-आत्मिका, न उ [ब्रह्मणः] भिन्ना अ-भिन्ना (एकम्) अपि उभय-आत्मिका, न उ स-अङ्गा अपि अन्-अङ्गा हि (अपि) उभय-आत्मिका। [सा] महा-अद्भुता अ-निर्वचनीय-रूपा [न सत्-अ-सत्-आदितया निर्वचनीय-रूपा मिथ्या च]॥
109. She is neither existent nor non-existent nor partaking of both characters; neither same nor different nor both; neither composed of parts nor an indivisible whole nor both. She is most wonderful and cannot be described in words.

a-vyakta, etad, tri-guṇa, nirukta,
tad, kāraṇa, nāma, śarīra, ātman;
suṣupti, etad, vibhakti-avasthā,
pralīna-sarva-indriya-buddhi-vṛtti.

एतद् अ-व्यक्तं [माया] त्रि-गुणैः निरुक्तम्। तद् [अ-व्यक्तम्] आत्मनः कारणं शरीरं (कारण-शरीरं) नाम। एतस्य [आत्मनः जागरित-स्वप्न-]विभक्ति-अवस्था सुषुप्तिः प्रलीन-सर्व-इन्द्रय-बुद्धि-वृत्तिः [भवति]॥
120. This Undifferentiated, spoken of as the compound of the three Guṇas, is the causal body for the soul. Profound sleep is its special state, in which the functions of the mind and all its organs are suspended.

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The ātmā

vs.34 vs.35 vs.36 vs.37 vs.38

atha, yuṣmad, sam-pra-√vac, sva-rūpa, parama-ātman;
yad, vijñāya, nara, bandha, mukta, kaivalya, √aś.

अथ षष्ठ-प्रश्न-प्रतिवचनं (VivC.51(25) अथ परम-आत्मनः स्व-रूपं ते (तुभ्यं) संप्रवक्ष्यामि, यद् विज्ञाय नरः बन्धात् मुक्तः कैवल्यं [पूर्णत्वं च] अश्नुते॥
124. Now I am going to tell you of the real nature of the Ultimate Self, realising which man is freed from bondage and attains Liberation.

√as, kim-cid, svayam, nityam, aham-pratyaya-lambana;
avasthā-traya-sākṣin, sat, pañca-kośa-vilakṣaṇa.

[सः आत्मा] कः-चिद् स्वयं [स्व-तन्त्रम्] अस्ति, नित्यम् [अस्ति च], अहम्-प्रत्यय-लम्बनः (अहम्-प्रत्यय-आश्रयः), अवस्था-त्रय-साक्षी [च] (TatB.16) सन् पञ्च-कोश-विलक्षणः॥
125. There is some Absolute Entity, the eternal substratum of the consciousness of egoism, the witness of the three states, and distinct from the five sheaths (Kośas: the Body, Prāṇa, Mind, Intellect and Bliss, as though ‘enclosing’ oneself).

yad, vi-√jñā, sa-kalam, jāgrat-svapna-suṣupti;
buddhi-tad-vṛtti-sat-bhāva, a-bhāva, asmad, iti, idam.

अयम् [आत्मा] “अहम्” इति, यः जाग्रत्-स्वप्न-सुषुप्तिषु बुद्धि-तद्-वृत्ति-सत्-भावं [बुद्धेः बुद्धि-वृत्तीनां च सत्-भावम्] अ-भावं [वृत्तीनाम् अ-भावं च] स-कलं विजानाति [स्व-भावतस् न कर्मतस्]॥
126. Which knows everything that happens in the waking state, in dream and in profound sleep; which is aware of the presence or absence of the mind and its functions; and which is the background of the notion of egoism. – This is That.

yad, √dṛś, svayaṃ, sarva, yad, na, √dṛś, kim-cana;
yad, √cit, buddhi-ādi, na, tad, yad, √cit, idam.

अयम् [आत्मा] यः सर्वं स्वयं पश्यति, यं न कस्-चन पश्यति, यः बुद्धि-आदि चेतयति, यं तद् [बुद्धि-आदि] न चेतयति॥
127. Which Itself sees all, but which no one beholds, which illumines the intellect etc., but which they cannot illumine. – This is That.

prakṛti-vikṛti-bhinna, śuddha-bodha-sva-bhāva,
sat, a-sat, idam, a-śeṣa, bhāsayat, nis-viśeṣa;
vi-√las, parama-ātman, jāgrat-ādi, avasthā,
asmad, asmad, iti, sākṣāt, sākṣi-rūpa, buddhi.

[अयं] प्रकृति-विकृति-भिन्नः [कारण-कार्य-भिन्नः] शुद्ध-बोध-स्व-भावः निस्-विशेषः परम-आत्मा इदम् अ-शेषं सद् [मूर्तं स-रूप-अग्नि-जल-पृथिवी-भूनानि इत्यर्थः] अ-सद् [अ-मूर्तं निस्-रूप-आकाश-वायु-भुतानि इत्यर्थः] भासयन्, जाग्रत्-आदिषु अवस्थासु बुद्धेः (अन्तस्-करणस्य) साक्षि-रूपेण “अहम् अहम्” इति[-रूपेण] साक्षात् विलसति (प्रकाशते)॥
135. The Ultimate Self, different from the Prakṛti and its modifications, of the essence of Pure Knowledge, and Absolute, directly manifests this entire gross and subtle universe, in the waking and other states, as the substratum of the persistent sense of egoism, and manifests Itself as the Witness of the Buddhi, the determinative faculty.

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The bondage

vs.39 vs.40 vs.41 vs.42 vs.43 vs.44

atra, an-ātman, asmad, iti, mati, bandha, etad, idam, puṃs,
prāpta, a-jñāna, janana-maraṇa-kleśa-saṃpāta-hetu;
yad, eva, idam, vapus, idam, a-sat, satya, iti, ātma-buddhi,
√puṣ, √ukṣ, √av, viṣaya, tantu, kośa-kṛdvat.

[अथ प्रथम-प्रश्न-प्रतिवचनं (VivC.51(25))] अत्र अस्य पुंसः एषः बन्धः अन्-आत्मनि “अहम्” इति मतिः। [एषः बन्धः] अ-ज्ञानात् प्राप्तः, जनन-मरण-क्लेश-संपात-हेतुः, येन [च] एव अयं [जीवः] “सत्यम्” इति आत्म-बुद्ध्या इदम् अ-सत् वपुस् – [अतस्] विषयैः पुष्यति उक्षति अवति [च], कोश-कृत्-वत् [यथा तन्तु-कृमिः] तन्तुभिः॥
137. Identifying the Self with this non-Self – this is the bondage of man, which is due to his ignorance, and brings in its train the miseries of birth and death. It is through this that one considers this evanescent body as real, and identifying oneself with it, nourishes, bathes, and preserves it by means of (agreeable) sense-objects, by which he becomes bound as the caterpillar by the threads of its cocoon.

akhaṇḍa-nitya-a-dvaya-bodha-śakti,
sphurat, ātman, an-anta-vaibhava;
sam-ā-√vṛ, āvṛti-śakti, etad,
tamas-mayī, rāhu, iva, arka-bimba.

[अथ द्वितीय-प्रश्न-प्रतिवचनं (VivC.51(25))] [अ-विद्यायाः] एषा तमस्-मयी आवृति-शक्तिः तम् अ-खण्ड-नित्य-अ-द्वय-बोध-शक्त्या स्फुरन्तम् अन्-अन्त-वैभवम् (अन्-अन्त-व्याप्तिमन्तम्) आत्मानं समावृणोति, राहुः इव अर्क-बिम्बम्॥
139. This veiling power (Āvṛti), which preponderates in ignorance, (as though) covers the Self, whose glories are infinite and which (nevertheless) manifests Itself through the power of knowledge, indivisible, eternal and one without a second – as Rāhu (the eclipse Shadow temporarily) does the (ever shining) orb of the sun.

tiras-bhūta, sva-ātman, a-malatara-tejovat, puṃs,
an-ātman, moha, asmad, iti, śarīra, √kal;
tatas, kāma-krodha-prabhṛti, adas, bandhana-guṇa,
param, vikṣepa-ākhyā, rajas, uru-śakti, √vyath.

अ-मलतर-तेजोवति स्व-आत्मनि तिरस्-भूते [सति], पुमान् मोहात् अन्-आत्मानं शरीरम् “अहम्” इति कलयति। ततस् रजसः उरु-शक्तिः विक्षेप-आख्या अमुं [पुमांसं] काम-क्रोध-प्रभृतिभिः बन्धन-गुणैः परं व्यथयति॥
140. When his own Self, endowed with the purest splendour, is hidden from view, a man through ignorance falsely identifies himself with this body, which is the non-Self. And then the great power of Rajas (guṇa) called the projecting power sorely afflicts him through the binding fetters of lust, anger, etc.

etad, eva, śakti, bandha, puṃs, samāgata;
yad, vimohita, deha, matvā, ātman, √bhram, idam.

पुंसः बन्दः एताभ्याम् [आवरण-विक्षेप-रूपाभ्यां] शक्तिभ्याम् एव समागतः, याभ्याम् अयं विमोहितः [पुमान्] देहम् आत्मानं मत्वा, [संसारे] भ्रमति॥
144. It is from these two powers (Veiling and Projecting) that man’s bondage has proceeded – beguiled by which he mistakes the body for the Self and wanders (from body to body).

bīja, saṃsṛti-bhūmi-ja, tu, tamas, deha-ātma-dhī, aṅkura,
rāga, pallava, ambu karman, tu, vapus, skandha, asu, śākhika;
agra, indriya-saṃhati, ca, viṣaya, puṣpa, duḥkha, phala,
nānā-karma-samudbhava, bahu-vidha, bhoktṛ, atra, jīva, kha-ga.

अथ तृतीय-प्रश्न-प्रतिवचनं (VivC.51(25)) संसृति-भूमि-जस्य [संसार-वृक्षस्य देह-आदेः इत्यर्थः] तमस् तु (एव) बीजः, देह-आत्म-धीः अङ्कुरः, रागः पल्लवं, कर्म तु अम्बु (जलं), वपुस् स्कन्धः, असवः (प्राणाः) शाखिकाः, इन्द्रिय-संहतिः (इन्द्रिय-गणः) च अग्राणि, विषयाः पुष्पाणि, नान-कर्म-समुद्भवं बहु-विधं दुःखं फलम्। अत्र [संसार-वृक्षे] भोक्ता जीवः ख-गः [अस्ति] (“द्वा सु-पर्णा…” इति MunU.3.1.1)॥
145. Of the tree of Saṃsāra (Transmigratory-life) ignorance is the seed, the identification with the body is its sprout, attachment its tender leaves, work its water, the body its trunk, the vital forces its branches, the organs its twigs, the sense-objects its flowers, various miseries due to diverse works are its fruits, and the individual soul is the bird on it.

śruti-parama-eka-mati, sva-dharma-
niṣṭhā, tad, eva, ātma-viśuddhi, idam;
viśuddha-buddhi, parama-ātma-vedana,
tad, eva, saṃsāra-sa-mūla-nāśa.

[अथ चतुर्थ-प्रश्न-प्रतिवचनं (VivC.51(25))] श्रुति-प्रमाण-एक-मतेः [पुरुषस्य श्रद्-धावतः इत्यर्थः] स्व-धर्म-निष्ठा। तया [निष्ठया] एव अस्य [पुरुषस्य] आत्म-विशुद्धिः। विशुद्ध-बुद्धेः [श्रुति-प्रमाण-श्रवण-आदितया] परम-आत्म-वेदनम्। तेन एव संसार-स-मूल-नाशः॥
148. One who is passionately devoted to the authority of the Śrutis acquires steadiness in his Sva-dharma (staying within one’s natural individual and social duties), which alone conduces to the purity of his mind. The man of pure mind realises the Ultimate Self, and by this alone Saṃsāra with its root is destroyed.

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Discernment between self and non-self

vs.45 vs.46 vs.47 vs.48 vs.49 vs.50 vs.51 vs.52 vs.53 vs.54 vs.55 vs.56 vs.57 vs.58 vs.59 vs.60

muñca, iṣīkā, iva, dṛśya-varga,
pratyac, ātman, a-saṅga, a-kriya;
vivicya, tatra, pravilāpya, sarva,
tad-ātman, √sthā, yad, tad, mukta.

[अथ सप्तम-प्रश्न-प्रतिवचनं (VivC.51(25))] मुञ्जात् इषीकाम् इव [धैर्येण] (KathU.2.3.17), दृश्य-वर्गात् प्रत्यञ्चम् [कोश-आदि-विवेक-शेषम् अ-विवेचनीयम् व्यापिनम् अपि] अ-सङ्गम् अ-क्रियम् आत्मानं विविच्य, तत्र [आत्मनि] सर्वं [नामधेय-अ-सत्-रूपतया] प्रविलाप्य (विलयं कृत्य), यः तद्-आत्मना (तादृक्-आत्मना) तिष्ठति, सः मुक्तः॥
153. He indeed is free who discerns between all sense-objects and the indwelling, unattached and inactive Self – as one separates a stalk of grass from its enveloping sheath – and merging (dissolving, subordinating) everything into It (Reality itself, as only various names for the One), remains in a state of identity with That.

deha, idam, anna-bhavana, annamaya, tu, kośa,
ca anna, √jīv, vi-√naś, tad-vihīna;
tvak-carma-māṃsa-rudhira-asthi-purīṣa-rāśi,
na, idam, svayam, bhavitum, √arh, nitya-śuddha.

अयं देहः अन्न-भवनः, अन्नमयः तु (एव) कोशः, अन्नेन जीवति, तद्-विहीनः [अन्न-विहीनः] च विनश्यति (TatB.32)। अयं त्वक्-चर्म-मांस-रुधिर-अस्थि-पुरीष-राशिः [देहः] न स्ययं नित्य-शुद्धः (नित्यः च शुद्धः च) [आत्मा] भवितुम् अर्हति॥
154. This body (the first Kośa) of ours is the product of food and comprises the material sheath; it lives on food and dies without it; it is a mass of skin, flesh, blood, bones and filth, and can never be the eternally pure, self-existent Ātman.

pūrvam, jani, adhi, mṛti, api, na, idam, √as,
jāta-kṣaṇa-kṣaṇa-guṇa, a-niyata-sva-bhāva;
na-eka, jaḍa, ca, ghaṭavat, paridṛśyamāna,
sva-ātman, katham, √bhū, bhāva-vikāra-vettṛ.

अयं [देहः] जनेः पूर्वं मृतेः अधि अपि न अस्ति। [अयं] जात-क्षण-क्षण-गुणः अ-नियत-स्व-भावः [च[। [अयं] न-एकः (अन्-एकः), [सङ्घातः इत्यर्थः]। परिदृश्यमानः [सन्] च [अयं] जडः, घटवत्। कथम् [अयं देहः] भाव-विकार-वेत्ता स्व-आत्मा भवति?
155. It does not exist prior to inception or posterior to dissolution, but lasts only for a short (intervening) period; its virtues are transient, and it is changeful by nature; it is manifold, inert, and is a sense-object, like a jar; how can it be one’s own Self, the Witness of changes in all things?

karma-indriya, pañcan, añcita, idam,
prāṇa, √bhū, prāṇamaya, tu, kośa;
yad, ātmavat, annamaya, anupūrṇa,
pra-√vṛt, adas, sa-kala-kriyā.

अयं प्राणः पञ्चभिः कर्म-इन्द्रियैः अञ्चितः (उपेतः) तु (एव) प्राणमयः कोशः भवेत्, येन अनुपूर्णः असौ अन्नमयः [देहः] आत्मवान् [जीवितः सन्] स-कल-क्रियासु प्रवर्त्तते (TatB.33, TaitU.2.1.2)॥
165. The Prāṇa, with which we are all familiar, coupled with the five organs of action, forms the vital sheath, permeated by which the material sheath engages itself in all activities as if it were living.

na, eva, ātman, api, prāṇamaya, vāyu-vikāra,
gantṛ, āganṭṛ, vāyuvat, antar, bahis, etad;
yas, kim-cid, kva-api, na, √vid, iṣṭa, an-iṣṭa,
sva, vā, anya, vā, kim-cana, nityam, para-tantra.

एषः प्राणमयः अपि न एव आत्मा, यस्मात् वायु[-प्रधान]-विकारः [वायु-प्रधान-पञ्च-महा-भुत-विकारः, अथवा वायु-रजस्-आत्मिक-पञ्च-महा-भुत-विकारः], अन्तर् गन्ता [देहात्] बहिस् [च] आगन्ता वायुवत्, किम्-चिद् क्व-अपि स्वं वा अन्यं वा इष्टम् अन्-इष्टं न वेत्ति, नित्यं [च] पर-तन्त्रः॥
166. Neither is the vital sheath the Self – because it is a modification of Vāyu, and like the air it enters into and comes out of the body, and because it never knows in the least either its own weal and woe or those of others, being eternally dependent on the Self.

jñāna-indriya, ca, manas, ca, manomaya, √as,
kośa, asmad, asmad, iti-vastu-vikalpa-hetu;
sañjñā-ādi-bheda-kalanā-kalita, balīyas,
tad-pūrva-kośa, abhipūrya, vi-√jṛmbh, yad.

तद्-पूर्व-कोशं [प्राणमय-कोशम्] अभिपूर्य मनस् च ज्ञान-इन्द्रियाणि च मनो-मयः कोशः स्यात्, यः [विज्ञानमय-कर्तृस्य द्वारकेन] “मम” “अहम्” इति-वस्तु-विकल्प-हेतुः, सञ्ज्ञा-आदि-भेद-कलना-कलितः (सञ्ज्ञा-रूप-क्रिया-भेद-कल्पना-उपेतः), बलीयान् विजृम्भते (उद्गच्छति) (TatB.34)॥
167. The organs of knowledge together with the mind form the mental sheath – the cause of the diversity of things such as "I" and "mine". It is powerful and endued with the faculty of creating differences of name etc., It manifests itself as permeating the preceding, i.e. the vital sheath.

manomaya, na, api, √bhū, para-ātman,
hi, ādi-antavattva, pariṇāmi-bhāva;
duḥkha-ātmakatva, viṣayatva-hetu,
draṣṭṛ, hi, dṛśya-ātmatā, na, dṛṣṭa.

मनोमयः अपि न हि पर-आत्मा भवेत्, आदि-अन्तवत्त्वात्, परिणामि-भावात्, दुःख-आत्मकत्वात्, विषयत्व-हेतोः [च] – [आत्मा] द्रष्टा हि (यस्मात्) न दृश्य-आत्मतया दृष्टः॥
183. Neither can the mental sheath be the Ultimate Self, because it has a beginning and an end, is subject to modifications, is characterised by pain and suffering and is an object; whereas the subject can never be identified with the objects of knowledge.

buddhi, buddhi-indriya, sa-ardham, sa-vṛtti, kṛtṛ-lakṣaṇa;
vijñānamaya-kośa, √as, puṃs, saṃsāra-kāraṇa.

बुद्धिः स-वृत्तिः [स-बुद्धि-वृत्तिः] बुद्धि-इन्द्रियैः स-अर्धं [स-ज्ञान-इन्द्रियः च], कर्तृ-लक्षणः, पुंसः संसार-कारणं विज्ञानमय-कोशः स्यात् (TatB.35)॥
184. The Buddhi with its modifications and the organs of knowledge, forms the Vijñānamaya Kośa or knowledge sheath, of the agent, having the characteristics which is the cause of man’s transmigration (– that cause being mistaken knowledge of oneself, conjuring attaching identifications with one’s body of actions and their future results).

anuvrajat-cit-pratibimba-śakti,
vijñāna-sañjña, prakṛti, vikāra;
jñāna-kriyāvat, asmad, iti, a-jasram,
deha-indriya, abhi-√man, bhṛśam.

[एषः कोशः] विज्ञान-सञ्ज्ञः अनुव्रजत्-[=अनुप्रविशत्]-चित्-प्रतिबिम्ब-शक्तिः, प्रकृतेः विकारः, ज्ञान-क्रियावान् [ज्ञाता कर्ता च इत्यर्थः], देह-इन्द्रिय-आदिषु “अहम्” इति अजस्रम् (अ-विरतं) भृशं (प्रबलम्) अभिमन्यते॥
185. This knowledge sheath, which seems to be followed by a reflection of the power of the Cit (Consciousness-Self), is a modification of the Prakṛti, is endowed with the function of knowledge, and always wholly identifies itself with the body, organs, etc.

an-ādi-kāla, idam, aham-sva-bhāva,
jīva, samasta-vyavahāra-voḍhṛ;
√kṛ, karman, api, pūrva-vāsana,
puṇya, a-puṇya, ca, tad-phala.
√bhuj, vicitrā, api, yoni, vrajat,
ā-√yā, nis-√yā, adhas, ūrdhvam, etad;
idam, eva, vijñānamaya, jāgrat-
svapna-ādi-avasthā, sukha-duḥkha-bhoga.

अयं [विज्ञानमयः चित्-प्रतिबिम्ब-सहितः] जीवः अन्-आदि-कालः, अहम्-स्व-भावः [अहम्-अभिमानी], समस्त-व्यवहार-वोढा (समस्त-व्यवहार-वहन-कर्ता), पूर्व-वासनः [सन्] अपि [च पुण्यानि अ-पुण्यानि च कर्माणि करोति तद्-फलानि भुङ्क्ते [च], विचित्रासु अपि योनिषु व्रजन् एषः [विज्ञानमयः जीवः] अधस् ऊर्ध्वम् आयाति निर्याति, अस्य विज्ञानमयस्य एव जाग्रत्-स्वप्न-आदि-अवस्थाः सुख-दुःख-भोगः [च]॥
186. It is without beginning (yet has an end), characterised by egoism, is called the Jīva, and carries on all the activities on the relative plane. Through previous desires it performs good and evil actions and experiences (bhuṅte) their results.
187. Being born in various bodies, it comes and goes, up (to heavens) and (then) down. It is this knowledge sheath that has the waking, dream and other states, and experiences joy and grief.

atas, na, idam, para-ātman, √as, vijñānamaya-śabda-bhāj;
vikāritva, jaḍatva, ca, paricchinnatva-hetutas;
dṛśyatva, vyabhicāritva, na, a-nitya, nitya, √iṣ.

विकारित्वात्, जडत्वात्, परिच्छिन्नत्व-हेतुतस्, दृश्यत्वात्, व्यभिचारित्वात् च अतस् अयं ‘विज्ञानमय’-शब्द-भाक् न पर-आत्मा स्यात्। अ-नित्यः न नित्यः इष्यते (प्रतिपद्यते)॥
206. This knowledge sheath (Vijñānamaya Kośa) that we have been speaking of, cannot be the Ultimate Self for the following reasons - because it is subject to change, is insentient, is a limited thing, an object of the senses, and is not constantly present: An unreal thing cannot indeed be taken for the real Ātman.

ānanda-pratibimba-cumbita-tanu, vṛtti, tamas-jṛmbhitā,
√as, ānandamaya, priya-ādi-guṇaka, sva-iṣṭa-artha-lābha-udaya;
puṇya, anubhava, vi-√bhā, kṛtin, ānanda-rūpa, svayam,
bhūtvā, √nand, yatra, sādhu, tanu-bhṛt-mātra, prayatna, vinā.

आनन्दमयः तमस्-जुम्भिता [अ-विद्या-उद्भूता] आनन्द-प्रतिबिम्ब-चुम्बित-[=व्याप्त]-तनुः वृत्तिः, प्रिय-आदि-गुणकः, स्व-इष्ट-अर्थ-लाभ-[आदि-दर्शन-लाभ-भोग]-उदयः स्यात्। कृतिनां [पुण्यवतां] पुण्यस्य अनुभवे विभाति – यत्र [काले] स्वयम् आनन्त-रूपः भूत्वा, तनु-भृत्-मात्रः [सर्वः देहवान्] प्रयत्नं विना साधु [सम्यक् ऋजुना] नन्दति॥
207. The blissful sheath (Ānandamaya Kośa) is that modification of Nescience which manifests itself catching a reflection of the Ātman which is Ultimate Bliss (Fullness); whose attributes are pleasure and the rest; and which appears in view when some object agreeable to oneself presents itself. It makes itself spontaneously felt by the fortunate during the fruition of their virtuous deeds; from which every corporeal being derives great joy without the least effort (because it already is present as Oneself, but variously veiled by misunderstandings).

ānandamaya-kośa, suṣupti, sphūrtti, utkaṭā;
svapna-jāgara, īṣat, iṣṭa-sandarśana-ādi.

आनन्दमय-कोशस्य स्फूर्त्तिः (व्यक्तिः) सुषुप्तौ उत्कटा (विपुला), स्वप्न-जागरयोः [तु] इष्ट-सन्दर्शन-आदिना ईषत् (अल्पं) [स्फूर्त्तिः]॥
208. The blissful sheath has its fullest play during profound sleep, while in the dreaming and wakeful states it has only a partial manifestation, occasioned by the sight of agreeable objects and so forth.

na, eva, idam, ānandamaya, para-ātman,
sa-upādhikatva, prakṛti, vikāra;
kāryatva-hetu, su-kṛta-kriyā,
vikāra-saṅghāta-samāhitatva.

अयम् आनन्दमयः न एव पर-आत्मा [भवेत्], स-उपाधिकत्वात्, प्रकृतेः विकारात्, सु-कृत-क्रियायाः कार्यत्व-हेतोः, [प्रिय-आदि-अन्नमय-आदि-]विकार-सङ्घात-समाहितत्वात् च॥
209. Nor is the blissful sheath the Ultimate Self, because it is endowed with the changeful attributes, is a modification of the Prakṛti, is the effect of past good deeds, and imbedded in the other sheaths which are modifications.

pañcan, api, kośa, niṣedha, yuktitas, śruti;
tad-niṣedha-avadhi, sa-akṣin, bodha-rūpa, ava-√śiṣ.

पञ्चामाम् अपि [सवतस्] कोशानां [दृक्-दृश्य-]युक्तितस् श्रुतेः [आत्मत्व-सत्यत्व-]निषेधे [कृते], तद्-निषेध-अवधिः [कोश-निषेध-अन्तः] बोध-रूपः स-अक्षी अवशिष्यते॥
210. When all the five sheaths have been eliminated by the reasoning on Śruti passages, what remains as the culminating point of the process, is the Witness, the Knowledge Absolute – the Ātman.

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Ātmā as meaning of tvam-pada

vs.61 vs.62 vs.63 vs.64 vs.65

yad, idam, ātman, svayam-jyoti, pañca-kośa-vi-lakṣaṇa;
avasthā-traya-sa-akṣin, sat, nis-vikāra, nis-añjana;
sadā, ānanda, tad, vijñeya, sva-ātmatva, vipas-cit.

अयम् आत्मा यः स्वयं-ज्योतिः, अवस्था-त्रय-साक्षी सन् पञ्च-कोश-वि-लक्षणः (पञ्च-कोशात् विपरीत-लक्षणः), निस्-विकारः, निस्-अञ्जनः, सदा आनन्दः, सः विपस्-चिता [कर्म-ज्ञान-योगिना] स्व-आत्मत्वेन विज्ञेयः॥
211. This self-effulgent Ātman which is distinct from the five sheaths, the Witness of the three states, the Real, the Changeless, the Untainted, the everlasting Bliss – is to be realised by the wise man as his own Self.

mithyātva, niṣeddha, kośa, etad, pañcan;
sarva-a-bhāva, vinā, kim-cid, na, √dṛś, atra, he, guru;
vijñeya, kim, u, vastu, √as, sva-ātman, ātma-vipas-cit.

हे गुरो, एतेषु पञ्चसु कोशेषु [अन्-आत्म-]मिथ्यात्वेन निषिद्धेषु, सर्व-अ-भावं विना, अत्र न किम्-चिद् पश्यामि [इव], [अतस्] किम् उ वस्तु आत्म-विपस्-चिता स्व-आत्मना विज्ञेयम् अस्ति?
212. [The student says to the teacher:]
After these five sheaths have been eliminated as unreal, I find nothing, O Master, in this universe but a Void, the absence of everything. What entity is there left with which the wise knower of the Self should realise his identity.

satya, ukta, yuṣmad, vidvas, nipuṇa, √as, vicāraṇa;
aham-ādi-vikāra, tad, tad-a-bhāva, idam, api, anu.
sarva, yad, anu-√bhū, yad, svayam, na, anu-√bhū;
tad, ātman, veditṛ, √vid, buddhi, su-sūkṣmā.

विद्वन्, त्वया सत्यम् उक्तम्। विचारणे निपुणः असि। येन सर्वे ते अहम्-आदि-विकाराः [अनुभूयन्ते जाग्रत्-स्वप्नयोः] अनु [उत्तरं च सुषुप्तौ इत्यर्थः] अयं तद्-अ-भावः [सर्व-विकार-अ-भावः] अपि अनुभूयन्ते, यः [च] स्वयं न अनुभूयते, सु-सूक्ष्मया बुद्ध्या तं वेदितारम् आत्मानं विद्धि॥
213–214. [The teacher replies:]
You have honestly spoken, O learned man! You are clever indeed in discrimination. (What remains is:) That by which all those modifications such as egoism as well as their subsequent absence (during deep sleep) are perceived, but which Itself is not perceived, please know that to be Ātman – the Knower – through the sharpest intellect.

jāgrat-svapna-suṣupti, sphuṭataram, yad, adas, sam-ud-√jṛmbh,
pratyak-rūpatā, sadā, asmad, asmad, iti, antar, sphurat, ekadhā;
nānā-kāra-vikāra-bhāgin, idam, paśyat, aham-dhī-mukha,
nitya-ānanda-cit-ātman, √sphur, tad, √vid, sva, etad, hṛd.

यः असौ [आत्मा] जाग्रत्-स्वप्न-सुषुप्तिषु स्फुटतरं समुज्जुम्भते (उद्गच्छति), सदा प्रत्यक्-रूपतया ‘अहम् अहम्’ इति एकधा अन्तर् स्फुरन्, इमान् अहं-धी-मुखान् [अहङ्कार-आदीन्] नान-कार-विकार-भागिनः पश्यन्, नित्य-आनन्द-चित्-आत्मना स्फुरति – तम् एतं हृदि [बुद्धौ] स्वं विद्धि॥
217. That which clearly manifests Itself (even now) in the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep; which is inwardly perceived in the mind in various forms as an unbroken series of egoistic impressions; which witnesses the egoism, the Buddhi, etc., which are of diverse forms and modifications; and which makes Itself felt as timeless Bliss-Knowledge; please know this to be Ātman, your own Self, within your heart (your seat of conviction).

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Ātmā as meaning of tat-pada

vs.66 vs.67 vs.68 vs.69 vs.70 vs.71 vs.72 vs.73

brahma-a-bhinnatva-vijñāna, bhava-mokṣa, kāraṇa;
yad, a-dvitīya, ānanda, brahman, sam-√pad, buddha.

येन ब्रह्म-अभिन्नत्व-विज्ञानं [ब्रह्म-अभिन्नत्वस्य संशय-विपरीत-भावन-रहितं ज्ञानं] बुद्धैः अ-द्वितीयम् आनन्दं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते, [तद् विज्ञानं] भव-मोक्षस्य कारणम्॥
223. The assimilation (Vijñāna) of one’s identity with Brahman is the cause of Liberation from the bonds of Saṃsāra, by means of which the wise man attains (remains nothing but) Brahman, the One without a second, the Absolute Fullness.

satya, jñāna, an-anta, brahman, viśuddha, para, svatas, siddha;
nitya-ānanda-eka-rasa, pratyak-a-bhinna, nis-antaram, √ji.

सत्यं ज्ञानम् अन्-अन्तं ब्रह्म, विशुद्धं [नित्य-शुद्धम् इत्यर्थः], परम् [अ-क्षर-माया-अतीतं सर्व-व्यवहार-अतीतं च इत्यर्थः], स्वतस् सिद्धं [विशिष्ट-अनुभव-अन्-अपेक्षम् इत्यर्थः], नित्य-आनन्द-एक-रसं प्रत्यक्-अ-भिन्नं निस्-अन्तरं [च] जयति [सिध्यति स्वे महिम्नि तिष्ठति सत्यम् एव जयति इत्यर्थः]॥
225. Brahman is Existence, Knowledge, Unlimited, pure, ultimate, self-existent, eternal and indivisible Fullness, not different (in reality) from the individual soul, and devoid of interior or exterior. It is (ever) triumphant.

sat-brahma-kārya, sa-kala, sadā, eva,
sat-mātra, etad, na, tatas, anya, √as;
√as, iti, yad, √vac, na, tad, moha,
vinirgata, nidritavat, prajalpa.

एतद् स-कलं सद्-ब्रह्म-कार्यं [जगत्] सदा सत्-मात्रं एव, ततस् [सद्-ब्रह्मणः] न अन्यद् अस्ति। यः “[जगत् पृथक्] अस्ति” इति वक्ति, तस्य मोहः न विनिर्गतः, निद्रितवत् प्रजल्पः [यथा निद्रित-पुरुषस्य प्रजल्पः]॥
230. Similarly, the whole universe, being the effect of the real Brahman, is in reality nothing but Brahman. Its essence is That, and it does not exist apart from It. He who says it does is still under delusion – he babbles like one asleep.

brahman, eva, idam, viśva, iti, eva, vāṇī,
śrautī, √brū, atharva-niṣṭhā, variṣṭhā;
tad, etad, brahma-mātra, hi, viśva,
na, adhiṣṭhāna, bhinnatā, āropita.

वरिष्ठा श्रौती अथर्व-निष्ठा वाणी [अथर्व-वेदे महा-वाक्यं] “ब्रह्म एव इदं विश्वम्” इति (MunU.2.1.11) ब्रूते। तस्मात्, ब्रह्म-मात्रं हि एतद् विश्वं, [यस्मात्] न आरोपितस्य अधिष्ठानात् भिन्नता॥
231. This universe is verily Brahman – such is the august pronouncement of the Atharva Veda. Therefore this universe is nothing but Brahman, for that which is superimposed (on something) has no separate existence from its basis.

satya, yadi, √as, jagat, etad, ātman,
an-antatva-hāni, nigama-a-pramāṇatā;
a-satya-vāditva, api, īśitṛ, √as,
na, etad, traya, sādhu, hita, mahā-ātman.

यदि एतद् जगत् सत्यं स्यात्, [ततस्] आत्मनः अन्-अन्तत्व-हानिः, निगम-अ-प्रमाणता [वेद-अ-प्रमाणता], ईशितुः [वेद-कृत्-ईशरस्य श्री-कृष्णस्य वा] अपि अ-सत्य-वादित्वं स्यात्। एतत् त्रयं महा-आत्मनाम् [आस्तिकानाम् इत्यर्थः] न साधु हितं [च]॥
232. If the universe, as it is, be real, there would be no cessation of the dualistic element, the scriptures would be falsified, and the Lord Himself would be guilty of an untruth. None of these three is considered either desirable or wholesome by the noble-minded.

īśvara, vastu-tattva-jña, na, ca, asmad, tad, avasthita;
na, ca, mad-stha, bhūta, iti, evam, eva, vi-√kḷp.

वस्तु-तत्त्व-ज्ञः ईश्वरः “न च अहं तेषु अवस्थितः। न च मद्-स्थानि भूतानि” इति (BhG.9.4–5) एवम् एव व्यचीकॢपत् (प्रोक्तः)॥
233. The Lord (Kṛṣṇa), who knows the secret of all things has supported this view in the words: “But I am not in them” … “Nor are the beings in Me”.

yadi, satya, √bhū, viśva, suṣupti, upa-√labh;
yad, na, upa-√labh, kim-cid, atas, a-sat-svapnavat, mṛṣā.

यदि विश्वं सत्यं भवेत्, सुषुप्तौ [अपि] उपलभ्यताम्। यद् (यस्मात्) किम्-चिद् [तस्यां] न उपलभ्यते, अतस् [विश्वं] मृषा, अ-सत्-स्वप्नवत्॥
234. If the universe be true, let it then be perceived in the state of deep sleep also. As it is not at all perceived, it must be unreal and false, like dream-entities (that disappear upon waking).

atas, pṛthak, na, √as, jagat, para-ātman,
pṛthak-pratīti, tu, mṛṣā, guṇa-ahivat;
āropita, √as, kim, arthavattā,
adhiṣṭhāna, ā-√bhā, tathā, bhrama.

अतस् जगत् न पर-आत्मनः पृथक् अस्ति। पृथक्-प्रतीतिः तु मृषा, गुण-अहिवत् [रज्जु-सर्पवत्]। किम् आरोपितस्य अर्थवत्ता [सत्ता प्रयोजनं वा] अस्ति? अधिष्ठामम् [एव] तथा [आरोपितेन] भ्रमेण [अविद्यया] आभाति॥
235. Therefore the universe does not exist apart from the Ultimate Self; and the perception of its separateness is false like the qualities (of blueness etc., in the sky). Has a superimposed attribute any meaning apart from its basis? It is the ground of being which appears like that through delusion.

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Complete identity as meaning of asi-pada

vs.74 vs.75 vs.76 vs.77 vs.78 vs.79 vs.80 vs.81 vs.82

tad-tvam-pada, abhidhīyamāna,
brahma-ātman, śodhita, yadi (yad), ittham;
śruti, tad, tad, yuṣmad, √as, iti, samyak,
ekatva, eva, prati-√pad, muhur.

यदि इत्थम् (एवं) तद्-त्वम्-पदाभ्याम् अभिधीयमानयोः ब्रह्म-आत्मनोः [जगत्-कारण-ब्रह्म जीव-आत्मा तयोः] शोधितयोः [निर्णीतयोः], तयोः [ईश्वर-जीवयोः] (यद्) एकत्वम् एव “तद् त्वम् असि” इति श्रुत्या मुहुर् (पुनर् पुनर्) सम्यक् प्रतिपाद्यते॥
241-242. The Śruti, in the dictum "You are That" (Tat-Tvam-Asi), repeatedly establishes the absolute identity of Brahman (or Īśvara) and Jīva, denoted by the terms That (Tat) and You (Tvam) respectively.

aikya, tad, lakṣita, na, vācya,
ni-√gad, anyas-anya-viruddha-dharman;
kha-dyota-bhānu, iva, rāja-bhṛtya,
kūpa-ambu-rāśi, parama-aṇu-meru.

तयोः एक्यं लक्षितयोः न वाच्ययोः [‘लक्ष्य-अर्थयोः न तु वाच्य-अर्थयोः’ इति] निगद्यते (उच्यते), [यस्मात् वाच्य-अर्थयोः] अन्यस्-अन्य-विरुद्ध-धर्मिणोः ख-द्योत-भान्वोः [ज्योतिस्-कीट-सूर्योः] इव, राज-भृत्ययोः, कूप-अम्बु-राश्योः, परम-अणु-मेर्वोः [च]॥
242. Divesting these terms of their relative associations, then it is the identity of their implied, not literal, meanings which is sought to be inculcated; for they are of contradictory attributes to each other – like the sun and a glow-worm, the king and a servant, the ocean and a well, or Mount Meru and an atom.

tad, virodha, idam, upādhi-kalpita,
na, vāstava, kim-cid, upādhi, etad;
īśa, māyā, mahat-ādi-kāraṇa,
jīva, kārya, √śru, pañca-kośa.

तयोः अयं विरोधः उपाधि-कल्पितः, न कस्-चिद् वास्तवः। शृणु – एषः [न वास्तवः] उपाधिः ईशस्य महद्-आदि-कारणं माया, जीवस्य [च] कार्यं पञ्च-कोशाः॥
243. This contradiction between them is created by superimposition (Upādhi, imposed attribution), and is not something real. This superimposition, in the case of Īśvara (the Lord), is Māyā or Nescience, which is the cause of Mahat (the start of the universe) and the rest (its further unfoldment), and in the case of the Jīva (the individual soul), listen – the five sheaths, which are the effects of Māyā, stand for it.

etad, upādhi, para-jīva, tad,
samyak-nirāsa, na, para, na, jīva;
rājya, nara-indra, bhaṭa, kheṭaka,
tad, apoha, na, bhaṭa, na, rājan.

पर-जीवयोः एतौ उपाधी, तयोः सम्यक्-निरासे [सम्यक्-अपोहे सति], न परः न जीवः [आत्मा एव इत्यर्थः], [यथा] नर-इन्द्रस्य राज्यं भटस्य [च] खेटकः तयोः [राज-राज्य-सैनक-फलकयोः] अपोहे [सति], न राजा न भटः [न राजत्वं भटत्वं पुरुषः एव इत्यर्थः]॥
244. These two are the superimpositions (Upādhis) of Īśvara and the Jīva respectively, and when these are perfectly eliminated, there is neither Īśvara nor Jīva. A kingdom is the symbol of a king, and a shield of the soldier, and when these (imposed attributes) are taken away, there is neither king nor soldier.

tatas, tu, tad, lakṣaṇā, su-lakṣya,
tad, a-khaṇḍa-eka-rasatva-siddhi;
na, alam, jahatī, na, tathā, a-jahatī,
kim-tu, ubhaya-artha-ātmikā, eva, bhāvya.

ततस् तु तयोः [पर-जीवयोः] अ-खण्ड-एक-रसत्व-सिद्धये लक्षणया तौ सु-लक्ष्यौ। न अलं जहत्या [जहत्-लक्षणा – शक्यमात्र-परित्यागेन तद्-संबन्ध्य्-अर्थन्तरे वृत्तिः, यथा ‘गङ्गायां घोषः’ इति गङ्गा-पदस्य तीरे तया जहत्-लक्षणया], न तथा [च] अ-जहत्या [अ-जहत्-लक्षणा – शक्यमात्र-अपरित्यागेन तद्-संबन्धि-अर्थ-अन्तरे वृत्तिः, यथा ‘शोणः धावति’ इति अत्र शोण-पदस्य शोण-गुण-विशिष्टे अश्व-आदि-द्रव्ये तया अ-जहत्-लक्षणया], किम्-तु [ऐक्यम्] उभय-अर्थ-आत्मिकया [जहत्-अ-जहत्-लक्षणया भाग-त्याग-लक्षणया] एव भाव्यम्॥
247. Hence those two terms (Īśvara and Jīva) must be carefully considered through their implied meanings (Lakṣaṇā), so that their absolute identity may be established. Neither the method of total rejection (Jahal) nor that of complete retention (A-jahal) will do. One must reason out through the process which combines the two.

tad, deva-datta, idam, iti, iha, ca, ekatā,
viruddha-dharma-aṃśa, apāsya, idam, √kath;
yathā, tathā, tad, yuṣmad, √as, iti, vākya,
viruddha-dharma, ubhayatra, hitvā.

यथा “सः अयं देव-दत्तः” इति इह [वाक्ये] च (एव) अस्य [वाक्यस्य] विरुद्ध-धर्म-अंशम् अपास्य (त्यक्त्वा), एकता कथ्यते, तथा “तद् [जगत्-कारण-ब्रह्म] त्वम् असि” इति वाक्ये उभयत्र विरुद्ध-धर्मान् हित्वा [एकता कथ्यते]॥
248. Just as in the sentence, "This is that Devadatta", the identity is spoken of, eliminating the contradictory portions, so in the sentence "You are That", (since by śraddhā, truth-taking, we must understand the equation as valid) one gives up the contradictory elements on both sides.

saṃlakṣya, cit-mātratā, sat-ātman,
a-khaṇḍa-bhāva, pari-√ci, budha;
evam, mahā-vākya-śata, √kath,
brahma-ātman, aikya, a-khaṇḍa-bhāva.

सत्-आत्मनोः [ब्रह्म-जीवयोः] चित्-मात्रतया संलक्ष्य, बुधैः [तयोः] अ-खण्ड-भावः परिचीयते। एवं महा-वाक्य-शतेन ब्रह्म-आत्मनोः ऐक्यम् अ-खण्ड-भावः कथ्यते॥
249. The wise man recognises the identity of Īśvara and Jīva, noticing carefully the essence of both, which is Unlimited Existence (Sat) Consciousness (Cit). Thus hundreds of scriptural texts inculcate the oneness and identity of Brahman and Jīva.

mṛd-kārya, sa-kala, ghaṭa-ādi, sa-tatam, mṛd-mātra, eva, abhitas,
tadvat, sat-janita, sat-ātmaka, idam, sat-mātra, eva, a-khila;
yad, na, √as, sat, para, kim-api, tad, satya, tad, ātman, svayam,
tad, tad, yuṣmad, √as, praśānta, a-mala, brahma, a-dvaya, yad, para.

यद्वत् स-कलं घट-आदि मृद्-कार्यं स-ततम् अभितस् मृद्-मात्रम् एव, तद्वत् इदं सत्-जनितं सत्-आत्मकं [जगत्] अ-खिलं सत्-मात्रम् एव। यस्मात् न किम्-अपि सतः परम् अस्ति, तद् सत्यं, सः स्वयम् आत्मा। तस्मात् ‘तद् त्वम् असि’, यद् प्रशान्तम् अ-मलम् अ-द्वयं परं ब्रह्म॥
251. All modifications of clay, such as the pot, which are always accepted by the mind as real, are (in reality) nothing but clay. Similarly, this entire universe which is produced from the real Brahman, is Brahman Itself and nothing but That. Because there is nothing else whatever but Brahman, and That is the only self-existent Reality, our very Self, therefore You are That serene, pure, Ultimate Brahman, the One without a second.

nidrā-kalpita-deśa-kāla-viṣaya-jñātṛ-ādi, sarva, yathā,
mithyā, tadvat, iha, api, jāgrat, jagat, sva-a-jñāna-kāryatvatas;
yad, evam, idam, śarīra-karaṇa-prāṇa-aham-ādi, api, a-sat,
tad, tad, yuṣmad, √as, praśānta, a-mala, brahma, a-dvaya, yad, para.

यथा सर्वं निद्रा-[=श्वप्न]-कल्पित-देश-काल-विषय-ज्ञातृ-आदि, तद्वत् इह जाग्रति अपि जगत् मिथ्या [प्रत्येति], स्व-अ-ज्ञान-कार्यत्वतस्। यस्मात् एवं इदं शरीर-करण-प्राण-अहम्-आदि अपि अ-सत्, तस्मात् ‘तद् त्वम् असि’, यद् ब्रह्म प्रशान्तम् अ-मलम् अ-द्वयं परम्॥
252. As the place, time, objects, knower, etc., called up in dream are all unreal, so is also the world experienced here in the waking state, for it is all an effect of one’s own ignorance. Because this body, the organs, the Prāṇas, egoism, etc., are also thus unreal, therefore You are That serene, pure, supreme Brahman, the One without a second.

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The characteristic of being free in this life

vs.83 vs.84 vs.85 vs.86 vs.87 vs.88 vs.89 vs.90 vs.91 vs.92 vs.93 vs.94

brahma-ātman, śodhita, eka-bhāva-avagāhinī;
nis-vikalpā, ca, cit-mātrā, vṛtti, prajñā, iti, √kath;
su-sthitā, tad, √bhū, yad, jīvat-mukta (sthita-prajña), tad, √vac.

शोधितयोः [मिथ्या-उपाधिभ्यां निर्णीतयोः] ब्रह्म-आत्मनः एक-भाव-अवगाहिनी [ऐक्य-व्याप्तिमता] निस्-विकल्पा चित्-मात्रा च [बुद्धि-]वृत्तिः ‘प्रज्ञा’ इति कथ्यते। यस्य सा सु-स्थिता भवेत्, सः जीवन्-मुक्तः (स्थित-प्रज्ञः) उच्यते॥
427. That kind of mental function which cognizes only the identity of the Self and Brahman, purified of all adjuncts (Upādhis), which is free from duality, and which concerns itself only with Pure Intelligence, is called Knowledge (Prajñā). He who has this perfectly steady is called Jivan-mukta, free here-itself (or Sthita-prajña, a man of steady knowledge).

yad, sthitā, √bhū, prajñā, yad, ānanda, nis-antara;
prapañca, vi-smṛta-prāyas, tad, jīvat-mukta, √iṣ.

यस्य प्रज्ञा स्थिता भवेत्, यस्य आनन्दः निस्-अन्तरः, [यस्य च] प्रपञ्चः [संसारः] वि-स्मृत-प्रायस् [अ-स्मृतः इव इत्यर्थः], सः जीवत्-मुक्तः इष्यते (मन्यते)॥
428. He whose knowledge is steady, who has constant fullness, and who has almost forgotten the phenomenal universe (seeing it as a mere simmering, temporal show, while most everyone else takes their self as locked in a tiny body surrounded by an overpowering world), is accepted as a man liberated in this very life.

varttamāna, api, deha, idam, chāyāvat, anuvarttin;
ahaṃtā-māmatā-a-bhāva, jīvat-mukta, lakṣaṇa.

अस्मिन् देहे वर्त्तमाने अपि छायावत् अनुवर्त्तिनी [सति], जीवत्-मुक्तस्य अहंता-मामता-अ-भावः लक्षणम्॥
431. The unreality of the ideas of "I" and "mine" even in this existing body which follows as a shadow, is a characteristic of one liberated-in-life.

atīta-an-anusandhāna, bhaviṣat-a-vicāraṇa;
audāsīnya, api, prāpta, jīvat-mukta, lakṣaṇa.

अतीत-अन्-अनुसन्धानम् [अतीत-अ-चिन्तनं] भविष्यत्-अ-विचारणं (भविष्यत्-अ-चिन्तनं), प्राप्ते (वर्तमाने) अपि औदासीन्यम् [इव राग-द्वेष-राहित्यं] – [तद्] जीवत्-मुक्तस्य लक्षणम्॥
432. Not dwelling on enjoyments of the past, nor on the future, and looking with objective indifference upon the present, are characteristics of one liberated-in-life.

guṇa-doṣa-viśiṣṭa, idam, sva-bhāva, vilakṣaṇa;
sarvatra, sama-darśitva, jīvat-mukta, lakṣaṇa.

अस्मिन् [जगति] गुण-दोष-विशिष्टे [सु-गुण-वि-गुण-विशिष्टे व्यावहारिक-]स्व-भावेन विलक्षणे [च] सर्वत्र सम-दर्शित्वं (BhG.5.18) – [तद्] जीवत्-मुक्तस्य लक्षणम्॥
433. Looking everywhere with an eye of equality towards this world – full of elements possessing merits and demerits, and distinct by nature from one another (i.e. duality still appears, but is now known to be less than the Reality of Oneself) – is a characteristic of one liberated-in-life.

iṣṭa-an-iṣṭa-artha-samprāpti, sama-darśitā, ātman;
ubhayatra, a-vikāritva, jīvat-mukta, lakṣaṇa.

इष्ट-अन्-इष्ट-अर्थ-संप्राप्तौ सम-दर्शितया उभयत्र आत्मनि [मनसि] अ-विकारित्वं – [तद्] जीवत्-मुक्तस्य लक्षणम्॥
434. When things pleasant or painful present themselves, to remain unruffled in mind in both cases, through the sameness of attitude, is a characteristic of one liberated-in-life.

sādhu, pūjyamāna, idam, pīḍyamāna, api, dus-jana;
sama-bhāva, √bhū, yad, tad, jīvat-mukta, √iṣ.

अस्मिन् [शरीरे] साधुभिः पूज्यमाने दुस्-जनैः पीड्यमाने अपि [वा] यस्य सम-भावः भवेत्, सः जीवत्-मुक्तः इष्यते (मन्यते)॥
440. He who feels just the same when his body is either worshipped by the good or tormented by the wicked, is known as a man liberated-in-life.

vijñāta-brahma-tattva, yathā-pūrvam, na, saṃsṛti;
√as, ced, na, tad, vijñāta-brahma-bhāva, bahis-mukha.

विज्ञात-ब्रह्म-तत्त्वस्य न यथा-पूर्वं संसृतिः (संसारः)। [संसृतिः] अस्ति चेद्, सः न विज्ञात-ब्रह्म-भावः, [सः] बहिर्-मुखः [अन्य-तन्त्रः इत्यर्थः]॥
442. For one who has realised the Truth of Brahman, there is no more attachment to the sense-objects as before: If there is, that man has not realised his identity with Brahman, but is one whose senses are outgoing in their tendency.

asmad, brahman, iti, vijñāna, kalpa-koṭi-śata-arjita;
sañcita, vilaya, √yā, prabodha, svapna-karmavat.

“अहं ब्रह्म [अस्मि]” इति विज्ञानात् कल्प-कोटि-शत-अर्जितं सञ्चितं विलयं याति (नश्यति) (MunU.2.2.8, BhG.4.37), प्रबोधात् स्वप्न-कर्मवत्॥
447. Through the realisation of one’s identity with Brahman, all the accumulated actions of a hundred crore (Koṭis, 107) of cycles come to nought, like the actions of dream-state on awakening.

yad, kṛta, svapna-velā, puṇya, vā, pāpa, ulbaṇa;
supta-utthita, kim, tad, √as, svar-ga, naraka, vā.

यद् उल्बणं [स्पष्टं] पुण्यं पापं वा स्वप्न-वेलायां [स्वप्न-काले] कृतं, सुप्त-उत्थितस्य किं तद् स्वर्गाय नरकाय वा स्यात्?
448. Can the good actions or dreadful sins that a man fancies himself doing in the dream-state, lead him to heaven or hell after he has awakened from sleep?

sva, a-saṅga, udāsīna, parijñāya nabha, yathā;
na, √śliṣ, yati, kim-cid, kadā-cid, bhāvi-karman.

यथा नभस् (आकाशः), स्वम् अ-सङ्गम् उदासीनं परिज्ञाय, यतिः भावि-कर्मभिः [भविष्यत्-कर्मभिः आगामि-कर्मभिः] न किम्-चिद् [अपि] कदा-चिद् श्लिष्यते॥
449. Realising the Ātman, which is unattached and indifferent like the sky, the aspirant is never touched in the least by actions yet to be done.

na nabhas, ghaṭa-yoga, surā-gandha, √lip;
tathā, ātman, upādhi-yoga, tad-dharma, na, eva, √lip.

नभस् (आकाशः) घट-योगेन न सुरा-गन्धेन लिप्यते। तथा आत्मा उपाधि-योगेन न एव तद्-धर्मैः लिप्यते॥
450. The element Space itself (unlike Air) is not affected by the smell of liquor merely by its connection with its jar; similarly, the Ātman is not, through Its connection with the limitations, affected by the properties thereof.

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The prārabdha karma of the one who is free in this life

vs.095 vs.096 vs.097 vs.098 vs.099 vs.100

jñāna-udayāt, purā, ārabdha, karman, jñāna, na, √naś;
a-dattvā, sva-phala, lakṣya, uddiśya, utsṛṣṭa-bāṇavat.

स्व-फलम् अ-दत्त्वा, ज्ञान-उदयात् पुरा आरब्धं कर्म न ज्ञानात् नश्यते, लक्ष्यं उद्दिश्य उत्सृष्ट-बाणवत्॥
451. The Karma which has fashioned this body prior to the dawning of knowledge, is not destroyed by that knowledge without yielding its fruits, like the arrow shot at an object.

vyāghra-buddhi, vinirmukta, bāṇa, paścāt, tu, go-mati;
na, √sthā, √chid, eva, lakṣya, vega, nirbharam.

बाणः व्याघ्र-बुद्ध्या विनिर्मुक्तः, पश्चात् तु गो-मतौ [सत्यां], न तिष्ठति [न स्थापयेत इत्यर्थः]। [सः बाणः] लक्ष्यं वेगेन निर्भरं [बलेन च] छिनत्ति एव॥
452. The arrow which is shot at an object with the idea that it is a tiger, does not, when that object is perceived to be a cow, check itself, but pierces the object with full force.

upādhi-tād-ātmya-vihīna-kevala-
brahma-ātman, eva, ātman, tiṣṭhat, muni;
prārabdha-sat-bhāva-kathā, na, yuktā,
svapna-artha-sambandha-kathā, iva, jāgrat.

मुनेः आत्मनि एव उपाधि-ताद्-आत्म्य-विहीन-केवल-ब्रह्म-आत्मना तिष्ठतः प्रारब्ध-सत्-भाव-कथा न युक्ता, जाग्रतः इव स्वप्न-अर्थ-सम्बन्ध-कथा॥
454. For the sage who lives in his own Self as Brahman, the One without a second, devoid of identification with the limiting adjuncts, the question of the existence of Prārabdha Karma is meaningless, like the question of a man who has awakened from sleep having any connection with the objects seen in the dream-state.

aja, nitya, iti, √brū, śruti, etad, tu, a-mogha-vāc;
tad-ātman, tiṣṭhat, idam, kutas, prārabdha-kalpanā.

“अ-जः नित्यः” इति (KathU.1.2.18) श्रुतिः ब्रूते। एषा [श्रुतिः] तु (एव) अ-मोघ-वाक् (सत्य-वाक्)। अस्य तद्-[अ-ज-नित्य]-आत्मना तिष्ठतः कुतस् प्रारब्ध-कल्पना?
459. The Śrutis, whose words are infallible, declare the Ātman to be “birthless, eternal and undecaying”. So, the man who lives identified with That, how can Prārabdha Karma be attributed?

śarīra, api, prārabdha-kalpanā, bhrānti, eva, hi;
adhyasta, kutas, sattva, a-sattva, kutas, jani;
a-jāta, kutas, nāśa, prārabdha, a-sat, kutas.

शरीरस्य अपि प्रारब्ध-कल्पना भ्रान्तिः एव। अध्यस्तस्य हि (यस्मात्) कुतस् सत्त्वम्? अ-सत्त्वस्य कुतस् जनिः? अ-जातस्य कुतस् नाशः? अ-सतः [सत्-अ-सत्-रहितस्य] कुतस् प्रारब्धम्?
461. Even attributing of Prārabdha Karma to the body is certainly an error. How can something that is superimposed (on another) have any existence, and how can that which is unreal have a birth? And how can that which has not been born at all, die? So how can Prārabdha Karma exist for something that is unreal?

jñāna, a-jñāna-kārya, sa-mūla, laya, yadi;
√sthā, idam, katham, deha, iti, saṅkāvat, jaḍa;
samādhātum, bāhya-dṛṣṭi, prābdha, √vad, śruti.

[“तस्य (आचर्यवत्-पुरुषस्य) तावत् एव चिरं यावत् न विमोक्ष्ये अथ संपत्स्ये” ChanU.6.14.2 इति चेद्?] “यदि ज्ञानेन अ-ज्ञान-कार्यस्य स-मूलस्य लयः [भवेत्], कथं अयं [ज्ञानिनः] देहः तिष्ठति?” इति शङ्कावतः जडान् [मन्द-जनान् प्रति] समाधातुं [प्रतिवक्तुम् इत्यर्थः] श्रुतिः [जीवत्-मुक्तस्य] प्रारब्धं बाह्य-दृष्ट्या [व्यवहारिक-दृष्ट्या] वदति॥
462-463. “If the effects of ignorance are destroyed with their root by knowledge, then how does the body live?” – It is to convince those fools who entertain a doubt like this, that the Śrutis, from a relative standpoint, hypothesise Prārabdha Karma.

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Summing up this Vedānta teaching

vs.101 vs.102 vs.103 vs.104 vs.105 vs.106 vs.107 vs.108

veda-anta-siddha-anta-nirukti, etad,
brahman, eva, jīva, sa-kala, jagat, ca;
a-khaṇda-rūpa-sthiti, eva, mokṣa,
brahma-a-dvitīya, śruti, pramāṇa.

एषा वेद-अन्त-सिद्ध-अन्त-निरुक्तिः – ब्रह्म एव जीवः स-कलं जगत् [ईश्वरः] च [अस्ति]। अ-खण्ड-रूप-स्थितिः एव मोक्षः। ब्रह्म-अ-द्वितीये प्रमाणम् [एव] श्रुतयः॥
478. The verdict of all discussions on the Vedānta is that the Jīva and the whole universe are nothing but Brahman, and that liberation means abiding in Brahman, the indivisible Entity. And the Śrutis themselves are the authority (for the statement) that Brahman is One without a second.

dhanya, asmad, kṛta-kṛtya, asmad, vimukta, asmad, bhava-graha;
nitya-ānanda-sva-rūpa, asmad, pūrṇa, asmad, tvad-anugraha.

अहं धन्यः [ईश्वर-अनुग्रहात्]। अहं कृत-कृत्यः, अहं भव-ग्रहात् विमुक्तः, अहं नित्य-आनन्द-स्व-रूपः, अहं पूर्णः – त्वद्-[मद्-गुरु]-अनुग्रहात् [च]॥
488. (The student replies:]
Blessed am I; I have attained the consummation of my life, and am free from the clutches of transmigration; I am the Essence of Eternal Bliss, I am infinite – all through your mercy!

svā-rājya-sāmrājya-vibhūti, etad,
bhavat-kṛpā-śrī-mahita(mahima)-prasāda;
prāptā, asmad, śrī-guru, mahā-ātman,
namas, namas, yuṣmad, √as, punar, namas, √as.

एषा स्वा-राज्य-[=स्वा-तन्त्र्य]-साम्राज्य-विभूतिः मया भवत्-कृपा-श्री-महित-प्रसादात् (भवत्-कृपा-ईश्वर-प्रसादात्) प्राप्ता। ते श्री-गुरवे (श्रीमत्-गुरवे) महा-आत्मने नमस् नमस् अस्तु, पुनर् नमस् अस्तु॥
517. This splendour of the sovereignty of Self-effulgence I have received by virtue of the supreme majesty of your grace. Salutations to you, O glorious, noble-minded Teacher, salutations again and again!

sva, eva, sarvatas, paśyat, manyamāna, sva, a-dvaya;
sva-ānanda, anubhuñjāna, kāla, √nī, mahā-mati.

स्वम् एव सर्वतस् पश्यन्, स्वम् अ-द्वयं मन्यमानः, स्व-आनन्दम् अनुभुञ्जानः [स्व-]कालं नय, [हे] महा-मते॥
524. [The teacher response:]
Beholding the Self alone in all circumstances, thinking of the Self, the One without a second, and enjoying the Bliss of the Self, pass your time, O noble soul!

iti, śrutvā, guru, vākya, praśraya, kṛta-ānati;
tad, tad, samanujñāta, √yā, nirmukta-bandhana.

इति (VivC.10–104of108) गुरोः वाक्यं श्रुत्वा, प्रश्रयेण [प्रणयेन] कृत-आनतिः, तेन [गुरुना च] समनुज्ञातः, सः निर्मुक्त-बन्धनः ययौ [जगाम]॥
576. Hearing these words of the Guru, the disciple out of reverence prostrated himself before him, and with his permission went his way, freed from bondage.

guru, evam, sat-ānanda-sindhu, nirmagna-mānasa;
pāvayat, vasu-dhā, sarvā, vi-√car, nis-antaram.

एवं सत्-आनन्द-सिन्धौ निर्मग्न-मानसः गुरुः सर्वां वसु-धां [पृथिवीं] पावयन्, निस्-अन्तरं (सदा) विचचार (परिजगाम)॥
577. And the Guru, with his mind steeped in the ocean of Existence and Bliss Absolute, roamed, verily purifying the whole world – all differentiating ideas banished from his mind.

iti, ācārya, śiṣya, saṃvāda, ātma-lakṣaṇa;
nirūpita, mumukṣu, sukha-bodha-upapatti.

इति आत्म-लक्षणं मुमुक्षूणां सुख-बोध-उपपत्तये आचार्यस्य शिष्यस्य संवादेन निरूपितम्॥
578. Thus by way of a dialogue between the Teacher and the disciple, has the nature of the Ātman been ascertained for the easy comprehension of seekers after Liberation.

saṃsāra-advan, tāpa-bhānu-kirana-prodbhūta-dāha-vyathā-
khinna, jala-kāṅkṣā, maru-bhū, bhrānti, paribhrāmyat;
ati-āsana-sudhā-ambu-dhi, sukha-kara, brahma, a-dvaya, darśayantī,
etad, śaṅkara-bhāratī, vi-√ji, nirvāṇa-sandāyinī.

ताप-भानु-किरण-प्रोद्भूत-दाह-व्यथा-खिन्नानां [ताप-सुर्य-किरण-दुःखितानां] जल-काङ्क्षया मरु-भुवि भ्रान्त्या परिभ्राम्यतां [च], तथा संसार-अध्वनि (संसार-मार्गे) [परिभ्राम्यतां] अति-आसन्न-[=सन्निहित]-सुधा-अम्बु-धिं सुख-करं ब्रह्म अ-द्वयं दर्शयन्ती, एषा निर्वाण-सन्दायिनी शङ्कर-भारती [आदि-शङ्करस्य सरस्वती उक्तिः] विजयते॥
580. For those who are afflicted, in the way of the world, by the burning pain due to the (scorching) sunshine of threefold misery, and who through delusion wander about in a desert in search of water – for them here is the triumphant message of Śaṅkara pointing out, within easy reach, the soothing ocean of nectar, Brahman, the One without a second – to lead them on to Liberation.

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🔗  ओं, पूर्ण॒म् अदः॒ पूर्ण॒म् इदं॒ पूर्णा॒त् पूर्ण॒म् उद॒च्यते।
पूर्ण॒स्य पूर्ण॒म् आदा॒य पूर्ण॒म् एवावशि॒ष्यते।
ओं शा॒न्तिः शा॒न्तिः शा॒न्तिः॥

Om; pūrṇa, adas, pūrṇa, idam, pūrna, pūrṇa, ud-√añc.
pūrṇa, pūrṇa, ādāya, pūrṇa, eva, ava-√śiṣ.
Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

॥इति विवेक-चूडामणिः समाप्तः॥