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श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीता with Translation

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Bhagavad-Gītā is a part of the Mahā-Bhārata, attributed to Śrī Veda-Vyāsa. It is a report of a dialogue between Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Śrī Arjuna.

by A.K. Aruna
First Print Mar 2013 (ISBN 978-0-9818640-6-8)
First Update to HTML Jan 2018 with Creative Commons International License:
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ओं, स॒ ह ना॑व् अवतु। स॒ ह नौ॑ भुनक्तु। स॒ह वी॒र्यं॑ करवावहै। ते॒ज॒स्विना॒व् अधी॑तम् अस्तु॒ मा वि॑द्विषा॒वहै᳚। ओं शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॒ शान्तिः॑॥
Om; tad, ha, asmad, √av. Tad, ha, asmad, √bhuj. Saha, vīrya, √kṛ. Tejasvin, adhīta, √as, mā, vi-√dviṣ. Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

The Bhagavad Gītā is a report of a dialogue between Arjuna, the greatest warrior of his time, and Kṛṣṇa his friend and mentor. It is set at the start of a huge war, involving millions of soldiers, over the right of succession for a kingdom in north-central India, five thousand years ago. Two groups of cousins (all in the Kuru clan) laid claim to the kingdom. On one side was Prince Arjuna and his brothers, the five sons of the deceased King Pāṇḍu. On the other side was King Duryodhana and his brothers, the ninety-nine sons of King Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, the brother of King Pāṇḍu. The Bhagavad Gītā is centrally located in the much larger story, now called the Mahā-bhārata, attributed to the near-mythical Vyāsa, the greatest ever Indian writer and editor.
The antecedents that led to this war and the account of the war and its aftermath are covered in the rest of the Mahā-bhārata. The Bhagavad Gītā starts with an introduction to the scene of the dialogue. In the first chapter, Sañjaya, the minister to King Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, brings the king up to date on what had happened at the war front. Sañjaya’s narration forms the text of the Bhagavad Gītā. Sañjaya doesn’t require war correspondents and spies. He is endowed with a magical ability to not only see and hear what is going on at the distant battlefield, but also to know the thoughts in the warriors’ minds. The Mahā-bhārata is, as teacher Swami Dayananda Saraswati says (2004, The Context of the Gītā Vol. 1 pg. 59), a historical poem, an imaginative weaving of drama around certain historical events and people.
Kṛṣṇa was the most attractive divinity, the Lord incarnate, during Arjuna’s time and became the most celebrated focus of all Indian arts. Arjuna was the leader of his time. He fought against unjust aggression and is the greatest mortal martial artist in all of Indian history and mythology. In the middle of the first chapter, Sañjaya finally speaks of these two main characters: Arjuna commands Kṛṣṇa to drive his chariot between the two armies so that he can get a close look at whom he would have to fight. Kṛṣṇa drives the chariot into position and says, “Behold these assembled Kurus.”
Arjuna does not objectively see those lined up against him as warriors, but instead only sees his relatives, teachers, and friends. He subjectively sees only “my people.” At this, Arjuna loses his ability to remain the warrior and leader of his side. He questions the previously clear justifications for the war that he and his brothers had discussed with respected counselors – and with Kṛṣṇa himself. A stream of emotionally grounded arguments against the war springs up in Arjuna. Finally, he collapses on the chariot seat, unable to proceed and wondering if the unthinkable – retreat – is the wisest course.
In the second chapter, knowing full well that the reasons for this war are sound, Kṛṣṇa prods Arjuna to regain his composure and proceed. But the crisis in Arjuna’s heart is not just about the war. It is deeply centered on the purpose of life itself. Arjuna feels a basic sorrow about the endless limitations of life – even of being a king of a huge empire or the king of heaven. He sees no purpose in a life that makes one struggle against others to gain fleeting moments of enjoyment, which are tainted by their costs. Arjuna begins to believe that his born duty as a prince and warrior is contrary to his goal. He wonders if he should drop everything and take to a life of renunciation. In fact, he loses sight of what his goal in life is – if it is enjoyment, then it is no longer worth it; if it is duty and justice, he doubts they are worth their cost. Still, Arjuna knows that Kṛṣṇa is more than a friend. He looks upon Kṛṣṇa as divine and knows that Kṛṣṇa has the wisdom to teach him what the ultimate good is, which Arjuna believes will solve his predicament. In the eleventh verse of chapter 2, the teaching, the reason for the Bhagavad Gītā, begins with a discussion – not of war, but of reality and how to live accordingly.
This vision of reality is initially presented in chapter 2 of the Bhagavad Gītā, from verse 11 to verse 30, and is elaborated throughout the other chapters, especially in chapter 13. This reality is referred to by the terms brahman, ātmā, or Bhagavān, depending on whether the term is in reference, respectively, to itself, to oneself, or to the universe. This reality is presented in the Bhagavad Gītā as timeless and locationless. It is the very fabric of the warp-and-woof of time and space, and is the very center of oneself, the observer of this entire universe.
The divisions of time and space of the universe – of before and after, inside and outside, up and down – that we each know, are the result of our limited views of the universe from our tiny perspectives. From the perspective of the total, of the infinite whose center is everywhere, there is only one uniform, timeless, and locationless reality. This is the truly objective vision of the world, free of limited perspective, free of subjectivity. It is seeing reality as it is. This is the vision of the Lord, of Bhagavān. It is the ultimate good, the ultimate goal of everyone. The life lived toward and within this goal is without sorrow, is conflict free, meritorious, and filled with complete satisfaction with oneself and the world. It is this vision that is taught in the Bhagavad Gītā.
Indeed, it is upon this clear vision of reality, taught in the Bhagavad Gītā and in the core tradition of ancient India literature, that the culture of universal justice (dharma) is based. Dharma is the natural application of the life of one who has this clear vision of reality. How the person who has this vision of reality would behave in various situations is the guiding principle for determining what dharma is.
A life of dharma, which is meant for gaining this vision of reality, is given the title of yoga (a means) in the Bhagavad Gītā. Today’s popular meaning of “yoga” is not the “eight limbs of yoga”, defined by the teacher Patanjali over two thousand years ago in his Patanjali Yoga Sutras (Aruna 2012). Today’s yoga is narrowly confined to just one or two of the eight limbs; specifically, āsana (posture) and breath control (prāṇāyāma) (see Patanjali Yoga Sutras 2.46–53) now promoted by contemporary yoga teachers. The original meaning of “yoga” in the Bhagavad Gītā can easily be drawn from the text itself. It refers to a way of living that helps the mind to mature so that one can fully appreciate this vision of timeless and locationless reality. It is, then, this vision of reality that fulfills one’s life. It is the ultimate good, the ultimate goal of everyone. That is how yoga is presented in the Bhagavad Gītā and how it has been taught for told and untold thousands of years, of which the Bhagavad Gītā is but a recent illumination, though it was composed well over two (or perhaps five) thousand years ago. This vision of reality has been preserved throughout the cycles of manifestation and destruction of the universe. It is a timeless vision of the timeless reality that forms the basis of this universe of time and space.
This timeless reality cannot be known as a this or that, cannot be arrived at by deduction or induction, cannot be a limited object of any mentation or meditation. You can only be it. To appreciate this reality, you need only remove the wrong notions you have about yourself, this reality. To do this, you need not remove the limitations, but only understand the nature of these limitations – and why they cannot limit the reality in which they shine as its glories.
This is the teaching that removes the basic, but unexamined, sorrow centered on the countless limitations of a human life and replaces it with a fulfillment centered on the limitless nature of oneself. It is a teaching that does not view itself as Indian, but as belonging to all humankind from time immemorial. It is a teaching that is faithfully preserved by the people of India, not created by them. It is the teaching of the Lord. Not a Lord amongst or against other Lords, but rather there is only this Lord. Every thing; every being; you, yourself are but this Lord – this limitless reality. All this is one – oneself.
God does not look over you. Rather, you look over your body, your mind, and your life. You look over the universe as it presents itself to your senses and your mind, which are also part of this universe. The universe is ordered by the natural laws that are also called dharma, the laws of cause and effect. These laws govern not only the physical but also the mental, the subtle. While you overlook all this before you, you remain the same (sama) while the entire universe continually changes. This continually changing time–space intersection of your experience, this physical and subtle universe before you, has you as its basis, as its very existence.
All this that your senses can perceive, all this that your mind can conceive or imagine, all the laws of the world and of the mind that you are able to appreciate, all that your languages can describe, and even the basic building block of everything (whatever it is currently calculated to be by science) – all are limited in time and space, including time and space itself. All this observed universe has you as its observer and as its basis in reality (sat-cit, reality-awareness). This observer (you) cannot be limited as an object of the senses or the mind, since it is (you are) ever the subject, alone factually free of the perceived and conceived limitations of time and space and all within time and space. This is the basis of your undoubted and unchanging self-existence throughout your life – despite your changing body, mind, and environment.
Such an unchanging basis of reality, which you are, alone can be the background, the substratum and surface, within which this ever-changing universe plays itself out. Such a basis of reality alone is the ultimate you seek. The seeker is but you, the limitless observer – the seeker seeking itself. Only ignorance can be the cause of this estrangement and subsequent seeking.
This teaching, in the Bhagavad Gītā in the form of a dialogue, removes that ignorance. In the Bhagavad Gītā, the divinity (Kṛṣṇa) is teaching the student in you (Arjuna is oneself). This is the divine teaching of your self-identity with all, with the total. It is also the teaching of independence, of freedom from all this before you. You are the being of this universe. This being is at once both the beloved (priya) and the love (prema) itself. It is a total turnaround in the understanding of oneself and of the universe.
I am not limited; I am limitless. And this current universe within time and space is completely within my self. My self is complete fulfillment.
As the doubts subside, the freedom and joy that is one’s nature become fully appreciated. This understanding is the grandest vision, the ultimate knowledge to gain, the ultimate good. Then life truly becomes fun and sport, just as Kṛṣṇa’s life was lived with fun and sport – like a song (gītā). It is a life free of guilt, free of hurt, and free of fear.
Let us begin the Songs of the Glorious Lord (Bhagavad Gītā).
(Jump to 1st Ch. Intro)

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(Jump to Bhagavad Gita initial Intro)
The Topic of Arjuna’s Sorrow
The first chapter of the Bhagavad Gītā introduces both the scene of the narration and the scene of the dialogue. The dialogue consists of the teaching of and by the Lord, Kṛṣṇa, to the student, Arjuna. In the first scene, the scene of the narration, the king’s minister, Sañjaya, is narrating for King Dhṛta-rāṣṭra. Sañjaya tells what happened on the field of battle just prior to start of the war. He describes how the king’s son approached his teacher in martial arts to whip up his teacher’s desire for revenge against Drupada on the opposing side of the battlefield; for fear that the teacher (a brāhmaṇa) did not have the heart of a warrior (kṣatriya) in battle.
Sañjaya then narrates the second scene, the scene of dialogue, which is just before the battle. In this scene, Arjuna commands Kṛṣṇa to drive his chariot between the two armies so that he can get a close look at whom he will fight. Kṛṣṇa drives the chariot and says, “Behold these assembled Kurus.” Arjuna does not see those lined up against him as warriors, but instead only sees his relatives, teachers, and friends. He only sees “my people” (verse 31). At this, Arjuna loses the ability to remain the warrior and leader. A stream of emotionally grounded arguments against this war wells up in him. His mind becomes stressed and overwhelmed by pity to such an extent that he is physically incapacitated. Finally, Arjuna collapses on the chariot seat, unable to proceed and wondering if the unthinkable – retreat – would be the wisest course.
In this chapter, Arjuna argues that war based on greed and desire for power is never justified. However, such a war is not what Arjuna faces. Rather, this war, clearly narrated in the Mahā-bhārata as a war of justice (dharma) against injustice (a-dharma), is for the survival and reestablishment of justice over injustice. But, even in a just war, an individual on either side of battle may have mixed motivations. The individual may be for or against the war and yet be overwhelmed by desire for power and pleasures. A question for the individual is whether the mind’s likes and dislikes override one’s own sense of justice or one’s duty to uphold justice. The answer to this question may hinge on the individual’s understanding of life and death. If the fear of death trumps all, or if justice is thought not worth dying for, then one may succumb to the persuasion of the mind’s likes and dislikes.
We can look at Arjuna’s struggle in this crisis as a metaphor for our own lives. Each of us is in a life-and-death struggle, having to make decisions on a daily and hourly basis that make life a series of heavens and hells – for ourselves and for others. The Bhagavad Gītā presents this daily struggle – not the struggle of war or the justification for war, but the struggle of what is life and what is death (metaphysically and morally) – in a deeply philosophical and personal manner. It is not a theoretical discussion, but a methodical presentation of an indisputable reality and the assimilation of this vision of reality in one’s life. Arjuna’s situational crisis mirrors each person’s existential crisis regarding the meaning of life and the fear of death. Arjuna’s crisis is the catalyst for presenting a clear vision of life and death that solves the felt crisis in every human heart, and for revealing the way to open the heart to this vision and allow it to firmly remain there.
(Jump to 2nd Ch. Intro)
dṛta-rāṣṭra, √vac:
dharma-kṣetra, kuru-kṣetra, samaveta, yuyutsu; māmaka, pāṇḍava, ca, eva, kim, √kṛ, sañjaya.

धृत-राष्ट्र उवाच।
धर्म-क्षेत्रे कुरु-क्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः।
मामकाः पाण्डवाश् चैव किम् अकुर्वत सञ्जय॥
sañjaya, √vac:
dṛṣṭvā, tu, pāṇḍava-anīka, vyūḍha, dus-yodhana, tadā; ācārya, upasaṅgamya, rājan, vacana, √brū.

सञ्जय उवाच।
दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्-योधनस् तदा।
आचार्यम् उपसङ्गम्य राजा वचनम् अब्रवीत्॥
√dṛś, etad, pāṇḍu-putra, ācārya, mahatī, camū; vyūḍhā, dru-pada-putra, yuṣmad, śiṣya, dhīmat.
पश्यैतां पाण्डु-पुत्राणाम् आचार्य महतीं चमूम्।
व्यूढां द्रु-पद-पुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता॥
atra, śūra, mahā-iṣvāsa, bhīma-arjuna-sama, √yudh; yuyudhāna, virāṭa, ca, dru-pada, ca, mahā-ratha.
dhṛṣṭa-ketu, cekitāna, kāśi-rāja, ca, vīryavat; puru-jit, kunti-bhoja, ca, śaibya, ca, nara-puṅgava.
yudhā-manyu, ca, vikrānta, uttama-ojas, ca, vīryavat; sau-bhadra, drau-padeya, ca, sarva, eva, mahā-ratha.

अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुन-समा युधि।
युयुधानो विराटश् च द्रु-पदश् च महा-रथः॥
धृष्ट-केतुश् चेकितानः काशि-राजश् च वीर्यवान्।
पुरु-जित् कुन्ति-भोजश् च शैब्यश् च नर-पुङ्गवः॥
युधा-मन्युश् च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश् च वीर्यवान्।
सौ-भद्रो द्रौ-पदेयाश् च सर्व एव महा-रथाः॥
asmad, tu, viśiṣṭa, yad, tad, ni-√budh, dvi-ja-uttama; nāyaka, asmad, sainya, sañjñā-artham, tad, √brū, yuṣmad.
अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान् निबोध द्विजोत्तम।
नायका मम सैन्यस्य सञ्ज्ञार्थं तान् ब्रवीमि ते॥
bhavat, bhīṣma, ca, karṇa, ca, kṛpa, ca, samitim-jaya; aśva-tthāman, vikarṇa, ca, sauma-datti, tathā, eva, ca.
भवान् भीष्मश् च कर्णश् च कृपश् च समितिञ्-जयः।
अश्व-त्थामा विकर्णश् च सौम-दत्तिस् तथैव च॥
anya, ca, bahu, śūra, mad-arthe, tyakta-jīvita; nānā-śastra-praharaṇa, sarva, yuddha-viśārada.
अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मद्-अर्थे त्यक्त-जीविताः।
नाना-शस्त्र-प्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्ध-विशारदाः॥
a-paryāpta, tad, asmad, bala, bhīṣma-abhirakṣita; paryāpta, tu, idam, etad, bala, bhīma-abhirakṣita.
अपर्याप्तं तद् अस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम्।
पर्याप्तं त्व् इदम् एतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम्॥
ayana, ca, sarva, yathā-bhāgam, avasthita; bhīṣma, eva, abhi-√rakṣ, bhavat, sarva, eva, hi.
अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथा-भागम् अवस्थिताः।
भीष्मम् एवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि॥
tad, sañjanayat, harṣa, kuru-vṛddha, pitā-maha; siṃha-nāda, vinadya, uccais, śaṅkha, √dhmā, pratāpavat.
तस्य सञ्जनयन् हर्षं कुरु-वृद्धः पिता-महः।
सिंह-नादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान्॥
tatas, śaṅkha, ca, bheryī, ca, paṇava-ānaka-go-mukha; sahasā, eva, abhi-√han, tad, śabda, tumula, √bhū.
ततः शङ्खाश् च भेर्यश् च पणवानक-गो-मुखाः।
सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस् तुमुलोऽभवत्॥
tatas, śveta, haya, yukta, mahat, syandana, sthita; mādhava, pāṇḍava, ca, eva, divya, śaṅkha, pra-√dhmā.
ततः श्वेतैर् हयैर् युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ।
माधवः पाण्डवश् चैव दिव्यौ शङ्खौ प्रदध्मतुः॥
pāñca-janya, hṛṣīka-īśa, deva-datta, dhanam-jaya; pauṇḍra, √dhmā, mahā-śaṅkha, bhīma-karman, vṛka-udara.
पाञ्च-जन्यं हृषीकेशो देव-दत्तं धनञ्-जयः।
पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महा-शङ्खं भीम-कर्मा वृकोदरः॥
an-anta-vijaya, rājan, kuntī-putra, yudhi-sthira; nakula, saha-deva, ca, su-ghoṣa-maṇi-puṣpaka.
अनन्त-विजयं राजा कुन्ती-पुत्रो युधि-ष्ठिरः।
नकुलः सह-देवश् च सु-घोष-मणि-पुष्पकौ॥
kāśya, ca, parama-iṣvāsa, śikhaṇḍin, ca, mahā-ratha; dhṛṣṭa-dyumna, virāṭa, ca, sātyaki, ca, a-parā-jita.
dru-pada, drau-padeya, ca, sarvaśas, pṛthivī-pati; sau-bhadra, ca, mahā-bāhu, śañkha, √dhmā, pṛtak, pṛtak.

काश्यश् च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महा-रथः।
धृष्ट-द्युम्नो विराटश् च सात्यकिश् चापरा-जितः॥
द्रु-पदो द्रौ-पदेयाश् च सर्वशः पृथिवी-पते।
सौ-भद्रश् च महा-बाहुः शङ्खान् दध्मुः पृथक् पृथक्॥
tad, ghoṣa, dhārta-rāṣṭra, hṛdaya, vi-√dṝ; nabhas, ca, pṛthivī, ca, eva, tumula, vyanunādayat.
स घोषो धार्त-राष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत्।
नभश् च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनादयन्॥
atha, vyavasthita, dṛṣṭvā, dhārta-rāṣṭra, kapi-dhvaja; pravṛtta, śastra-sampāta, dhanus, udyama, pāṇḍava.
hṛṣīka-īśa, tadā, vākya, idam, √ah, mahī-pati; arjuna, √vac:
senā, ubhā, madhya, ratha, √sthā, asmad, a-cyuta.
yāvat, etad, nis-√īkṣ, asmad, yoddhu-kāma, avasthita; kim, asmad, saha, yoddhavya, idam, raṇa-samudyama.

अथ व्यवस्थितान् दृष्ट्वा धार्त-राष्ट्रान् कपि-ध्वजः।
प्रवृत्ते शस्त्र-सम्पाते धनुर् उद्यम्य पाण्डवः॥
हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यम् इदम् आह मही-पते।
अर्जुन उवाच।
सेनयोर् उभयोर् मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत॥
यावद् एतान् निरीक्षेऽहं योद्धु-कामान् अवस्थितान्।
कैर् मया सह योद्धव्यम् अस्मिन् रण-समुद्यमे॥
yotsyamāna, ava-√īkṣ, asmad, yad, etad, atra, samāgata; dhātra-rāṣṭra, dus-buddhi, yuddha, priya-cikīrṣu.
योत्स्यमानान् अवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः।
धार्त-राष्ट्रस्य दुर्-बुद्धेर् युद्धे प्रिय-चिकीर्षवः॥
sañjaya, √vac:
evam, ukta, hṛṣīka-īśa, guḍākā-īśa, bhārata; senā, ubhā, madhya, sthāpayitvā, ratha-uttama.
bhīṣma-droṇa-pramukhatas, sarva, ca, mahī-kṣit; √vac, pārtha, √dṛś, etad, samaveta, kuru, iti.

सञ्जय उवाच।
एवम् उक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत।
सेनयोर् उभयोर् मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम्॥
भीष्म-द्रोण-प्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च मही-क्षिताम्।
उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान् समवेतान् कुरून् इति॥
tatra, √dṛś, sthita, pārtha, pitṛ, atha, pitā-maha; ācārya, mātula, bhātṛ, putra, pautra, sakhi, tathā.
śvaśura, su-hṛd, ca, eva, senā, ubhā, api; tad, samīkṣya, tad, kaunteya, sarva, bandhu, avasthita.
kṛpā, parā, āviṣṭa, viṣīdat, idam, √brū;

तत्रापश्यत् स्थितान् पार्थः पितॄन् अथ पिता-महान्।
आचार्यान् मातुलान् भ्रातॄन् पुत्रान् पौत्रान् सखींस् तथा॥
श्वशुरान् सु-हृदश् चैव सेनयोर् उभयोर् अपि।
तान् समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान् बन्धून् अवस्थितान्॥
कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्न् इदम् अब्रवीत्।
arjuna, √vac:
dṛṣṭvā, idam, sva-jana, kṛṣṇa, yuyutsu, samupasthita.
√sad, asmad, gātra, mukha, ca, pari-√śuṣ; vepathu, ca, śarīra, asmad, roma-harṣa, ca, √jan.

अर्जुन उवाच।
दृष्ट्वेमं स्व-जनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम्॥
सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति।
वेपथुश् च शरीरे मे रोम-हर्षश् च जायते॥
gāṇḍīva, √sraṃs, hasta, tvac, ca, eva, pari-√dah; na, ca, √śak, avasthātum, √bhram, iva, ca, asmad, manas.
गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात् त्वक् चैव परिदह्यते।
न च शक्नोम्य् अवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः॥
nimitta, ca, √dṛś, viparīta, keśava; na, ca, śreyas, anu-√dṛś, hatvā, sva-jana, āhava.
निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव।
न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्व-जनम् आहवे॥
na, √kāñkṣ, vijaya, kṛṣṇa, na, ca, rājya, sukha, ca; kim, asmad, rājya, go-vinda, kim, bhoga, jīvita, vā.
न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च।
किं नो राज्येन गो-विन्द किं भोगैर् जीवितेन वा॥
yad, arthe, kāṅkṣita, asmad, rājya, bhoga, sukha, ca; tad, idam, avasthita, yuddha, prāṇa, tyaktvā, dhana, ca.
ācārya, pitṛ, putra, tathā, eva, ca, pitā-maha; mātula, śvaśura, pautra, śyāla, sambandhin, tathā.

येषाम् अर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च।
त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस् त्यक्त्वा धनानि च॥
आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास् तथैव च पिता-महाः।
मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः सम्बन्धिनस् तथा॥
etad, na, hantum, √iṣ, ghnat, api, madhu-sūdana; api, trai-lokya-rājya, hetu, kim, nu, mahī-kṛte.
एतान् न हन्तुम् इच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधु-सूदन।
अपि त्रै-लोक्य-राज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु मही-कृते॥
nihatya, dhārta-rāṣṭra, asmad, kim, prīti, √as, jana-ardana; pāpa, eva, ā-√śri, asmad, hatvā, etad, ātata-āyin.
निहत्य धार्त-राष्ट्रान् नः का प्रीतिः स्याज् जनार्दन।
पापम् एवाश्रयेद् अस्मान् हत्वैतान् आततायिनः॥
tasmād, na, arha, asmad, hantum, dhārta-rāṣṭra, sva-bāndhava; sva-jana, hi, katham, hatvā, sukhin, √as, mādhava.
तस्मान् नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्त-राष्ट्रान् स्व-बान्धवान्।
स्व-जनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव॥
yadi, api, etad, na, √dṛś, lobha-upahata-cetasas; kula-kṣaya-kṛta, doṣa, mitra-droha, ca, pātaka.
katham, na, jñeya, asmad, pāpa, idam, nivartitum; kula-kṣaya-kṛta, doṣa, prapaśyat, jana-ardana.

यद्य् अप्य् एते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहत-चेतसः।
कुल-क्षय-कृतं दोषं मित्र-द्रोहे च पातकम्॥
कथं न ज्ञेयम् अस्माभिः पापाद् अस्मान् निवर्तितुम्।
कुल-क्षय-कृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर् जनार्दन॥
kula-kṣaya, pra-√naś, kula-dharma, sanā-tana; dharma, naṣṭa, kula, kṛtsna, a-dharma, abhi-√bhū, uta.
कुल-क्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुल-धर्माः सना-तनाः।
धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नम् अधर्मोऽभिभवत्य् उत॥
a-dharma-abhibhava, kṛṣṇa, pra-√duṣ, kula-strī; strī, duṣṭā, vārṣṇeya, √jan, varṇa-saṅkara.
अधर्माभिभवात् कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुल-स्त्रियः।
स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्ण-सङ्करः॥
saṅkara, naraka, eva, kula-ghna, kula, ca; √pat, pitṛ, hi, etad, lupta-piṇḍa-udaka-kriya.
सङ्करो नरकायैव कुल-घ्नानां कुलस्य च।
पतन्ति पितरो ह्य् एषां लुप्त-पिण्डोदक-क्रियाः॥
doṣa, etad, kula-ghna, varṇa-saṅkara-kāraka; ud-√sad, jāti-dharma, kula-dharma, ca, śāśvata.
दोषैर् एतैः कुल-घ्नानां वर्ण-सङ्कर-कारकैः।
उत्साद्यन्ते जाति-धर्माः कुल-धर्माश् च शाश्वताः॥
utsanna-kula-dharma, manuṣya, jana-ardana; naraka, niyatam, vāsa, √bhū, iti, anu-√śru.
उत्सन्न-कुल-धर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन।
नरके नियतं वासो भवतीत्य् अनुशुश्रुम॥
aho, bata, mahat, pāpa, kartum, vyavasita, asmad; yad, rājya-sukha-lobha, hantum, sva-jana, udyata.
अहो बत महत् पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम्।
यद् राज्य-सुख-लोभेन हन्तुं स्व-जनम् उद्यताः॥
yadi, asmad, a-pratīkāra, a-śastra, śastra-pāṇi; dhārta-rāṣṭra, raṇa, √han, tad, asmad, kṣematara, √bhū.
यदि माम् अप्रतीकारम् अशस्त्रं शस्त्र-पाणयः।
धार्त-राष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस् तन् मे क्षेमतरं भवेत्॥
sañjaya, √vac:
evam, uktvā, arjuna, saṅkya, ratha-upastha, upa-√viś; visṛjya, sa-śara, cāpa, śoka-saṃvigna-mānasa.

सञ्जय उवाच।
एवम् उक्त्वार्जुनः सङ्ख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत्।
विसृज्य स-शरं चापं शोक-संविग्न-मानसः॥
om, tad, sat, iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, viṣāda-yoga, nāma, prathama, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादेऽर्जुन-विषाद-योगो नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of Knowledge
Kṛṣṇa is being asked to be a guru, a teacher. He himself has been a young student under the sage Sāndīpani, so, in addition to being the Lord incarnate, Kṛṣṇa clearly is equipped with the methodology of teaching presented in the Upaniṣads. He shows this by fluently quoting and paraphrasing verses of several Upaniṣads and by wholesale borrowing topics from several more to weave a complete vision.
The Advaita Vedānta teaching is then not new. It is completely within the ancient tradition of the Upaniṣad scriptures and elaborates the preparation required to assimilate the direct knowledge of the teaching. It is not a “secret” teaching for the initiated only. Rather, it is presented in the middle of the Mahā-bhārata, the most popular storybook in Indian literature.
In chapter 2, Kṛṣṇa teaches Arjuna that the people Arjuna is grieving are, in fact, the being that is timeless and unchanging, and none other than the self of Arjuna. So, being changeless, Arjuna, from the true perspective of himself, whether he knows it or not, is not the doer of action – not the slayer of these people or even of these bodies before him.
This is called viveka, discernment of the real from the unreal, the self from the nonself. This teaching is quite shocking (āścaryavat), and not easily understood when first heard. Therefore, Kṛṣṇa further explains. He speaks from the perspective of the relative reality of living and explains that impermanent entities obviously have an end and that their lot after their end is both unknown and unknowable to others. So, even relatively then, there is no basis for grieving, he tells Arjuna. Moreover, Kṛṣṇa says, if Arjuna deserts the battlefield, he is deserting his duty, and this will bring unwanted repercussions in this life and later.
Kṛṣṇa then proceeds to teach the prerequisite understanding that a student needs in order to assimilate this profound teaching. This understanding involves committing to doing one’s duty with the intent of gaining in this life the knowledge that liberates. This preparation is presented in the Upaniṣads by the description of the qualifications of the student and by various upāsanas, meditations on life and the universe that instill a cosmic perspective to living. This preparation is here called karma-yoga. It is a dispassion (vairāgya) for material and even spiritual results that are time bound. Then, with this dispassion, doing action as a participation in the cosmic cycle simply because it is a duty-to-be-done and is the proper thing to be done that matures the mind. The mature mind then has the discipline and clarity to assimilate the self-knowledge that liberates – that brings one to an appreciation of brahman, the ultimate reality, as one’s self.
(Jump to 3rd Ch. Intro)
sañjaya, √vac:
tad, tathā, kṛpā, āviṣṭa, aśru-pūrṇa-ākula-īkṣaṇa; viṣīdat, idam, vākya, √vac, madhu-sūdana.

सञ्जय उवाच।
तं तथा कृपयाविष्टम् अश्रु-पूर्णाकुलेक्षणम्।
विषीदन्तम् इदं वाक्यम् उवाच मधु-सूदनः॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
kutas, yuṣmad, kaśmala, idam, vi-sama, samupasthita; an-ārya-juṣṭa, a-svar-gya, a-kīrti-kara, arjuna.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
कुतस् त्वा कश्मलम् इदं वि-षमे समुपस्थितम्।
अनार्य-जुष्टम् अस्वर्ग्यम् अकीर्ति-करम् अर्जुन॥
klaibya, mā, sma, √gam, pārtha, na, etad, yuṣmad, upa-√pad; kṣudra, hṛdaya-daur-balya, tyaktvā, ud-√sthā, param-tapa.
क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ नैतत् त्वय्य् उपपद्यते।
क्षुद्रं हृदय-दौर्-बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ परन्-तप॥
arjuna, √vac:
katham, bhīṣma, asmad, saṅkhya, droṇa, ca, madhu-sūdana; iṣu, prati-√yudh, pūjā-arha, ari-sūdana.

अर्जुन उवाच।
कथं भीष्मम् अहं सङ्ख्ये द्रोणं च मधु-सूदन।
इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि पूजार्हाव् अरि-सूदन॥
guru, a-hatvā, hi, mahā-anubhāva, śreyas, bhoktum, bhaikṣya, api, iha, loka; hatvā, artha-kāma, tu, guru, iha, eva, √bhuj, bhoga, rudhira-pradigdha.
गुरून् अहत्वा हि महानुभावाञ् छ्रेयो भोक्तुं भैक्ष्यम् अपीह लोके।
हत्वार्थ-कामांस् तु गुरून् इहैव भुञ्जीय भोगान् रुधिर-प्रदिग्धान्॥
na, ca, etad, √vid, katara, asmad, garīyas, yad, vā, √ji, yadi, vā, asmad, √ji; yad, eva, hatvā, na, √jīv, tad, avasthita, pramukhe, dhārta-rāṣṭra.
न चैतद् विद्मः कतरन् नो गरीयो यद् वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः।
यान् एव हत्वा न जिजीविषामस् तेऽवस्थिताः प्रमुखे धार्त-राष्ट्राः॥
kārpaṇya-doṣa-upahata-sva-bhāva, √prach, yuṣmad, dharma-sammūḍha-cetas; yad, śreyas, √as, niścitam, √brū, tad, asmad, śiṣya, yuṣmad, asmad, √śās, asmad, yuṣmad, prapanna.
कार्पण्य-दोषोपहत-स्व-भावः पृच्छामि त्वां धर्म-सम्मूढ-चेताः।
यच् छ्रेयः स्यान् निश्चितं ब्रूहि तन् मे शिष्यस् तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम्॥
na, hi, pra-√dṛś, asmad, apa-√nud, yad, śoka, ucchoṣaṇa, indriya; avāpya, bhūmi, a-sa-patna, ṛddha, rājya, sura, api, ca, ādhipatya.
न हि प्रपश्यामि ममापनुद्याद् यच् छोकम् उच्छोषणम् इन्द्रियाणाम्।
अवाप्य भूमाव् असपत्नम् ऋद्धं राज्यं सुराणाम् अपि चाधिपत्यम्॥
sañjaya, √vac:
evam, uktvā, hṛṣīka-īśa, guḍākā-īśa, param-tapa (param-tapa); na, √yudh, iti, go-vinda, uktvā, tūṣṇīm, √bhū, ha.

सञ्जय उवाच।
एवम् उक्त्वा हृषीकेशं गुडाकेशः परन्-तपः। (परन्-तप)
न योत्स्य इति गो-विन्दम् उक्त्वा तूष्णीं बभूव ह॥
tad, √vac, hṛṣīka-īśa, pra-hasat, iva, bhārata; senā, ubhā, madhya, viṣīdat, idam, √vac.
तम् उवाच हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्न् इव भारत।
सेनयोर् उभयोर् मध्ये विषीदन्तम् इदं वचः॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
a-śocya, anu-√śuc, yuṣmad, prajñā-vāda, ca, √bhāṣ; gata-asu, a-gata-asu, ca, na, anu-√śuc, paṇḍita.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
अशोच्यान् अन्वशोचस् त्वं प्रज्ञा-वादांश् च भाषसे।
गतासून् अगतासूंश् च नानुशोचन्ति पण्डिताः॥
na, tu, eva, asmad, jātu, na, √as, na, yuṣmad, na, idam, jana-adhipa; na, ca, eva, na, √bhū, sarva, asmad, atas, param.
न त्व् एवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः।
न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयम् अतः परम्॥
dehin, idam, yathā, deha, kaumāra, yauvana, jarā; tathā, deha-antara-prāpti, dhīra, tatra, na, √muh.
देहिनोऽस्मिन् यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा।
तथा देहान्तर-प्राप्तिर् धीरस् तत्र न मुह्यति॥
mātrā-sparśa, tu, kaunteya, śīta-uṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-da; āgama-apāyin, a-nitya, tad, √tij, bhārata.
मात्रा-स्पर्शास् तु कौन्तेय शीतोष्ण-सुख-दुःख-दाः।
आगमापायिनोऽनित्यास् तांस् तितिक्षस्व भारत॥
yad, hi, na, √vyath, etad, puruṣa, puruṣa-ṛṣabha; sama-duḥkha-sukha, dhīra, tad, a-mṛtatva, √kḷp.
यं हि न व्यथयन्त्य् एते पुरुषं पुरुष-र्षभ।
सम-दुःख-सुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते॥
na, a-sat, √vid, bhāva, na, a-bhāva, √vid, sat; ubha, api, dṛṣṭa, anta, tu, idam, tattva-darśin.
नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः।
उभयोर् अपि दृष्टोऽन्तस् त्व् अनयोस् तत्त्व-दर्शिभिः॥
avināśin, tu, tad, √vid, yad, sarva, idam, tata; vināśa, a-vyaya, idam, na, ka-cid, kartum, √arh.
अविनाशि तु तद् विद्धि येन सर्वम् इदं ततम्।
विनाशम् अव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित् कर्तुम् अर्हति॥
antavat, idam, deha, nitya, ukta, śarīrin; a-nāśin, a-prameya, tasmāt, √yudh, bhārata.
अन्तवन्त इमे देहा नित्यस्योक्ताः शरीरिणः।
अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य तस्माद् युध्यस्व भारत॥
yad, enad, √vid, hantṛ, yad, ca, enad, √man, hata; ubha, tad, na, vi-√jñā, na, idam, na, √han, na, √han.
य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारं यश् चैनं मन्यते हतम्।
उभौ तौ न विजानीतो नायं हन्ति न हन्यते॥
na, √jan, √mṛ, vā, kadā-cid, na, idam, bhūtvā, a-bhavitṛ, vā, na, bhūyas; a-ja, nitya, śāśvata, idam, purāṇa, na, √han, hanyamāna, śarīra.
न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचिन् नायं भूत्वाभविता वा न भूयः।
अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे॥
√vid, a-vināśin, nitya, yad, enad, a-ja, a-vyaya; katham, tad, puruṣa, pārtha, kim, √han, √han, kim.
वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनम् अजम् अव्ययम्।
कथं स पुरुषः पार्थ कं घातयति हन्ति कम्॥
vāsas, jīrṇa, yathā, vihāya, nava, √grah, nara, apara; tathā, śarīra, vihāya, jīrṇa, anya, sam-√yā, nava, dehin.
वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि।
तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णान्य् अन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही॥
na, enad, √chid, śastra, na, enad, √dah, pāvaka; na, ca, enad, √klid, ap, na, √śuṣ, māruta.
नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः।
न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्य् आपो न शोषयति मारुतः॥
a-chedya, idam, a-dāhya, idam, a-kledya, a-śoṣya, eva, ca; nitya, sarva-gata, sthāṇu, a-cala, idam, sanā-tana.
अच्छेद्योऽयम् अदाह्योऽयम् अक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च।
नित्यः सर्व-गतः स्थाणुर् अचलोऽयं सना-तनः॥
a-vyakta, idam, a-cintya, idam, a-vikārya, idam, √vac; tasmāt, evam, viditvā, enad, na, anuśocitum, √arh.
अव्यक्तोऽयम् अचिन्त्योऽयम् अविकार्योऽयम् उच्यते।
तस्माद् एवं विदित्वैनं नानुशोचितुम् अर्हसि॥
atha, ca, enad, nitya-jāta, nityam, vā, √man, mṛta; tathā, api, yuṣmad, mahā-bāhu, na, evam, śocitum, √arh.
अथ चैनं नित्य-जातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम्।
तथापि त्वं महा-बाहो नैवं शोचितुम् अर्हसि॥
jāta, hi, dhruva, mṛtyu, dhruva, janman, mṛta, ca; tasmāt, a-parihārya, artha, na, yuṣmad, śocitum, √arh.
जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर् ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च।
तस्माद् अपरिहार्येऽर्थे न त्वं शोचितुम् अर्हसि॥
a-vyakta-ādi, bhūta, vyakta-madhya, bhārata; a-vyakta-nidhana, eva, tatra, kim, paridevanā.
अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्त-मध्यानि भारत।
अव्यक्त-निधनान्य् एव तत्र का परिदेवना॥
āścaryavat, √dṛś, ka-cid, enad, āścaryavat, √vad, tathā, eva, ca, anya; āścaryavat, ca, enad, anya, √śru, śrutvā, enad, √vid, na, ca, eva, ka-cid.
आश्चर्यवत् पश्यति कश्चिद् एनम् आश्चर्यवद् वदति तथैव चान्यः।
आश्चर्यवच् चैनम् अन्यः शृणोति श्रुत्वाप्य् एनं वेद न चैव कश्चित्॥
dehin, nityam, a-vadhya, idam, deha, sarva, bhārata; tasmāt, sarva, bhūta, na, yuṣmad, śocitum, √arh.
देही नित्यम् अवध्योऽयं देहे सर्वस्य भारत।
तस्मात् सर्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शोचितुम् अर्हसि॥
sva-dharma, api, ca, avekṣya, na, vikampitum, √arh; dharmya, hi, yuddha, śreyas, anya, kṣatriya, na, √vid.
स्व-धर्मम् अपि चावेक्ष्य न विकम्पितुम् अर्हसि।
धर्म्याद् धि युद्धाच् छ्रेयोऽन्यत् क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यते॥
yad-ṛcchā, ca, upapanna, svar-ga-dvāra, apāvṛta; sukhin, kṣatriya, pārtha, √labh, yuddha, īdṛśa.
यद्-ऋच्छया चोपपन्नं स्वर्-ग-द्वारम् अपावृतम्।
सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः पार्थ लभन्ते युद्धम् ईदृशम्॥
atha, ced, yuṣmad, idam, dharmya, saṅgrāma, na, √kṛ; tatas, sva-dharma, kīrti, ca, hitvā, pāpa, ava-√āp.
अथ चेत् त्वम् इमं धर्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि।
ततः स्व-धर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापम् अवाप्स्यसि॥
a-kīrti, ca, api, bhūta, √kath, yuṣmad, a-vyayā; sambhāvita, ca, a-kīrti, maraṇa, ati-√ric.
अकीर्तिं चापि भूतानि कथयिष्यन्ति तेऽव्ययाम्।
सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर् मरणाद् अतिरिच्यते॥
bhaya, raṇa, uparata, √man, yuṣmad, mahā-ratha; yad, ca, yuṣmad, bahu-mata, bhūtvā, √yā, lāghava.
भयाद् रणाद् उपरतं मंस्यन्ते त्वां महा-रथाः।
येषां च त्वं बहु-मतो भूत्वा यास्यसि लाघवम्॥
a-vācya-vāda, ca, bahu, √vad, yuṣmad, a-hita; nindat, yuṣmad, sāmarthya, tatas, duḥkhatara, nu, kim.
अवाच्य-वादांश् च बहून् वदिष्यन्ति तवाहिताः।
निन्दन्तस् तव सामर्थ्यं ततो दुःखतरं नु किम्॥
hata, vā, pra-√āp, svar-ga, jitvā, vā, √bhuj, mahī; tasmāt, ud-√sthā, kaunteya, yuddha, kṛta-niścaya.
हतो वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्-गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीम्।
तस्माद् उत्तिष्ठ कौन्तेय युद्धाय कृत-निश्चयः॥
sukha-duḥkha, sama, kṛtvā, lābha-a-lābha, jaya-a-jaya; tatas, yuddha, √yuj, na, evam, pāpa, ava-√āp.
सुख-दुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ।
ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापम् अवाप्स्यसि॥
etad, yuṣmad, abhihita, sāṅkhya, buddhi, yoga, tu, idam, √śru; buddhi, yukta, yad, pārtha, karma-bandha, pra-√hā.
एषा तेऽभिहिता साङ्ख्ये बुद्धिर् योगे त्व् इमां शृणु।
बुद्ध्या युक्तो यया पार्थ कर्म-बन्धं प्रहास्यसि॥
na, iha, abhikrama-nāśa, √as, pratyavāya, na, √vid; su-alpam, api, idam, dharma, √trai, mahat, bhaya.
नेहाभिक्रम-नाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते।
स्व्-अल्पम् अप्य् अस्य धर्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात्॥
vyavasāya-ātmikā, buddhi, ekā, iha, kuru-nandana; bahu-śākhā, hi, an-antā, ca, buddhi, a-vyavasāyin.
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिर् एकेह कुरु-नन्दन।
बहु-शाखा ह्य् अनन्ताश् च बुद्धयोऽव्यवसायिनाम्॥
yad, idam, puṣpitā, vāc, pra-√vad, a-vipaścit; veda-vāda-rata, pārtha, na, anya, √as, iti, vādin.
kāma-ātman, svar-ga-para, janma-karma-phala-pradā; kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulā, bhoga-aiśvarya-gati, prati.

याम् इमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्य् अविपश्चितः।
वेद-वाद-रताः पार्थ नान्यद् अस्तीति वादिनः॥
कामात्मानः स्वर्-ग-परा जन्म-कर्म-फल-प्रदाम्।
क्रिया-विशेष-बहुलां भोगैश्वर्य-गतिं प्रति॥
bhoga-aiśvarya-prasakta, tad, apahṛta-cetas; vyavasāya-ātmikā, buddhi, samādhi, na, vi-√dhā.
भोगैश्वर्य-प्रसक्तानां तयापहृत-चेतसाम्।
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते॥
trai-guṇya-viṣaya, veda, nis-trai-guṇya, √bhū, arjuna; nis-dvan-dva, nitya-sattva-stha, nis-yoga-kṣema, ātmavat.
त्रै-गुण्य-विषया वेदा निस्-त्रै-गुण्यो भवार्जुन।
निर्-द्वन्द्वो नित्य-सत्त्व-स्थो निर्-योग-क्षेम आत्मवान्॥
yāvat, artha, uda-pāna, sarvatas, sampluta-udaka; tāvat, sarva, veda, brāhmaṇa, vijānat.
यावान् अर्थ उद-पाने सर्वतः सम्प्लुतोदके।
तावान् सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः॥
karman, eva, adhikāra, yuṣmad, mā, phala, kadācana; mā, karma-phala-hetu, √bhū, mā, yuṣmad, saṅga, √as, a-karman.
कर्मण्य् एवाधिकारस् ते मा फलेषु कदाचन।
मा कर्म-फल-हेतुर् भूर् मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्व् अकर्मणि॥
yoga-stha, √kṛ, karman, saṅga, tyaktvā, dhanam-jaya; siddhi-a-siddhi, sama, bhūtvā, samatva, yoga, √vac.
योग-स्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्-जय।
सिद्ध्य्-असिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते॥
dūreṇa, hi, avara, karman, buddhi-yoga, dhanam-jaya; buddhi, śaraṇa, anu-√iṣ, kṛpaṇa, phala-hetu.
दूरेण ह्य् अवरं कर्म बुद्धि-योगाद् धनञ्-जय।
बुद्धौ शरणम् अन्विच्छ कृपणाः फल-हेतवः॥
buddhi-yukta, √hā, iha, ubha, su-kṛta-dus-kṛta; tasmāt, yoga, √yuj, yoga, karman, kauśala.
बुद्धि-युक्तो जहातीह उभे सु-कृत-दुष्-कृते।
तस्माद् योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलम्॥
karma-ja buddhi-yukta, hi, phala, tyaktvā, manīṣin; jamna-bandha-vinirmukta, pada, √gam, an-āmaya.
कर्म-जं बुद्धि-युक्ता हि फलं त्यक्त्वा मनीषिणः।
जन्म-बन्ध-विनिर्मुक्ताः पदं गच्छन्त्य् अनामयम्॥
yadā, yuṣmad, moha-kalila, buddhi, vi-ati-√tṝ; tadā, √gam, nis-veda, śrotavya, śruta, ca.
यदा ते मोह-कलिलं बुद्धिर् व्यतितरिष्यति।
तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च॥
śruti-vipratipannā, yuṣmad, yadā, √sthā, niścalā; samādhi, a-calā, buddhi, tadā, yoga, ava-√āp.
श्रुति-विप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला।
समाधाव् अचला बुद्धिस् तदा योगम् अवाप्स्यसि॥
arjuna, √vac:
sthita-prajña, kim, bhāṣā, samādhi-stha, keśava; sthita-dhī, kim, pra-√bhāṣ, kim, √ās, √vraj, kim.

अर्जुन उवाच।
स्थित-प्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधि-स्थस्य केशव।
स्थित-धीः किं प्रभाषेत किम् आसीत व्रजेत किम्॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
pra-√hā, yadā, kāma, sarva, pārtha, manas-gata; ātman, eva, ātman, tuṣṭa, sthita-prajña, tadā, √vac.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनो-गतान्।
आत्मन्य् एवात्मना तुष्टः स्थित-प्रज्ञस् तदोच्यते॥
duḥkha, an-udvigna-manas, sukha, vigata-spṛha; vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodha, sthita-dhī, muni, √vac.
दुःखेष्व् अनुद्विग्न-मनाः सुखेषु विगत-स्पृहः।
वीत-राग-भय-क्रोधः स्थित-धीर् मुनिर् उच्यते॥
yad, sarvatra, an-abhisneha, tad, tad, prāpya, śubha-a-śubha; na, abhi-√nand, na, √dviṣ, tad, prajñā, pratiṣṭhitā.
यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस् तत् तत् प्राप्य शुभाशुभम्।
नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता॥
yadā, sam-√hṛ, ca, idam, kūrma, aṅga, iva, sarvaśas; indriya, indriya-artha, tad, prajñā, pratiṣṭhitā.
यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस् तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता॥
viṣaya, vi-ni-√vṛt, nis-āhāra, dehin; rasa-varjam, rasa, api, idam, para, dṛṣṭvā, ni-√vṛt.
विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निर्-आहारस्य देहिनः।
रस-वर्जं रसोऽप्य् अस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते॥
yatat, hi, api, kaunteya, puruṣa, vipaścit; indriya, pramāthin, √hṛ, prasabham, manas.
यततो ह्य् अपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः।
इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः॥
tad, sarva, saṃyamya, yukta, √ās, mad-para; vaśa, hi, yad, indriya, tad, prajñā, pratiṣṭhitā.
तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्-परः।
वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता॥
dhyāyat, viṣaya, pumaṃs, saṅga, tad, upa-√jan; saṅga, sam-√jan, kāma, kāma, krodha, abhi-√jan.
krodha, √bhū, sammoha, sammoha, smṛti-vibhrama; smṛti-bhraṃśa, buddhi-nāśa, buddhi-nāśa, pra-√naś.

ध्यायतो विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गस् तेषूपजायते।
सङ्गात् सञ्जायते कामः कामात् क्रोधोऽभिजायते॥<
क्रोधाद् भवति सम्मोहः सम्मोहात् स्मृति-विभ्रमः।
स्मृति-भ्रंशाद् बुद्धि-नाशो बुद्धि-नाशात् प्रणश्यति॥
rāga-dveṣa-viyukta, tu, viṣaya, indriya, carat; ātma-vaśya, vidheya-ātman, prasāda, adhi-√gam.
राग-द्वेष-वियुक्तैस् तु विषयान् इन्द्रियैश् चरन्।
आत्म-वश्यैर् विधेयात्मा प्रसादम् अधिगच्छति॥
prasāda, sarva-duḥkha, hāni, idam, upa-√jan; prasanna-cetas, hi, āśu, buddhi, pari-ava-√sthā.
प्रसादे सर्व-दुःखानां हानिर् अस्योपजायते।
प्रसन्न-चेतसो ह्य् आशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते॥
na, √as, buddhi, a-yukta, na, ca, a-yukta, bhāvanā; na, ca, a-bhāvayat, śānti, a-śānti, kutas, sukha.
नास्ति बुद्धिर् अयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना।
न चाभावयतः शान्तिर् अशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम्॥
indriya, hi, carat, yad, manas, anu-vi-√dhā; tad, idam, √hṛ, prajñā, vāyu, nau, iva, ambhas.
इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन् मनोऽनुविधीयते।
तद् अस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर् नावम् इवाम्भसि॥
tasmāt, yad, mahā-bāhu, nigṛhīta, sarvaśas; indriya, indriya-artha, tad, prajñā, pratiṣṭhitā.
तस्माद् यस्य महा-बाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस् तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता॥
yad, niśā, sarva-bhūta, tad, √jāgṛ, saṃyamin; yad, √jāgṛ, bhūta, tad, niśā, paśyat, muni.
या निशा सर्व-भूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी।
यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः॥
āpūryamāṇa, a-cala-pratiṣṭha, samudra, ap, pra-√viś, yadvat; tadvat, kāma, yad, pra-√viś, sarva, tad, śānti, √āp, na, kāma-kāmin.
आपूर्यमाणम् अचल-प्रतिष्ठं समुद्रम् आपः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत्।
तद्वत् कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे स शान्तिम् आप्नोति न काम-कामी॥
vihāya, kāma, yad, sarva, pumaṃs, √car, nis-spṛha; nis-manas, nis-aham-kāra, tad, śānti, adhi-√gam.
विहाय कामान् यः सर्वान् पुमांश् चरति निः-स्पृहः।
निर्-ममो निर्-अहङ्कारः स शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति॥
etad, brāhmī, sthiti, pārtha, na, enad, prāpya, vi-√muh; sthitvā, idam, anta-kāla, api, brahma-nirvāṇa, √ṛ.
एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति।
स्थित्वास्याम् अन्त-कालेऽपि ब्रह्म-निर्वाणम् ऋच्छति॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, sāṅkhya-yoga, nāma, dvitīya, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे साङ्ख्य-योगो नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of Action
In chapter 3, Arjuna has a doubt: The Upaniṣad teachings say that the self does not do action, so, even if it is Arjuna’s duty, why and how should he undertake the action of this battle? Isn’t renunciation (sannyāsa) alone the lifestyle extolled in the Upaniṣads? Arjuna wonders: Even if karma-yoga (the means that is duty) is an alternate lifestyle, Kṛṣṇa has not said that it leads by itself to the ultimate good (śreyas). Arjuna questions why Kṛṣṇa is compelling him into gruesome action and wants to know, between the two lifestyles, which leads to śreyas.
Kṛṣṇa replies that, indeed, in the Upaniṣads, He taught that the two lifestyles lead to śreyas, absolute freedom. But simply adopting either of these two lifestyles does not give freedom (mokṣa). Kṛṣṇa will clearly explain later, in chapter 4 (4.33–39), that it is knowledge that gives mokṣa. In chapter 3, Kṛṣṇa points out that both lifestyles are conducive to gaining and assimilating this knowledge. One cannot really be said to have gained this knowledge without having also assimilated it, because this knowledge is not information about some remote object, but instead is self-knowledge. However, if one is not mentally prepared for a life of renunciation, then it may prove to be useless. Karma-yoga is meant for preparing the mind for a life of renunciation, as well as for gaining and assimilating the knowledge. This is the order of the four stages of life: student, householder, retiree, renunciate. Kṛṣṇa does not think Arjuna, who had to this point dedicated his life to gaining the warrior’s skills and weapons needed to take back the kingdom, is prepared for the quiet life of renunciation (sannyāsa). So, between the two lifestyles, Kṛṣṇa recommends karma-yoga to Arjuna.
Even in the lifestyle of sannyāsa, for one who does not have self-knowledge and thinks he or she is a doer, there is action. Therefore, one needs to understand why and how one should perform action. Kṛṣṇa explains that the entire cosmos is interconnected. Helping one another, all beings thrive. The one who fights against this great cosmic wheel lives life in vain; whereas the one who follows this cosmic ecological system – with the goal of attaining the limitless – eventually attains the limitless. Action done with this understanding is thus converted into a spiritual act (yajña), which makes it karma-yoga. In particular for Arjuna, because he is looked upon as a leader, he ought to enthusiastically perform his own duty as a yajña, thus encouraging others to do the same – for the benefit of all. Even in renunciation (sannyāsa), action is done with the attitude of karma-yoga.
But if the self does not do action, then what sense does it make to say one should perform action? Kṛṣṇa answers this concern by explaining that, indeed, the self does not do physical or mental action. Rather, action is done by the body and mind. Action, along with the body and mind, belong to the sphere of nature, not to ātmā, the self. This body and mind is not one’s personal creation. One must then renounce the ego’s imagined ownership of actions, as well as the actions of the body and mind, relinquishing them to where they belong – unto the Lord’s cosmic nature and order – and choose to perform duty as an offering to the whole. Such action alone will not bind one to disappointment, sorrow, and death. This is karma-yoga, which develops one’s discernment (viveka) and dispassion (vairāgya).
(Jump to 4th Ch. Intro)
arjuna, √vac:
jyāyasī, ced, karman, yuṣmad, matā, buddhi, jana-ardana; tad, kim, karman, ghora, asmad, ni-√yuj, keśava.

अर्जुन उवाच।
ज्यायसी चेत् कर्मणस् ते मता बुद्धिर् जनार्दन।
तत् किं कर्मणि घोरे मां नियोजयसि केशव॥
vyāmiśra, iva, vākya, buddhi, √muh, iva, asmad; tad, eka, √vad, niścitya, yad, śrayas, asmad, √āp.
व्यामिश्रेणेव वाक्येन बुद्धिं मोहयसीव मे।
तद् एकं वद निश्चित्य येन श्रेयोऽहम् आप्नुयाम्॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
loka, idam, dvi-vidhā, niṣṭhā, purā, proktā, asmad, an-agha; jñāna-yoga, sāṅkhya, karma-yoga, yogin.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
लोकेऽस्मिन् द्वि-विधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मयानघ।
ज्ञान-योगेन साङ्ख्यानां कर्म-योगेन योगिनाम्॥
na, karman, an-ārambha, naiṣ-karmya, puruṣa, √aś; na, ca, sannyasana, eva, siddhi, sam-adhi-√gam.
न कर्मणाम् अनारम्भान् नैष्-कर्म्यं पुरुषोऽश्नुते।
न च सन्न्यसनाद् एव सिद्धिं समधिगच्छति॥
na, hi, ka-cid, kṣaṇam, api, jātu, √sthā, a-karma-kṛt; √kṛ, hi, a-vaśa, karman, sarva, prakṛti-ja, guṇa.
न हि कश्चित् क्षणम् अपि जातु तिष्ठत्य् अकर्म-कृत्।
कार्यते ह्य् अवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृति-जैर् गुणैः॥
karma-indriya, saṃyamya, yad, √ās, manas, smarat; indriya-artha, vimūḍha-ātman, mithyā-ācāra, tad, √vac.
कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य य आस्ते मनसा स्मरन्।
इन्द्रियार्थान् विमूढात्मा मिथ्याचारः स उच्यते॥
yad, tu, indriya, manas, niyamya, ā-√rabh, arjuna; karma-indriya, karma-yoga, a-sakta, tad, vi-√śiṣ.
यस् त्व् इन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्यारभतेऽर्जुन।
कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्म-योगम् असक्तः स विशिष्यते॥
niyata, √kṛ, karman, yuṣmad, karman, jyāyas, hi, a-karman; śarīra-yātrā, api, ca, yuṣmad, na, pra-√sidh, a-karman.
नियतं कुरु कर्म त्वं कर्म ज्यायो ह्य् अकर्मणः।
शरीर-यात्रापि च ते न प्रसिद्ध्येद् अकर्मणः॥
yajña-artha, karman, anyatra, loka, idam, karma-bandhana; tad-artham, karman, kaunteya, mukta-saṅga, sam-ā-√car.
यज्ञार्थात् कर्मणोऽन्यत्र लोकोऽयं कर्म-बन्धनः।
तद्-अर्थं कर्म कौन्तेय मुक्त-सङ्गः समाचर॥
saha-yajñā, prajā, sṛṣṭvā, purā, √vac, prajā-pati; idam, pra-√su, etad, yuṣmad, √as, iṣṭa-kāma-dūh.
सह-यज्ञाः प्रजाः सृष्ट्वा पुरोवाच प्रजा-पतिः।
अनेन प्रसविष्यध्वम् एष वोऽस्त्व् इष्ट-काम-धुक्॥
deva, √bhū, idam, tad, deva, √bhū, yuṣmad; paras-para, bhāvayat, śreyas, para, ava-√āp.
देवान् भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्तु वः।
परस्-परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परम् अवाप्स्यथ॥
iṣṭa, bhoga, hi, yuṣmad, deva, √dā, yajña-bhāvita; tad, datta, a-pradāya, idam, yad,√bhuj, stena, eva, tad.
इष्टान् भोगान् हि वो देवा दास्यन्ते यज्ञ-भाविताः।
तैर् दत्तान् अप्रदायैभ्यो यो भुङ्क्ते स्तेन एव सः॥
yajña-śiṣṭa-aśin, sat, √muc, sarva-kilbiṣa; √bhuj, tad, tu, agha, pāpa, yad, √pac, ātma-kāraṇa.
यज्ञ-शिष्टाशिनः सन्तो मुच्यन्ते सर्व-किल्बिषैः।
भुञ्जते ते त्व् अघं पापा ये पचन्त्य् आत्म-कारणात्॥
anna, √bhū, bhūta, parjanya, anna-sambhava; yajña, √bhū, parjanya, yajña, karma-samudbhava.
अन्नाद् भवन्ति भूतानि पर्जन्याद् अन्न-सम्भवः।
यज्ञाद् भवति पर्जन्यो यज्ञः कर्म-समुद्भवः॥
karman, brahma-udbhava, √vid, brahman, a-kṣara-samudbhava; tasmāt, sarva-gata, brahman, nityam, yajña, prati-sthā.
कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षर-समुद्भवम्।
तस्मात् सर्व-गतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञे प्रतिष्ठितम्॥
evam, pravartita, cakra, na, anu-√vṛt, iha, yad; agha-āyus, indriya-ārāma, mogham, pārtha, tad, √jīv.
एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्तयतीह यः।
अघायुर् इन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति॥
yad, tu, ātma-rati, eva, √as, ātma-tṛpta, ca, mānava; ātman, eva, ca, santuṣṭa, tad, kārya, na, √vid.
यस् त्व् आत्म-रतिर् एव स्याद् आत्म-तृप्तश् च मानवः।
आत्मन्य् एव च सन्तुष्टस् तस्य कार्यं न विद्यते॥
na, eva, tad, kṛta, artha, na, a-kṛta, iha, kaścana; na, ca, idam, sarva-bhūta, ka-cid, artha-vyapāśraya.
नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन।
न चास्य सर्व-भूतेषु कश्चिद् अर्थ-व्यपाश्रयः॥
tasmāt, a-sakta, sa-tatam, kārya, karman, sam-ā-√car; hi, ācarat, karman, para, √āp, pūruṣa.
तस्माद् असक्तः स-ततं कार्यं कर्म समाचर।
असक्तो ह्य् आचरन् कर्म परम् आप्नोति पूरुषः॥
karman, eva, hi, saṃsiddhi, āsthita, janaka-ādi; loka-saṅgraha, eva, api, sampaśyat, kartum, √arh.
कर्मणैव हि संसिद्धिम् आस्थिता जनकादयः।
लोक-सङ्ग्रहम् एवापि सम्पश्यन् कर्तुम् अर्हसि॥
yad, yad, ā-√car, śreṣṭha, tad, tad, eva, itara, jana; tad, yad, pramāṇa, √kṝ, loka, tad, anu-√vṛt.
यद् यद् आचरति श्रेष्ठस् तत् तद् एवेतरो जनः।
स यत् प्रमाणं कुरुते लोकस् तद् अनुवर्तते॥
na, asmad, pārtha, √as, kartavya, tri, loka, kiñcana; na, an-avāpta, avāptavya, √vṛt, eva, ca, karman.
न मे पार्थास्ति कर्तव्यं त्रिषु लोकेषु किञ्चन।
नानवाप्तम् अवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि॥
yadi, hi, asmad, na, √vṛt, jātu, karman, a-tandrita; asmad, varman, anu-√vṛt, manuṣya, pārtha, sarvaśas.
यदि ह्य् अहं न वर्तेयं जातु कर्मण्य् अतन्द्रितः।
मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः॥
ud-√sad, idam, loka, na, √kṛ, karman, ced, asmad; saṅkara, ca, kartṛ, √as, upa-√han, idam, praja.
उत्सीदेयुर् इमे लोका न कुर्यां कर्म चेद् अहम्।
सङ्करस्य च कर्ता स्याम् उपहन्याम् इमाः प्रजाः॥
sakta, karman, a-vidvas, yathā, √kṛ, bhārata; √kṛ, vidvas, tathā, a-sakta, cikīrṣu, loka-saṅgraha.
सक्ताः कर्मण्य् अविद्वांसो यथा कुर्वन्ति भारत।
कुर्याद् विद्वांस् तथासक्तश् चिकीर्षुर् लोक-सङ्ग्रहम्॥
na, buddhi-bheda, √jan, a-jña, karma-saṅgin; √juṣ, sarva-karman, vidvas, yukta, samācarat.
न बुद्धि-भेदं जनयेद् अज्ञानां कर्म-सङ्गिनाम्।
जोषयेत् सर्व-कर्माणि विद्वान् युक्तः समाचरन्॥
prakṛti, kriyamāṇa, guṇa, karman, sarvaśas; aham-kāra-vimūḍha-ātman, kartṛ, asmad, iti, √man.
प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः।
अहङ्कार-विमूढात्मा कर्ताहम् इति मन्यते॥
tattva-vid, tu, mahā-bāhu, guṇa-karma-vibhāga; guṇa, guṇa, √vṛt, iti, matvā, na,√sañj.
तत्त्व-वित् तु महा-बाहो गुण-कर्म-विभागयोः।
गुणा गुणेषु वर्तन्त इति मत्वा न सज्जते॥
prakṛti, guṇa-sammūḍha, √sañj, guṇa-karman; tad, a-kṛtsna-vid, manda, kṛtsna-vid, na, vi-√cal.
प्रकृतेर् गुण-सम्मूढाः सज्जन्ते गुण-कर्मसु।
तान् अकृत्स्न-विदो मन्दान् कृत्स्न-विन् न विचालयेत्॥
asmad, sarva, karman, sannyasya, adhi-ātma-cetas; nis-āśīs, nis-mama, bhūtvā, √yudh, vigata-jvara.
मयि सर्वाणि कर्माणि सन्न्यस्याध्यात्म-चेतसा।
निर्-आशीर् निर्-ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगत-ज्वरः॥
yad, asmad, mata, idam, nityam, anu-√sthā, mānava; śrad-dhāvat, an-asūyat, √muc, tad, api, karman.
ये मे मतम् इदं नित्यम् अनुतिष्ठन्ति मानवाः।
श्रद्-धावन्तोऽनसूयन्तो मुच्यन्ते तेऽपि कर्मभिः॥
yad, tu, etad, abhyasūyat, na, anu-√sthā, asmad, mata; sarva-jñāna-vimūḍha, tad, √vid, naṣṭa, a-cetas.
ये त्व् एतद् अभ्यसूयन्तो नानुतिष्ठन्ति मे मतम्।
सर्व-ज्ञान-विमूढांस् तान् विद्धि नष्टान् अचेतसः॥
sa-dṛśam, √ceṣṭ, svā, prakṛti, jñānavat, api; prakṛti, √yā, bhūta, nigraha, kim, √kṛ.
स-दृशं चेष्टते स्वस्याः प्रकृतेर् ज्ञानवान् अपि।
प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति॥
indriya, indriya, artha, rāga-dveṣa, vyavasthita; tad na vaśa, ā-√gam, tad, hi, idam, paripanthin.
इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे राग-द्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ।
तयोर् न वशम् आगच्छेत् तौ ह्य् अस्य परिपन्थिनौ॥
śreyas, sva-dharma, vi-guṇa, para-dharma, su-anuṣṭhita; sva-dharma, nidhana, śreyas, para-dharma, bhaya-āvaha.
श्रेयान् स्व-धर्मो वि-गुणः पर-धर्मात् स्व्-अनुष्ठितात्।
स्व-धर्मे निधनं श्रेयः पर-धर्मो भयावहः॥
arjuna, √vac:
atha, kim, prayukta, idam, pāpa, √car, pūruṣa; an-icchat, api, vārṣṇeya, bala, iva, niyojita.

अर्जुन उवाच।
अथ केन प्रयुक्तोऽयं पापं चरति पूरुषः।
अनिच्छन्न् अपि वार्ष्णेय बलाद् इव नियोजितः॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
kāma, etad, krodha, etad, rajas-guṇa-samudbhava; mahā-aśana, mahā-pāpman, √vid, enad, iha, vairin.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
काम एष क्रोध एष रजो-गुण-समुद्भवः।
महाशनो महा-पाप्मा विद्ध्य् एनम् इह वैरिणम्॥
dhūma, ā-√vṛ, vahni, yathā, ādarśa, mala, ca; yathā, ulba, āvṛta, garbha, tathā, tad, idam, āvṛta.
धूमेनाव्रियते वह्निर् यथादर्शो मलेन च।
यथोल्बेनावृतो गर्भस् तथा तेनेदम् आवृतम्॥
āvṛta, jñāna, etad, jñānin, nitya-vairin; kāma-rūpa, kaunteya, dus-pūra, an-ala, ca.
आवृतं ज्ञानम् एतेन ज्ञानिनो नित्य-वैरिणा।
काम-रूपेण कौन्तेय दुष्-पूरेणानलेन च॥
indriya, manas, buddhi, idam, adhiṣṭhāna, √vac; etad, vi-√muh, etad, jñāna, āvṛtya, dehin.
इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिर् अस्याधिष्ठानम् उच्यते।
एतैर् विमोहयत्य् एष ज्ञानम् आवृत्य देहिनम्॥
tasmāt, yuṣmad, indriya, ādi, niyamya, bharata-ṛṣabha; pāpman, pra-√hā (pra-√han, hi), enad, jñāna-vijñāna-nāśana.
तस्मात् त्वम् इन्द्रियाण्य् आदौ नियम्य भरत-र्षभ।
पाप्मानं प्रजहिह्य् एनं ज्ञान-विज्ञान-नाशनम्॥ (प्रजहि ह्य्)
indriya, para, √ah, indriya, para, manas; manas, tu, parā, buddhi, yad, buddhi, paratas, tu, tad.
इन्द्रियाणि पराण्य् आहुर् इन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः।
मनसस् तु परा बुद्धिर् यो बुद्धेः परतस् तु सः॥
evam, buddhi, para, buddhvā, saṃstabhya, ātman, ātman; √han, śatru, mahā-bāhu, kāma-rūpa, dus-āsada.
एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्यात्मानम् आत्मना।
जहि शत्रुं महा-बाहो काम-रूपं दुर्-आसदम्॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, karma-yoga, nāma, tṛtīya, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे कर्म-योगो नाम तृतीयोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of Knowledge and the Renunciation of Action
At the end of the third chapter, the Lord discloses the secret to overcoming binding desire (kāma), which binds one helplessly to a life of unending need for becoming, called saṃsāra. The secret, an elaboration of 2.58–68, is to control the intellect by self-knowledge – this is viveka, discernment of the real from the unreal, the self from the nonself. With this informed intellect, one steadies the previously rudderless mind, which in turn controls the senses – this is vairāgya, dispassion toward the present memories of the past, the present imaginations of the future, and the appearances in the present that one calls “me,” “mine,” and “not me,” “not mine.” By vairāgya (dispassion), the mind becomes free of its imagined entanglement in saṃsāra, its imagined world of me/mine and not me/not mine, of likes and dislikes, aspirations and fears. Then the mind sees a natural world free of these projections. This relative freedom allows the mind to become clear. In this clear mind, the self-knowledge that resolves the life of unbecoming becoming (saṃsāra) quickly becomes firm (2.64–65).
At the beginning of chapter 4, Kṛṣṇa concludes by extolling the lineage of the Vedānta teaching, starting from Himself. But Arjuna does not let Kṛṣṇa’s teaching end there. Arjuna asks how Kṛṣṇa can say He taught this knowledge at the beginning of humankind. Kṛṣṇa replies that He is speaking from the standpoint of the Lord. This embodiment, seated before Arjuna, is a divine form acquired due to the natural need to rebalance dharma (tradition and justice) and a-dharma (disorder and injustice) in this world. Kṛṣṇa says that His actions do not bind Him, nor is He the doer of these actions. Kṛṣṇa explains that those who similarly perform action not backed by binding desire, and who know themselves as the actionless self, attain His nature. He explains that action is to be undertaken as a yajña (3.9–30), a spiritual act for the benefit of the whole, as indeed Kṛṣṇa’s action is. Kṛṣṇa then lists various types of yajñas (spiritual acts) that have been given in the Vedas, saying that these actions, though considered spiritual, are produced by nature’s body and mind alone. The one who knows one’s self as not limited by the body and mind, which perform these actions, is thus free from their binding nature. By this knowledge, one will see all of nature’s beings in Him and even in oneself (4.35). This is called being the reality of all (sarvātma-bhāva), appreciating oneself as the whole, free of divisions and their limitations. The Lord describes sarvātma-bhāva as taking refuge in Him by being Him alone, attaining His nature (4.10, 2.72). This is nonduality (a-dvaita).
Gaining this knowledge is the goal of performing these yajñas for purity of mind. Knowledge is attained by surrender to a teacher within this teaching lineage who will teach you. Kṛṣṇa then proceeds to praise this knowledge as the ultimate purifier. But it requires trust in this teaching as a valid means of knowledge. What blocks this teaching from blessing is not discerning the self from the nonself (a lack of viveka, discernment); due to a doubtful (cynical) mind that does not trust the teaching. This is important for every student to understand, so it is repeated throughout the Lord’s teaching (3.31–32; 4.39–42; 5.25; 6.47; 7.1; 9.1, 9.3; 12.2, 12.20; and 18.10, 18.67, 18.71).
(Jump to 5th Ch. Intro)
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
idam, vivasvat, yoga, proktavat, asmad, a-vyaya; vivasvat, manu, pra-√ah, manu, ikṣvāku, √brū.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
इमं विवस्वते योगं प्रोक्तवान् अहम् अव्ययम्।
विवस्वान् मनवे प्राह मनुर् इक्ष्वाकवेऽब्रवीत्॥
evam, param-parā-prāpta, idam, rāja-ṛṣi, √vid; tad, kāla, ih, mahat, yoga, naṣṭa, param-tapa.
एवं परम्-पराप्राप्तम् इमं राज-र्षयो विदुः।
स कालेनेह महता योगो नष्टः परन्-तप॥
tad, eva, idam, asmad, yuṣmad, adya, yoga, prokta, purā-tana; bhakta, √as, asmad, sakhi, ca, iti, rahasya, hi, etad, uttama.
स एवायं मया तेऽद्य योगः प्रोक्तः पुरा-तनः।
भक्तोऽसि मे सखा चेति रहस्यं ह्य् एतद् उत्तमम्॥
arjuna, √vac:
a-para, bhavat, janman, para, janman, vivasvat; katham, etad, vi-√jñā, yuṣmad, ādi, proktavat, iti.

अर्जुन उवाच।
अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः।
कथम् एतद् विजानीयां त्वम् आदौ प्रोक्तवान् इति॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac; bahu, asmad, vyatīta, janman, yuṣmad, ca, arjuna; tad, asmad, √vid, sarva, na, yuṣmad, √vid, param-tapa.
श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
बहूनि मे व्यतीतानि जन्मानि तव चार्जुन।
तान्य् अहं वेद सर्वाणि न त्वं वेत्थ परन्-तप॥
aja, api, sat, a-vyaya-ātman, bhūta, īśvara, api, sat; prakṛti, svā, adhiṣṭhāya, sam-√bhū, ātma-māyā.
अजोऽपि सन्न् अव्ययात्मा भूतानाम् ईश्वरोऽपि सन्।
प्रकृतिं स्वाम् अधिष्ठाय सम्भवाम्य् आत्म-मायया॥
yadā, yadā, hi, dharma, glāni, √bhū, bhārata; abhyutthāna, a-dharma, tadā, ātman, √sṛj, asmad.
यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर् भवति भारत।
अभ्युत्थानम् अधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्य् अहम्॥
paritrāṇa, sādhu, vināśa, ca, dus-kṛt; dharma-saṃsthāpana-artha, sam-√bhū, yuga, yuga.
परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्-कृताम्।
धर्म-संस्थापनार्थाय सम्भवामि युगे युगे॥
janmam, karman, ca, asmad, divya, evam, yad, √vid, tattvatas; tyaktvā, deha, punar-janman, na, √i, asmad, √i, tad, arjuna.
जन्म कर्म च मे दिव्यम् एवं यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः।
त्यक्त्वा देहं पुनर्-जन्म नैति माम् एति सोऽर्जुन॥
vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodha, manmaya, asmad, upāśrita; bahu, jñāna-tapas, pūta, mad-bhāva, āgata.
वीत-राग-भय-क्रोधा मन्मया माम् उपाश्रिताः।
बहवो ज्ञान-तपसा पूता मद्-भावम् आगताः॥
yad, yathā, asmad, pra-√pad, tad, tathā, eva, √bhaj, asmad; asmad, vartman, anu-√vṛt, manuṣya, pārtha, sarvaśas.
ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस् तथैव भजाम्य् अहम्।
मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः॥
kāṅkṣat, karman, siddhi, √yaj, iha, devatā; kṣipram, hi, mānuṣa, loka, siddhi, √bhū, karma-jā.
काङ्क्षन्तः कर्मणां सिद्धिं यजन्त इह देवताः।
क्षिप्रं हि मानुषे लोके सिद्धिर् भवति कर्म-जा॥
cātur-varṇya, asmad, sṛṣṭa, guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśas; tad, kartṛ, api, asmad, √vid, a-kartṛ, a-vyaya.
चातुर्-वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुण-कर्म-विभागशः।
तस्य कर्तारम् अपि मां विद्ध्य् अकर्तारम् अव्ययम्॥
na, asmad, karman, √lip, na, asmad, karma-phala, spṛhā; iti, asmad, yad, abhi-√jñā, karman, na, tad, √bandh.
न मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति न मे कर्म-फले स्पृहा।
इति मां योऽभिजानाति कर्मभिर् न स बध्यते॥
evam, jñātvā, kṛta, karman, pūrva, api, mumukṣu; √kṛ, karman, eva, tasmāt, yuṣmad, pūrva, pūrvatara, kṛta.
एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैर् अपि मुमुक्षुभिः।
कुरु कर्मैव तस्मात् त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतम्॥
kim, karman, kim, a-karman, iti, kavi, api, atra, mohita; tad, yuṣmad, karman, pra-√vac, yad, jñātvā, √muc, a-śubha.
किं कर्म किम् अकर्मेति कवयोऽप्य् अत्र मोहिताः।
तत् ते कर्म प्रवक्ष्यामि यज् ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात्॥
karman, hi, api, boddhavya, boddhavya, ca, vi-karman; a-karman, ca, boddhavya, gahanā, karman, gati.
कर्मणो ह्य् अपि बोद्धव्यं बोद्धव्यं च वि-कर्मणः।
अकर्मणश् च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः॥
karman, a-karman, yad, √dṛś, a-karman, ca, karman, yad; tad, buddhimat, manuṣya, tad, yukta, kṛtsna-karma-kṛt.
कर्मण्य् अकर्म यः पश्येद् अकर्मणि च कर्म यः।
स बुद्धिमान् मनुष्येषु स युक्तः कृत्स्न-कर्म-कृत्॥
yad, sarva, samārambha, kāma-saṅkalpa-varjita; jñāna-agni-dagdha-karman, tad, √ah, paṇḍita, budha.
यस्य सर्वे समारम्भाः काम-सङ्कल्प-वर्जिताः।
ज्ञानाग्नि-दग्ध-कर्माणं तम् आहुः पण्डितं बुधाः॥
tyaktvā, karma-phala-āsaṅga, nitya-tṛpta, nis-āśraya; karman, abhipravṛtta, api, na, eva, ka-cid, √kṛ, tad.
त्यक्त्वा कर्म-फलासङ्गं नित्य-तृप्तो निर्-आश्रयः।
कर्मण्य् अभिप्रवृत्तोऽपि नैव किञ्चित् करोति सः॥
nis-āśīs, yata-citta-ātman, tyakta-sarva-parigraha; śārīra, kevalam, karman, kurvat, na, √āp, kilbiṣa.
निर्-आशीर् यत-चित्तात्मा त्यक्त-सर्व-परिग्रहः।
शारीरं केवलं कर्म कुर्वन् नाप्नोति किल्बिषम्॥
yad-ṛcchā-lābha-santuṣṭa, dvam-dva-atīta, vi-matsara; sama, siddhi, a-siddhi, ca, kṛtvā, api, na, ni-√bandh.
यद्-ऋच्छालाभ-सन्तुष्टो द्वन्द्वातीतो वि-मत्सरः।
समः सिद्धाव् असिद्धौ च कृत्वापि न निबध्यते॥
gata-saṅga, mukta, jñāna-avasthita-cetas; yajña, ācarat, karman, samagra, karman, pra-vi-√lī.
गत-सङ्गस्य मुक्तस्य ज्ञानावस्थित-चेतसः।
यज्ञायाचरतः कर्म समग्रं प्रविलीयते॥
brahman, arpaṇa, brahman, havis, brahma-agni, brahman, huta; brahman, eva, tad, gantavya, brahma-karma-samādhi.
ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविर् ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम्।
ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्म-कर्म-समाधिना॥
daiva, eva, apara, yajña, yogin, pari-upa-√ās; brahma-agni, apara, yajña, yajña, eva, upa-√hu.
दैवम् एवापरे यज्ञं योगिनः पर्युपासते।
ब्रह्माग्नाव् अपरे यज्ञं यज्ञेनैवोपजुह्वति॥
śrotra-ādi, indriya, anya, saṃyama-agni, √hu; śabda-ādi, viṣaya, anya, indriya-agni, √hu.
श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाण्य् अन्ये संयमाग्निषु जुह्वति।
शब्दादीन् विषयान् अन्य इन्द्रियाग्निषु जुह्वति॥
sarva, indriya-karman, prāṇa-karman, ca, apara; ātma-saṃyama-yoga-agni, √hu, jñāna-dīpita.
सर्वाणीन्द्रिय-कर्माणि प्राण-कर्माणि चापरे।
आत्म-संयम-योगाग्नौ जुह्वति ज्ञान-दीपिते॥
dravya-yajña, tapas-yajña, yoga-yajña, tathā, apara; sva-adhyāya-jñāna-yajña, ca, yati, saṃśita-vrata.
द्रव्य-यज्ञास् तपो-यज्ञा योग-यज्ञास् तथापरे।
स्वाध्याय-ज्ञान-यज्ञाश् च यतयः संशित-व्रताः॥
apāna, √hu, prāṇa, prāṇa, apāna, tathā, apara; prāṇa-apāna-gati, ruddhvā, prāṇa-āyāma-parāyaṇa.
अपाने जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणेऽपानं तथापरे।
प्राणापान-गती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायाम-परायणाः॥
apara, niyata-āhāra, prāṇa, prāṇa, √hu; sarva, api, etad, yajña-vid, yajña-kṣapita-kalmaṣa.
अपरे नियताहाराः प्राणान् प्राणेषु जुह्वति।
सर्वेऽप्य् एते यज्ञ-विदो यज्ञ-क्षपित-कल्मषाः॥
yajña-śiṣṭa-a-mṛta-bhuj, √yā, brahman, sanā-tana; na, idam, loka, √as, a-yajña, kutas, anya, kuru-sattama.
यज्ञ-शिष्टामृत-भुजो यान्ति ब्रह्म सना-तनम्।
नायं लोकोऽस्त्य् अयज्ञस्य कुतोऽन्यः कुरु-सत्तम॥
evam, bahu-vidha, yajña, vitata, brahman, mukha; karma-ja, √vid, tad, sarva, evam, jñātvā, vi-√muc.
एवं बहु-विधा यज्ञा वितता ब्रह्मणो मुखे।
कर्म-जान् विद्धि तान् सर्वान् एवं ज्ञात्वा विमोक्ष्यसे॥
śreyas, dravyamaya, yajña, jñāna-yajña, param-tapa; sarva, karman, a-khila, pārtha, jñāna, pari-sam-√āp.
श्रेयान् द्रव्यमयाद् यज्ञाज् ज्ञान-यज्ञः परन्-तप।
सर्वं कर्माखिलं पार्थ ज्ञाने परिसमाप्यते॥
tad, √vid, praṇipāta, paripraśna, sevā; upa-√diś, yuṣmad, jñāna, jñānin, tattva-darśin.
तद् विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया।
उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस् तत्त्व-दर्शिनः॥
yad, jñātvā, na, punar, moha, evam, √yā, pāṇḍava; yad, bhūta, a-śeṣeṇa, √dṛś, ātman, atha-u, asmad.
यज् ज्ञात्वा न पुनर् मोहम् एवं यास्यसि पाण्डव।
येन भूतान्य् अशेषेण द्रक्ष्यस्य् आत्मन्य् अथो मयि॥
api, ced, √as, pāpa, sarva, pāpa-kṛttama; sarva, jñāna-plava, eva, vṛjina, sam-√tṝ.
अपि चेदसि पापेभ्यः सर्वेभ्यः पाप-कृत्तमः।
सर्वं ज्ञान-प्लवेनैव वृजिनं सन्तरिष्यसि॥
yathā, edhas, samiddha, agni, bhasma-sāt, √kṛ, arjuna; jñāna-agni, sarva-karman, bhasama-sāt, √kṛ, tathā.
यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर् भस्म-सात् कुरुतेऽर्जन।
ज्ञानाग्निः सर्व-कर्माणि भस्मसात् कुरुते तथा॥
na, hi, jñāna, sa-dṛśa, pavitra, iha, √vid; tad, svayam, yoga-saṃsidda, kāla, ātman, √vid.
न हि ज्ञानेन स-दृशं पवित्रम् इह विद्यते।
तत् स्वयं योग-संसिद्धः कालेनात्मनि विन्दति॥
śrad-dhāvat, √labh, jñāna, tad-para, saṃyata-indriya; jñāna, labdhvā, parā, śānti, a-cireṇa, adhi-√gam.
श्रद्-धावाल्ँ लभते ज्ञानं तत्-परः संयतेन्द्रियः।
ज्ञानं लब्ध्वा परां शान्तिम् अचिरेणाधिगच्छति॥
a-jña, ca, a-śrad-dadhāna, ca, saṃśaya-ātman, vi-√naś; na, idam, loka, √as, na, para, na, sukha, saṃśaya-ātman.
अज्ञश् चाश्रद्-दधानश् च संशयात्मा विनश्यति।
नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः॥
yoga-sannyasta-karman, jñāna-sañchinna-saṃśaya; ātmavat, na, karman, ni-√bandh, dhanam-jaya.
योग-सन्न्यस्त-कर्माणं ज्ञान-सञ्छिन्न-संशयम्।
आत्मवन्तं न कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्-जय॥
tasmāt, a-jñāna-sambhūta, hṛd-stha, jñāna-asi, ātman; chittvā, enad, saṃśaya, yoga, ā-√sthā, ud-√sthā, bhārata.
तस्माद् अज्ञान-सम्भूतं हृत्-स्थं ज्ञानासिनात्मनः।
छित्त्वैनं संशयं योगम् आतिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ भारत॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, jñāna-karma-sannyāsa-yoga, nāma, caturtha, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे ज्ञान-कर्म-सन्न्यास-योगो नाम चतुर्थोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of Renunciation of Action
In chapter 5, Arjuna asks Kṛṣṇa to clarify the distinction between the sannyāsa (renunciation) and karma-yoga (seeking while living a life of duties) lifestyles and which one would be better for him. The Lord replies that an essential element of both lifestyles is renunciation. He explains that the candidate for sannyāsa lifestyle already has a certain mastery in renunciation; otherwise that lifestyle would be difficult – just as He said earlier, in the third chapter (3.6), that sannyāsa is useless for one without mental discipline. On the other hand, karma-yoga prepares the mind for the renunciation required in a life of sannyāsa. The distinction between the two lifestyles involves the qualification of the candidate regarding his or her degree of mastery in renunciation. Kṛṣṇa, for this reason, again recommends karma-yoga for Arjuna. The degree of renunciation required for sannyāsa is such that if one has to ask whether one is ready for it, then one is probably not ready for it. However, because the sole purpose of both sannyāsa and karma-yoga is the śreyas (the ultimate good) that is freedom (mokṣa), in this there is no difference between them. Because knowledge liberates and the pursuit of knowledge is in both lifestyles, both lead to mokṣa. Perfect renunciation is simply the assimilated knowledge that the self does not, in fact, do action. This can be realized within either lifestyle.
Kṛṣṇa then goes on to say that this knowledge culminates in oneself being brahman, the limitless reality. There is no rebirth for such a person because there is no longer a distinct individuality that owns a history burdened with yet-to-fructify karmas, results of action. The one with this culmination of knowledge has attained a fulfillment that does not wane. Until this assimilation of the knowledge – with its appreciation of this fulfillment – is complete, one must make proper efforts to free the mind from requirements, anticipations, and anger. One should make effort to master the mind so that one can gain this knowledge. For this, meditation and contemplation are proper means, within both sannyāsa and karma-yoga lifestyles. At the end of this chapter, Kṛṣṇa introduces the topic of meditation and contemplation, which is taken up in greater detail in chapter 6.
There is a difference between meditation and contemplation. Meditation (dhyāna) is the employment of techniques for mastering the mind and is mental worship of the Lord, or prayer. Contemplation, also called dhyāna or more specifically called nididhyāsana, is seeing the truth of the teaching in order to remove obstacles to assimilating it. Meditation is preliminary and prepares the mind to remain in contemplation of the teaching. Meditation happens in the seat of meditation; whereas contemplation happens both in the seat of meditation and during the rest of one’s time. We can meditate even before we hear this teaching. Contemplation requires that we have heard and are clear on the teaching being contemplated. Assimilation of this teaching, of this knowledge, requires contemplation – or at least a contemplative mind.
(Jump to 6th Ch. Intro)
arjuna, √vac:
sannyāsa, karman, kṛṣṇa, punar, yoga, ca, √śaṃs; yad, śreyas, etad, eka, tad, asmad, √brū, su-niścitam.

अर्जुन उवाच।
सन्न्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनर् योगं च शंससि।
यच् छ्रेय एतयोर् एकं तन् मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम्॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
sannyāsa, karma-yoga, ca, niḥśreyasa-kara, ubha; tad, tu, karma-sannyāsa, karma-yoga, vi-√śiṣ.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
सन्न्यासः कर्म-योगश् च निःश्रेयस-कराव् उभौ।
तयोस् तु कर्म-सन्न्यासात् कर्म-योगो विशिष्यते॥
jñeya, tad, nitya-sannyāsin, yad, na, √dviṣ, na, √kāṅkṣ; nis-dvam-dva, hi, mahā-bāhu, sukham, bandha, pra-√muc.
ज्ञेयः स नित्य-सन्न्यासी यो न द्वेष्टि न काङ्क्षति।
निर्-द्वन्द्वो हि महा-बाहो सुखं बन्धात् प्रमुच्यते॥
sāṅkhya-yoga, pṛthak, bāla, pra-√vad, na, paṇḍita; eka, api, āsthita, samyak, ubha, √vid, phala.
साङ्ख्य-योगौ पृथग् बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः।
एकम् अप्य् आस्थितः सम्यग् उभयोर् विन्दते फलम्॥
yad, sāṅkhya, pra-√āp, sthāna, tad, yoga, api, √gam; eka, sāṅkhya, ca, yoga, ca, yad, √dṛś, tad, √dṛś.
यत् साङ्ख्यैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद् योगैर् अपि गम्यते।
एकं साङ्ख्यं च योगं च यः पश्यति स पश्यति॥
sannyāsa, tu, mahā-bāhu, duḥkha, āptum, a-yogatas; yoga-yukta, muni, brahman, na-cireṇa, adhi-√gam.
सन्न्यासस् तु महा-बाहो दुःखम् आप्तुम् अयोगतः।
योग-युक्तो मुनिर् ब्रह्म न-चिरेणाधिगच्छति॥
yoga-yukta, viśuddha-ātman, vijita-ātman, jita-indriya; sarva-bhūta-ātma-bhūta-ātman, kurnat, api, na, √lip.
योग-युक्तो विशुद्धात्मा विजितात्मा जितेन्द्रियः।
सर्व-भूतात्म-भूतात्मा कुर्वन्न् अपि न लिप्यते॥
na, eva, ka-cid, √kṛ, iti, yukta, √man, tattva-vid; paśyat, śṛṇvat, spṛśat, jighrat, aśnat, gacchat, svapat, śvasat.
pralapat, visṛsat, gṛhṇat, unmiṣat, nimiṣat, api; indriya, indriya-artha, √vṛt, iti, dhārayat.

नैव किञ्चित् करोमीति युक्तो मन्येत तत्त्व-वित्।
पश्यञ् शृण्वन् स्पृशञ् जिघ्रन्न् अश्नन् गच्छन् स्वपञ् श्वसन्॥
प्रलपन् विसृजन् गृह्णन्न् उन्मिषन् निमिषन्न् अपि।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन्॥
brahman, ādhāya, karman, saṅga, tyaktvā, √kṛ, yad; √lip, na, tad, pāpa, padma-patra, iva, ambhas.
ब्रह्मण्य् आधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः।
लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्म-पत्रम् इवाम्भसा॥
kāya, manas, buddhi, kevala, indriya, api; yogin, karman, √kṛ, saṅga, tyaktvā, ātma-śuddhi.
कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्या केवलैर् इन्द्रियैर् अपि।
योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वात्म-शुद्धये॥
yukta, karma-phala, tyaktvā, śānti, √āp, naiṣṭhikī; a-yukta, kāma-kāra, phala, sakta, ni-√bandh.
युक्तः कर्म-फलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिम् आप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम्।
अयुक्तः काम-कारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते॥
sarva-karman, manas, sannyasya, √ās, sukham, vaśin; nava-dvāra, pūra, dehin, na, eva, kurvat, na, kārayat.
सर्व-कर्माणि मनसा सन्न्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी।
नव-द्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन् न कारयन्॥
na, kartṛtva, na, karman, loka, √sṛj, prabhu; na, karma-phala-saṃyoga, sva-bhāva, tu, pra-√vṛt.
न कर्तृत्वं न कर्माणि लोकस्य सृजति प्रभुः।
न कर्म-फल-संयोगं स्व-भावस् तु प्रवर्तते॥
na, ā-√dā, ka-cid, pāpa, na, ca, eva, su-kṛta, vubhu; a-jñāna, āvṛta, jñāna, tad, √muh, jantu.
नादत्ते कस्यचित् पापं न चैव सु-कृतं विभुः।
अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः॥
jñāna, tu, tad, a-jñāna, yad, nāśita, ātman; tad, ādityavat, jñāna, pra-√kāś, tad, para.
ज्ञानेन तु तद् अज्ञानं येषां नाशितम् आत्मनः।
तेषाम् आदित्यवज् ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत् परम्॥
tad-buddhi, tad-ātman, tad-niṣṭha, tad-para-ayana; √gam, a-punar-āvṛti, jñāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣa.
तद्-बुद्धयस् तद्-आत्मानस् तन्-निष्ठास् तत्-परायणाः।
गच्छन्त्य् अ-पुनर्-आवृत्तिं ज्ञान-निर्धूत-कल्मषाः॥
vidyā-vinaya-sampanna, brāhmaṇa, go, hastin; śvan, ca, eva, śva-pāka, ca, paṇḍita, sama-darśin.
विद्या-विनय-सम्पन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि।
शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः॥
iha, eva, tad, jita, sarga, yad, sāmya, sthita, manas; nis-doṣa, hi, sama, brahman, tasmāt, brahman, tad, sthita.
इहैव तैर् जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः।
निर्-दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद् ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः॥
na, pra-√hṛṣ, priya, prāpya, na, ud-√vij, prāpya, ca, a-priya; sthira-buddhi, a-sammūḍha, brahma-vid, brahman, sthita.
न प्रहृष्येत् प्रियं प्राप्य नोद्विजेत् प्राप्य चाप्रियम्।
स्थिर-बुद्धिर् असम्मूढो ब्रह्म-विद् ब्रह्मणि स्थितः॥
bāhya-sparśa, a-sakta-ātman, √vid, ātman, yad, sukha; tad, brahma-yoga-yukta-ātman, sukha, akṣaya, √aś.
बाह्य-स्पर्शेष्व् असक्तात्मा विन्दत्य् आत्मनि यत् सुखम्।
स ब्रह्म-योग-युक्तात्मा सुखम् अक्षयम् अश्नुते॥
yad, hi, saṃsparśa-ja, yoga, duḥkha-yoni, eva, tad; ādi-antavat, kaunteya, na, tad, √ram, budha.
ये हि संस्पर्श-जा भोगा दुःख-योनय एव ते।
आद्य्-अन्तवन्तः कौन्तेय न तेषु रमते बुधः॥
√śak, iha, eva, yad, soḍhum, prāk, śarīra-vimokṣaṇa; kāma-krodha-udbhava, vega, tad, yukta, tad, sukhin, nara.
शक्नोतीहैव यः सोढुं प्राक् शरीर-विमोक्षणात्।
काम-क्रोधोद्भवं वेगं स युक्तः स सुखी नरः॥
yad, antar-sukha, antar-ārāma, tathā, antar-jyotis, eva, yad; tad, yogin, brahma-nirvāṇa, brahma-bhūta, adhi-√gam.
योऽन्तः-सुखोऽन्तर्-आरामस् तथान्तर्-ज्योतिर् एव यः।
स योगी ब्रह्म-निर्वाणं ब्रह्म-भूतोऽधिगच्छति॥
√labh, brahma-nirvāṇa, ṛṣi, kṣīṇa-kalmaṣa; chinna-dvaidha, yata-ātman, sarva-bhūta-hita, rata.
लभन्ते ब्रह्म-निर्वाणम् ऋषयः क्षीण-कल्मषाः।
छिन्न-द्वैधा यतात्मानः सर्व-भूत-हिते रताः॥
kāma-krodha-viyukta, yati, yata-cetas; abhitas, brahma-nirvāṇa, √vṛt, vidita-ātman.
काम-क्रोध-वियुक्तानां यतीनां यत-चेतसाम्।
अभितो ब्रह्म-निर्वाणं वर्तते विदितात्मनाम्॥
sparśa, kṛtvā, bahis, bāhya, cakṣus, ca, eva, antare, bhrū; prāna-apāna, sama, kṛtvā, nāsā-abhyantara-cārin.
yata-indriya-manas-buddhi, muni, mokṣa-para-ayana; vigata-icchā-bhaya-krodha, yad, sadā, mukta, eva, tad.

स्पर्शान् कृत्वा बहिर् बाह्यांश् चक्षुश् चैवान्तरे भ्रुवोः।
प्राणापानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तर-चारिणौ॥
यतेन्द्रिय-मनो-बुद्धिर् मुनिर् मोक्ष-परायणः।
विगतेच्छा-भय-क्रोधो यः सदा मुक्त एव सः॥
bhoktṛ, yajña-tapas, sarva-loka-mahā-īśvara; su-hṛd, sarva-bhūta, jñātvā, asmad, śānti, √ṛ.
भोक्तारं यज्ञ-तपसां सर्व-लोक-महेश्वरम्।
सु-हृदं सर्व-भूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिम् ऋच्छति॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, karma-sannyāsa-yoga, nāma, pañcama, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे कर्म-सन्न्यास-योगो नाम पञ्चमोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of Contemplation
In this chapter, Kṛṣṇa again states that renunciation is at the core of karma-yoga. Renunciation is essentially mental. It is the mind that needs to be freed from the hold of its likes and dislikes. Whether that renunciation gets translated into the renunciation of material comforts is a lifestyle choice that is secondary to mental renunciation of likes and dislikes, although it is a natural progression for the one who has the understanding necessary to be free from one’s likes and dislikes. But unless one is, in fact, able to give up material comforts, then one’s supposed mental power of renunciation is more an imagination. Renunciation means knowledge, not denial; it is the knowledge that the self is not a doer or an enjoyer.
The assimilation of this knowledge is assisted by the outward discipline of the lifestyles of karma-yoga and jñāna-yoga (knowledge as a means), and by the inward discipline of meditation and contemplation. These inward disciplines are available for both lifestyles, but the sannyāsa lifestyle and the student and retired stages of a karma-yoga life provide more opportunity for continual practice of these inward disciplines. Śama means the cessation of duties, and the sannyāsa lifestyle within the Indian culture best affords the opportunity for śama. With śama, one can focus on meditation and contemplation. But śama is just an opportunity; one has to choose inner disciplines in order to assimilate the teaching. A sannyāsī (renunciate) who is not in contemplation of the teaching is one who has fallen from the yoga.
This chapter introduces meditation and contemplation as a discipline, a yoga, within but not exclusive to jñāna-yoga. It is a solitary pursuit, once learned, meant for removing any remaining obstacles to knowledge. Meditation techniques are for gaining a steadiness of mind with the purpose of contemplating the teaching, helping one assimilate the teaching. Some details are provided in this chapter on meditation techniques; more can be gained, if needed, from the Upaniṣads (for example, Śvetāśvatara 1.10–16, Joshi 2007) and from Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras (1.12–51 and 2.46–3.3).
Those meditation techniques meant for gaining siddhis (special powers over nature or over others) are contrary to the teaching given here by Lord Kṛṣṇa (see 2.41–45). Patanjali said these siddhis are impediments to progress in contemplative absorption (Yoga Sutras 3.37). So the contemplation is only on the teaching given here by Lord Kṛṣṇa. The danger in focusing elsewhere is that we may become lost in pursuits outside of the teaching of the Lord and fall from the yoga. Many people have been waylaid in popular yoga power trips. If, instead, we follow the Lord’s teaching, it will show us how to progress in contemplative absorption for gaining knowledge.
Some think that they cannot meditate because the mind wanders when they sit in meditation. Incorrect! This is exactly meditation. Meditation is continually bringing the naturally mobile mind back to its intended focus. If it does not wander away, then it is samādhi (absorption in the topic); in which case, the meditation has more than succeeded. As soon as the mind has gained a certain degree of steadiness, it should be turned to contemplation of the teaching. Such a steady mind can then remain with the teaching both in and out of the seat of meditation. This is the ideal pursuit of every seeker, whether one is in karma-yoga or sannyāsa.
(Jump to 7th Ch. Intro)
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
an-āśrita, karma-phala, kārya, karman, √kṛ, yad; tad, sannyāsin, ca, yogin, ca, na, nis-agni, na, ca, a-kriya.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
अनाश्रितः कर्म-फलं कार्यं कर्म करोति यः।
स सन्न्यासी च योगी च न निर्-अग्निर् न चाक्रियः॥
yad, sannyāsa, iti, pra-√ah, yoga, tad, √vid, pāṇḍava; na, hi, a-sannyasta-saṅkalpa, yogin, √bhū, kaścana.
यं सन्न्यासम् इति प्राहुर् योगं तं विद्धि पाण्डव।
न ह्य् असन्न्यस्त-सङ्कल्पो योगी भवति कश्चन॥
ārurukṣu, muni, yoga, karman, kāraṇa, √vac; yoga-ārūḍha, tad, eva, śama, kāraṇa, √vac.
आरुरुक्षोर् मुनेर् योगं कर्म कारणम् उच्यते।
योगारूढस्य तस्यैव शमः कारणम् उच्यते॥
yadā, hi, na, indriya-artha, na, karman, anu-√sañj; sarva-saṅkalpa-sannyāsin, yoga-ārūḍha, tadā, √vac.
यदा हि नेन्द्रियार्थेषु न कर्मस्व् अनुषज्जते।
सर्व-सङ्कल्प-सन्न्यासी योगारूढस् तदोच्यते॥
ud-√dhṛ, ātman, ātman, na, ātman, ava-√sad; ātman, eva, hi, ātman, bandhu, ātman, eva, ripu, ātman.
उद्धरेद् आत्मनात्मानं नात्मानम् अवसादयेत्।
आत्मैव ह्य् आत्मनो बन्धुर् आत्मैव रिपुर् आत्मनः॥
bandhu, ātman, ātman, tad, yad, ātman, eva, ātman, jita; an-ātman, tu, śatrutva, √vṛt, ātman, eva, śatruvat.
बन्धुर् आत्मात्मनस् तस्य येनात्मैवात्मना जितः।
अनात्मनस् तु शत्रुत्वे वर्तेतात्मैव शत्रुवत्॥
jita-ātman, praśānta, parama-ātman (param, ātman), samāhita; śīta-uṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha, tathā, māna-apamāna.
जितात्मनः प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहितः।
शीतोष्ण-सुख-दुःखेषु तथा मानापमानयोः॥
jñāna-vijñāna-tṛpta-ātman, kūṭa-stha, vijita-indriya; yukta, iti, √vac, yogin, sama-loṣṭa-aśma-kāñcana.
ज्ञान-विज्ञान-तृप्तात्मा कूट-स्थो विजितेन्द्रियः।
युक्त इत्य् उच्यते योगी सम-लोष्टाश्म-काञ्चनः॥
su-hṛd-mitra-ari-udāsīna-madhya-stha-dveṣya-bandhu; sādhu, api, ca, pāpa, sama-buddhi, vi-√śiṣ.
साधुष्व् अपि च पापेषु सम-बुद्धिर् विशिष्यते॥
yogin, √yuj, sa-tatam, ātman, rahas, sthita; evākin, yata-citta-ātman, nis-āśis, a-parigraha.
योगी युञ्जीत स-ततम् आत्मानं रहसि स्थितः।
एकाकी यत-चित्तात्मा निर्-आशीर् अपरिग्रहः॥
śuci, deśa, pratiṣṭhāpya, sthira, āsana, ātman; na, atyucchrita, na, atinīca, caila-ajina-kuśa-uttara.
tatra, eka-agra, manas, kṛtvā, yata-citta-indriya-kriya; upaviśya, āsana, √yuj, yoga, ātma-viśuddhi.

शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरम् आसनम् आत्मनः।
नात्युच्छ्रितं नातिनीचं चैलाजिन-कुशोत्तरम्॥
तत्रैकाग्रं मनः कृत्वा यत-चित्तेन्द्रिय-क्रियः।
उपविश्यासने युञ्ज्याद् योगम् आत्म-विशुद्धये॥
sama, kāya-śiras-grīva, dhārayat, a-cala, sthira; samprekṣya, nāsikā-agra, sva, diś, ca, an-avalokayat.
praśānta-ātman, vigata-bhī, brahma-cāri-vrata, sthita; manas, saṃyamya, mad-citta, yukta, √ās, mad-para.

समं काय-शिरो-ग्रीवं धारयन्न् अचलं स्थिरः।
सम्प्रेक्ष्य नासिकाग्रं स्वं दिशश् चानवलोकयन्॥
प्रशान्तात्मा विगत-भीर् ब्रह्म-चारि-व्रते स्थितः।
मनः संयम्य मच्-चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्-परः॥
yuñjat, evam, sadā, ātman, yogin, niyata-mānasa; śānti, nirvāṇa-paramā, mad-saṃsthā, adhi-√gam.
युञ्जन्न् एवं सदात्मानं योगी नियत-मानसः।
शान्तिं निर्वाण-परमां मत्-संस्थाम् अधिगच्छति॥
na, atyaśnat, tu, yoga, √as, na, ca, eka-antam, an-aśnat; na, ca, atisvapna-śīla, jāgrat, na, eva, ca, arjuna.
नात्यश्नतस् तु योगोऽस्ति न चैकान्तम् अनश्नतः।
न चातिस्वप्न-शीलस्य जाग्रतो नैव चार्जुन॥
yukta-āhāra-vihāra, yukta-ceṣṭa, karman; yukta-svapna-avabodha, yoga, √bhū, duḥkha-han.
युक्ताहार-विहारस्य युक्त-चेष्टस्य कर्मसु।
युक्त-स्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवति दुःख-हा॥
yadā, viniyata, citta, ātman, eva, ava-√sthā; nis-spṛha, sarva-kāma, yukta, iti, √vac, tadā.
यदा विनियतं चित्तम् आत्मन्य् एवावतिष्ठते।
निः-स्पृहः सर्व-कामेभ्यो युक्त इत्य् उच्यते तदा॥
yathā, dīpa, nivāta-stha, na, √iṅg, tad, upamā, smṛtā; yogin, yata-citta, yuñjat, yoga, ātman.
यथा दीपो निवात-स्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता।
योगिनो यत-चित्तस्य युञ्जतो योगम् आत्मनः॥
yatra, upa-√ram, citta, niruddha, yoga-sevā; yatra, ca, eva, ātman, ātman, paśyat, ātman, √tuṣ.
यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योग-सेवया।
यत्र चैवात्मनात्मानं पश्यन्न् आत्मनि तुष्यति॥
sukha, ātyantika, yad, tad, buddhi-grāhya, atīndriya; √vid, yatra, na, ca, eva, idam, sthita, √cal, tattvatas.
yad, labdhvā, ca, apara, lābha, √man, na, adhika, tatas; yad, sthita, na, duḥkha, guru, api, vi-√cal.
tad, √vid, duḥkha-saṃyoga-viyoga, yoga-sañjñita; tad, niśyaya, yoktavya, yoga, a-nirviṇṇa-cetas.

सुखम् आत्यन्तिकं यत् तद् बुद्धि-ग्राह्यम् अतीन्द्रियम्।
वेत्ति यत्र न चैवायं स्थितश् चलति तत्त्वतः॥
यं लब्ध्वा चापरं लाभं मन्यते नाधिकं ततः।
यस्मिन् स्थितो न दुःखेन गुरुणापि विचाल्यते॥
तं विद्याद् दुःख-संयोग-वियोगं योग-सञ्ज्ञितम्।
स निश्चयेन योक्तव्यो योगोऽनिर्विण्ण-चेतसा॥
saṅkalpa-prabhava, kāma, tyaktvā, sarva, a-śeṣatas; manas, eva, indriya-grāma, viniyamya, samantatas.
śanais, śanais, upa-√ram, buddhi, dhṛti-gṛhītā; ātma-saṃstha, manas, kṛtvā, na, ka-cid, api, √cint.

सङ्कल्प-प्रभवान् कामांस् त्यक्त्वा सर्वान् अशेषतः।
मनसैवेन्द्रिय-ग्रामं विनियम्य समन्ततः॥
शनैः शनैर् उपरमेद् बुद्ध्या धृति-गृहीतया।
आत्म-संस्थं मनः कृत्वा न किञ्चिद् अपि चिन्तयेत्॥
yata, yata, nis-√car, manas, cañcala, a-sthira; tatas, tatas, niyamya, etad, ātman, eva, vaśam, √nī.
यतो यतो निश्चरति मनश् चञ्चलम् अस्थिरम्।
ततस् ततो नियम्यैतद् आत्मन्य् एव वशं नयेत्॥
praśānta-manas, hi, enad, yogin, sukha, uttama; upa-√i, śānta-rajas, brahma-bhūta, a-kalmaṣa.
प्रशान्त-मनसं ह्य् एनं योगिनं सुखम् उत्तमम्।
उपैति शान्त-रजसं ब्रह्म-भूतम् अकल्मषम्॥
yuñjat, evam, sadā, ātman, yogin, vigata-kalmaṣa; sukhena, brahma-saṃsparśa, atyanta, sukha, √aś.
युञ्जन्न् एवं सदात्मानं योगी विगत-कल्मषः।
सुखेन ब्रह्म-संस्पर्शम् अत्यन्तं सुखम् अश्नुते॥
sarva-bhūta-stha, ātman, sarva-bhūta, ca, ātman; √īkṣ, yoga-yukta-ātman, sarvatra, sama-darśana.
सर्व-भूत-स्थम् आत्मानं सर्व-भूतानि चात्मनि।
ईक्षते योग-युक्तात्मा सर्वत्र सम-दर्शनः॥
yad, asmad, √dṛś, sarvatra, sarva, ca, asmad, √dṛś; tad, asmad, na, pra-√naś, tad, ca, asmad, na, pra-√naś.
यो मां पश्यति सर्वत्र सर्वं च मयि पश्यति।
तस्याहं न प्रणश्यामि स च मे न प्रणश्यति॥
sarva-bhūta-sthita, yad, asmad, √bhaj, ekatva, āsthita; sarvathā, vartamāna, api, tad, yogin, asmad, √vṛt.
सर्व-भूत-स्थितं यो मां भजत्य् एकत्वम् आस्थितः।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि स योगी मयि वर्तते॥
ātma-aupamya, sarvatra, sama, √dṛś, yad, arjuna; sukha, vā, yadi, vā, duḥkha, tad, yogin, parama, mata.
आत्मौपम्येन सर्वत्र समं पश्यति योऽर्जुन।
सुखं वा यदि वा दुःखं स योगी परमो मतः॥
arjuna, √vac:
yad, idam, yoga, yuṣmad, prokta, sāmya, madhu-sūdana; etad, asmad, na, √dṛś, cañcalatva, sthiti, sthirā.

अर्जुन उवाच।
योऽयं योगस् त्वया प्रोक्तः साम्येन मधु-सूदन।
एतस्याहं न पश्यामि चञ्चलत्वात् स्थितिं स्थिराम्॥
cañcala, hi, manas, kṛṣṇa, pramāthin, balavat, dṛḍha; tat, asmad, nigraha, √man, vāyu, iva, su-dus-kara.
चञ्चलं हि मनः कृष्ण प्रमाथि बलवद् दृढम्।
तस्याहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोर् इव सु-दुष्-करम्॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
a-saṃśayam, mahā-bāhu, manas, dus-nigraha, cala; abhyāsa, tu, kaunteya, vairāgyya, ca, √grah.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
असंशयं महा-बाहो मनो दुर्-निग्रहं चलम्।
अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते॥
a-saṃyata-ātman, yoga, dus-pāpa, iti, asmad, mati; vaśya-ātman, tu, yatat, śakya, avāptum, upāyatas.
असंयतात्मना योगो दुष्-प्राप इति मे मतिः।
वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्योऽवाप्तुम् उपायतः॥
arjuna, √vac:
a-yati, śrad-dhā, upeta, yoga, calita-mānasa; a-prāpya, yoga-saṃsiddhi, kim, gati, kṛṣṇa, √gam.

अर्जुन उवाच।
अयतिः श्रद्धयोपेतो योगाच् चलित-मानसः।
अप्राप्य योग-संसिद्धिं कां गतिं कृष्ण गच्छति॥
kad-cid, na, ubhaya-vibhraṣṭa, chinna-abhra, iva, √naś; a-pratiṣṭha, mahā-bāhu, vimūḍha, brahman, pathan.
कच्चिन् नोभय-विभ्रष्टश् छिन्नाभ्रम् इव नश्यति।
अप्रतिष्ठो महा-बाहो विमूढो ब्रह्मणः पथि॥
etad, asmad, saṃśaya, kṛṣṇa, chettum, √arh, a-śeṣatas; tvad-anya, saṃśaya, idam, chettṛ, na, hi, upa-√pad.
एतन् मे संशयं कृष्ण छेत्तुम् अर्हस्य् अशेषतः।
त्वद्-अन्यः संशयस्यास्य छेत्ता न ह्य् उपपद्यते॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
pārtha, na, eva, iha, na, amutra, vināśa, tad, √vid; na, hi, kalyāṇa-kṛt, ka-cid, dus-gati, tāta, √gam.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
पार्थ नैवेह नामुत्र विनाशस् तस्य विद्यते।
न हि कल्याण-कृत् कश्चिद् दुर्-गतिं तात गच्छति॥
prāpya, puṇya-kṛt, loka, uṣitvā, śāśvatī, samā; śuci, śrīmat, geha, yoga-bhraṣṭa, abhi-√jan.
प्राप्य पुण्य-कृतां लोकान् उषित्वा शाश्वतीः समाः।
शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योग-भ्रष्टोऽभिजायते॥
athavā, yogin, eva, kula, √bhū, dhīmat; etad, hi, dus-labhatara, loka, janman, yad, īdṛśa.
अथवा योगिनाम् एव कुले भवति धीमताम्।
एतद् धि दुर्-लभतरं लोके जन्म यद् ईदृशम्॥
tatra, tad, buddhi-saṃyoga, √labh, paurva-dehika; √yat, ca, tatas, bhūyas, saṃsiddhi, kuru-nandana.
तत्र तं बुद्धि-संयोगं लभते पौर्व-देहिकम्।
यतते च ततो भूयः संसिद्धौ कुरु-नन्दन॥
pūrva-abhyāsa, tad, eva, √hṛ, hi, avaśa, api, tad; jijñāsu, api, yoga, śabda-brahman, ati-√vṛt.
पूर्वाभ्यासेन तेनैव ह्रियते ह्य् अवशोऽपि सः।
जिज्ञासुर् अपि योगस्य शब्द-ब्रह्मातिवर्तते॥
prayatna, yatamāna, tu, yogin, saṃśuddha-kilbiṣa; an-eka-janma-saṃsiddha, tatas, √yā, parā, gati.
प्रयत्नाद् यतमानस् तु योगी संशुद्ध-किल्बिषः।
अनेक-जन्म-संसिद्धस् ततो याति परां गतिम्॥
tapasvin, adhika, yogin, jñānin, api, mata, adhika; karmin, ca, adhika, yogin, tasmāt, yogin, √bhū, arjuna.
तपस्विभ्योऽधिको योगी ज्ञानिभ्योऽपि मतोऽधिकः।
कर्मिभ्यश् चाधिको योगी तस्माद् योगी भवार्जुन॥
yogin, api, sarva, mad-gata, antar-ātman; śrad-dhāvat, √bhaj, yad, asmad, tad, asmad, yuktatama, mata.
योगिनाम् अपि सर्वेषां मद्-गतेनान्तर्-आत्मना।
श्रद्-धावान् भजते यो मां स मे युक्ततमो मतः॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, dhyāna-yoga, nāma, ṣaṣṭha, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे ध्यान-योगो नाम षष्ठोऽध्यायः॥ (आत्म-संयम-योगो)

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Knowledge and Its Assimilation
When this teaching uses the word knowledge by itself, it indicates the completion of the knowledge that yields complete freedom. When it uses the two words knowledge (jñāna) and assimilation (vijñāna), it is distinguishing simple understanding about the teaching from its fulfillment in complete freedom. It is the difference between saying “The teaching and the teacher say I am (the self is) completely free” and saying “I am completely free.” The first speaker may simply be a scholar; the later is a master. In the preceding chapter, a life of contemplation is encouraged for the assimilation of the teaching about the nature of the limitless self.
This chapter marks a shift in emphasis from the nature of the individual (and the pursuit and assimilation of the knowledge of the nature of the individual) to the nature of the Lord (and the pursuit and assimilation of the knowledge of the nature of the Lord). This shift in emphasis lasts through chapter 12. Chapter 13 then gives a marvelous presentation of the identity of the Lord and the individual – of the Lord who is both the field and the knower of the field, and the individual who is this same knower of the field. The great Upaniṣad statement “Tat tvam asi (That [Lord] you are)” is the basis for these shifts in emphasis from the individual (“you”) to the Lord (“that”) and then to their identity (“are”). Whether one fully knows the microcosm or fully knows the macrocosm, either one amounts to complete knowledge – as the truth of one is the truth of the other. That is the very nature of truth. Truth is without division and infinite. If it is limited in any way, then it is only a concept that is subject to correction and negation.
The knowledge of the Lord starts with the macrocosm. The macrocosm is all the objects of your five senses and the concepts that make up your mind. This is the entirety of the universe, the field, before you. Even what you don’t know falls within the concept of what you know you do not know. We have to pause to appreciate how complete this ancient description of the macrocosm is. Even our vaunted modern-day physics is not as complete. Physics has only recently come to accept that the observer needs to be taken into account in order to correctly understand even a single event in the universe. But the knowledge of the Lord does not stop at that, as there is also the being that is aware of the observations and concepts in the mind.
When a scientist observes a person, the scientist can never observe that person’s awareness. Hence, psychology and the other sciences – because of the scientific method to which they are wed – are forever shut off from arriving at an understanding of the nature of this awareness, which awareness is in fact self-evident to everyone. Psychology cannot even directly study the mind. Psychologists rely on clients’ subjective responses to determine what is happening in the mind. For example, if you were the client, you would have to tell the psychologist whether stimulating a particular part of your brain evoked a particular thought in your mind. If a set of neurons firing was exactly the same as a thought, then why would a psychologist need to ask you?
Before anyone knew there were such neurons, everyone was clear what thoughts they entertained. Indeed, scientists don’t even see these neurons firing in their lab; they see only spikes on a graph, once or twice removed from what they are claiming is the fact of thought. At best, scientific theories about awareness and the mind are suppositions and inferences – to be corrected and negated by the next generation. Scientists cannot directly study your mind any more than they can read your mind. However, you alone can contemplate all this before you (including your mind) with this teaching, within self-evident awareness, and as the Lord – because the Lord is none other than yourself.
(Jump to 8th Ch. Intro)
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
asmad, āsakta-manas, pārtha, yoga, yuñjat, mad-āśraya; a-saṃśayam, samagra, asmad, yathā, √jñā, tad, √śru.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
मय्य् आसक्त-मनाः पार्थ योगं युञ्जन् मद्-आश्रयः।
असंशयं समग्रं मां यथा ज्ञास्यसि तच् छृणु॥
jñāna, yuṣmad, asmad, sa-vijñāna, idam, √vac, a-śeṣatas; yad, jñātvā, na, iha, bhūyas, anya, jñātavya, ava-√śiṣ.
ज्ञानं तेऽहं स-विज्ञानम् इदं वक्ष्याम्य् अशेषतः।
यज् ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज् ज्ञातव्यम् अवशिष्यते॥
manuṣya, sahasra, ka-cid, √yat, siddhi; yatat, api, siddha, ka-cid, asmad, √vid, tattvatas.
मनुष्याणां सहस्रेषु कश्चिद् यतति सिद्धये।
यतताम् अपि सिद्धानां कश्चिन् मां वेत्ति तत्त्वतः॥
bhūmi, ap, an-ala, vāyu, kha, manas, buddhi, eva, ca; aham-kāra, iti, idam, asmad, bhinnā, prakṛti, aṣṭadhā.
भूमिर् आपोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिर् एव च।
अहङ्कार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिर् अष्टधा॥
a-parā, idam, itas, tu, anyā, prakṛti, √vid, asmad, parā; jīva-bhūtā, manā-bāhu, yad, idam, √dhṛ, jagat.
अपरेयम् इतस् त्व् अन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम्।
जीव-भूतां महा-बाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत्॥
enad-yoni, bhūta, sarva, iti, upa-√dhṛ; asmad, kṛtsna, jagat, prabhava, pralaya, tathā.
एतद्-योनीनि भूतानि सर्वाणीत्य् उपधारय।
अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयस् तथा॥
mattas, paratara, na, anya, ka-cid, √as, dhanam-jaya; asmad, sarva, idam, prota, sūtra, maṇi-gaṇa, iva.
मत्तः परतरं नान्यत् किञ्चिद् अस्ति धनञ्-जय।
मयि सर्वम् इदं प्रोतं सूत्रे मणि-गणा इव॥
rasa, asmad, ap, kaunteya, prabhā, √as, śaśi-sūrya; praṇava, sarva-veda, śabda, kha, pauruṣa, nṛ.
रसोऽहम् अप्सु कौन्तेय प्रभास्मि शशि-सूर्ययोः।
प्रणवः सर्व-वेदेषु शब्दः खे पौरुषं नृषु॥
puṇya, gandha, pṛthivī, ca, tejas, ca, √as, vibhāvasu; jīvana, sarva-bhūta, tapas, ca, √as, tapasvin.
पुण्यो गन्धः पृथिव्यां च तेजश् चास्मि विभावसौ।
जीवनं सर्व-भूतेषु तपश् चास्मि तपस्विषु॥
bīja, asmad, sarva-bhūta, √vid, pārtha, sanā-tana; buddhi, buddhimat, √as, tejas, tejasvin, asmad.
बीजं मां सर्व-भूतानां विद्धि पार्थ सना-तनम्।
बुद्धिर् बुद्धिमताम् अस्मि तेजस् तेजस्विनाम् अहम्॥
bala, balavat, ca, asmad, kāma-rāga-vivarjita; dharma-a-viruddha, bhūta, kāma, √as, bharata-ṛṣabha.
बलं बलवतां चाहं काम-राग-विवर्जितम्।
धर्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरत-र्षभ॥
yad, ca, eva, sāttvika, bhāva, rājasa, tāmasa, ca, yad; matta, eva, iti, tad, √vid, na, tu, asmad, tad, tad, asmad.
ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास् तामसाश् च ये।
मत्त एवेति तान् विद्धि न त्व् अहं तेषु ते मयि॥
tri, guṇamaya, bhāva, idam, sarva, idam, jagat; mohita, na, abhi-√jñā, asmad, idam, para, a-vyayva.
त्रिभिर् गुणमयैर् भावैर् एभिः सर्वम् इदं जगत्।
मोहितं नाभिजानाति माम् एभ्यः परम् अव्ययम्॥
daivī, hi, etad, guṇamayī, asmad, māyā, dus-atyayā; asmad, eva, yad, pra-√pad, māyā, etad, √tṝ, tad.
दैवी ह्य् एषा गुणमयी मम माया दुर्-अत्यया।
माम् एव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायाम् एतां तरन्ति ते॥
na, asmad, dus-kṛtin, mūḍha, pra-√pad, nara-adhama; māyā, apahṛta-jñāna, āsura, bhāva, āśrita.
न मां दुष्-कृतिनो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः।
माययापहृत-ज्ञाना आसुरं भावम् आश्रिताः॥
catur-vidha, √bhaj, asmad, jana, su-kṛtin, arjuna; ārta, jijñāsu, artha-arthin, jñānin, ca, bharata-ṛṣabha.
चतुर्-विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सु-कृतिनोऽर्जुन।
आर्तो जिज्ञासुर् अर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरत-र्षभ॥
tad, jñānin, nitya-yukta, eka-bhakti, vi-√śiṣ; priya, hi, jñānin, atyartham, asmad, tad, ca, asmad, priya.
तेषां ज्ञानी नित्य-युक्त एक-भक्तिर् विशिष्यते।
प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थम् अहं स च मम प्रियः॥
udāra, sarva, eva, etad, jñānin, tu, ātman, eva, asmad, mata; āsthita, tad, hi, yukta-ātman, asmad, eva, an-uttamā, gati.
उदाराः सर्व एवैते ज्ञानी त्व् आत्मैव मे मतम्।
आस्थितः स हि युक्तात्मा माम् एवानुत्तमां गतिम्॥
bahu, janman, anta, jñānavat, asmad, pra-√pad; vāsu-deva, sarva, iti, tad, mahā-ātman, su-dus-labha.
बहूनां जन्मनाम् अन्ते ज्ञानवान् मां प्रपद्यते।
वासु-देवः सर्वम् इति स महात्मा सु-दुर्-लभः॥
kāma, tad, tad, hṛta-jñāna, pra-√pad, anya-devatā; tad, tad, niyama, āsthāya, prakṛti, niyata, svā.
कामैस् तैस् तैर् हृत-ज्ञानाः प्रपद्यन्तेऽन्य-देवताः।
तं तं नियमम् आस्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया॥
yad, yad, yad, yad, tanu, bhakta, śrad-dhā, arcitum, √iṣ; tad, tad, a-calā, śrad-dhā, tad, eva, vi-√dhā, asmad.
यो यो यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्-धयार्चितुम् इच्छति।
तस्य तस्याचलां श्रद्-धां ताम् एव विदधाम्य् अहम्॥
tad, tad, śrad-dhā, yukta, tad, rādhana, √īh; √labh, ca, tatas, kāma, asmad, eva, vihita, hi, tad.
स तया श्रद्-धया युक्तस् तस्या राधनम् ईहते।
लभते च ततः कामान् मयैव विहितान् हि तान्॥
antavat, tu, phala, tad, tad, √bhū, alpa-medhas; deva, deva-yaj, √yā, mad-bhatka, √yā, asmad, api.
अन्तवत् तु फलं तेषां तद् भवत्य् अल्प-मेधसाम्।
देवान् देव-यजो यान्ति मद्-भक्ता यान्ति माम् अपि॥
a-vyakta, vyakti, āpanna, √man, asmad, a-buddhi; para, bhāva, ajānat, asmad, a-vyaya, an-uttama.
अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिम् आपन्नं मन्यन्ते माम् अबुद्धयः।
परं भावम् अजानन्तो ममाव्ययम् अनुत्तमम्॥
na, asmad, prakāśa, sarva, yoga-māyā-samāvṛta; mūḍha, idam, na, abhi-√jñā, loka, asmad, a-ja, a-vyaya.
नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योग-माया-समावृतः।
मूढोऽयं नाभिजानाति लोको माम् अजम् अव्ययम्॥
√vid, asmad, samatīta, vartamāna, ca, arjuna; bhaviṣya, ca, bhūta, asmad, tu, √vid, na, ka-cid.
वेदाहं समतीतानि वर्तमानानि चार्जुन।
भविष्याणि च भूतानि मां तु वेद न कश्चन॥
icchā-dveṣa-samuttha, dvam-dva-moha, bhārata; sarva-bhūta, sammoha, sarga, √yā, param-tapa.
इच्छा-द्वेष-समुत्थेन द्वन्द्व-मोहेन भारत।
सर्व-भूतानि सम्मोहं सर्गे यान्ति परन्-तप॥
yad, tu, anta-gata, pāpa, jana, puṇya-karman; tad, dvam-dva-moha-nirmukta, √bhaj, asmad, dṛḍha-vrata.
येषां त्व् अन्त-गतं पापं जनानां पुण्य-कर्मणाम्।
ते द्वन्द्व-मोह-निर्मुक्ता भजन्ते मां दृढ-व्रताः॥
jarā-maraṇa-mokṣa, asmad, āśritya, √yat, yad; tad, brahman, tad, √vid, kṛtsna, adhi-ātma, karman, ca, a-khila.
जरा-मरण-मोक्षाय माम् आश्रित्य यतन्ति ये।
ते ब्रह्म तद् विदुः कृत्स्नम् अध्य्-आत्मं कर्म चाखिलम्॥
sa-adhi-bhūta-adhi-daivam, asmad, sa-adhi-yajñam, ca, yad, √vid; prayāṇa-kāla, api, ca, asmad, tad, √vid, yukta-cetas.
साधि-भूताधि-दैवं मां साधि-यज्ञं च ये विदुः।
प्रयाण-कालेऽपि च मां ते विदुर् युक्त-चेतसः॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga, nāma, saptama, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे ज्ञान-विज्ञान-योगो नाम सप्तमोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of the Imperishable Reality
The entirety of this universe has been presented in the previous chapter, as only the Advaita Vedānta teaching can present it. Modern sciences are limited in their scope and therefore can neither confirm nor disaffirm this teaching, nor are they required to confirm it. The sciences have their own relative scope in which they provide solutions pending further study. Because only you can know your own mind and because a complete teaching must include yourself (the witness of all, including the mind), self-examination is required – in the light of this teaching – to confirm the teaching. No future science or new savior (whether in the future or the past) can do that for you.
This teaching – which examines the nature of the entire universe and the very nature of you, its witness – was given, Lord Kṛṣṇa says, at the beginning of humankind (4.1); it comes with each manifestation of the universe. It was not first given only this century, this millennium, two- or two-thousand-five-hundred or five thousand years ago – condemning previous generations to so-called “barbaric” ignorance or to lesser realms (or even torturous realms) just because they weren’t exposed to the products of the various world religions, cults, or sciences. The Vedānta teaching indicates that all possible subtle heavens or hells exist for everyone, of all generations, in keeping with their will-based deeds (7.22–23) – regardless of the era, culture, or religion in which they live. The Vedānta teaching alone reflects the eternal, universal justice to all living beings of all generations.
This teaching also indicates that there can be a transcendence of this universe, both physical and subtle – a final release from the revolutions through universal realms of existence. This release is by knowledge alone and is available during this lifetime – not supposedly after you die. This freedom, in fact, is already our nature, hidden from us by our ill-conceived notions of ourselves. This freedom is not some new knowledge given by a savior or liberator, but is the self-knowledge within each of us that blossoms once the ignorant notions have been removed and the heart is sufficiently purified of its guilts and hurts. Attaining this freedom is attaining the self of all, attaining the very being of the Lord, reality as-it-is. For this reason, Kṛṣṇa says that the greatest devotee (bhakta) to the All, to the Lord which is all, is the jñānī, the one who knows this (7.16–19, 8.22).
In chapter 8, Lord Kṛṣṇa again states that reality is unchanging and limitless and is the very nature of oneself. The Lord, this reality, alone is the embodied one in all bodies. The one who knows and thus remembers the Lord – without a doubt, as one’s self – attains that unchanging and limitless reality (8.3–10). But the one who is mistakenly identified with the changing and limited – whether that be as tiny as this body-mind complex or as grand as the manifestation of this universe (yet excluding one’s self) – will, upon the failure of the body to retain the subtle mind, move on to subtle realms. That is, one’s subtle mind with the identified ego reflecting within it will move to subtle realms. These realms will be in keeping with the grandeur of what one had continually identified with in this life. Then that subtle mind, with its ego, will be born again – with an appropriate material body to exhaust more of one’s accumulated store of karmas. Therefore, the Lord says “know Me” (13.2) and “remember Me” (8.7).
(Jump to 9th Ch. Intro)
arjuna, √vac:
kim, tad, brahman, kim, adhi-ātma, kim, karman, puruṣa-uttama; adhi-bhūta, ca, kim, prokta, adhi-daiva, kim, √vac.
adhi-yajña, katham, kim, atra, deha, idam, madhu-sūdana; prayāṇa-kāla, ca, katham, jñeya, √as, niyata-ātman.

अर्जुन उवाच।
किं तद् ब्रह्म किम् अध्य्-आत्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम।
अधि-भूतं च किं प्रोक्तम् अधि-दैवं किम् उच्यते॥
अधि-यज्ञः कथं कोऽत्र देहेऽस्मिन् मधु-सूदन।
प्रयाण-काले च कथं ज्ञेयोऽसि नियतात्मभिः॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
a-kṣara, brahman, parama, sva-bhāva, adhi-ātma, √vac; bhūta-bhāva-udbhava-kara, visarga, karma-sañjñita.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
अक्षरं ब्रह्म परमं स्व-भावोऽध्य्-आत्मम् उच्यते।
भूत-भावोद्भव-करो विसर्गः कर्म-सञ्ज्ञितः॥
adhi-bhūta, kṣara, bhāva, puruṣa, ca, adhi-daivata; adhi-yajña, asmad, eva, atra, deha, deha-bhṛt, vara.
अधि-भूतं क्षरो भावः पुरुषश् चाधि-दैवतम्।
अधि-यज्ञोऽहम् एवात्र देहे देह-भृतां वर॥
anta-kāla, ca, asmad, eva, smarat, muktvā, kalevara; yad, pra-√yā, tad, mad-bhāva, √yā, na, √as, atra, saṃśaya.
अन्त-काले च माम् एव स्मरन् मुक्त्वा कलेवरम्।
यः प्रयाति स मद्-भावं याति नास्त्य् अत्र संशयः॥
yad, yad, vā, api, smarat, bhāva, √tyaj, anta, kalevara; tad, tad, eva, √i, kaunteya, sadā, tad-hhāva-bhāvita.
यं यं वापि स्मरन् भावं त्यजत्य् अन्ते कलेवरम्।
तं तम् एवैति कौन्तेय सदा तद्-भाव-भावितः॥
tasmāt, sarva, kāla, asmad, anu-√smṛ, √yudh, ca; asmad, arpita-manas-buddhi, asmad, eva, √i, a-samśayam.
तस्मात् सर्वेषु कालेषु माम् अनुस्मर युध्य च।
मय्य् अर्पित-मनो-बुद्धिर् माम् एवैष्यस्य् असंशयम्॥
abhyāsa-yoga-yukta, cetas, na-anya-gāmin; parama, puruṣa, divya, √yā, pārtha, anucintayat.
kavi, purāṇa, anuśāsitṛ, aṇu, aṇīyas, anu-√smṛ, yad; sarva, dhātṛ, a-citya-rūpa, āditya-varṇa, tamas, parastāt.

अभ्यास-योग-युक्तेन चेतसा नान्य-गामिना।
परमं पुरुषं दिव्यं याति पार्थानुचिन्तयन्॥
कविं पुराणम् अनुशासितारम् अणोर् अणीयांसम् अनुस्मरेद्यः।
सर्वस्य धातारम् अचिन्त्य-रूपम् आदित्य-वर्णं तमसः परस्तात्॥
prayāṇa-kāla, manas, a-cala, bhakti, yukta, yoga-bala, ca, eva; brū, madhya, prāṇa, āveśya, samyak, tad, tad, para, puruṣa, upa-√i, divya.
प्रयाण-काले मनसाचलेन भक्त्या युक्तो योग-बलेन चैव।
भ्रुवोर् मध्ये प्राणम् आवेश्य सम्यक् स तं परं पुरुषम् उपैति दिव्यम्॥
yad, a-kṣara, veda-vid, √vad, √viś, yad, yati, vīta-rāga; yad, icchat, brahma-carya, √car, tad, yuṣmad, pada, saṅgraheṇa, pra-√vac.
यद् अक्षरं वेद-विदो वदन्ति विशन्ति यद् यतयो वीत-रागाः।
यद् इच्छन्तो ब्रह्म-चर्यं चरन्ति तत् ते पदं सङ्ग्रहेण प्रवक्ष्ये॥
sarva-dvāra, saṃyamya, manas, hṛd, nirudhya, ca; mūrdhan, ādhāya, ātman, prāṇa, āsthita, yoga-dāraṇā.
om, iti, eka-a-kṣara, brahman, vyāharat, asmad, anusmarat; yad, pra-√yā, tyajat, deha, tad, √yā, paramā, gati.

सर्व-द्वाराणि संयम्य मनो हृदि निरुध्य च।
मूर्ध्न्य् आधायात्मनः प्राणम् आस्थितो योग-धारणाम्॥
ओम् इत्य् एकाक्षरं ब्रह्म व्याहरन् माम् अनुस्मरन्।
यः प्रयाति त्यजन् देहं स याति परमां गतिम्॥
an-anya-cetas, sa-tatam, yad, asmad, √smṛ, nityaśas; tad, asmad, su-lobha, pārtha, nitya-yukta, yogin.
अनन्य-चेताः स-ततं यो मां स्मरति नित्यशः।
तस्याहं सु-लभः पार्थ नित्य-युक्तस्य योगिनः॥
asmad, upetya, punar-janman, duḥkha-ālaya, a-śāśvata; na, √āp, mahā-ātman, saṃsiddhi, paramā, gata.
माम् उपेत्य पुनर्-जन्म दुःखालयम् अशाश्वतम्।
नाप्नुवन्ति महात्मानः संसिद्धिं परमां गताः॥
ā, brahma-bhūvana, loka, punar-āvartin, arjuna; asmad, upetya, tu, kaunteya, punar-janman, na, √vid.
आ ब्रह्म-भुवनाल् लोकाः पुनर्-आवर्तिनोऽर्जुन।
माम् उपेत्य तु कौन्तेय पुनर्-जन्म न विद्यते॥
sahasra-yuga-paryanta, ahan, yad, brahman, √vid; rātri, yuga-sahasra-antā, tad, ahan-rātra-vid, jana.
सहस्र-युग-पर्यन्तम् अहर्यद् ब्रह्मणो विदुः।
रात्रिं युग-सहस्रान्तां तेऽहो-रात्र-विदो जनाः॥
a-vyakta, vyakti, sarva, pra-√bhū, ahan-āgama; rātri-āgama, pra-√lī, tatra, eva, a-vyatka-sañjñaka.
अव्यक्ताद् व्यक्तयः सर्वाः प्रभवन्त्य् अहर्-आगमे।
रात्र्य्-आगमे प्रलीयन्ते तत्रैवाव्यक्त-सञ्ज्ञके॥
bhūta-grāma, tad, eva, idam, bhūtvā, bhūtvā, pra-√lī; rātri-āgama, a-vaśa, pārtha, pra-√bhū, ahan-āgama.
भूत-ग्रामः स एवायं भूत्वा भूत्वा प्रलीयते।
रात्र्य्-आगमेऽवशः पार्थ प्रभवत्य् अहर्-आगमे॥
para, tasmāt, tu, bhāva, anya, a-vyakta, a-vyakta, sanā-tana; yad, tad, sarva, naśyat, na, vi-√naś.
परस् तस्मात् तु भावोऽन्योऽव्यक्तोऽव्यक्तात् सना-तनः।
यः स सर्वेषु भूतेषु नश्यत्सु न विनश्यति॥
a-vyakta, a-kṣara, iti, ukta, tad, √ah, paramā, gati; yad, prāpya, na, ni-√vṛt, tad, dhāman, parama, asmad.
अव्यक्तोऽक्षर इत्य् उक्तस् तम् आहुः परमां गतिम्।
यं प्राप्य न निवर्तन्ते तद् धाम परमं मम॥
puruṣa, tad, para, pārtha, bhakti, labhya, tu, an-anyā; yad, antar-stha, bhūta, yad, sarva, idam, tata.
पुरुषः स परः पार्थ भक्त्या लभ्यस् त्व् अनन्यया।
यस्यान्तः-स्थानि भूतानि येन सर्वम् इदं ततम्॥
yatra, kāla, tu, an-āvṛtti, āvṛtti, ca, eva, yogin; prayāta, √yā, tad, kāla, √vac, bharata-ṛṣabha.
यत्र काले त्व् अनावृत्तिम् आवृत्तिं चैव योगिनः।
प्रयाता यान्ति तं कालं वक्ष्यामि भरत-र्षभ॥
agni, jyotis, ahan, śukla, ṣaṣ-māsa, uttara-ayana; tatra, prayāta, √gam, brahman, brahma-vid, jana.
अग्निर् ज्योतिर् अहः शुक्लः षण्-मासा उत्तरायणम्।
तत्र प्रयाता गच्छन्ति ब्रह्म ब्रह्म-विदो जनाः॥
dhūma, rātri, tathā, kṛṣṇa, ṣaṣ-māsa, dakṣiṇa-ayana; tatra, cāndramasa, jyotis, yogin, prāpya, ni-√vṛt.
धूमो रात्रिस् तथा कृष्णः षण्-मासा दक्षिणायनम्।
तत्र चान्द्रमसं ज्योतिर् योगी प्राप्य निवर्तते॥

[यत्र गत्याम्] धूमः, रात्रिः, तथा कृष्णः [पक्षः], षण्-मासाः दक्षिण-अयनं [देवताः सन्ति], तत्र चान्द्रमसं ज्योतिः [दिवम् इत्यर्थः] प्राप्य, योगी निवर्तते॥
śukla-kṛṣṇā, gati, hi, etad, jagat, śāśvatā, matā; ekā, √yā, an-āvṛtti, anyā, ā-√vṛt, punar.
शुक्ल-कृष्णे गती ह्य् एते जगतः शाश्वते मते।
एकया यात्य् अनावृत्तिम् अन्ययावर्तते पुनः॥
na, etad, sṛti, pārtha, jānat, yogin, √muh, ka-cana; tasmāt, sarva, kāla, yoga-yukta, √bhū, arjuna.
नैते सृती पार्थ जानन् योगी मुह्यति कश्चन।
तस्मात् सर्वेषु कालेषु योग-युक्तो भवार्जुन॥
veda, yajña, tapas, ca, eva, dāna, yad, puṇya-phala, pradiṣṭa; ati-√i, tad, sarva, idam, viditvā, yogin, para, sthāna, upa-√i, ca, ādya.
वेदेषु यज्ञेषु तपःसु चैव दानेषु यत् पुण्य-फलं प्रदिष्टम्।
अत्येति तत् सर्वम् इदं विदित्वा योगी परं स्थानम् उपैति चाद्यम्॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, jñāna-vijñāna-yoga, nāma, saptama, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे अक्षर-ब्रह्म-योगो नामाष्टमोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of King of All Knowledge, King of All Secrets
Chapter 9 explains the relationship between this manifest universe and the Lord. This “relationship” is peculiar: The Lord is timeless and spaceless, yet manifests to us as time and space and as all within time and space. The Lord describes it thus: “All beings exist in Me, but I am not in them. Beings do not exist in Me… My ātmā (self) produces things, sustains things, but does not exist in things” (see 9.4–5). This peculiar “relationship,” like a secret (4.2–3, 9.1–2, 11.1, 15.20, and 18.63–64, 18.68, and 18.75), needs to be revealed by one who knows.
There are various analogies to understand this “relationship.” The analogy that the Lord gives in this chapter (9.6) is that of air within space. This analogy requires some understanding of Upaniṣad cosmogony. Space means dimension and air means movement. Movement arises from there being dimension; without dimension there is no movement. The understanding of movement must include dimension, but dimension does not require movement, nor is it changed in any way by this movement. Movement comes and goes within dimension, but, from the standpoint of movement, dimension always exists. Yet, dimension does not exist as a separate, limited entity within or outside movement.
Other analogies can also help us understand this “relationship” between this manifest universe and the Lord. The manifest within the Lord can be likened to clay pots within the world of clay. All clay pots are nothing but clay. You cannot take away clay and still have a clay pot. Before, during, and after the existence of a clay pot, there is only clay. Clay is the material cause (upādāna-kāraṇa) of a clay pot, but a clay pot is not a separate entity from clay. Pot is just a name we give to clay in a particular form. Being simply a name and form we attribute to clay, a pot itself does not have within its nature clay – because it could just as well be a metal or glass pot. Pot or plate is just an adjective we give to clay. Similarly, this universe of entities is simply the various names we give to forms appearing in existence-awareness (in the Lord).
Another analogy is a dream within you, the dreamer. The dream and the entities within the dream exist in you. But as real, separate entities, they do not exist in you. The dream is you, but you are not the dream. You alone are the permanent, unaffected existence within which the dream world comes and goes, cycles in and out of manifestation. Once you wake up, the particular problems of the dream disappear; you are “freed,” as it were, from the dream problems. The dream is not a modification of you, the dreamer. Even while within the dream, you are – to the extent you identify yourself with the dream – only notionally, not actually, affected by the problems in the dream. Like the dream world in relation to you, the dreamer, this universe is a lower level of reality within the real you, like the unreal to the real (a-sat to sat).
As has already been taught, the real you is nothing but the Lord. The universe is “related” to the real you, ātmā (the self), in the same way as it is to the Lord. Yet, out of ignorance, we think we are born into and die from this world and that we travel to heavenly or hellish realms within this universe.
(Jump to 10th Ch. Intro)
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
idam, tu, yuṣmad, gṛhyatama, pra-√vac, an-asūyu; jñāna, vijñāna-sahita, yad, jñātvā, √muc, a-śubha.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
इदं तु ते गुह्यतमं प्रवक्ष्याम्य् अनसूयवे।
ज्ञानं विज्ञान-सहितं यज् ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात्॥
rāja-vidyā, rāja-guhya, pavitra, idam, uttama; pratyakṣa-avagama, dharmya, su-sukha, kartum, a-vyaya.
राज-विद्या राज-गुह्यं पवित्रम् इदम् उत्तमम्।
प्रत्यक्षावगमं धर्म्यं सु-सुखं कर्तुम् अव्ययम्॥
a-śrad-dadhāna, puruṣa, dharma, idam, param-tapa; a-prāpya, asmad, ni-√vṛt, mṛtyu-saṃsāra-vartman.
अश्रद्-दधानाः पुरुषा धर्मस्यास्य परन्-तप।
अप्राप्य मां निवर्तन्ते मृत्यु-संसार-वर्त्मनि॥
asmad, tata, idam, sarva, jagat, a-vyakta-mūrti; mad-stha, sarva-bhūta, na, ca, asmad, tad, avasthita.
मया ततम् इदं सर्वं जगद् अव्यक्त-मूर्तिना।
मत्-स्थानि सर्व-भूतानि न चाहं तेष्व् अवस्थितः॥
na, ca, mad-stha, bhūta, √dṛś, asmad, yoga, aiśvara; bhūta-bhṛt, na, ca, bhūta-stha, asmad, ātman, bhūta-bhāvana.
न च मत्-स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगम् ऐश्वरम्।
भूत-भृन् न च भूत-स्थो ममात्मा भूत-भावनः॥
yathā, ākāśa-sthita, nityam, vāyu, sarvatra-ga, mahat; tathā, sarva, bhūta, mad-stha, iti, upa-√dhṛ.
यथाकाश-स्थितो नित्यं वायुः सर्वत्र-गो महान्।
तथा सर्वाणि भूतानि मत्-स्थानीत्य् उपधारय॥
sarva-bhūta, kaunteya, prakṛti, √yā, māmikā; kalpa-kṣaya, punar, tad, kalpa-ādi, vi-√sṛj, asmad.
सर्व-भूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिं यान्ति मामिकाम्।
कल्प-क्षये पुनस् तानि कल्पादौ विसृजाम्य् अहम्॥
prakṛti, svā, avaṣṭabhya, vi-√sṛj, punar, punar; bhūta-grāma, idam, kṛtsna, a-vaśa, prakṛti, vaśa.
प्रकृतिं स्वाम् अवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः।
भूत-ग्रामम् इमं कृत्स्नम् अवशं प्रकृतेर् वशात्॥
na, ca, asmad, tad, karman, ni-√bandh, dhanam-jaya; udāsīnavat, āsīna, a-sakta, tad, karman.
न च मां तानि कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनञ्-जय।
उदासीनवद् आसीनम् असक्तं तेषु कर्मसु॥
asmad, adhyakṣa, prakṛti, √sū, sa-cara-a-caram; hetu, idam, kaunteya, jagat, vi-pari-√vṛt.
मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते स-चराचरम्।
हेतुनानेन कौन्तेय जगद् विपरिवर्तते॥
ava-√jñā, asmad, mūḍha, mānuṣī, tanu, āśrita; para, bhāva, a-jānat, asmad, bhūta-mahā-īśvara.
अवजानन्ति मां मूढा मानुषीं तनुम् आश्रितम्।
परं भावम् अजानन्तो मम भूत-महेश्वरम्॥
mogha-āśa, mogha-karman, mogha-jñāna, vi-cetas; rākṣasī, āsurī, ca, eva, prakṛti, mohinī, śrita.
मोघाशा मोघ-कर्माणो मोघ-ज्ञाना वि-चेतसः।
राक्षसीम् आसुरीं चैव प्रकृतिं मोहिनीं श्रिताः॥
mahā-ātman, tu, asmad, pārtha, daivī, prakṛti, āśrita; √bhaj, an-anya-manas, jñātvā, bhūta-ādi, a-vyaya.
महात्मानस् तु मां पार्थ दैवीं प्रकृतिम् आश्रिताः।
भजन्त्य् अनन्य-मनसो ज्ञात्वा भूतादिम् अव्ययम्॥
sa-tatam, kīrtayat, asmad, yatat, ca, dṛḍha-vrata; namasyat, ca, asmad, bhakti, nitya-yukta, upa-√ās.
स-ततं कीर्तयन्तो मां यतन्तश् च दृढ-व्रताः।
नमस्यन्तश् च मां भक्त्या नित्य-युक्ता उपासते॥
jñāna-yajña, ca, api, anya, yajat, asmad, upa-√ās; ekatva, pṛthaktva, bahudhā, viśvatas-mukha.
ज्ञान-यज्ञेन चाप्य् अन्ये यजन्तो माम् उपासते।
एकत्वेन पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विश्वतो-मुखम्॥
asmad, kratu, asmad, yajña, svadhā, asmad, asmad, auṣadha; mantra, asmad, asmad, eva, ājya, asmad, agni, asmad, huta.
अहं क्रतुर् अहं यज्ञः स्वधाहम् अहम् औषधम्।
मन्त्रोऽहम् अहम् एवाज्यम् अहम् अग्निर् अहं हुतम्॥
pitṛ, asmad, idam, jagat, mātṛ, dhātṛ, pitā-maha; vedya, pavitra, om-kāra, ṛc, sāman, yajus, eva, ca.
पिताहमस्य जगतो माता धाता पिता-महः।
वेद्यं पवित्रम् ओङ्कार ऋक् साम यजुर् एव च॥
gati, bhartṛ, prabhu, sākṣin, nivāsa, śaraṇa, su-hṛd; prabhava, pralaya, sthāna, nidhāna, bīja, a-vyaya.
गतिर् भर्ता प्रभुः साक्षी निवासः शरणं सु-हृत्।
प्रभवः प्रलयः स्थानं निधानं बीजम् अव्ययम्॥
√tap, asmad, asmad, varṣa, ni-√grah, ud-√sṛj, ca; a-mṛta, ca, eva, mṛtyu, ca, sat, a-sat, ca, asmad, arjuna.
तपाम्य् अहम् अहं वर्षं निगृह्णाम्य् उत्सृजामि च।
अमृतं चैव मृत्युश् च सद् असच् चाहम् अर्जुन॥
trai-vidya, asmad, soma-pa, pūta-pāpa, yajña, iṣṭvā, svar-gati, pra-√arth; tad, puṇya, āsādya, sura-indra-loka, √aś, divya, dyu, deva-bhoga.
त्रै-विद्या मां सोम-पाः पूत-पापा यज्ञैर् इष्ट्वा स्वर्-गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते।
ते पुण्यम् आसाद्य सुरेन्द्र-लोकम् अश्नन्ति दिव्यान् दिवि देव-भोगान्॥
tad, tad, bhuktvā, svar-ga-loka, viśāla, kṣīṇa, puṇya, martya-loka, √viś; evam, trayī-karma, anuprapanna, gata-āgata, kāma-kāma, √labh.
ते तं भुक्त्वा स्वर्-ग-लोकं विशालं क्षीणे पुण्ये मर्त्य-लोकं विशन्ति।
एवं त्रयी-धर्मम् अनुप्रपन्ना गतागतं काम-कामा लभन्ते॥
an-anya, cintayat, asmad, yad, jana, pari-upa-√ās; tad, nitya-abhiyukta, yoga-kṣema, √vah, asmad.
अनन्याश् चिन्तयन्तो मां ये जनाः पर्युपासते।
तेषां नित्याभियुक्तानां योग-क्षेमं वहाम्य् अहम्॥
yad, api, anya-devatā-bhakta, √yaj, śrad-dhā, anvita; tad, api, asmad, eva, kaunteya, √yaj, a-vidhi-pūrvakam.
येऽप्य् अन्य-देवता-भक्ता यजन्ते श्रद्-धयान्विताः।
तेऽपि माम् एव कौन्तेय यजन्त्य् अविधि-पूर्वकम्॥
asmad, hi, sarva-yajña, bhoktṛ, ca, prabhu, eva, ca; na, tu, asmad, abhi-√jñā, tattvena, atas, √cyu, tad.
अहं हि सर्व-यज्ञानां भोक्ता च प्रभुर् एव च।
न तु माम् अभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेनातश् च्यवन्ति ते॥
√yā, deva-vrata, deva, pitṛ, √yā, pitṛ-vrata; bhūta, √yā, bhūta-ijya, √yā, mad-yājin, api, asmad.
यान्ति देव-व्रता देवान् पितॄन् यान्ति पितृ-व्रताः।
भूतानि यान्ति भूतेज्या यान्ति मद्-याजिनोऽपि माम्॥
patra, puṣpa, phala, toya, yad, asmad, bhakti, pra-√yam; tad, asmad, bhakti-upahṛta, √aś, prayata-ātman.
पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति।
तद् अहं भक्त्य्-उपहृतम् अश्नामि प्रयतात्मनः॥
yad, √kṛ, yad, √aś, yad, √hu, √dā, yad; yad, √tapasya, kaunteya, tad, √kṛ, mad-arpaṇa.
यत् करोषि यद् अश्नासि यज् जुहोषि ददासि यत्।
यत् तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत् कुरुष्व मद्-अर्पणम्॥
śubha-a-śubha-phala, evam, √muc, karma-bandhana; sannyāsa-yoga-yukta-ātman, vimukta, asmad, upa-√i.
शुभाशुभ-फलैर् एवं मोक्ष्यसे कर्म-बन्धनैः।
सन्न्यास-योग-युक्तात्मा विमुक्तो माम् उपैष्यसि॥
sama, asmad, sarva-bhūta, na, asmad, dveṣya, √as, na, priya; yad, √bhaj, tu, asmad, bhakti, asmad, tad, tad, ca, api, asmad.
समोऽहं सर्व-भूतेषु न मे द्वेष्योऽस्ति न प्रियः।
ये भजन्ति तु मां भक्त्या मयि ते तेषु चाप्य् अहम्॥
api, ced, su-dus-ācāra, √bhaj, asmad, an-anya-bhāj; sādhu, eva, tad, mantavya, samyak, vyavasita, hi, tad.
अपि चेत् सु-दुर्-आचारो भजते माम् अनन्य-भाक्।
साधुर् एव स मन्तव्यः सम्यग् व्यवसितो हि सः॥
kṣipram, √bhū, dharma-ātman, śaśvat, śānti, ni-√gam; kaunteya, prati-√jñā, na, asmad, bhatka, pra-√naś.
क्षिप्रं भवति धर्मात्मा शश्वच् छान्तिं निगच्छति।
कौन्तेय प्रतिजानीहि न मे भक्तः प्रणश्यति॥
asmad, hi, pārtha, vyāpaśritya, yad, api, √as, pāpa-yoni; strī, vaiśya, tathā, śūdra, tad, api, √yā, parā, gati.
मां हि पार्थ व्यपाश्रित्य येऽपि स्युः पाप-योनयः।
स्त्रियो वैश्यास् तथा शूद्रास् तेऽपि यान्ति परां गतिम्॥
kim, punar, brāḥmaṇa, puṇya, bhakta, rāja-ṛṣi, tathā; a-nitya, a-sukha, loka, idam, prāpya, √bhaj, asmad.
किं पुनर् ब्राह्मणाः पुण्या भक्ता राज-र्षयस् तथा।
अनित्यम् असुखं लोकम् इमं प्राप्य भजस्व माम्॥
mad-manas, √bhū, mad-bhakta, mad-yājin, asmad, namas-√kṛ; asmad, eva, √i, yuktvā, evam, ātman, mad-para-ayana.
मन्-मना भव मद्-भक्तो मद्-याजी मां नमस्-कुरु।
माम् एवैष्यसि युक्त्वैवम् आत्मानं मत्-परायणः॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhya-yoga, nāma, navama, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे राज-विद्या-राज-गुह्य-योगो नाम नवमोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of Glories
Literature is also part of our universe. For Arjuna, literature includes the mythologies (purāṇas) and the Vedas. Many of the purāṇas were written after the major Upaniṣads and the Rāmāyaṇa epic, but before the Mahā-bhārata epic, of which the Bhagavad Gītā is part. Prior to the purāṇas, the deities in the Vedas, including the Upaniṣads, were barely personified forces of nature, such as Agni (Fire), Vāyu (Wind), and Indra (Mind and king of the deities). The purāṇas introduced personified deities, such as Viṣṇu (Sustainer), Śiva (Destroyer), Lakṣmī (Abundance), and Sarasvatī (Culture). The deities of the purāṇas married, had families and adventures, and got in and out of trouble.
Similar to the shift in literature of natural forces to personified ones is the shift of human characters to deities. In Vālmīki’s original Rāmāyaṇa epic (the story has undergone many retellings), Rāma is a man of virtue (dharma). In the later, poetic retellings of the Rāmāyaṇa story, Rāma is a deity, an incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu. The personification of the divine aspects of nature and the divination of human characters have benefits – such as inspiring imaginative minds – but if we overlook the earlier literature, we may fail to appreciate the wonder and glory of the forces of nature and the majesty of life in a purely scientific spirit. We may also lose the culture-free unity inspired by nonpersonified nature deities. For example, a lack of attention to the earlier literature may contribute to one thinking that Kṛṣṇa is superior to Rāma, or Śiva to Viṣṇu (which is equivalent to a schoolyard argument that “my dad is better than your dad”). The Advaita Vedānta teaching has survived nonetheless, and the blend of the purāṇas and earlier literatures has indeed blessed us – despite the fractured appearances of Hinduism today.
The Mahā-bhārata epic and the Bhagavad Gītā present Kṛṣṇa as Lord Kṛṣṇa, an incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu. However, this teaching would be just as powerful and true if Kṛṣṇa was presented as a man of knowledge who had completely assimilated the knowledge of the identity of himself with the total. If this were the case, then we would understand that, when He talks about Himself, Kṛṣṇa legitimately talks from the perspective of the Lord (compare Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.10.5–6). This teaching, after all, unfolds the fact that we all are already free and are already the Lord, but we don’t know it until we are taught. If we take Kṛṣṇa as a person, a genius who was born already wise, and understand that Kṛṣṇa would have been exposed from childhood to the wonderful literature and culture that confirms the wisdom that one is the self of all, then we would understand these statements He makes about Himself in the light of the purāṇa literature. Kṛṣṇa is a special incarnation of the Lord – not born of ignorance.
In this chapter, Kṛṣṇa presents Himself as all the glories (which are described in both sets of literature – the Vedas and the purāṇas), since nothing is apart from the Lord. All we see and all we hear and think are but the Lord. This is a powerful acknowledgment of the real basis of this universe and, when that clear vision includes one’s self, it is the limitless freedom called mokṣa. The inclusion of oneself in the vision of the Lord is the difficult step indicated in the beginning and the end of Kṛṣṇa’s description of His glories (10.20, 10.42). This complete vision is the same as the culmination of the contemplation described earlier (6.10–26) that helps us assimilate this teaching. Meditation or prayer helps us mature into this complete vision until one’s self is included inseparably in this vision of the Lord.
(Jump to 11th Ch. Intro)
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
bhūyas, eva, mahā-bāhu, √śru, asmad, parama, vacas; yad, yuṣmad, asmad, prīyamāṇa, √vac, hita-kāmyā.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
भूय एव महा-बाहो शृणु मे परमं वचः।
यत् तेऽहं प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हित-काम्यया॥
na, asmad, √vid, sura-gaṇa, prabhava, na, mahā-ṛṣi; asmad, ādi, hi, deva, mahā-ṛṣi, ca, sarvaśas.
न मे विदुः सुर-गणाः प्रभवं न मह-र्षयः।
अहम् आदिर् हि देवानां मह-र्षीणां च सर्वशः॥
yad, asmad, a-ja, an-ādi, ca, √vid, loka-mahā-īśvara; a-sammūḍha, tad, martya, sarva-pāpa, pra-√muc.
यो माम् अजम् अनादिं च वेत्ति लोक-महेश्वरम्।
असम्मूढः स मर्त्येषु सर्व-पापैः प्रमुच्यते॥
buddhi, jñāna, a-sammoha, kṣamā, satya, dama, śama; sukha, duḥkha, bhava, a-bhāva, bhaya, ca, a-bhaya, eva, ca.
a-hiṃsā, samatā, tuṣṭi, tapas, dāna, yaśas, a-yaśas; √bhū, bhāva, bhūta, mattas, eva, pṛthak-vidha.

बुद्धिर् ज्ञानम् असम्मोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः।
सुखं दुःखं भवोऽभावो भयं चाभयम् एव च॥
अहिंसा समता तुष्टिस् तपो दानं यशोऽयशः।
भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्-विधाः॥
mahā-ṛṣi, saptan, pūrva, catur, manu, tathā; mad-bhāva, mānasa, jāta, yad, loka, idam, prajā.
मह-र्षयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारो मनवस् तथा।
मद्-भावा मानसा जाता येषां लोक इमाः प्रजाः॥
etad, vibhūti, yoga, ca, asmad, yad, √vid, tattvatas; tad, a-vikampa, yoga, √yuj, na, atra, saṃśaya.
एतां विभूतिं योगं च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः।
सोऽविकम्पेन योगेन युज्यते नात्र संशयः॥
asmad, sarva, prabhava, mattas, sarva, pra-√vṛt; iti, matvā, √bhaj, asmad, budha, bhāva-samanvita.
अहं सर्वस्य प्रभवो मत्तः सर्वं प्रवर्तते।
इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भाव-समन्विताः॥
mad-citta, mad-gata-prāṇa, bodhayat, paras-para; kathayat, ca, asmad, nityam, √tuṣ, ca, √ram, ca.
मच्-चित्ता मद्-गत-प्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्-परम्।
कथयन्तश् च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च॥
tad, sa-tata-yukta, bhajat, prīti-pūrvakam; √dā, buddhi-yoga, tad, yad, asmad, upa-√yā.
तेषां स-तत-युक्तानां भजतां प्रीति-पूर्वकम्।
ददामि बुद्धि-योगं तं येन माम् उपयान्ति ते॥
tad, eva, anukampā-artham, asmad, a-jñāna-ja, tamas; √naś, ātma-bhāva-stha, jñāna-dīpa, bhāsvat.
तेषाम् एवानुकम्पार्थम् अहम् अज्ञान-जं तमः।
नाशयाम्य् आत्म-भाव-स्थो ज्ञान-दीपेन भास्वता॥
arjuna, √vac:
para, brahman, para, dhāman, pavitra, parama, bhavat; puruṣa, śāśvata, divya, ādi-deva, a-ja, vibhu.
√ah, yuṣmad, ṛṣi, sarva, deva-ṛṣi, nāra-da, tathā; asita, devala, vyāsa, svayam, ca, eva, √brū, asmad.

अर्जुन उवाच।
परं ब्रह्म परं धाम पवित्रं परमं भवान्।
पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यम् आदि-देवम् अजं विभुम्॥
आहुस् त्वाम् ऋषयः सर्वे देव-र्षिर् नार-दस् तथा।
असितो देवलो व्यासः स्वयं चैव ब्रवीषि मे॥
sarva, etad, ṛta, √man, yad, asmad, √vad, keśava; na, hi, yuṣmad, bhagavat, vyakti, √vid, deva, na, dānava.
सर्वम् एतद् ऋतं मन्ये यन् मां वदसि केशव।
न हि ते भगवन् व्यक्तिं विदुर् देवा न दानवाः॥
svayam, eva, ātman, ātman, √vid, yuṣmad, puruṣa-uttama; bhūta-bhāvana, bhūta-īśa, deva-deva, jagat-pati.
स्वयम् एवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम।
भूत-भावन भूतेश देव-देव जगत्-पते॥
vaktum, √arh, a-śeṣeṇa, divyā, hi, ātma-vibhūti; yad, vibhūti, loka, idam, yuṣmad, vyāpya, √sthā.
वक्तुम् अर्हस्य् अशेषेण दिव्या ह्य् आत्म-विभूतयः।
याभिर् विभूतिभिर् लोकान् इमांस् त्वं व्याप्य तिष्ठसि॥
katham, √vid, asmad, yogin, yuṣmad, sadā, paricintayat; kim, kim, ca, bhāva, cintya, √as, bhagavat, asmad.
कथं विद्याम् अहं योगिंस् त्वां सदा परिचिन्तयन्।
केषु केषु च भावेषु चिन्त्योऽसि भगवन् मया॥
vistareṇa, ātman, yoga, vibhūti, ca, jana-ardana; bhūyas, √kath, tṛpti, hi, śṛṇvat, na, √as, asmad, a-mṛta.
विस्तरेणात्मनो योगं विभूतिं च जनार्दन।
भूयः कथय तृप्तिर् हि शृण्वतो नास्ति मेऽमृतम्॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
hanta, yuṣmad, √kath, divyā, hi, ātma-vibhūti; prādhānyatas, kuru-śreṣṭha, na, √as, anta, vistara, asmad.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्या ह्य् आत्म-विभूतयः।
प्राधान्यतः कुरु-श्रेष्ठ नास्त्य् अन्तो विस्तरस्य मे॥
asmad, ātman, guḍākā-īśa, sarva-bhūta-āśaya-sthita; asmad, ādi, ca, madhya, ca, bhūta, anta, eva, ca.
अहम् आत्मा गुडाकेश सर्व-भूताशय-स्थितः।
अहम् आदिश् च मध्यं च भूतानाम् अन्त एव च॥
āditya, asmad, viṣṇu, jyotis, ravi, aṃśumat; marīci, marut, √as, nakṣatra, asmad, śaśin.
आदित्यानाम् अहं विष्णुर् ज्योतिषां रविर् अंशुमान्।
मरीचिर् मरुताम् अस्मि नक्षत्राणाम् अहं शशी॥
veda, sāma-veda, √as, deva, √as, vāsava; indriya, manas, ca, √as, bhūta, √as, cetanā.
वेदानां साम-वेदोऽस्मि देवानाम् अस्मि वासवः।
इन्द्रियाणां मनश् चास्मि भूतानाम् अस्मि चेतना॥
rudra, śaṅkara, ca, √as, vitta-īśa, yakṣa-rakṣas; vasu, pāvaka, ca, √as, meru, śikharin, asmad.
रुद्राणां शङ्करश् चास्मि वित्तेशो यक्ष-रक्षसाम्।
वसूनां पावकश् चास्मि मेरुः शिखरिणाम् अहम्॥
puras-dhas, ca, mukhya, asmad, √vid, pārtha, bṛhas-pati; senā-nī, asmad, skanda, saras, √as, sāgara.
पुरो-धसां च मुख्यं मां विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्-पतिम्।
सेनानीनाम् अहं स्कन्दः सरसाम् अस्मि सागरः॥
mahā-ṛṣi, bhṛgu, asmad, gir, √as, eka, a-kṣara; yajña, japa-yajña, √as, sthāvara, hima-ālaya.
मह-र्षीणां भृगुर् अहं गिराम् अस्म्य् एकम् अक्षरम्।
यज्ञानां जप-यज्ञोऽस्मि स्थावराणां हिमालयः॥
aśva-ttha, sarva-vṛkṣa, deva-ṛṣi, ca, nāra-da; gandharva, citra-ratha, siddha, kapila, muni.
अश्व-त्थः सर्व-वृक्षाणां देव-र्षीणां च नार-दः।
गन्धर्वाणां चित्र-रथः सिद्धानां कपिलो मुनिः॥
uccais-śravas, aśva, √vid, asmad, a-mṛta-udbhava; airāvata, gaja-indra, nara, ca, nara-adhipa.
उच्चैः-श्रवसम् अश्वानां विद्धि माम् अमृतोद्भवम्।
ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणां नराणां च नराधिपम्॥
āyudha, asmad, vajra, dhenu, √as, kāma-duh; prajana, ca, √as, kam-darpa, sarpa, √as, vāsuki.
आयुधानाम् अहं वज्रं धेनूनाम् अस्मि काम-धुक्।
प्रजनश् चास्मि कन्-दर्पः सर्पाणाम् अस्मि वासुकिः॥
an-anta, ca, √as, nāga, varuṇa, yādas, asmad; pitṛ, aryaman, ca, √as, yama, saṃyamat, asmad.
अनन्तश् चास्मि नागानां वरुणो यादसाम् अहम्।
पितॄणाम् अर्यमा चास्मि यमः संयमताम् अहम्॥
prahlāda, ca, √as, daitya, kāla, kalayat, asmad; mṛga, ca, mṛga-indra, asmad, vainateya, ca, pakṣin.
प्रह्लादश् चास्मि दैत्यानां कालः कलयताम् अहम्।
मृगाणां च मृगेन्द्रोऽहं वैनतेयश् च पक्षिणाम्॥
pavana, pavat, √as, rāma, śastra-bhṛt, asmad; jhaṣa, makara, ca, √as, srotras, √as, jāhnavī.
पवनः पवताम् अस्मि रामः शस्त्र-भृताम् अहम्।
झषाणां मकरश् चास्मि स्रोतसाम् अस्मि जाह्नवी॥
sarga, ādi, anta, ca, madhya, ca, eva, asmad, arjuna; adhi-ātma-vidyā, vidyā, vāda, pravadat, asmad.
सर्गाणाम् आदिर् अन्तश् च मध्यं चैवाहम् अर्जुन।
अध्य्-आत्म-विद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदताम् अहम्॥
a-kṣara, a-kāra, √as, dvam-dva, sāmāsika, ca; asmad, eva, a-kṣaya, kāla, dhātṛ, asmad, viśvatas-mukha.
अक्षराणाम् अकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च।
अहम् एवाक्षयः कालो धाताहं विश्वतो-मुखः॥
mṛtyu, sarva-hara, ca, asmad, udbhava, ca, bhaviṣyat; kīrti, śrī, vāc, ca, nārī, smṛti, medhā, dhṛti, kṣamā.
मृत्युः सर्व-हरश् चाहम् उद्भवश् च भविष्यताम्।
कीर्तिः श्रीर् वाक् च नारीणां स्मृतिर् मेधा धृतिः क्षमा॥
bṛhat-sāman, tathā, sāman, gāyatrī, chandas, asmad; māsa, mārga-śīrṣa, asmad, ṛtu, kusuma-ākara.
बृहत्-साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसाम् अहम्।
मासानां मार्ग-शीर्षोऽहम् ऋतूनां कुसुमाकरः॥
dyūta, chalayat, √as, tejas, tejasvin, asmad; jaya, √as, vyavasāya, √as, sattva, sattvavat, asmad.
द्यूतं छलयताम् अस्मि तेजस् तेजस्विनाम् अहम्।
जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववताम् अहम्॥
vṛṣṇi, vāsu-deva, √as, pāṇḍava, dhanam-jaya; muni, api, asmad, vyāsa, kavi, uśnas, kavi.
वृष्णीनां वासु-देवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनञ्-जयः।
मुनीनाम् अप्य् अहं व्यासः कवीनाम् उशना कविः॥
daṇḍa, damayat, √as, nīti, √as, jigīṣat; mauna, ca, eva, √as, guhya, jñāna, jñānavat, asmad.
दण्डो दमयताम् अस्मि नीतिर् अस्मि जिगीषताम्।
मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवताम् अहम्॥
yad, ca, api, sarva-bhūta, bīja, tad, asmad, arjuna; na, tad, √as, vinā, yad, √as, asmad, bhūta, cara-a-cara.
यच् चापि सर्व-भूतानां बीजं तद् अहम् अर्जुन।
न तद् अस्ति विना यत् स्यान् मया भूतं चराचरम्॥
na, anta, √as, asmad, divyā, vibhūti, param-tapa; etad, tu uddeśatas, prokta, vibhūti, vistara, asmad.
नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परन्-तप।
एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर् विस्तरो मया॥
yad, yad, vibhūtimat, sattva, śrīmat, ūrjita, eva, vā; tad, tad, eva, ava-√gam, yuṣmad, asmad, tajas-aṃśa-sambhava.
यद् यद् विभूतिमत् सत्त्वं श्रीमद् ऊर्जितम् एव वा।
तद् तद् एवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजो-ंऽश-सम्भवम्॥
athavā, bahu, etad, kim, jñāta, yuṣmad, arjuna; viṣṭabhya, asmad, idam, kṛtsna, eka-aṃśa, sthita, jagat.
अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन।
विष्टभ्याहम् इदं कृत्स्नम् एकांशेन स्थितो जगत्॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, vibhūti-yoga, nāma, daśama, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे विभूति-योगो नाम दशमोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of the Vision of the Cosmic Form
Now Arjuna makes a bold claim that is common among new students to this teaching. He says, “OK, I get it!” But what Arjuna “gets” is a particular concept; he has not fully assimilated the teaching. We know this because his next request is to especially experience the vision of this teaching. And the vision of this teaching is not a special experience.
The culmination of this teaching is a complete vision, a complete knowledge, of the all – including, inseparably, oneself – so every single experience, no matter how mundane, is immediately assimilated within this complete vision. This complete vision cannot be lost – because it is not an experience; it is simply knowledge. Once gained, it cannot be forgotten. Just as one cannot forget that one exists, one cannot forget – once clearly known – that one exists free of limitations.
If we think that there is some special enlightenment experience in the future to be reached, then we simply are not yet clear in this knowledge and what the complete vision is. It is often confused with a kind of samādhi in meditation, wherein the experiential subject/object separation disappears for a time. That is just what it is: a temporary experience that can be produced with a lot of practice. We all naturally have a very similar experience when we have a good night’s sleep. Like when we wake from sleep, when we get up from meditation we aren’t wiser. We simply get up with new information that such a nice experience happens and thus is possible. Like with sleep, we only know we had that special experience when it is over. How that experience could ever be confused with enlightenment is a wonder. A temporary mokṣa (liberation) is hardly a mokṣa. It is like a prisoner getting out of jail for a few minutes every other day. At first it is something to look forward to, but eventually it becomes just another frustration; the person remains a prisoner.
That said; the mind is capable of such epiphanies. These are natural and may be triggered by a breakthrough at some level in understanding oneself or the world, or even mechanically by certain physical or mental practices. These epiphanies can occur, but they are not the permanent, assimilated vision – the knowledge – that is unfolded by the Lord in the Bhagavad Gītā. In the Lord’s teaching, the real knowledge is of what is, always has been, and always will be (2.16–25). It is knowledge of the timeless reality as one’s self right now. It is not knowledge of what will be for a certain time and remembered later. It is a vision that, once gained, is never lost. This is especially indicated in verses 6.27–31 and 9.1–2.
Yet, in chapter 11, Arjuna naively asks Kṛṣṇa for a special perception of the Lord. Lord Kṛṣṇa indulges him, as only Kṛṣṇa can – as a friend and also as a teacher – to tamp down Arjuna’s boastful claim. He temporarily gives Arjuna a special sight of the infinite Lord. But though the vision starts wonderfully, Arjuna soon becomes fearful – because he has not assimilated his self in his understanding of the Lord. He feels overwhelmingly limited by what he sees as “out there” in this infinite sight, and this exacerbates the already existing fear in his heart. This fear, naturally occurring in the human heart, is due to the sense of limitation that arises from our perception of all the “others.” Arjuna’s fear indicates that he has not yet acquired clarity, much less maturity, in the vision of oneness. Maturity in this knowledge first requires clarity, then assimilation in the heart. Habitual doubts and their connected emotions based on our prior ignorance are gradually rendered more and more impotent as we mature in this vision. So this chapter, although seeming to be simply a praise of the Lord, importantly conveys a warning that this teaching is not meant to be additional information about God and life. Rather, it is a transformative, liberating teaching that is to be completely assimilated.
(Jump to 12th Ch. Intro)
arjuna, √vac:
mad-anugraha, parama, guhya, adhi-ātma-sañjñita; yad, yuṣmad, ukta, vacas, tad, moha, idam, vigata, asmad.

अर्जुन उवाच।
मद्-अनुग्रहाय परमं गुह्यम् अध्य्-आत्म-सञ्ज्ञितम्।
यत् त्वयोक्तं वचस् तेन मोहोऽयं विगतो मम॥
bhava-apyaya, hi, bhūta, śruta, vistaraśas, asmad; tvattas, kamala-patra-akṣa, mahā-ātmya, api, ca, a-vyaya.
भवाप्ययौ हि भूतानां श्रुतौ विस्तरशो मया।
त्वत्तः कमल-पत्राक्ष माहात्म्यम् अपि चाव्ययम्॥
evam, etad, yathā, √ah, yuṣmad, ātman, parama-īśvara; draṣṭum, √iṣ, yuṣmad, rūpa, aiśvara, puruṣa-uttama.
एवम् एतद् यथात्थ त्वम् आत्मानं परमेश्वर।
द्रष्टुम् इच्छामि ते रूपम् ऐश्वरं पुरुषोत्तम॥
√man, yadi, tad, śakya, asmad, draṣṭum, iti, prabhu; yoga-īśvara, tatas, asmad, yuṣmad, √dṛś, ātman, a-vyaya.
मन्यसे यदि तच् छक्यं मया द्रष्टुम् इति प्रभो।
योगेश्वर ततो मे त्वं दर्शयात्मानम् अव्ययम्॥
śrī-bhavagavat, √vac:
√dṛś, asmad, pārtha, rūpa, śataśas, atha, sahasraśas; nānā-vidha, divya, nānā-varṇa-ākṛti, ca.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
पश्य मे पार्थ रूपाणि शतशोऽथ सहस्रशः।
नाना-विधानि दिव्यानि नाना-वर्णाकृतीनि च॥
√dṛś, āditya, vasu, rudra, aśvin, marut, tathā; bahu, a-dṛṣṭa-pūrva, √dṛś, āścarya, bhārata.
पश्यादित्यान् वसून् रुद्रान् अश्विनौ मरुतस् तथा।
बहून्य् अदृष्ट-पूर्वाणि पश्याश्चर्याणि भारत॥
iha, eka-sta, jagat, kṛtsna, √dṛś, adya, sa-cara-a-cara; asmad, deha, guḍākā-īśa, yad, ca, anya, draṣṭum, √iṣ.
इहैक-स्थं जगत् कृत्स्नं पश्याद्य स-चराचरम्।
मम देहे गुडाकेश यच् चान्यद् द्रष्टुम् इच्छसि॥
na, tu, asmad, √śak, draṣṭum, idam, eva, sva-cakṣus; divya, √dā, yuṣmad, cakṣus, √dṛś, asmad, yoga, aiśvara.
न तु मां शक्यसे द्रष्टुम् अनेनैव स्व-चक्षुषा।
दिव्यं ददामि ते चक्षुः पश्य मे योगम् ऐश्वरम्॥
sañjaya, √vac:
evam, uktvā, tatas, rājan, mahā-yoga-īśvara, hari; √dṛś, pārtha, parama, rūpa, aiśvara.

सञ्जय उवाच।
एवम् उक्त्वा ततो राजन् महा-योगेश्वरो हरिः।
दर्शयाम्-आस पार्थाय परमं रूपम् ऐश्वरम्॥
an-eka-vaktra-nayana, an-eka-adbhuta-darśana; an-eka-divya-ābharaṇa, divya-an-eka-udyata-āyudha.
अनेक-वक्त्र-नयनम् अनेकाद्भुत-दर्शनम्।
अनेक-दिव्याभरणं दिव्यानेकोद्यतायुधम्॥
divya-mālya-ambara-dhara, divya-gandha-anulepana; sarva-āścaryamaya, deva, an-anta, viśvatas-mukha.
दिव्य-माल्याम्बर-धरं दिव्य-गन्धानुलेपनम्।
सर्वाश्चर्यमयं देवम् अनन्तं विश्वतो-मुखम्॥
dyu, sūrya-sahasra, √bhū, yugapad, utthitā; yadi, bhās, sa-dṛśī, tad, √as, bhās, tad, mahā-ātman.
दिवि सूर्य-सहस्रस्य भवेद् युगपद् उत्थिता।
यदि भाः स-दृशी सा स्याद् भासस् तस्य महात्मनः॥
tatra, eka-stha, jagat, kṛtsna, pravibhakta, an-akadhā; √dṛś, deva-deva, śarīra, pāṇḍava, tadā.
तत्रैक-स्थं जगत् कृत्स्नं प्रविभक्तम् अनेकधा।
अपश्यद् देव-देवस्य शरीरे पाण्डवस् तदा॥
tatas, tad, vismaya-āviṣṭa, hṛṣṭa-roman, dhanam-jaya; praṇamya, śiras, deva, kṛta-añjali, √bhāṣ.
ततः स विस्मयाविष्टो हृष्ट-रोमा धनञ्-जयः।
प्रणम्य शिरसा देवं कृताञ्जलिर् अभाषत॥
arjuna, √vac:
√dṛś, deva, yuṣmad, deva, deha, sarva, tathā, bhūta-viśeṣa-saṅgha; brahman, īśa, kamala-āsana-stha, ṛṣi, ca, sarva, ura-ga, ca, divya.

अर्जुन उवाच।
पश्यामि देवांस् तव देव देहे सर्वांस् तथा भूत-विशेष-सङ्घान्।
ब्रह्माणम् ईशं कमलासन-स्थम् ऋषींश् च सर्वान् उर-गांश् च दिव्यान्॥
an-eka-bāhu-udara-vaktra-netra, √dṛś, yuṣmad, sarvatas, an-anta-rūpa; na, anta, na, madhya, na, punar, yuṣmad, ādi, √dṛś, viśva-īśvara, viśva-rūpa.
अनेक-बाहूदर-वक्त्र-नेत्रं पश्यामि त्वां सर्वतोऽनन्त-रूपम्।
नान्तं न मध्यं न पुनस् तवादिं पश्यामि विश्वेश्वर विश्व-रूप॥
kirīṭin, gadin, cakrin, ca, tejas-rāśi, sarvatas-dīptimat; √dṛś, yuṣmad, dus-nirīkṣya, samantāt, dīpta-an-ala-arka-dyuti, a-prameya.
किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रिणं च तेजो-राशिं सर्वतो-दीप्तिमन्तम्।
पश्यामि त्वां दुर्-निरीक्ष्यं समन्ताद् दीप्तानलार्क-द्युतिम् अप्रमेयम्॥
yuṣmad, a-kṣara, parama, veditavya, yuṣmad, idam, viśva, para, nidhāna; yuṣmad, a-vyaya, śāśvata-dharma-goptṛ, sanā-tana, yuṣmad, puruṣa, mata, asmad.
त्वम् अक्षरं परमं वेदितव्यं त्वम् अस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम्।
त्वम् अव्ययः शाश्वत-धर्म-गोप्ता सना-तनस् त्वं पुरुषो मतो मे॥
an-ādi-madhya-anta, an-anta-vīrya, an-anta-bāhu, śaśi-sūrya-netra; √dṛś, yuṣmad, dīpta-huta-āśa-vaktra, sva-tejas, viśva, idam, tapat.
अनादि-मध्यान्तम् अनन्त-वीर्यम् अनन्त-बाहुं शशि-सूर्य-नेत्रम्।
पश्यामि त्वां दीप्त-हुताश-वक्त्रं स्व-तेजसा विश्वम् इदं तपन्तम्॥
dyāvā-pṛthivī, idam, antaram, hi, vyāpta, yuṣmad, eka, diś, ca, sarvā; dṛṣṭvā, adbhuta, rūpa, ugra, yuṣmad, idam, loka-traya, pravyathita, mahā-ātman.
द्यावा-पृथिव्योर् इदम् अन्तरं हि व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन दिशश् च सर्वाः।
दृष्ट्वाद्भुतं रूपम् उग्रं तवेदं लोक-त्रयं प्रव्यथितं महात्मन्॥
adas, hi, yuṣmad, sura-saṅgha, √viś, ka-cid, bhīta, prāñjali, √gṝ; su-asti, iti, uktvā, mahā-ṛṣi-siddha-saṅgha, √stu, yuṣmad, stuti, puṣkalā.
अमी हि त्वां सुर-सङ्घा विशन्ति केचिद् भीताः प्राञ्जलयो गृणन्ति।
स्व्-अस्तीत्य् उक्त्वा मह-र्षि-सिद्ध-सङ्घाः स्तुवन्ति त्वां स्तुतिभिः पुष्कलाभिः॥
rudra-āditya, vasu, yad, ca, sādhya, viśva, aśvin, marut, ca, ūṣma-pa, ca; gandharva-yakṣa-asura-siddha-saṅgha, vi-√īkṣ, yuṣmad, vismita, ca, eva, sarva.
रुद्रादित्या वसवो ये च साध्या विश्वेऽश्विनौ मरुतश् चोष्म-पाश् च।
गन्धर्व-यक्षासुर-सिद्ध-सङ्घा वीक्षन्ते त्वां विस्मिताश् चैव सर्वे॥
rūpa, mahat, yuṣmad, bahu-vaktra-netra, mahā-bāhu, bahu-bāhu-ūru-pāda; bahu-udara, bahu-daṃṣṭrā-karāla, dṛṣṭvā, loka, pravyathita, tathā, asmad.
रूपं महत् ते बहु-वक्त्र-नेत्रं महा-बाहो बहु-बाहूरु-पादम्।
बहूदरं बहु-दंष्ट्रा-करालं दृष्ट्वा लोकाः प्रव्यथितास् तथाहम्॥
nabhas-spṛśa, dīpta, an-eka-varṇa, vyātta-ānana, dīpta-viśāla-netra; dṛṣṭvā, hi, yuṣmad, pravyathita-antar-ātman, dhṛti, na, √vid, śama, ca, viṣṇu.
नभः-स्पृशं दीप्तम् अनेक-वर्णं व्यात्ताननं दीप्त-विशाल-नेत्रम्।
दृष्ट्वा हि त्वां प्रव्यथितान्तर्-आत्मा धृतिं न विन्दामि शमं च विष्णो॥
daṃṣṭrā-karāla, ca, yuṣmad, mukha, dṛṣṭvā, eva, kāla-an-ala-sannibha; diś, na, √jñā, na, √labh, ca, śarman, pra-√sad, deva-īśa, jagat-nivāsa.
दंष्ट्रा-करालानि च ते मुखानि दृष्ट्वैव कालानल-सन्निभानि।
दिशो न जाने न लभे च शर्म प्रसीद देवेश जगन्-निवास॥
adas, ca, yuṣmad, dhṛta-rāṣṭra, putra, sarva, saha, eva, avani-pāla-saṅgha; bhīṣma, droṇa, sūta-putra, tathā, adas, saha, asmadīya, api, yodha-mukhya.
अमी च त्वां धृत-राष्ट्रस्य पुत्राः सर्वे सहैवावनि-पाल-सङ्घैः।
भीष्मो द्रोणः सूत-पुत्रस् तथासौ सहास्मदीयैर् अपि योध-मुख्यैः॥
vaktra, yuṣmad, tvaramāṇa, √viś, daṃṣṭrā-karāla, bhayānaka; ka-cid, vilagna, daśana-antara, sam-√dṛś, cūrṇita, uttama-aṅga.
वक्त्राणि ते त्वरमाणा विशन्ति दंष्ट्रा-करालानि भयानकानि।
केचिद् विलग्ना दशनान्तरेषु सन्दृश्यन्ते चूर्णितैर् उत्तमाङ्गैः॥
yathā, nadī, bahu, ambu-vega, samudra, eva, abhimukha, √dru; tathā, yuṣmad, adas, nara-loka-vīra, √viś, vaktra, abhivijvalat.
यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बु-वेगाः समुद्रम् एवाभिमुखा द्रवन्ति।
तथा तवामी नर-लोक-वीरा विशन्ति वक्त्राण्य् अभिविज्वलन्ति॥
yathā, pradīpta, jvalana, patam-ga, √viś, nāśa, samṛddha-vega; tathā, eva, nāśa, √viś, loka, yuṣmad, api, vaktra, samṛddha-vega.
यथा प्रदीप्तं ज्वलनं पतङ्-गा विशन्ति नाशाय समृद्ध-वेगाः।
तथैव नाशाय विशन्ति लोकास् तवापि वक्त्राणि समृद्ध-वेगाः॥
√lih, grasamāna, samantāt, loka, samagra, vadana, jvalat; tejas, āpūrya, jagat, samagra, bhās, yuṣmad, ugrā, pra-√tap, viṣṇu.
लेलिह्यसे ग्रसमानः समन्ताल् लोकान् समग्रान् वदनैर् ज्वलद्भिः।
तेजोभिर् आपूर्य जगत् समग्रं भासस् तवोग्राः प्रतपन्ति विष्णो॥
ā-√khyā, asmad, kim, bhavat, ugra-rūpa, namas, √as, yuṣmad, deva-vara, pra-√sad; vijñātum, √iṣ, bhavat, ādya, na, hi, pra-√jñā, yuṣmad, pravṛtti.
आख्याहि मे को भवान् उग्र-रूपो नमोऽस्तु ते देव-वर प्रसीद।
विज्ञातुम् इच्छामि भवन्तम् आद्यं न हि प्रजानामि तव प्रवृत्तिम्॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
kāla, √as, loka-kṣaya-kṛt, pravṛddha, loka, samāhartum, iha, pravṛtta; ṛte, api, yuṣmad, na, √bhū, sarva, yad, avasthita, prati-anīka, yodha.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
कालोऽस्मि लोक-क्षय-कृत् प्रवृद्धो लोकान् समाहर्तुम् इह प्रवृत्तः।
ऋतेऽपि त्वां न भविष्यन्ति सर्वे येऽवस्थिताः प्रत्य्-अनीकेषु योधाः॥
tasmāt, yuṣmad, ud-√sthā, yaśas, √labh, jitvā, śatru, √bhuj, rājya, samṛddha; asmad, eva, etad, nihata, pūrvam, eva, nimitta-mātra, √bhū, savya-sācin.
तस्मात् त्वम् उत्तिष्ठ यशो लभस्व जित्वा शत्रून् भुङ्क्ष्व राज्यं समृद्धम्।
मयैवैते निहताः पूर्वम् एव निमित्तमात्रं भव सव्य-साचिन्॥
droṇa, ca, bhīṣma, ca, jayat-ratha, ca, karṇa, tathā, anya, api, yodha-vīra; asmad, hata, yuṣmad, √han, mā, √vyath, √yudh, √ji, raṇa, sa-patna.
द्रोणं च भीष्मं च जयद्-रथं च कर्णं तथान्यान् अपि योध-वीरान्।
मया हतांस् त्वं जहि मा व्यथिष्ठा युध्यस्व जेतासि रणे स-पत्नान्॥
sañjaya, √vac:
etad, śrutvā, vacana, keśava, kṛta-añjali, vepamāna, kirīṭin; namas-kṛtvā, bhūyas, eva, √ah, kṛṣṇa, sa-gadgadam, bhīta-bhīta, praṇamya.

सञ्जय उवाच।
एतच् छ्रुत्वा वचनं केशवस्य कृताञ्जलिर् वेपमानः किरीटी।
नमस्-कृत्वा भूय एवाह कृष्णं स-गद्गदं भीत-भीतः प्रणम्य॥
arjuna, √vac:
sthāne, hṛṣīka-īśa, yuṣmad, prakīrti, jagat, pra-√hṛṣ, anu-√rañj, ca; rakṣas, bhīta, diś, √dru, sarva, √namasya, ca, siddha-saṅgha.

अर्जुन उवाच।
स्थाने हृषीकेश तव प्रकीर्त्या जगत् प्रहृष्यत्य् अनुरज्यते च।
रक्षांसि भीतानि दिशो द्रवन्ति सर्वे नमस्यन्ति च सिद्ध-सङ्घाः॥
kasmāt, ca, yuṣmad, na, √nam, mahā-ātman, garīyas, brahman, api, ādi-kartṛ; an-anta, deva-īśa, jagat-nivāsa, yuṣmad, a-kṣara, sat-a-sat, tad, para, yad.
कस्माच् च ते न नमेरन् महात्मन् गरीयसे ब्रह्मणोऽप्य् आदि-कर्त्रे।
अनन्त देवेश जगन्-निवास त्वम् अक्षरं सद्-असत् तत् परं यत्॥
yuṣmad, ādi-deva, puruṣa, purāṇa, yuṣmad, idam, viśva, para, nidhāna; vettṛ, √as, vedya, ca, para, ca, dhāman, yuṣmad, tata, viśva, an-anta-rūpa.
त्वम् आदि-देवः पुरुषः पुराणस् त्वम् अस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम्।
वेत्तासि वेद्यं च परं च धाम त्वया ततं विश्वम् अनन्त-रूप॥
vāyu, yama, agni, varuṇa, śaśa-aṅka, prajā-pati, yuṣmad, pra-pitā-maha, ca; namas, namas, yuṣmad, √as, sahasra-kṛtvas, punar, ca, bhūyas, api, namas, namas, yuṣmad.
वायुर् यमोऽग्निर् वरुणः शशाङ्कः प्रजा-पतिस् त्वं प्र-पिता-महश् च।
नमो नमस् तेऽस्तु सहस्र-कृत्वः पुनश् च भूयोऽपि नमो नमस् ते॥
namas, purastāt, atha, pṛṣṭhatas, yuṣmad, namas, √as, yuṣmad sarvatas, eva, sarva; an-anta-vīrya-a-mita-vikrama, yuṣmad, sarva, sam-√āp, tatas, √as, sarva.
नमः पुरस्ताद् अथ पृष्ठतस् ते नमोऽस्तु ते सर्वत एव सर्व।
अनन्त-वीर्यामित-विक्रमस् त्वं सर्वं समाप्नोषि ततोऽसि सर्वः॥
sakhi, iti, matvā, prasabham, yad, ukta, he, kṛṣṇa, he, yādava, he, sakhi, iti; ajānat, mahiman, yuṣmad, idam, asmad, pramāda, praṇaya, vā, api.
yād, ca, avahāsa-artham, a-sat-kṛta, √as, vihāra-śayyā-āsana-bhojana; eka, athavā, api, a-cyuta, tad, samakṣaṃ, tad, √kṣam, yuṣmad, asmad, a-prameya.

सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यद् उक्तं हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति।
अजानता महिमानं तवेदं मया प्रमादात् प्रणयेन वापि॥
यच् चावहासार्थम् असत्-कृतोऽसि विहार-शय्यासन-भोजनेषु।
एकोऽथवाप्य् अच्युत तत् समक्षं तत् क्षामये त्वाम् अहम् अप्रमेयम्॥
pitṛ, √as, loka, cara-a-cara, yuṣmad, idam, pūjya, ca, guru, garīyas; na, tvad-sama, √as, abhudhika, kṛtas, anya, loka-traya, api, a-pratima-prabhāva.
पितासि लोकस्य चराचरस्य त्वम् अस्य पूज्यश् च गुरुर् गरीयान्।
न त्वत्-समोऽस्त्य् अभ्यधिकः कुतोऽन्यो लोक-त्रयेऽप्य् अप्रतिम-प्रभाव॥
tasmāt, praṇamya, praṇidhāya, kāya, pra-√sad, yuṣmad, asmad, īśa, īḍya; pitṛ, iva, putra, sakhi, iva, sakhi, priya, priyā, √arh, deva, soḍhum.
तस्मात् प्रणम्य प्रणिधाय कायं प्रसादये त्वाम् अहम् ईशम् ईड्यम्।
पितेव पुत्रस्य सखेव सख्युः प्रियः प्रियायाऽर्हसि देव सोढुम्॥
a-dṛṣṭa-pūrva, hṛṣita, √as, dṛṣṭvā, bhaya, ca, pravyathita, manas, asmad; tad, eva, asmad, √dṛś, deva, rūpa, pra-√sad, deva-īśa, jagat-nivāsa.
अदृष्ट-पूर्वं हृषितोऽस्मि दृष्ट्वा भयेन च प्रव्यथितं मनो मे।
तद् एव मे दर्शय देव रूपं प्रसीद देवेश जगन्-निवास॥
kirīṭin, gadin, cakra-hasta, √iṣ, yuṣmad, draṣṭum, asmad, tathā, eva; tad, eva, rūpa, catur-bhuja, sahasra-bāhu, √bhū, viśva-mūri.
किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्र-हस्तम् इच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुम् अहं तथैव।
तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्-भुजेन सहस्र-बाहो भव विश्व-मूर्ते॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
asmad, prasanna, yuṣmad, arjuna, idam, rūpa, para, darśita, ātma-yoga; tejomaya, viśva, an-anta, ādya, yad, asmad, tvad-anya, na, dṛṣṭa-pūrva.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
मया प्रसन्नेन तवार्जुनेदं रूपं परं दर्शितम् आत्म-योगात्।
तेजोमयं विश्वम् अनन्तम् आद्यं यन् मे त्वद्-अन्येन न दृष्ट-पूर्वम्॥
na, veda-yajña-adhyayana, na, dāna, na, ca, kriyā, na, tapas, ugra; evam-rūpa, śakya, asmad, nṛ-loka, draṣṭum, tvad-anya, kuru-pravīra.
न वेद-यज्ञाध्ययनैर् न दानैर् न च क्रियाभिर् न तपोभिर् उग्रैः।
एवं-रूपः शक्य अहं नृ-लोके द्रष्टुं त्वद्-अन्येन कुरु-प्रवीर॥
mā, yuṣmad, vyathā, mā, ca, vumūḍha-bhāva, dṛṣṭvā, rūpa, ghora, īdṛś, asmad, idam; vyapeta-bhī, prīta-manas, punar, yuṣmad, tad, eva, asmad, rūpa, idam, pra-√dṛś.
मा ते व्यथा मा च विमूढ-भावो दृष्ट्वा रूपं घोरम् ईदृङ् ममेदम्।
व्यपेत-भीः प्रीत-मनाः पुनस् त्वं तद् एव मे रूपम् इदं प्रपश्य॥
sañjaya, √vac:
iti, arjuna, vāsu-deva, tathā, uktvā, svaka, rūpa, √dṛś, bhūyas; ā-√śvas, ca, bhīta, enad, bhūtvā, punar, saumya-vapus, mahā-ātman.

सञ्जय उवाच।
इत्य् अर्जुनं वासु-देवस् तथोक्त्वा स्वकं रूपं दर्शयाम्-आस भूयः।
आश्वासयाम्-आस च भीतम् एनं भूत्वा पुनः सौम्य-वपुर् महात्मा॥
arjuna, √vac:
dṛṣṭvā, idam, mānuṣa, rūpa, yuṣmad, saumya, jana-ardana; idānīm, √as, saṃvṛtta, sa-cetas, prakṛti, gata.

अर्जुन उवाच।
दृष्ट्वेदं मानुषं रूपं तव सौम्यं जनार्दन।
इदानीम् अस्मि संवृत्तः स-चेताः प्रकृतिं गतः॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
su-dus-darśana, idam, rūpa, dṛṣṭavat, √as, yad, asmad; deva, api, idam, rūpa, nityam, darśana-kāṅkṣin.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
सु-दुर्-दर्शम् इदं रूपं दृष्टवान् असि यन् मम।
देवा अप्य् अस्य रूपस्य नित्यं दर्शन-काङ्क्षिणः॥
na, asmad, veda, na, tapas, na, dāna, na, ca, ijyā; śakya, evam-vidha, draṣṭum, dṛṣṭavat, √as, asmad, yathā.
नाहं वेदैर् न तपसा न दानेन न चेज्यया।
शक्य एवं-विधो द्रष्टुं दृष्टवान् असि मां यथा॥
bhakti, tu, an-anyā, śakya, asmad, evam-vidha, arjuna; jñātum, draṣṭum, ca, tattvena, praveṣṭum, ca, param-tapa.
भक्त्या त्व् अनन्यया शक्य अहम् एवं-विधोऽर्जुन।
ज्ञातुं द्रष्टुं च तत्त्वेन प्रवेष्टुं च परन्-तप॥
mad-karma-kṛt, mad-parama, mad-bhakta, saṅga-varjita; nis-vaira, sarva-bhūta, yad, tad, asmad, √i, pāṇḍava.
मत्-कर्म-कृन् मत्-परमो मद्-भक्तः सङ्ग-वर्जितः।
निर्-वैरः सर्व-भूतेषु यः स माम् एति पाण्डव॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, viśva-rūpa-darśana-yoga, nāma, ekā-daśa, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे विश्व-रूप-दर्शन-योगो नामैका-दशोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of Devotion
The majesty and power of the physical and subtle universe was presented in the preceding chapter. The individual – who takes himself or herself as trapped within that universe, as a victim of the devouring jaws of time – is naturally afraid of the crushing immensity of everything “out there.” But, if one understands that this universe is a single manifestation of the reality that one calls the Lord; that one’s body-mind complex, along with its action, is naturally within the order that manifests as this universe; and that the physical and subtle laws that inform this universe are outside of one’s control but are certain and just – then one can start to objectively reconcile one’s life within the universe.
The results in life are outside of one’s control, but the results are always in keeping with one’s attitude and effort – because all results are within the cosmic order, which takes all factors into account. Every result is acceptable because every result is naturally in keeping with the entirety of the cosmic order. There is no pseudoscientific “randomness” in nature; there is only order and probability everywhere. Only possibilities exist.
The obvious intelligent design that is inherent in nature is evident as its discoverable laws. All is a manifestation of an order that only intelligence can appreciate. This is the starting point of devotion – appreciating and accepting the Lord, the reality, manifesting as the intelligent order within this cosmic wheel. In this chapter, we can understand devotion as the commitment to gaining this appreciation and acceptance. Devotion is not emotional and it is not intellectual. It is the whole person committing the body and mind to the understanding that this universe is an expression of the Lord as the cosmic order and to living this understanding appropriately.
But the Lord is more than this universe. The universe cycles in and out of manifestation within this reality that is the Lord. This Lord is the untainted reality in which the universe appears, plays itself out, and disappears. At the unchanging core of all beings is reality, the Lord’s reality. This reality can be appreciated as having all the glories we see in the universe – this is one appropriate vision. This reality can also be appreciated as being completely free of and untainted by this universe – this is the other appropriate vision.
In the first verse of chapter 12, Arjuna has a question as to which of these two visions is most efficacious in one’s means (sādhana) of seeking the ultimate goal (śreyas). The Lord has sanctioned both lifestyles – pravṛtti (pursuit in) and nivṛtti (withdrawal from) the world, both karma-yoga and sannyāsa. Kṛṣṇa again explains in this chapter that both lifestyles and their respective visions given above – appreciating the glories and acting within them, and appreciating being totally free from the glorious universe – are efficacious. But if one is not prepared – if one is still highly identified with the body and mind and is full of desires – then sannyāsa, the lifestyle wherein one renounces duties in the world and takes only to study and contemplation of the ultimate reality, is a more difficult path. Therefore, Kṛṣṇa recommends karma-yoga as a better starting point for such a person. This is obvious, but still it has to be explained because there are many people, like Arjuna, who fancy taking to sannyāsa – not out of a mature understanding of reality, but as a way to run away from the world and their duties. This seems to have been as common a problem in Kṛṣṇa’s time as it is today.
(Jump to 13th Ch. Intro)
arjuna, √vac:
evam, sa-tata-yukta, yad, bhakta, yuṣmad, pari-upa-√ās; yad, ca, api, a-kṣara, a-vyakta, tad, kim, yoga-vittama.

अर्जुन उवाच।
एवं स-तत-युक्ता ये भक्तास् त्वां पर्युपासते।
ये चाप्य् अक्षरम् अव्यक्तं तेषां के योग-वित्तमाः॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
asmad, āveśya, manas, yad, asmad, nitya-yukta, upa-√ās; śrad-dhā, parā, upeta, tad, asmad, yuktatama, mata.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
मय्य् आवेश्य मनो ये मां नित्य-युक्ता उपासते।
श्रद्-धया परयोपेतास् ते मे युक्ततमा मताः॥
yad, tu, a-kṣara, a-nirdeśya, a-vyakta, pari-upa-√ās; sarvatra-ga, a-cintya, ca, kūṭa-stha, a-cala, dhruva.
sanniyamya, indriya-grāma, sarvatra, sama-buddhi; tad, pra-āp, asmad, eva, sarva-bhūta-hita, rata.

ये त्व् अक्षरम् अनिर्देश्यम् अव्यक्तं पर्युपासते।
सर्वत्र-गम् अचिन्त्यं च कूट-स्थम् अचलं ध्रुवम्॥
सन्नियम्येन्द्रिय-ग्रामं सर्वत्र सम-बुद्धयः।
ते प्राप्नुवन्ति माम् एव सर्व-भूत-हिते रताः॥
kleśa, adhikatara, tad, a-vyakta-āsakta-cetas; a-vyakta, hi, gati, duḥkham, dehavat, ava-√āp.
क्लेशोऽधिकतरस् तेषाम् अव्यक्तासक्त-चेतसाम्।
अव्यक्ता हि गतिर् दुःखं देहवद्भिर् अवाप्यते॥
yad, tu, sarva, karman, asmad, sannyasya, mad-para; an-anya, eva, yoga, asmad, dhyāyat, upa-√ās.
tad, asmad, samuddhartṛ, mṛtyu-saṃsāra-sāgara; √bhū, na-cirāt, pārtha, asmad, āveśita-cetas.

ये तु सर्वाणि कर्माणि मयि सन्न्यस्य मत्-पराः।
अनन्येनैव योगेन मां ध्यायन्त उपासते॥
तेषाम् अहं समुद्धर्ता मृत्यु-संसार-सागरात्।
भवामि न-चिरात् पार्थ मय्य् आवेशित-चेतसाम्॥
asmad, eva, manas, ā-√dhā, asmad, buddhi, ni-√viś; ni-√vas, asmad, eva, atas, ūrdhvam, na, saṃśaya.
मय्य् एव मन आधत्स्व मयि बुद्धिं निवेशय।
निवसिष्यसि मय्य् एव अत ऊर्ध्वं न संशयः॥
atha, citta, samādhātum, na, √śak, asmad, sthiram; abhyāsa-yoga, tatas, asmad, √iṣ, āptum, dhanam-jaya.
अथ चित्तं समाधातुं न शक्नोषि मयि स्थिरम्।
अभ्यास-योगेन ततो माम् इच्छाप्तुं धनञ्-जय॥
abhyāsa, api, a-samartha, √as, mad-karma-parama, √bhū; mad-artham, api, karman, kurvat, siddhi, ava-√āp.
अभ्यासेऽप्य् असमर्थोऽसि मत्-कर्म-परमो भव।
मद्-अर्थम् अपि कर्माणि कुर्वन् सिद्धिम् अवाप्स्यसि॥
atha, etad, api, a-śakta, √as, kartum, mad-yoga, āśriya; sarva-karma-phala-tyāga, tatas, √kṛ, yata-ātmavat.
अथैतद् अप्य् अशक्तोऽसि कर्तुं मद्-योगम् आश्रितः।
सर्व-कर्म-फल-त्यागं ततः कुरु यतात्मवान्॥
śreyas, hi, jñāna, abhyāsa, jñāna, dhyāna, vi-√śiṣ; dhyāna, karma-phala-tyāga, tyāga, śānti, an-antaram.
श्रेयो हि ज्ञानम् अभ्यासाज् ज्ञानाद् ध्यानं विशिष्यते।
ध्यानात् कर्म-फल-त्यागस् त्यागाच् छान्तिर् अनन्तरम्॥
a-dveṣṭṛ, sarva-bhūta, maitra, karuṇa, eva, ca; nis-manas, nis-aham-kāra, sama-duḥkha-sukha, kṣamin.
santuṣṭa, sa-tatam, yogin, yata-ātman, dṛḍha-niścaya; asmad, arpita-manas-buddhi, yad, mad-bhakta, tad, asmad, priya.

अद्वेष्टा सर्व-भूतानां मैत्रः करुण एव च।
निर्-ममो निर्-अहङ्कारः सम-दुःख-सुखः क्षमी॥
सन्तुष्टः स-ततं योगी यतात्मा दृढ-निश्चयः।
मय्य् अर्पित-मनो-बुद्धिर् यो मद्-भक्तः स मे प्रियः॥
yad, na, ud-√vij, loka, loka, na, ud-√vij, ca, yad; harṣa-a-marṣa-bhaya-udvega, mukha, yad, tad, ca, asmad, priya.
यस्मान् नोद्विजते लोको लोकान् नोद्विजते च यः।
हर्षामर्ष-भयोद्वेगैर् मुक्तो यः स च मे प्रियः॥
an-apekṣa, śuci, dakṣa, udāsīna, gata-vyatha; sarva-ārambha-parityāgin, yad, mad-bhakta, tad, asmad, priya.
अनपेक्षः शुचिर् दक्ष उदासीनो गत-व्यथः।
सर्वारम्भ-परित्यागी यो मद्-भक्तः स मे प्रियः॥
yad, na, √hṛṣ, na, √dviṣ, na, √śuc, na, √kāṅkṣ; śubha-a-śubha-parityāgin, bhaktimat, yad, tad, asmad, priya.
यो न हृष्यति न द्वेष्टि न शोचति न काङ्क्षति।
शुभाशुभ-परित्यागी भक्तिमान् यः स मे प्रियः॥
sama, śatru, ca, mitra, ca, tathā, māna-apamāna; śīta-uṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha, sama, saṅga-vivarjita.
tulya-nindā-stuti, maunin, santuṣṭa, yad, ka-cid; a-niketa, sthira-mati, bhaktimat, asmad, priya, nara.

समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः।
शीतोष्ण-सुख-दुःखेषु समः सङ्ग-विवर्जितः॥
तुल्य-निन्दा-स्तुतिर् मौनी सन्तुष्टो येन केनचित्।
अनिकेतः स्थिर-मतिर् भक्तिमान् मे प्रियो नरः॥
yad, tu, dharmya-a-mṛta, idam, yathā-uktam, pari-upa-√ās; śrad-dadhāna, mad-parama, bhakta, tad, atīva, asmad, priya.
ये तु धर्म्यामृतम् इदं यथोक्तं पर्युपासते।
श्रद्-दधाना मत्-परमा भक्तास् तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, bhakti-yoga, nāma, dvā-daśa, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे भक्ति-योगो नाम द्वा-दशोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of the Distinction of the Field and the Knower of the Field
Knowledge is the direct means of freeing oneself from saṃsāra (the life of unending need for becoming) because the bondage of saṃsāra is one of ignorance – ignorance of the fact that one’s self is none other than the reality of this universe and yet is free of this universe. Through ignorance alone one is bound (yoked) to “otherness,” to the limitations that appear in one’s body and mind in relation to the vast universe. Knowledge does not create freedom since, by one’s very nature, one is already free. Rather, knowledge removes the ignorance that veils the oneness of reality from our understanding.
The reality and freedom of the self is predominately taught in the first six chapters of the Bhagavad Gītā, and the reality and glories of the universe as the Lord is predominately taught in chapters 7–12. Clear statements of the identity of the self and the Lord have been given. In the next six chapters, the oneness of reality is emphasized and methodically unfolded. Through every chapter of the Bhagavad Gītā, the means to assimilate the teaching is continually taught. This means, called yoga, is essentially an enlightened attitude with appropriate values – an attitude one takes to all aspects of the relationship between oneself and the whole. This enlightened attitude is one of a devotee (bhakta) – one who intelligently appreciates and participates in the great cosmic wheel. The bhakta’s attitude yields a clarity that allows the knowledge to be completely assimilated and, hence, made firm.
This teaching of oneness – and of the way to assimilate it – is a means within saṃsāra to get out of saṃsāra. It is the key to release from limitation. In each cycle of the universe, this teaching is handed to the beings who are intelligent and mentally mature enough to make use of it. The yoga (literally, “uniting,” “yoking”) taught in the Bhagavad Gītā is the “uniting” of oneself with this teaching of the oneness of reality. It is the yoga, the commitment to the teaching, that frees us from the “yoke” that otherwise keeps us seemingly limited. In chapter 13, the Lord distinguishes (or “unyokes”) kṣetra – the field, that is, the universe including one’s body-mind complex – from kṣetra-jña, the knower of the field, who is the Lord that is oneself.
Until the reality, brahman – which is to be known as oneself, as the basis of the universe, and as the Lord – is known, making the effort of yoga and attending to the teaching is valid and required. This knowledge is not just a physical, emotional, or intellectual pursuit; nor is it an inactive or overly energetic (tāmasa or rājasa) pursuit. The whole person has to commit to this pursuit of knowledge.
There are two possible lifestyles in this pursuit – sannyāsa and yoga, or in other words nivṛtti and pravṛtti mārgas (disengaging from competitive society and engaging in competitive society) – but the means is one: Knowledge alone is the means. Yoga, as taught in the Bhagavad Gītā, is the preparation for its assimilation. It is purely cognitive (sāttvika) – all the way. Both the one who knows this knowledge and the one who wants to know this knowledge are devotees (bhaktas, see 7.16–18). The belief that there are many yogas (depending on one’s personality) that separately lead to the ultimate goal (śreyas) is not grounded in this teaching here, though elsewhere – outside the Upaniṣads, Bhagavad Gītā, and Brahma-sūtras – such divisions are expressed by those who don’t yet understand this teaching. Kṛṣṇa warned us of such distractions early on (see 2.41). Instead of creating unnecessary divisions among sincere bhaktas, Kṛṣṇa brings the traditional teaching all together in this chapter.
(Jump to 14th Ch. Intro)
arjuna, √vac:
prakṛti, puruṣa, ca, eva, kṣetra, kṣetra-jña, eva, ca; etad, veditum, √iṣ, jñāna, jñeya, ca, keśava.

अर्जुन उवाच।
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव क्षेत्रं क्षेत्र-ज्ञम् एव च।
एतद् वेदितुम् इच्छामि ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं च केशव॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
idam, śarīra, kaunteya, kṣetra, iti, abhi-√dhā; etad, yad, √vid, tad, pra-√ah, kṣetra-jña, iti, tad-vid.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रम् इत्य् अभिधीयते।
एतद् यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्र-ज्ञ इति तद्-विदः॥
sarva-jña, ca, api, asmad, √vid, sarva-kṣetra, bhārata; kṣetra-kṣetra-jña, jñāna, yad, tad, jñāna, mata, asmad.
क्षेत्र-ज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्व-क्षेत्रेषु भारत।
क्षेत्र-क्षेत्र-ज्ञयोर् ज्ञानं यत् तज् ज्ञानं मतं मम॥
tad, kṣetra, yad, ca, yā-dṛś, ca, yad-vikārin, yatas, ca, yad; tad, ca, yad, yad-prabhāva, ca, tad, samāsena, asmad, √śru.
तत् क्षेत्रं यच् च या-दृक् च यद्-विकारि यतश् च यत्।
स च यो यत्-प्रभावश् च तत् समासेन मे शृणु॥
ṛṣi, bahudhā, gīta, chandas, vividha, pṛthak; brahma-sūtra-pada, ca, eva, hetumat, viniścita.
ऋषिभिर् बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर् विविधैः पृथक्।
ब्रह्म-सूत्र-पदैश् चैव हेतुमद्भिर् विनिश्चितैः॥
mahā-bhūta, aham-kāra, buddhi, a-vyakta, eva, ca; indriya, daśan, eka, ca, pañcan, ca, indriya-go-cara.
icchā, dveṣa, sukha, duḥkha, saṅghāta, cetanā, dhṛti; etad, kṣetra, samāsena, sa-vikāra, udāhṛta.

महा-भूतान्य् अहङ्कारो बुद्धिर् अव्यक्तम् एव च।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रिय-गो-चराः॥
इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं सङ्घातश् चेतना धृतिः।
एतत् क्षेत्रं समासेन स-विकारम् उदाहृतम्॥
a-mānitva, a-dambhitva, a-hiṃsā, kṣānti, ārjava; ācārya-upāsana, śauca, sthairya, ātma-vinigraha.
indriya-artha, vairāgya, an-aham-kāra, eva, ca; janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣa-anudarśana.

अमानित्वम् अदम्भित्वम् अहिंसा क्षान्तिर् आर्जवम्।
आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यम् आत्म-विनिग्रहः॥
इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यम् अनहङ्कार एव च।
a-sakti, an-abhiṣvaṅga, putra-dāra-gṛha-ādi; nityam, ca, sama-cittatva, iṣṭa-an-iṣṭa-upapatti.
asmad, ca, an-anya-yoga, bhakti, a-vyabhicārinī; vivikta-deśa-sevitva, a-rati, jana-saṃsad.
adhi-ātma-jñāna-nityatva, tattva-jñāna-artha-darśana; etad, jñāna, iti, prokta, a-jñāna, yad, atas, anyathā.

असक्तिर् अनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्र-दार-गृहादिषु।
नित्यं च सम-चित्तत्वम् इष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु॥
मयि चानन्य-योगेन भक्तिर् अव्यभिचारिणी।
विविक्त-देश-सेवित्वम् अरतिर् जन-संसदि॥<
अध्य्-आत्म-ज्ञान-नित्यत्वं तत्त्व-ज्ञानार्थ-दर्शनम्।
एतज् ज्ञानम् इति प्रोक्तम् अज्ञानं यद् अतोऽन्यथा॥
jñeya, yad, tad, pra-√vac, yad, jñātvā, a-mṛta, √aś; an-ādimat, para, brahman, na, sat, tad, na, a-sat, √vac.
ज्ञेयं यत् तत् प्रवक्ष्यामि यज् ज्ञात्वामृतम् अश्नुते।
अनादिमत् परं ब्रह्म न सत् तन् नासद् उच्यते॥
sarvatas-pāṇi-pāda, tad, sarvatas-akṣi-śiras-mukha; sarvatas-śrutimat, loka, sarva, āvṛtya, √sthā.
सर्वतः-पाणि-पादं तत् सर्वतोऽक्षि-शिरो-मुखम्।
सर्वतः-श्रुतिमल् लोके सर्वम् आवृत्य तिष्ठति॥
sarva-indriya-guṇa-ābhāsa, sarva-indriya-vivarjita; a-sakta, sarva-bhṛt, ca, eva, nis-guṇa, guṇa-bhoktṛ, ca.
सर्वेन्द्रिय-गुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रिय-विवर्जितम्।
असक्तं सर्व-भृच् चैव निर्-गुणं गुण-भोक्तृ च॥
bahis, antar, ca, bhūta, a-cara, cara, eva, ca; sūkṣmatva, tad, a-vijñeya, dūra-stham, ca, antike, ca, tad.
बहिर् अन्तश् च भूतानाम् अचरं चरम् एव च।
सूक्ष्मत्वात् तद् अविज्ञेयं दूर-स्थं चान्तिके च तत्॥
a-vibhakta, ca, bhūta, vibhakta, iva, ca, sthita; bhūta-bhartṛ, ca, tad, jñeya, grasiṣṇu, prabhaviṣṇu, ca.
अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तम् इव च स्थितम्।
भूत-भर्तृ च तज् ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च॥
jyotis, api, tad, jyotis, tamas, para, √vac; jñāna, jñeya, jñāna-gamya, hṛd, sarva, viṣṭhita.
ज्योतिषाम् अपि तज् ज्योतिस् तमसः परम् उच्यते।
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञान-गम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम्॥
iti, kṣetra, tathā, jñāna, jñeya, ca, ukta, samāsatas; mad-bhakta, etad, vijñāya, mad-bhāva, upa-√pad.
इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः।
मद्-भक्त एतद् विज्ञाय मद्-भावायोपपद्यते॥
prakṛti, puruṣa, ca, eva, √vid, an-ādi, ubha, api; vikāra, ca, guṇa, ca, eva, √vid, prakṛti-sambhava.
प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्य् अनादी उभाव् अपि।
विकारांश् च गुणांश् चैव विद्धि प्रकृति-सम्भवान्॥
kārya-karaṇa-kartṛtva, hetu, prakṛti, √vac; puruṣa, sukha-duḥkha, bhoktṛtva, hetu, √vac.
कार्य-करण-कर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिर् उच्यते।
पुरुषः सुख-दुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुर् उच्यते॥
puruṣa, prakṛti-stha, hi, √bhuj, prakṛti-ja, guṇa; kāraṇa, guṇa-saṅga, idam, sat-a-sat-yoni-janman.
पुरुषः प्रकृति-स्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृति-जान् गुणान्।
कारणं गुण-सङ्गोऽस्य सद्-असद्-योनि-जन्मसु॥
upadraṣṭṛ, anumantṛ, ca, bhartṛ, bhoktṛ, mahā-īśvara; parama-ātman, iti, ca, api, ukta, deha, idam, puruṣa, para.
उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः।
परमात्मेति चाप्य् उक्तो देहेऽस्मिन् पुरुषः परः॥
yad, evam, √vid, puruṣa, prakṛti, ca, guṇa, saha; sarvathā, vartamāna, api, na, tad, bhūyas, abhi-√jan.
य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते॥
dhyāna, atman, √dṛś, ka-cid, ātman, ātman; anya, sāṅkhya, yoga, karma-yoga, ca, apara.
ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिद् आत्मानम् आत्मना।
अन्ये साङ्ख्येन योगेन कर्म-योगेन चापरे॥
anya, tu, evam, a-jānat, śrutvā, anya, upa-√ās; tad, api, ca, ati-√tṝ, eva, mṛtyu, śruti-para-ayana.
अन्ये त्व् एवम् अजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते।
तेऽपि चातितरन्त्य् एव मृत्युं श्रुति-परायणाः॥
yāvat, sam-√jan, ka-cid, sattva, sthāvara-jaṅgama; kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-saṃyoga, tad, √vid, bharata-ṛṣabha.
यावत् सञ्जायते किञ्चित् सत्त्वं स्थावर-जङ्गमम्।
क्षेत्र-क्षेत्र-ज्ञ-संयोगात् तद् विद्धि भरत-र्षभ॥
sama, sarva, bhūta, tiṣṭhat, parama-īśvara; vinaśyat, a-vinaśyat, yad, √dṛś, tad, √dṛś.
समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम्।
विनश्यत्स्व् अविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति॥
sama, paśyat, hi, sarvatra, samavasthita, īśvara; na, √hiṃs, ātman, ātman, tatas, √yā, parā, gati.
समं पश्यन् हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितम् ईश्वरम्।
न हिनस्त्य् आत्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम्॥
prakṛti, eva, ca, karman, kriyamāṇa, sarvaśas; yad, √dṛś, tathā, ātman, a-kartṛ, tad, √dṛś.
प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः।
यः पश्यति तथात्मानम् अकर्तारं स पश्यति॥
yadā, bhūta-pṛthak-bhāva, eva-stha, anu-√dṛś; tatas, eva, ca, vistāra, brahman, sam-√pad, tadā.
यदा भूत-पृथग्-भावम् एक-स्थम् अनुपश्यति।
तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते तदा॥
an-āditva, nis-guṇatva, parama-ātman, idam, a-vyāya; śarīra-stha, api, kaunteya, na, √kṛ, na, √lip.
अनादित्वान् निर्-गुणत्वात् परमात्मायम् अव्ययः।
शरीर-स्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते॥
yathā, sarva-gata, saukṣmya, ākāśa, na, upa-√lip; sarvatra, avasthita, deha, tathā, ātman, na, upa-√lip.
यथा सर्व-गतं सौक्ष्म्याद् आकाशं नोपलिप्यते।
सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते॥
yathā, pra-√kāś, eka, kṛtsna, loka, idam, ravi; kṣetra, kṣetrin, tathā, kṛtsna, pra-√kāś, bhārata.
यथा प्रकाशयत्य् एकः कृत्स्नं लोकम् इमं रविः।
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत॥
kṣetra-kṣetra-jña, evam, antara, jñāna-cakṣus; bhūta-prakṛti-mokṣa, ca, yad, √vid, √yā, tad, para.
क्षेत्र-क्षेत्र-ज्ञयोर् एवम् अन्तरं ज्ञान-चक्षुषा।
भूत-प्रकृति-मोक्षं च ये विदुर् यान्ति ते परम्॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, kṣetra-kṣetra-jña-vibhāga-yoga, nāma, trayas-daśa, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे क्षेत्र-क्षेत्र-ज्ञ-विभाग-योगो नाम त्रयो-दशोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of the Division of the Three Guṇas
Chapter 14 marks the start of the elaboration of the three guṇas (qualities in, or constituents of, nature): sattva (related to knowledge); rajas (related to activity); and tamas (related to inactivity). The universal categorization of the guṇas is used to encompass the total universe, such as the traiguṇya (see 2.45 and 3.27–28), or to encompass just the subtle world of thoughts (see 10.36, 13.19, and 17.2).
The elaboration of the guṇas that begins in this chapter distinguishes appropriate and inappropriate attitudes as they relate to karma-yoga – and ultimately brings us to the transcendence of these guṇas. Universal categorizations, such as the three guṇas, the five elements linked to the five human sense-organs, or the three worlds (earth/sky/heaven), are employed throughout the Upaniṣads to help us apply the teaching to the entire universe. The method of using universal categorization, of covering everything with a few categories, is self-acknowledged in Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6.4.5:
“Because they knew [everything] through these [three categories – the red/white/black, relating to the three visible elements fire/water/earth], they said, ‘None of us will speak of anything as unheard, unthought, or unknown.’”
The universal categorization method is also used in the Bhagavad Gītā to help us understand how the three-fold structure of the universe is reflected in the mind and how the mind should then relate objectively to the universe. Just as Kṛṣṇa used the concept of yoga from Kaṭha Upaniṣad and elaborated on it in previous chapters, in chapter 14 He uses the universal categorization of the guṇas, given in Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad – which borrows heavily from Kaṭha Upaniṣad and employs the terms sāṅkhya (knowledge) and yoga together (see 2.39) – to explain karma-yoga.
Although a predominately sāttvika (uplifting) attitude is the most appropriate attitude within various behaviors, the goal is to appreciate oneself as guṇātīta – one who transcends all three guṇas – as well as one who thus transcends all actions. Among all possible attitudes we can take toward life’s basic activities, the chapters that follow (chapters 14, 17, and 18) indicate that the attitudes that can be categorized as sāttvika are preferred and that the others are to be avoided.
Sometimes the guṇas are used to categorize the predilections (dispositions) toward behaviors, for example, all the categorizations in chapter 14 are of this type. Other times, they are used to categorize the behaviors themselves, for example, most of the categorizations in chapter 17 are of this type – food choices, rituals, religious disciplines, and charities are related to the guṇas. In these cases, predilections or inappropriate behaviors are not to be condemned in others or in one’s self. After all, the things and actions of the world and the thoughts that make up the mind are what they are. They are governed by the universal laws of the total, both physical and psychological, and are affected by the whole universe. They are not meant to be viewed in isolation or out of context. In their context, they cannot be other than what they are – and ought to be accepted as they are.
However, as doers (as long as we take ourselves to be doers), we have a choice in our current action, and the Advaita Vedānta teaching can inform our attitude and our choice in that action. When we make choices informed by the teaching, we live a clean life conducive to assimilating the knowledge unfolded by the teaching. And, by living such a life, we gain this knowledge, which frees us from grief and death.
(Jump to 15th Ch. Intro)
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
para, bhūyas, pra-√vac, jñāna, jñāna, uttama; yad, jñātvā, muni, sarva, parā, siddhi, itas, gata.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
परं भूयः प्रवक्ष्यामि ज्ञानानां ज्ञानम् उत्तमम्।
यज् ज्ञात्वा मुनयः सर्वे परां सिद्धिम् इतो गताः॥
idam, jñāna, upāśritya, asmad, sādharmya, āgata; sarga, api, na, upa-√jan, pralaya, na, √vyath, ca.
इदं ज्ञानम् उपाश्रित्य मम साधर्म्यम् आगताः।
सर्गेऽपि नोपजायन्ते प्रलये न व्यथन्ति च॥
asmad, yoni, mahat, brahman, tad, garbha, √dhā, asmad; sambhava, sarva-bhūta, tatas, √bhū, bhārata.
मम योनिर् महद् ब्रह्म तस्मिन् गर्भं दधाम्य् अहम्।
सम्भवः सर्व-भूतानां ततो भवति भारत॥
sarva-yoni, kaunteya, mūrti, sam-√bhū, yad; tad, brahman, mahat, yoni, asmad, bīja-prada, pitṛ.
सर्व-योनिषु कौन्तेय मूर्तयः सम्भवन्ति याः।
तासां ब्रह्म महद् योनिर् अहं बीज-प्रदः पिता॥
sattva, rajas, tamas, iti, guṇa, prakṛti-sambhava; ni-√bandh, mahā-bāhu, deha, dehin, a-vyaya.
सत्त्वं रजस् तम इति गुणाः प्रकृति-सम्भवाः।
निबध्नन्ति महा-बाहो दहे देहिनम् अव्ययम्॥
tatra, sattva, nis-malatva, prakāśaka, an-āmaya; sukha-saṅga, √bandh, jñāna-saṅga, ca, an-agha.
तत्र सत्त्वं निर्-मलत्वात् प्रकाशकम् अनामयम्।
सुख-सङ्गेन बध्नाति ज्ञान-सङ्गेन चानघ॥
rajas, rāga-ātmaka, √vid, tṛṣṇa-āsaṅga-samudbhava; tad, ni-√bandh, kaunteya, karma-saṅga, dehin.
रजो रागात्मकं विद्धि तृष्णासङ्ग-समुद्भवम्।
तन् निबध्नाति कौन्तेय कर्म-सङ्गेन देहिनम्॥
tamas, tu, a-jñāna-ja, √vid, mohana, sarva-dehin; pramāda-ālasya-nidrā, tad, ni-√bandh, bhārata.
तमस् त्व् अज्ञान-जं विद्धि मोहनं सर्व-देहिनाम्।
प्रमादालस्य-निद्राभिस् तन् निबध्नाति भारत॥
sattva, sukha, √sañj, rajas, karman, bhārata; jñāna, āvṛtya, tu, tamas, pramāda, √sañj, uta.
सत्त्वं सुखे सञ्जयति रजः कर्मणि भारत।
ज्ञानम् आवृत्य तु तमः प्रमादे सञ्जयत्य् उत॥
rajas, tamas, ca, abhibhūya, sattva, √bhū, bhārata; rajas, sattva, tamas, ca, eva, tamas, sattva, rajas, tathā.
रजस् तमश् चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत।
रजः सत्त्वं तमश् चैव तमः सत्त्वं रजस् तथा॥
sarva-dvāra, deha, idam, prakāśa upa-√jan; jñāna, yadā, tadā, √vid, vivṛddha, sattva, iti, uta.
सर्व-द्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन् प्रकाश उपजायते।
ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्याद् विवृद्धं सत्त्वम् इत्य् उत॥
lobha, pravṛtti, ārambha, karman, a-śama, spṛhā; rajas, etad, √jan, vivṛddha, bharata-ṛṣabha.
लोभः प्रवृत्तिर् आरम्भः कर्मणाम् अशमः स्पृहा।
रजस्य् एतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे भरत-र्षभ॥
a-prakāśa, a-pravṛtti, ca, pramāda, moha, eva, ca; tamas, etad, √jan, vivṛddha, kuru-nandana.
अप्रकाशोऽप्रवृत्तिश् च प्रमादो मोह एव च।
तमस्य् एतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे कुरु-नन्दन॥
yadā, sattva, pravṛddha, tu, pralaya, √yā, deha-bhṛt; tadā, uttama-vid, loka, a-mala, prati-√pad.
यदा सत्त्वे प्रवृद्धे तु प्रलयं याति देह-भृत्।
तदोत्तम-विदां लोकान् अमलान् प्रतिपद्यते॥
rajas, pralaya, gatvā, karma-saṅgin, √jan; tathā, pralīna, tamas, mūḍha-yoni, √jan.
रजसि प्रलयं गत्वा कर्म-सङ्गिषु जायते।
तथा प्रलीनस् तमसि मूढ-योनिषु जायते॥
karman, su-kṛta, √ah, sāttvika, nis-mala, phala; rajas, tu, phala, duḥkha, a-jñāna, tamas, phala.
कर्मणः सु-कृतस्याहुः सात्त्विकं निर्-मलं फलम्।
रजसस् तु फलं दुःखम् अज्ञानं तमसः फलम्॥
sattva, sam-√jan, jñāna, rajas, lobha, eva, ca; pramāda-moha, tamas, √bhū, a-jñāna, eva, ca.
सत्त्वात् सञ्जायते ज्ञानं रजसो लोभ एव च।
प्रमाद-मोहौ तमसो भवतोऽज्ञानम् एव च॥
ūrdhvam, √gam, sattva-stha, madhye, √sthā, rājasa; jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtta-stha, adhas, √gam, tāmasa.
ऊर्ध्वं गच्छन्ति सत्त्व-स्था मध्ये तिष्ठन्ति राजसाः।
जघन्य-गुण-वृत्त-स्था अधो गच्छन्ति तामसाः॥
na, anya, guṇa, kartṛ, yadā, draṣṭṛ, anu-√dṛś; guṇa, ca, para, √vid, mad-bhāva, tad, adhi-√gam.
नान्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टानुपश्यति।
गुणेभ्यश् च परं वेत्ति मद्-भावं सोऽधिगच्छति॥
guṇa, etad, atītya, tri, dehin, deha-samudbhava; janma-mṛtyu-jarā-duḥkha, vimukta, a-mṛta, √aś.
गुणान् एतान् अतीत्य त्रीन् देही देह-समुद्भवान्।
जन्म-मृत्यु-जरा-दुःखैर् विमुक्तोऽमृतम् अश्नुते॥
arjuna, √vac:
kim, liṅga, tri, guṇa, etad, atīta, √bhū, prabhu; kim-ācāra, katham, ca, etad, tri, guṇa, ati-√vṛt.

अर्जुन उवाच।
कैर् लिङ्गैस् त्रीन् गुणान् एतान् अतीतो भवति प्रभो।
किम्-आचारः कथं चैतांस् त्रीन् गुणान् अतिवर्तते॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
prakāśa, ca, pravṛtti, ca, moha, eva, ca, pāṇḍava; na, √dviṣ, sampravṛtta, na, nivṛtta, √kāṅkṣ.
udāsīnavat, āsīna, guṇa, yad, na, vi-√cal; guṇa, √vṛt, iti, eva, yad, ava-√sthā, na, √iṅg.
sama-duḥkha-sukha, sva-stha, sama-loṣṭa-aśma-kāñcana; tulya-priya-a-priya, dhīra, tula-nindā-ātma-saṃstuti.
māna-apamāna, tulya, tulya, mitra-ari-pakṣa; sarva-ārambha-parityāgin, guṇa-atīta, tad, √vac.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
प्रकाशं च प्रवृत्तिं च मोहम् एव च पाण्डव।
न द्वेष्टि सम्प्रवृत्तानि न निवृत्तानि काङ्क्षति॥
उदासीनवद् आसीनो गुणैर् यो न विचाल्यते।
गुणा वर्तन्त इत्य् एव योऽवतिष्ठति नेङ्गते॥
सम-दुःख-सुखः स्व-स्थः सम-लोष्टाश्म-काञ्चनः।
तुल्य-प्रियाप्रियो धीरस् तुल्य-निन्दात्म-संस्तुतिः॥
मानापमानयोस् तुल्यस् तुल्यो मित्रारि-पक्षयोः।
सर्वारम्भ-परित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते॥
asmad, ca, yad, a-vyabhicāra, bhakti-yoga, √sev; tad, guṇa, samatītya, etad, brahma-bhūya, √kḷp.
मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्ति-योगेन सेवते।
स गुणान् समतीत्यैतान् ब्रह्म-भूयाय कल्पते॥
brahman, hi, pratiṣṭhā, asmad, a-mṛta, a-vyaya, ca; śāśvata, ca, dharma, sukha, ekāntika, ca.
ब्रह्मणो हि प्रतिष्ठाहम् अमृतस्याव्ययस्य च।
शाश्वतस्य च धर्मस्य सुखस्यैकान्तिकस्य च॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, guṇa-traya-vibhāga-yoga, nāma, catur-daśa, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे गुण-त्रय-विभाग-योगो नाम चतुर्-दशोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of the Being Who Transcends
The fifteenth chapter of the Bhagavad Gītā is a marvelously complete chapter, like the second, the ninth, and the thirteenth. In each of these chapters, the entire Advaita Vedānta teaching is summarized. In chapter 15, the whole universe is presented through the Upaniṣad imagery of the Tree of Saṃsāra. In the Bhagavad Gītā, as in Kaṭha Upaniṣad (which is the source of this imagery), the Tree of Saṃsāra is not an upside-down tree. This common, but mistaken, notion is due to confusion about the meanings of the Sanskrit words “ūrdhva” and “adhas.”
In Sanskrit, ūrdhva can mean up or it can mean superior. Similarly, adhas can mean down or inferior. In Kaṭha Upaniṣad 6.1 and in the first verse of this chapter, these two words are used in their valuation and cause-effect sense (that is, as superior and inferior), not in their directional sense (up and down). If the meanings are taken as up and down, then the imagery is self-contradictory – since the “downward” secondary roots (see 15.2), which extend from the taproot, would actually be upward if the tree were upside down. (For more about the meanings of ūrdhva and adhas, see The Bhagavad Gita Dictionary, Aruna 2012.)
The taproot of the Tree of Saṃsāra is the a-vyakta brahman – the unsensed, unmanifest source of the seen universe. This a-vyakta brahman does not mutate into the vyakta (manifest) universe at the beginning of each manifestation cycle. Rather, the a-vyakta brahman continues to be while the manifest universe shimmers in our perception of it, like the unseen taproot continuously supports the visible and ever-changing tree.
Quantum physics assists in understanding this imagery. The a-vyakta (unmanifest), the kūṭa-stha (what remains immutable and in the form of deception), is like the quantum soup out of which each observer fixes what each calls “my reality” due to individual observations. This “my reality” is no more real than the perceptions and mentations that fix it. It is limited, ever-changing, and not the definitive truth. But there is truth; it is reality in and of itself. It is not other than the reality of oneself, the only observer – not other than the reality of the a-vyakta, called a-vyakta brahman. This unchanging reality is not in time or space, which are just ingredients in “my reality.” Identification with this shimmering “my reality” – a mutual imposing of natures between the observed and the observer, who wants and expects “my reality” to be as unchanging and real as myself (ātmā) yet, at the same time, perceives the observed as limiting and impinging on myself (simply because it is perceived as other than myself) – is the source of grief and death. Therefore, the first step in realizing the inherent freedom that is one’s birthright is cutting attachment to this “my reality,” this Tree of Saṃsāra (15.3–4).
Just as this timeless teaching has no fear of sciences, but rather embraces the sciences for what they are, so also does this teaching have no fear of religion. It embraces religion. This is why, in chapter 15, Kṛṣṇa describes this limitless reality as the Lord, which “in-forms” this universe and the individual – nourishing all. The term Lord is used because this reality is not a dead, insentient thing. It is not the insentient pradhāna (unevolved nature) of the later-day Sāṅkhya philosophy, akin to the evolutionary materialism of the immature Western sciences. Rather, it is the source of the singular intelligent energy that modern string theorists cannot hope to describe. It is the real “soup of everything.” The source of intelligent energy we call “the Lord” is infinitely more than what our minds can grasp; it is beyond all words and thoughts – because it is, indeed, none other than one’s self. The limitless being that we can appreciate is but the self – the observer of all limitations, free of all limitations. It is not theory, not belief.
(Jump to 16th Ch. Intro)
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
ūrdhva-mūla, adhas-śākha, aśva-ttha, pra-√ah, a-vyaya; chandas, yad, parṇa, yad, tad, √vid, tad, veda-vid.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
ऊर्ध्व-मूलम् अधः-शाखम् अश्व-त्थं प्राहुर् अव्ययम्।
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस् तं वेद स वेद-वित्॥
adhas, ca, ūrdhvam, prasṛtā, tad, śākhā, guṇa-pravṛddhā, viṣaya-pravālā; adhas, ca, mūla, anusantata, karma-anubandhin, manuṣa-loka.
अधश् चोर्ध्वं प्रसृतास् तस्य शाखा गुण-प्रवृद्धा विषय-प्रवालाः।
अधश् च मूलान्य् अनुसन्ततानि कर्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्य-लोके॥
na, rūpa, idam, iha, tathā, upa-√labh, na, anta, na, ca, ādi, na, ca, sampratiṣṭhā; aśva-ttha, enad, su-virūḍha-mūla, a-saṅga-śastra, dṛḍha, chittvā.
tatas, pada, tad, parimārgitavya, yad, gata, na, ni-√vṛt, bhūyas; tad, eva, ca, ādya, puruṣa, pra-√pad, yatas, pravṛtti, prasṛtā, purāṇī.

न रूपम् अस्येह तथोपलभ्यते नान्तो न चादिर् न च सम्प्रतिष्ठा।
अश्व-त्थम् एनं सु-विरूढ-मूलम् असङ्ग-शस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा॥
ततः पदं तत् परिमार्गितव्यं यस्मिन् गता न निवर्तन्ति भूयः।
तम् एव चाद्यं पुरुषं प्रपद्ये यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी॥
nis-māna-moha, jita-saṅga-doṣa, adhi-ātma-nitya, vinivṛtta-kāma; dvam-dva, vimukta, sukha-duḥkha-sañjña, √gam, a-mūḍha, pada, a-vyaya, tad.
निर्-मान-मोहा जित-सङ्ग-दोषा अध्य्-आत्म-नित्या विनिवृत्त-कामाः।
द्वन्द्वैर् विमुक्ताः सुख-दुःख-सञ्ज्ञैर् गच्छन्त्य् अमूढाः पदम् अव्ययं तत्॥
na, tad, √bhās, sūrya, na, śaśa-aṅka, na, pāvaka; yad, gatvā, na, ni-√vṛt, tad, dhāman, parama, asmad.
न तद् भासयते सूर्यो न शशाङ्को न पावकः।
यद् गत्वा न निवर्तन्ते तद् धाम परमं मम॥
asmad, eva, aṃśa, jīva-loka, jīva-bhūta, sanā-tana; manas-ṣaṣṭha, indriya, prakṛti-stha, √kṛṣ.
ममैवांशो जीव-लोके जीव-भूतः सना-तनः।
मनः-षष्ठानीन्द्रियाणि प्रकृति-स्थानि कर्षति॥
śarīra, yad, ava-√āp, yad, ca, api, ud-√kram, īśvara; gṛhītvā, etad, sam-√yā, vāyu, gandha, iva, āśaya.
शरीरं यद् अवाप्नोति यच् चाप्य् उत्क्रामतीश्वरः।
गृहीत्वैतानि संयाति वायुर् गन्धान् इवाशयात्॥
śrotra, cakṣus, sparśana, ca, rasana, ghrāṇa, eva, ca; adhiṣṭhāya, manas, ca, idam, viṣaya, upa-√sev.
श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च रसनं घ्राणम् एव च।
अधिष्ठाय मनश् चायं विषयान् उपसेवते॥
utkrāmat, sthita, vā, api, bhuñjāna, vā, guṇa-anvita; vimūḍha, na, anu-√dṛś, √dṛś, jñāna-cakṣus.
उत्क्रामन्तं स्थितं वापि भुञ्जानं वा गुणान्वितम्।
विमूढा नानुपश्यन्ति पश्यन्ति ज्ञान-चक्षुषः॥
yatat, yogin, ca, enad, √dṛś, ātman, avasthita; yatat, api, a-kṛta-ātman, na, enad, √dṛś, a-cetas.
यतन्तो योगिनश् चैनं पश्यन्त्य् आत्मन्य् अवस्थितम्।
यतन्तोऽप्य् अकृतात्मानो नैनं पश्यन्त्य् अचेतसः॥
yad, āditya-gata, tejas, jagat, √bhās, a-khila; yad, candramas, yad, ca, agni, tad, tejas, √vid, māmaka.
यद् आदित्य-गतं तेजो जगद् भासयतेऽखिलम्।
यच् चन्द्रमसि यच् चाग्नौ तत् तेजो विद्धि मामकम्॥
go, āviśya, ca, bhūta, √dhṛ, asmad, ojas; √puṣ, ca, oṣadhi, sarvā, soma, bhūtvā, rasa-ātmaka.
गाम् आविश्य च भूतानि धारयाम्य् अहम् ओजसा।
पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः॥
asmad, vaiśvā-nara, bhūtvā, prāṇin, deha, āśrita; prāṇa-apāna-samayukta, √pac, anna, catur-vidha.
अहं वैश्वा-नरो भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहम् आश्रितः।
प्राणापान-समायुक्तः पचाम्य् अन्नं चतुर्-विधम्॥
sarva, ca, asmad, hṛd, sanniviṣṭa, mattas, smṛti, jñāna, apohana, ca; veda, ca, sarva, asmad, eva, vedya, vedānta-kṛt, veda-vid, eva, ca, asmad.
सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि सन्निविष्टो मत्तः स्मृतिर् ज्ञानम् अपोहनं च।
वेदैश् च सर्वैर् अहम् एव वेद्यो वेदान्त-कृद् वेद-विद् एव चाहम्॥
dva, idam, puruṣa, loka, kṣara, ca, a-kṣara, eva, ca; kṣara, sarva, bhūta, kūṭa-stha, a-kṣara, √vac.
द्वाव् इमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश् चाक्षर एव च।
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूट-स्थोऽक्षर उच्यते॥
uttama, puruṣa, tu, anya, parama-ātman, iti, udāhṛta; yad, loka-traya, āviśya, √bhṛ, a-vyaya, īśvara.
उत्तमः पुरुषस् त्व् अन्यः परमात्मेत्य् उदाहृतः।
यो लोक-त्रयम् आविश्य बिभर्त्य् अव्यय ईश्वरः॥
yasmāt, kṣara, atīta, asmad, a-kṣara, api, ca, uttama; atas, √as, loka, veda, ca, prathita, puruṣa-uttama.
यस्मात् क्षरम् अतीतोऽहम् अक्षराद् अपि चोत्तमः।
अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः॥
yad, asmad, evam, a-sammūḍha, √jñā, puruṣa-uttama; tad, sarva-vid, √bhaj, asmad, sarva-bhāva, bhārata.
यो माम् एवम् असम्मूढो जानाति पुरुषोत्तमम्।
स सर्व-विद् भजति मां सर्व-भावेन भारत॥
iti, guhyatama, śāstra, idam, ukta, asmad, an-agha; etad, buddhvā, buddhimat, √as, kṛta-kṛtya, ca, bhārata.
इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रम् इदम् उक्तं मयानघ।
एतद् बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान् स्यात् कृत-कृत्यश् च भारत॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, puruṣa-uttama-yoga, nāma, pañca-daśa, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे पुरुषोत्तम-योगो नाम पञ्च-दशोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of the Distinction Between Worthy and Unworthy Dispositions
In this chapter, Lord Kṛṣṇa returns to distinguishing appropriate and inappropriate attitudes and behaviors, using the two terms daiva and āsura (see 9.12–13), meaning worthy and unworthy, instead of using the three guṇas. This change of categorization terminology brings up an important point: The teaching of Advaita Vedānta, unlike many philosophies and religions, has no interest in simply categorizing attitudes and behaviors, simply assigning names to various forms of thinking, behaving, or being. Rather, the ultimate purpose in categorizing is to direct us to see beyond names and forms, to appreciate the unchanging, underlying reality. If there are attitudes and behaviors that are helpful or not in bringing about this appreciation, they are indicated. It is not to praise or condemn them, but to point to their possible importance in gaining appreciation of the reality of oneself and the world. Once reality is appreciated for what it is, all these categories drop their significance. None of these categories are ultimate or absolute divisions in the final analysis.
The lack of importance in the naming and categorizing of things shows in the various ways for unfolding the vision of reality seen in Vedānta, in the Upaniṣads. For example, the creation or evolution of divisions in the world being not ultimately real, different teachers in the different Upaniṣads describe the apparent creation of the universe variously as coming from sat (reality), from a-sat (the unmanifest), from brahman (another word for reality, and for the Lord), from ātmā (oneself, the limitless self), from prāṇa (subtle being), etcetera. All these creation descriptions are only as if, temporary explanations for the student who believes the world is real to eventually reveal that these are just so many words and words, and that the reality of the student alone is the reality of these words, of this universe of words and their apparent divisions.
This one unchanging reality is also pointed out variously using different terms: as brahman, Īś (meaning Īśvara, the Lord), and ātmā that reference this one reality in terms of itself, the universe, and oneself, respectively. Moreover, the term for reality, brahman, is used interchangeably with Īśvara and ātmā; the term for the Lord, Īśvara, with brahman or ātmā (see 15.8); and the term for the reality of oneself, ātmā, with brahman, Īśvara, deva (shining one, deity), and so on.
Similar is the various categorizations of reality in this teaching, depending on the perspective towards the one reality that one is assuming for the moment. One can temporarily assume two levels of reality: the real and the unreal (sat and a-sat); or three: the absolute, objective, and imaginary (pāramārthika, vyāvahārika, and prātibhāsika).
In the Bhagavad Gītā, karma-yoga is taught specifically to move the individual’s identity from predominately prātibhāsika (too much subjectivity and self-importance) to vyāvahārika (more objectivity, more Īśvara in one’s life), and, eventually, to pāramārthika (that one is that Īśvara, the only reality); whereas sāṅkhya (the knowledge of reality introduced in the second chapter, see 2.39) assumes the individual is already reasonably objective and attempts to move the individual’s identity from vyāvahārika to pāramārthika, from the changing a-sat to the unchanging sat.
This switching of terminology and perspective is a method employed in the Advaita Vedānta teaching tradition to clarify one’s understanding of reality from every perspective, deterring just memorization of categories. But, to be effective, the method requires a teacher who knows the whole methodology and who has fully benefited from the teaching. The teaching tradition is for passing on this knowledge fully and faithfully to future teachers: oneself re-teaching oneself during situational backslides into habitual thinking and behaviors, as well as passing on this teaching methodology to future generations.
(Jump to 17th Ch. Intro)
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
a-bhaya, sattva-samśuddhi, jñāna-yoga-vyavasthiti; dāna, dama, ca, yajña, ca, sva-adhyāya, tapas, ārjava.
a-hiṃsā, satya, a-krodha, tyāga, śānti, a-paiśuna; dayā, bhūta, a-loluptva, mārdava, hrī, a-cāpala.
tejas, kṣamā, dhṛti, śauca, a-droha, na-atimānitā; √bhū, sampad, daivī, abhijāta, bhārata.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
अभयं सत्त्व-संशुद्धिर् ज्ञान-योग-व्यवस्थितिः।
दानं दमश् च यज्ञश् च स्वाध्यायस् तप आर्जवम्॥
अहिंसा सत्यम् अक्रोधस् त्यागः शान्तिर् अपैशुनम्।
दया भूतेष्व् अलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीर् अचापलम्॥
तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचम् अद्रोहो नातिमानिता।
भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीम् अभिजातस्य भारत॥
dambha, darpa, abhimāna, ca, krodha, pāruṣya, eva, ca; a-jñāna, ca, abhijāta, pārtha, sampad, āsurī.
दम्भो दर्पोऽभिमानश् च क्रोधः पारुष्यम् एव च।
अज्ञानं चाभिजातस्य पार्थ सम्पदम् आसुरीम्॥
daivī, sampad, vimokṣa, nibandha, āsurī, matā; mā, √śuc, sampad, daivī, abhijāta, √as, pāṇḍava.
दैवी सम्पद् विमोक्षाय निबन्धायासुरी मता।
मा शुचः सम्पदं दैवीम् अभिजातोऽसि पाण्डव॥
dva, bhūta-sarga, loka, idam, daiva, āsura, eva, ca; daiva, vistaraśas, prokta, āsura, pārtha, asmad, √śru.
द्वौ भूत-सर्गौ लोकेऽस्मिन् दैव आसुर एव च।
दैवो विस्तरशः प्रोक्त आसुरं पार्थ मे शृणु॥
pravṛtti, ca, nivrṭti, ca, jana, na, √vid, āsura; na, śauca, na, api, ca, ācāra, na, satya, tad, √vid.
प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च जना न विदुर् आसुराः।
न शौचं नापि चाचारो न सत्यं तेषु विद्यते॥
a-satya, a-pratiṣṭha, tad, jagat, √ah, an-īśvara; aparas-para-sambhūta, kim, anya, kāma-haituka.
असत्यम् अप्रतिष्ठं ते जगद् आहुर् अनीश्वरम्।
अपरस्-पर-सम्भूतं किम् अन्यत् काम-हैतुकम्॥
etad, dṛṣṭi, avaṣṭabhya, naṣṭa-ātman, alpa-buddhi, √pra-bhū; ugra-karman, kṣaya, jagat, a-hita.
एतां दृष्टिम् अवष्टभ्य नष्टात्मानोऽल्प-बुद्धयः।
प्रभवन्त्य् उग्र-कर्माणः क्षयाय जगतोऽहिताः॥
kāma, āśritya, dus-pūra, dambha-māna-mada-anvita; moha, gṛhītvā, a-sat-grāha, pra-√vṛt, a-śuci-vrata.
कामम् आश्रित्य दुष्-पूरं दम्भ-मान-मदान्विताः।
मोहाद् गृहीत्वासद्-ग्राहान् प्रवर्तन्तेऽशुचि-व्रताः॥
cintā, a-parimeyā, ca, pralaya-antā, upāśrita; kāma-upabhoga-parama, etāvat, iti, niścita.
āśā-pāśa-śata, baddha, kāma-krodha-para-ayana; √īh, kāma-bhoga-artham, a-nyāya, artha-sañcaya.

चिन्ताम् अपरिमेयां च प्रलयान्ताम् उपाश्रिताः।
कामोपभोग-परमा एतावद् इति निश्चिताः॥
आशा-पाश-शतैर् बद्धाः काम-क्रोध-परायणाः।
ईहन्ते काम-भोगार्थम् अन्यायेनार्थ-सञ्चयान्॥
idam, adya, asmad, labdha, idam, pra-√āp, manas-ratha; idam, √as, idam, api, asmad, √bhū, punar, dhana.
इदम् अद्य मया लब्धम् इदं प्राप्स्ये मनो-रथम्।
इदम् अस्तीदम् अपि मे भविष्यति पुनर् धनम्॥
adas, asmad, hata, śatru, √han, ca, apara, api; īśvara, asmad, asmad, bhogin, siddha, asmad, balavat, sukhin.
असौ मया हतः शत्रुर् हनिष्ये चापरान् अपि।
ईश्वरोऽहम् अहं भोगी सिद्धोऽहं बलवान् सुखी॥
āḍhya, abhijanavat, √as, kim, anya, √as, sa-dṛśa, asmad; √yaj, √dā, √mud, iti, a-jñāna-vimohita.
आढ्योऽभिजनवान् अस्मि कोऽन्योऽस्ति स-दृशो मया।
यक्ष्ये दास्यामि मोदिष्य इत्य् अज्ञान-विमोहिताः॥
an-eka-citta-vibhrānta, moha-jāla-samāvṛta; prasakta, kāma-bhoga, √pat, naraka, a-śuci.
अनेक-चित्त-विभ्रान्ता मोह-जाल-समावृताः।
प्रसक्ताः काम-भोगेषु पतन्ति नरकेऽशुचौ॥
ātma-sambhāvita, stabdha, dhana-māna-mada-anvita; √yaj, nāma-yajña, tad, dambha, a-vidhi-pūrvaka.
आत्म-सम्भाविताः स्तब्धा धन-मान-मदान्विताः।
यजन्ते नाम-यज्ञैस् ते दम्भेनाविधि-पूर्वकम्॥
aham-kāra, bala, darpa, kāma, krodha, ca, saṃśrita; asmad, ātma-para-deha, pradviṣat, abhyasūyaka.
tad, asmad, dviṣat, krūra, saṃsāra, nara-adhama; √kṣip, a-jasram, a-śubha, āsurī, eva, yoni.

अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः।
माम् आत्म-पर-देहेषु प्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः॥
तान् अहं द्विषतः क्रूरान् संसारेषु नराधमान्।
क्षिपाम्य् अजस्रम् अशुभान् आसुरीष्व् एव योनिषु॥
āsurī, yoni, āpanna, mūḍha, janman, janman; asmad, a-prāpya, eva, kaunteya, tatas, √yā, adhamā, gati.
आसुरीं योनिम् आपन्ना मूढा जन्मनि जन्मनि।
माम् अप्राप्यैव कौन्तेय ततो यान्त्य् अधमां गतिम्॥
tri-vidha, naraka, idam, dvāra, nāśana, ātman; kāma, krodha, tathā, lobha, tasmāt, etad, traya, √tyaj.
त्रि-विधं नरकस्येदं द्वारं नाशनम् आत्मनः।
कामः क्रोधस् तथा लोभस् तस्माद् एतत् त्रयं त्यजेत्॥
etad, vimukta, kaunteya, tamas-dvāra, tri, nara; ā-√car, ātman, śreyas, tatas, √yā, parā, gati.
एतैर् विमुक्तः कौन्तेय तमो-द्वारैस् त्रिभिर् नरः।
आचरत्य् आत्मनः श्रेयस् ततो याति परां गतिम्॥
yad, śāstra-vidhi, utsṛjya, √vṛt, kāma-kāratas; na, tad, siddhi, ava-√āp, na, sukha, na, parā, gati.
यः शास्त्र-विधिम् उत्सृज्य वर्तते काम-कारतः।
न स सिद्धिम् अवाप्नोति न सुखं न परां गतिम्॥
tasmāt, śāstra, pramāṇa, yuṣmad, kārya-a-kārya-vyavasthiti; jñātvā, śāstra-vidhāna-ukta, karman, kartum, iha, √arh.
तस्माच् छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्याकार्य-व्यवस्थितौ।
ज्ञात्वा शास्त्र-विधानोक्तं कर्म कर्तुम् इहार्हसि॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, daiva-asura-sampad-vibhāga-yoga, nāma, ṣaṣ-daśa, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे दैवासुर-सम्पद्-विभाग-योगो नाम षो-डशोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of the Distinction of the Three Śraddhās
Chapter seventeen is mostly about śraddhā – a positive and receptive (sāttvika) attitude toward learning and life. It is also about the importance of accepting particular universal concepts and facts of reality that are helpful to the development of spiritual maturity. These universal concepts (such as the existence of karma or of heaven) and facts (such as oneself being none other than the limitless existence, brahman) cannot be established by reason – but they are not against reason. Reason based on perceptions cannot prove or disprove what cannot in anyway be perceived or tested (heaven, brahman). However, reason can help us understand the concepts and facts, introduced by scripture teaching, that are outside of sense perception.
Let us assume a person has trust in the teaching that the individual can exist in some way before and after this life. Reason cannot establish this, but once accepted on trust, it can be seen as reasonable, in that it is not unlike the cycling of heavenly and hellish experiences we all have survived in this life that we know in some small or great way we deserved or could not avoid. This acceptance of a continuance of life, and its assumption based on universal karma (cause and effect, potentials created that can fructify much later), provides an objective basis for understanding how my and other’s life is like it is, instead of basing these on sectarian morality, on simple mechanical causality, or on chaotic blind chance.
This objective, universal basis that spans this one life, as well as before and after this life, allows us to take a long-term approach to understanding and making choices in life. Such a long-term approach provides an objective and healthy balance to our whatever-I-can-get-away-with tendencies in life choices and to the why-me responses we have toward painful episodes.
In this short life it is not possible to perceive, and hence confidently infer, karma, heaven, or the limitless nature of oneself. In order to be as doubtless and confident in these concepts and facts as we are doubtless and confident in our sense perceptions, we must consider that there should be a separate means for knowing these with certainty. That means of knowing is here called scripture (śruti). Śraddhā (trust) in this śruti allows us to yield the full benefits of its resulting understandings of life and the world – because these understandings are taken as being as valid as sense perceptions. But if we only halfway believe in karma and heaven, then, when in crisis, we might lack confidence and spiritual maturity in the face of these situations.
With full śraddhā, we can remain unshaken during the unavoidable highs and lows of life. But these beliefs, unlike the fact of one’s limitless nature, must be recognized as beliefs, as possibly as much a myth as any other myth (for example, that there definitely are no heavens or hells, no life prior to this life, etcetera). The real value of the beliefs one accepts is in the maturity of their resulting world view that they provide you.
On one hand, we have gathered in our life opinions based on current pop culture. Yet we know they can be contradicted next week, next year, next government, next decade, next century. These opinions may have benefited some people, but on what basis does one assume that they will benefit my life? Or that they will benefit me later on in my life when I know more than I do now?
On the other hand, we have traditional teachings, perhaps as mythical as the opinions from pop culture, yet we know those teachings must have benefited people throughout their life in some way for countless generations to have survived thousands of years. If those teachings have accumulated and developed over thousands of years and are not just an old frozen document, and if those teachings are about the common human condition and are about topics that modern science has no access, then in whom should you trust?
An intelligent seeker of truth ought not to blindly accept what any teacher says. Rather, the seeker asks questions in order to discern the validity and benefit of what is being taught. To whom should I surrender my śraddhā and my life? Are there half-truths, nonsense, or unintended consequences in these beliefs? These are the concerns of an intelligent seeker of truth. Our śraddhā should always be intelligent, always be sāttvika.
(Jump to 18th Ch. Intro)
arjuna, √vac:
yad, śāstra-vidhi, utsṛjya, √yaj, śrad-dhā, anvita; tad, niṣṭhā, tu, kim, kṛṣṇa, sattva, āho, rajas, tamas.

अर्जुन उवाच।
ये शास्त्र-विधिम् उत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्-धयान्विताः।
तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वम् आहो रजस् तमः॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
tri-vidhā, √bhū, śrad-dhā, dehin, tad, sva-bhāva-jā; sātvikī, rājasī, ca, eva, tāmasī, ca, iti, tad, √śru.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
त्रि-विधा भवति श्रद्-धा देहिनां सा स्व-भाव-जा।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु॥
sattva-anurūpā, sarva, śrad-dhā, √bhū, bhārata; śrad-dhāmaya, idam, puruṣa, yad, yad-śrad-dha, tad, eva, tad.
सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्-धा भवति भारत।
श्रद्-धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्-छ्रद्-धः स एव सः॥
√yaj, sāttvika, deva, yakṣa-rakṣas, rājasa; preta, bhūta-gaṇa, ca, anya, √yaj, tāmasa, jana.
यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान् यक्ष-रक्षांसि राजसाः।
प्रेतान् भूत-गणांश् चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः॥
a-śāstra-vihita, ghora, √tap, yad, tapas, jana; dambha-aham-kāra-saṃyukta, kāma-rāga-bala-anvita.
karśayat, śarīra-stha, bhūta-grāma, a-cetas; asmad, ca, eva, antar-śarīra-stha, tad, √vid, āsura-niścaya.

अशास्त्र-विहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः।
दम्भाहङ्कार-संयुक्ताः काम-राग-बलान्विताः॥
कर्शयन्तः शरीर-स्थं भूत-ग्रामम् अचेतसः।
मां चैवान्तः-शरीर-स्थं तान् विद्ध्य् आसुर-निश्चयान्॥
āhāra, tu, api, sarva, tri-vidha, √bhū, priya; yajña, tapas, tathā, dāna, tad, bheda, idam, √śru.
आहारस् त्व् अपि सर्वस्य त्रि-विधो भवति प्रियः।
यज्ञस् तपस् तथा दानं तेषां भेदम् इमं शृणु॥
āyus-sattva-bala-ārogya-sukha-prīti-vivardhana; rasya, snigdha, sthira, hṛdya, āhāra, sāttvika-priya.
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विक-प्रियाः॥
kaṭu-amla-lavaṇa-atyuṣṇa-tīkṣṇa-rūkṣa-vidāhin; āhāra, rājasa, iṣṭa, duḥkha-śoka-āmaya-prada.
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःख-शोकामय-प्रदाः॥
yāta-yāma, gata-rasa, pūti, paryuṣita, ca, yad; ucchiṣṭa, api, ca, a-medhya, bhojana, tāmasa-priya.
यात-यामं गत-रसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत्।
उच्छिष्टम् अपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामस-प्रियम्॥
a-phala-ākāṅkṣin, yajña, vidhi-dṛṣṭa, yad, √yaj; yaṣṭavya, eva, iti, manas, samādhāya, tad, sāttvika.
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर् यज्ञो विधि-दृष्टो य इज्यते।
यष्टव्यम् एवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः॥
abhisandhāya, tu, phala, dambha-artham, api, ca, eva, yad; √yaj, bharata-śreṣṭha, tad, yajña, √vid, rājasa.
अभिसन्धाय तु फलं दम्भार्थम् अपि चैव यत्।
इज्यते भरत-श्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम्॥
vidhi-hīna, a-sṛṣṭa-anna, mantra-hīna, a-dakṣiṇa; śrad-dhā-virahita, yajña, tāmasa, pari-√cakṣ.
विधि-हीनम् असृष्टान्नं मन्त्र-हीनम् अदक्षिणम्।
श्रद्-धा-विरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते॥
deva-dvija-guru-prājña-pūjana, śauca, ārjava; brahma-carya, a-hiṃsā, ca, śārīra, tapas, √vac.
देव-द्विज-गुरु-प्राज्ञ-पूजनं शौचम् आर्जवम्।
ब्रह्म-चर्यम् अहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते॥
an-udvega-kara, vākya, satya, priya-hita, ca, yad; sva-adhyāya-abhyasana, ca, eva, vāṅmaya, tapas, √vac.
अनुद्वेग-करं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रिय-हितं च यत्।
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते॥
manas-prasāda, saumyatva, mauna, ātma-vinigraha; bhāva-saṃśuddhi, iti, etad, tapas, mānasa, √vac.
मनः-प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनम् आत्म-विनिग्रहः।
भाव-संशुद्धिर् इत्य् एतत् तपो मानसम् उच्यते॥
śrad-dhā, parā, tapta, tapas, tad, tri-vidha, nara; a-phala-ākāṅkṣin, yukta, sāttvika, pari-√cakṣ.
श्रद्-धया परया तप्तं तपस् तत् त्रि-विधं नरैः।
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर् युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते॥
sat-kāra-māna-pūjā-artham, tapas, dambha, ca, eva, yad; √kṛ, tad, iha, prokta, rājasa, cala, a-dhruva.
सत्-कार-मान-पूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत्।
क्रियते तद् इह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलम् अध्रुवम्॥
mūḍha-grāha, ātman, yad, pīḍā, √kṛ, tapas; para, utsādana-artham, vā, tad, tāmasa, udāhṛta.
मूढ-ग्राहेणात्मनो यत् पीडया क्रियते तपः।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत् तामसम् उदाहृतम्॥
dātavya, iti, yad, dāna, √dā, an-upakārin; deśa, kāla, ca, pātra, ca, tad, dāna, sāttvika, smṛta.
दातव्यम् इति यद् दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद् दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम्॥
yad, tu, prati-upakāra-artham, phala, uddiśya, vā, punar; √dā, ca, parikliṣṭa, tad, dāna, rājasa, smṛta.
यत् तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलम् उद्दिश्य वा पुनः।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद् दानं राजसं स्मृतम्॥
a-deśa-kāla, yad, dāna, a-pātra, ca, √dā; a-sat-kṛta, avajñāta, tad, tāmasa, udāhṛta.
अदेश-काले यद् दानम् अपात्रेभ्यश् च दीयते।
असत्-कृतम् अवज्ञातं तत् तामसम् उदाहृतम्॥
om, tad, sat, iti, nirdeśa, brahman, tri-vidha, smṛta; brāhmaṇa, tad, veda, ca, yajña, ca, vihita, purā.
ओं तत् सद् इति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस् त्रि-विधः स्मृतः।
ब्राह्मणास् तेन वेदाश् च यज्ञाश् च विहिताः पुरा॥
tasmāt, om, iti, udāhṛtya, yajña-dāna-tapas-kriyā; pra-√vṛt, vidhāna-uktā, sa-tatam, brahma-vādin.
तस्माद् ओम् इत्य् उदाहृत्य यज्ञ-दान-तपः-क्रियाः।
प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः स-ततं ब्रह्म-वादिनाम्॥
tad, iti, an-abhisandhāya, phala, yajña-tapas-kriyā; dāna-kriyā, ca, vividhā, √kṛ, mokṣa-kāṅkṣin.
तद् इत्य् अनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञ-तपः-क्रियाः।
दान-क्रियाश् च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्ष-काङ्क्षिभिः॥
sat-bhāva, sādhu-bhāva, ca, sat, iti, etad, pra-√yuj; praśasta, karman, tathā, sat-śabda, pārtha, √yuj.
सद्-भावे साधु-भावे च सद् इत्य् एतत् प्रयुज्यते।
प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्-छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते॥
yajña, tapas, dāna, ca, sthiti, sat, iti, ca, √vac; karman, ca, eva, tad-arthīya, sat, iti, eva, abhi-√dhā.
यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सद् इति चोच्यते।
कर्म चैव तद्-अर्थीयं सद् इत्य् एवाभिधीयते॥
a-śrad-dhā, huta, datta, tapas, tapta, kṛta, ca, yad; a-sat, iti, √vac, pārtha, na, ca, tad, pretya, na-u, iha.
अश्रद्-धया हुतं दत्तं तपस् तप्तं कृतं च यत्।
असद् इत्य् उच्यते पार्थ न च तत् प्रेत्य नो इह॥
om, tad, sat. iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, śrad-dhā-traya-vibhāga-yoga, nāma, sapta-daśa, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे श्रद्-धा-त्रय-विभाग-योगो नाम सप्त-दशोऽध्यायः॥

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The Topic of the Renunciation That Gives Complete Freedom
This final chapter of the Bhagavad Gītā answers Arjuna’s long-lasting concern about a life of renunciation, completes the unfoldment of other open topics, and covers new ones (for example, the five causes or factors for the accomplishment of all actions in verses 13–16). Chapter eighteen closes with praise of the teaching lineage (18.67–78) and sums up (18.50–66) the Advaita Vedānta teaching with the essentials that Kṛṣṇa wishes Arjuna – and us – to focus on. That focus is, through karma-yoga and jñāna-yoga, to drop identification as a separate body-mind complex. We are to objectively recognize that this time-bound, limited body-mind complex and its actions are not our own but instead belong to the interconnected totality, to the natural order as a temporary manifestation of the Lord. We are to recognize our timeless identity as the limitless Lord, as existence itself.
Kṛṣṇa does not stop teaching until the student, Arjuna, is fully satisfied and acknowledges that he has understood. This is because the teaching is not only for the student, but is also for the teacher inherent in the student, as the student becomes the teacher for himself or herself throughout the rest of life. Every time the unassimilated mind strays into its old, habitual thinking, the student’s now-informed intellect catches the digression and brings the mind back to clarity. The student’s informed intellect is the same as the teacher’s informed intellect, the same as the informed intellect of that teacher’s teacher, and so on, from the beginningless beginning. That student may eventually become the teacher of others also. The Advaita Vedānta teaching prepares us for all this. It is complete in every way.
All of life, then, is a field for us to resolve remaining habitual thinking. Ultimately, human life is for correcting the erroneous sense of limitation we have and the resulting unacceptability of oneself. It is natural that a teaching exists that directly addresses this need in the human heart – just as the human body needs air, so air is provided; needs food, so food is provided. This teaching is universal to all humankind. Ātmā, the essential conscious being, is as universal as it gets. That the ātmā is the limitless reality of this universe is also as universal as it gets. A life of acknowledging the interconnectedness of the entire cosmos is both ancient and modern, religious and scientific. A life of dedication to one’s duty, in recognition of this interconnectedness, is similarly universal and timeless. To the extent that modern cultures do not emphasize this truth, to that extent these cultures have yet to mature. This complete teaching was not created by Indians. It is the teaching of the Lord – the Lord which is everything, including oneself.
Until we become teachers unto ourselves, we stay with these words of the Lord. We listen to a teacher (4.34) who can unfold these words as they have been unfolded for millennia. This will bring us to the fulfillment of human life – a life free of grief, free of guilt, free of hurt, free of fear, and free of death.
arjuna, √vac:
sannyāsa, mahā-bāhu, tattva, √iṣ, veditum; tyāga, ca, hṛṣīka-īśa, pṛthak, keśi-niṣūdana.

अर्जुन उवाच।
सन्न्यासस्य महा-बाहो तत्त्वम् इच्छामि वेदितुम्।
त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक् केशि-निषूदन॥
śrī-bhagavat, √vac:
kāmya, karman, nyāsa, sannyāsa, kavi, √vid; sarva-karma-phala-tyāga, pra-√ah, tyāga, vicakṣaṇa.

श्री-भगवान् उवाच।
काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं सन्न्यासं कवयो विदुः।
सर्व-कर्म-फल-त्यागं प्राहुस् त्यागं विचक्षणाः॥
tyājya, doṣavat, iti, eka, karman, pra-√ah, manīṣin; yajña-dāna-tapas-karman, na, tyājya, iti, ca, apara.
त्याज्यं दोषवद् इत्य् एके कर्म प्राहुर् मनीषिणः।
यज्ञ-दान-तपः-कर्म न त्याज्यम् इति चापरे॥
niścaya, √śru, asmad, tatra, tyāga, bharata-sattama; tyāga, hi, puruṣa-vyāghra, tri-vidha, samprakīrtita.
निश्चयं शृणु मे तत्र त्यागे भरत-सत्तम।
त्यागो हि पुरुष-व्याघ्र त्रि-विधः सम्प्रकीर्तितः॥
yajña-dāna-tapas-karman, na, tyājya, kārya, eva, tad; yajña, dāna, tapas, ca, eva, pāvana, manīṣin.
यज्ञ-दान-तपः-कर्म न त्याज्यं कार्यम् एव तत्।
यज्ञो दानं तपश् चैव पावनानि मनीषिणाम्॥
etad, api, tu, karman, saṅga, tyaktvā, phala, ca; kartavya, iti, asmad, pārtha, niścita, mata, uttama.
एतान्य् अपि तु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलानि च।
कर्तव्यानीति मे पार्थ निश्चितं मतम् उत्तमम्॥
niyata, tu, sannyāsa, karman, na, upa-√pad; moha, tad, parityāga, tāmasa, parikīrtita.
नियतस्य तु सन्न्यासः कर्मणो नोपपद्यते।
मोहात् तस्य परित्यागस् तामसः परिकीर्तितः॥
duḥkha, iti, eva, yad, karman, kāya-kleśa-bhaya, √tyaj; tad, kṛtvā, rājasa, tyāga, na, eva, tyāga-phala, √labh.
दुःखम् इत्य् एव यत् कर्म काय-क्लेश-भयात् त्यजेत्।
स कृत्वा राजसं त्यागं नैव त्याग-फलं लभेत्॥
kārya, iti, eva, yad, karman, niyata, √kṛ, arjuna; saṅga, tyaktvā, phala, ca, eva, tad, tyāga, sāttvika, mata.
कार्यम् इत्य् एव यत् कर्म नियतं क्रियतेऽर्जुन।
सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलं चैव स त्यागः सात्त्विको मतः॥
na, √dviṣ, a-kuśala, karman, kuśala, na, anu-√sañj; tyāgin, sattva-samāviṣṭa, medhāvin, chinna-saṃśaya.
न द्वेष्ट्य् अकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्जते।
त्यागी सत्त्व-समाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्न-संशयः॥
na, hi, deha-bhṛt, śakya, tyaktum, karman, a-śeṣatas; yad, tu, karma-phala-tyāgin, tad, tyāgin, iti, abhi-√dhā.
न हि देह-भृता शक्यं त्यक्तुं कर्माण्य् अशेषतः।
यस् तु कर्म-फल-त्यागी स त्यागीत्य् अभिधीयते॥
an-iṣṭa, iṣṭa, miśra, ca, tri-vidha, karman, phala; √bhū, a-tyāgin, pretya, na, tu, sannyāsin, kva-cid.
अनिष्टम् इष्टं मिश्रं च त्रि-विधं कर्मणः फलम्।
भवत्य् अत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु सन्न्यासिनां क्वचित्॥
pañcan, etad, mahā-bāhu, kāraṇa, ni-√budh, asmad; sāṅkhya, kṛta-anta, prokta, siddhi, sarva-karman.
पञ्चैतानि महा-बाहो कारणानि निबोध मे।
साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्व-कर्मणाम्॥
adhiṣṭhāna, tathā, kṛtṛ, karaṇa, ca, pṛthak-vidha; vividhā, ca, pṛthak, ceṣṭā, daiva, ca, eva, atra, pañcama.
अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्-विधम्।
विविधाश् च पृथक् चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम्॥
śarīra-vāc-manas, yad, karman, pra-ā-√rabh, nara; nyāyya, vā, viparīta, vā, pañcan, etad, tad, hetu.
शरीर-वाङ्-मनोभिर् यत् कर्म प्रारभते नरः।
न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पञ्चैते तस्य हेतवः॥
tatra, evam, sat, kartṛ, ātman, kevala, tu, yad; √dṛś, a-kṛta-buddhitva, na, tad, √dṛś, dus-mati.
तत्रैवं सति कर्तारम् आत्मानं केवलं तु यः।
पश्यत्य् अकृत-बुद्धित्वान् न स पश्यति दुर्-मतिः॥
yad, na, aham-kṛta, bhāva, buddhi, yad, na, √lip; hatvā, api, tad, idam, loka, na, √han, na, ni-√bandh.
यस्य नाहङ्-कृतो भावो बुद्धिर् यस्य न लिप्यते।
हत्वापि स इमाल्ँ लोकान् न हन्ति न निबध्यते॥
jñāna, jñeya, parijñātṛ, tri-vidhā, karma-codanā; karaṇa, karman, kṛtṛ, iti, tri-vidha, karma-saṅgraha.
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रि-विधा कर्म-चोदना।
करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रि-विधः कर्म-सङ्ग्रहः॥
jñāna, karman, ca, kartṛ, ca, tri-dhā, eva, guṇa-bhedatas; pra-√vac, guṇa-saṅkhyāna, yathāvat, √śru, tad, api.
ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रि-धैव गुण-भेदतः।
प्रोच्यते गुण-सङ्ख्याने यथावच् छृणु तान्य् अपि॥
sarva-bhūta, yad, eka, bhāva, a-vyayva, √īkṣ; a-vibhakta, vibhakta, tad, jñāna, √vid, sāttvika.
सर्व-भूतेषु येनैकं भावम् अव्ययम् ईक्षते।
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज् ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम्॥
pṛthaktvena, tu, yad, jñāna, nānā-bhāva, pṛthak-vidha; √vid, sarva, bhūta, tad, jñāna, √vid, rājasa.
पृथक्त्वेन तु यज् ज्ञानं नाना-भावान् पृथग्-विधान्।
वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज् ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम्॥
yad, tu, kṛtsnavat, eka, kārya, sakta, a-haituka; a-tattva-arthavat, alpa, ca, tad, tāmasa, udāhṛta.
यत् तु कृत्स्नवद् एकस्मिन् कार्ये सक्तम् अहैतुकम्।
अतत्त्वार्थवद् अल्पं च तत् तामसम् उदाहृतम्॥
niyata, saṅga-rahita, a-rāga-dveṣatas, kṛta; a-phala-prepsu, karman, yad, tad, sāttvika, √vac.
नियतं सङ्ग-रहितम् अराग-द्वेषतः कृतम्।
अफल-प्रेप्सुना कर्म यत् तत् सात्त्विकम् उच्यते॥
yad, tu, kāma-īpsu, karman, sa-aham-kāra, vā, punar; √kṛ, bahula-āyāsa, tad, rājasa, udāhṛta.
यत् तु कामेप्सुना कर्म साहङ्कारेण वा पुनः।
क्रियते बहुलायासं तद् राजसम् उदाहृतम्॥
anubandha, kṣaya, hiṃsā, an-apekṣya, ca, pauruṣa; moha, ā-√rabh, karman, yad, tad, tāmasa, √vac.
अनुबन्धं क्षयं हिंसाम् अनपेक्ष्य च पौरुषम्।
मोहाद् आरभ्यते कर्म यत् तत् तामसम् उच्यते॥
mukta-saṅga, an-aham-vādin, dhṛti-utsāha-samanvita; siddhi-a-siddhi, nis-vikāra, kartṛ, sāttvika, √vac.
मुक्त-सङ्गोऽनहं-वादी धृत्य्-उत्साह-समन्वितः।
सिद्ध्य्-असिद्ध्योर् निर्-विकारः कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते॥
rāgin, karma-phala-prepsu, lubdha, hiṃsā-ātmaka, a-śuci; harṣa-śoka-anvita, kartṛ, rājasa, parikīrtita.
रागी कर्म-फल-प्रेप्सुर् लुब्धो हिंसात्मकोऽशुचिः।
हर्ष-शोकान्वितः कर्ता राजसः परिकीर्तितः॥
a-yukta, prākṛta, stabdha, śaṭha, naiṣkṛtika, a-lasa; viṣādin, dīrdha-sūtrin, ca, kartṛ, tāmasa, √vac.
अयुक्तः प्राकृतः स्तब्धः शठो नैष्कृतिकोऽलसः।
विषादी दीर्घ-सूत्री च कर्ता तामस उच्यते॥
buddhi, bheda, dhṛti, ca, eva, guṇatas, tri-vidha, √śru; procyamāna, a-śeṣeṇa, pṛthaktvena, dhanam-jaya.
बुद्धेर् भेदं धृतेश् चैव गुणतस् त्रि-विधं शृणु।
प्रोच्यमानम् अशेषेण पृथक्त्वेन धनञ्-जय॥
pravṛtti, ca, nivṛtti, ca, kārya-a-kārya, bhaya-a-bhaya; bandha, mokṣa, ca, yad, √vid, buddhi, tad, pārtha, sāttvikī.
प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च कार्याकार्ये भयाभये।
बन्धं मोक्षं च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी॥
yad, dharma, a-dharma, ca, kārya, ca, a-kārya, eva, ca; a-yathāvat, pra-√jñā, buddhi, tad, pārtha, rājasī.
यया धर्मम् अधर्मं च कार्यं चाकार्यम् एव च।
अयथावत् प्रजानाति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ राजसी॥
a-dharma, dharma, iti, yad, √man, tamas, āvṛtā; sarva-artha, viparīta, ca, buddhi, tad, pārtha, tāmasī.
अधर्मं धर्मर् इति या मन्यते तमसावृता।
सर्वार्थान् विपरीतांश् च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी॥
dhṛti, yad, √dhṛ, manas-prāṇa-indriya-kriyā; yoga, a-vyabhicāriṇī, dhṛti, tad, pārtha, sāttvikī.
धृत्या यया धारयते मनः-प्राणेन्द्रिय-क्रियाः।
योगेनाव्यभिचारिण्या धृतिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी॥
yad, tu, dharma-kāma-artha, dhṛti, √dhṛ, arjuna; prasaṅga, phala-ākāṅkṣin, tad, pārtha, rājasī.
यया तु धर्म-कामार्थान् धृत्या धारयतेऽर्जुन।
प्रसङ्गेन फलाकाङ्क्षी धृतिः सा पार्थ राजसी॥
yad, svapna, bhaya, śoka, viṣāda, mada, eva, ca; na, vi-√muc, dus-medhas, dhṛti, tad, pārtha, tāmasī.
यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदम् एव च।
न विमुञ्चति दुर्-मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी॥
sukha, tu, idāmīm, tri-vidha, √śru, asmad, bharata-ṛṣabha; abhyāsa, √ram, yatra, duḥkha-anta, ca, ni-√gam.
yad, tad, agra, viṣa, iva, pariṇāma, a-mṛta-upama; tad, sukha, sāttvika, prokta, ātma-buddhi-prasāda-ja.

सुखं त्व् इदानीं त्रि-विधं शृणु मे भरत-र्षभ।
अभ्यासाद् रमते यत्र दुःखान्तं च निगच्छति॥
यत् तद् अग्रे विषम् इव परिणामेऽमृतोपमम्।
तत् सुखं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तम् आत्म-बुद्धि-प्रसाद-जम्॥
viṣaya-indriya-saṃyoga, yad, tad, agra, a-mṛta-upama; pariṇāma, viṣa, iva, tad, sukha, rājasa, smṛta.
विषयेन्द्रिय-संयोगाद् यत् तद् अग्रेऽमृतोपमम्।
परिणामे विषम् इव तत् सुखं राजसं स्मृतम्॥
yad, agra, ca, anubandha, ca, sukha, mohana, ātman; nidrā-ālasya-pramāda-uttha, tad, tāmasa, udāhṛta.
यद् अग्रे चानुबन्धे च सुखं मोहनम् आत्मनः।
निद्रालस्य-प्रमादोत्थं तत् तामसम् उदाहृतम्॥
na, tad, √as, pṛthivī, vā, dyu, deva, vā, punar; sattva, prakṛti-ja, mukta, yad, etad, √as, tri, guṇa.
न तद् अस्ति पृथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा पुनः।
सत्त्वं प्रकृति-जैर् मुक्तं यद् एभिः स्यात् त्रिभिर् गुणैः॥
brāhmaṇa-kṣatriya-viś, śūdra, ca, param-tapa; karman, pravibhakta, sva-bhāva-prabhava, guṇa.
ब्राह्मण-क्षत्रिय-विशां शूद्राणां च परन्-तप।
कर्माणि प्रविभक्तानि स्व-भाव-प्रभवैर् गुणैः॥
śama, dama, tapas, śauca, kṣānti, ārjava, eva, ca; jñāna, vijñāna, āstikya, brahma-karman, sva-bhāva-ja.
शमो दमस् तपः शौचं क्षान्तिर् आर्जवम् एव च।
ज्ञानं विज्ञानम् आस्तिक्यं ब्रह्म-कर्म स्व-भाव-जम्॥
śaurya, tejas, dhṛti, dākṣya, yuddha, ca, api, a-palāyana; dāna, īśvara-bhāva, ca, kṣātra, karman, sva-bhāva-ja.
शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर् दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्य् अपलायनम्।
दानम् ईश्वर-भावश् च क्षात्रं कर्म स्व-भाव-जम्॥
kṛṣi-gau-rakṣya-vāṇijya, vaiśya-karman, sva-bhāva-ja; paricaryā-ātmaka, karman, śūdra, api, sva-bhāva-ja.
कृषि-गौ-रक्ष्य-वाणिज्यं वैश्य-कर्म स्व-भाव-जम्।
परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्व-भाव-जम्॥
sva, sva, karman, abhirata, saṃsiddhi, √labh, nara; sva-karma-nirata, siddhi, yathā, √vid, tad, √śru.
स्वे स्वे कर्मण्य् अभिरतः संसिद्धिं लभते नरः।
स्व-कर्म-निरतः सिद्धिं यथा विन्दति तच् छृणु॥
yatas, pravṛtti, bhūta, yad, sarva, idam, tata; sva-karman, tad, abhyarcya, siddhi, √vid, mānava.
यतः प्रवृत्तिर् भूतानां येन सर्वम् इदं ततम्।
स्व-कर्मणा तम् अभ्यर्च्य सिद्धिं विन्दति मानवः॥
śreyas, sva-dharma, vi-guṇa, para-dharma, su-anuṣṭhita; sva-bhāva-niyata, karman, kurvat, na, √āp, kilbiṣa.
श्रेयान् स्व-धर्मो वि-गुणः पर-धर्मात् स्व्-अनुष्ठितात्।
स्व-भाव-नियतं कर्म कुर्वन् नाप्नोति किल्बिषम्॥
saha-ja, karman, kaunteya, sa-doṣa, api, na, √tyaj; sarva-ārambha, hi, doṣa, dhūma, agni, iva, āvṛta.
सह-जं कर्म कौन्तेय स-दोषम् अपि न त्यजेत्।
सर्वारम्भा हि दोषेण धूमेनाग्निर् इवावृताः॥
a-sakta-buddhi, sarvatra, jita-ātman, vigata-spṛha; nais-karmya-siddhi, paramā, sannyāsa, adhi-√gam.
असक्त-बुद्धिः सर्वत्र जितात्मा विगत-स्पृहः।
नैष्-कर्म्य-सिद्धिं परमां सन्न्यासेनाधिगच्छति॥
siddhi, prāpta, yathā, brahman, tathā, √āp, ni-√budh, asmad; samāsena, eva, kaunteya, niṣṭhā, jñāna, yad, parā.
सिद्धिं प्राप्तो यथा ब्रह्म तथाप्नोति निबोध मे।
समासेनैव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा॥
buddhi, viśuddhā, yukta, dhṛti, ātman, niyamya, ca; śabda-ādi, viṣaya, tyaktvā, rāga-dveṣa, vyudasya, ca.
vivikta-sevin, laghu-āśin, yata-vāc-kāya-mānasa; dhyāna-yoga-para, nityam, vairāgya, samupāśrita.
aham-kāra, bala, darpa, kāma, krodha, parigraha; vimucya, nis-mama, śānta, brahma-bhūya, √kḷp.

बुद्ध्या विशुद्धया युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च।
शब्दादीन् विषयांस् त्यक्त्वा राग-द्वेषौ व्युदस्य च॥
विविक्त-सेवी लघ्व्-आशी यत-वाक्-काय-मानसः।
ध्यान-योग-परो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः॥
अहङ्कारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम्।
विमुच्य निर्-ममः शान्तो ब्रह्म-भूयाय कल्पते॥
brahma-bhūta, prasanna-ātman, na, √śuc, na, √kāṅkṣ; sama, sarva, bhūta, mad-bhakti, √labh, parā.
ब्रह्म-भूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति।
समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्-भक्तिं लभते पराम्॥
bhakti, asmad, abhi-√jñā, yāvat, yad, ca, √as, tattvatas; tatas, asmad, tattvatas, jñātvā, √viś, tad-an-antaram.
भक्त्या माम् अभिजानाति यावान् यश् चास्मि तत्त्वतः।
ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तद्-अनन्तरम्॥
sarva-karman, api, sadā, kurvāṇa, mad-vyapāśraya; mad-prasāda, ava-√āp, śāśvata, pada, a-vyaya.
सर्व-कर्माण्य् अपि सदा कुर्वाणो मद्-व्यपाश्रयः।
मत्-प्रसादाद् अवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदम् अव्ययम्॥
cetas, sarva-karman, asmad, sannyasya, mad-para; buddhi-yoga, upāśritya, mad-citta, sa-tatam, √bhū.
चेतसा सर्व-कर्माणि मयि सन्न्यस्य मत्-परः।
बुद्धि-योगम् उपाश्रित्य मच्-चित्तः स-ततं भव॥
mad-citta, sarva-dus-ga, mad-prasāda, √tṝ; atha, ced, yuṣmad, aham-kāra, na, √śru, vi-√naś.
मच्-चित्तः सर्व-दुर्-गाणि मत्-प्रसादात् तरिष्यसि।
अथ चेत् त्वम् अहङ्कारान् न श्रोष्यसि विनङ्क्ष्यसि॥
yad, aham-kāra, āśritya, na, √yudh, iti, √man; mithyā, etad, vyavasāya, yuṣmad, prakṛti, yuṣmad, ni-√yuj.
यद् अहङ्कारम् आश्रित्य न योत्स्य इति मन्यसे।
मिथ्यैष व्यवसायस् ते प्रकृतिस् त्वां नियोक्ष्यति॥
sva-bhāva-ja, kaunteya, nibaddha, sva, karman; kartum, na, √iṣ, yad, moha, √kṛ, a-vaśa, api, tad.
स्व-भाव-जेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्मणा।
कर्तुं नेच्छसि यन् मोहात् करिष्यस्य् अवशोऽपि तत्॥
īśvara, sarva-bhūta, hṛd-deśa, arjuna, √sthā; bhrāmayat, sarva-bhūta, yantra-ārūḍha, māyā.
ईश्वरः सर्व-भूतानां हृद्-देशेऽर्जुन तिष्ठति।
भ्रामयन् सर्व-भूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया॥
tad, eva, śaraṇa, √gam, sarva-bhāva, bhārata; tad-prasāda, parā, śānti, sthāna, pra-√āp, śāśvata.
तम् एव शरणं गच्छ सर्व-भावेन भारत।
तत्-प्रसादात् परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम्॥
iti, yuṣmad, jñāna, ākhyāta, guhya, guhyatara, asmad; vimṛśya, etad, a-śeṣeṇa, yathā, √iṣ, tathā, √kr.
इति ते ज्ञानम् आख्यातं गुह्याद् गुह्यतरं मया।
विमृश्यैतद् अशेषेण यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु॥
sarva-guhyatama, bhūyas, √śru, asmad, parama, vacas; iṣṭa, √as, asmad, dṛḍham, iti, tatas, √vac, yuṣmad, hita.
सर्व-गुह्यतमं भूयः शृणु मे परमं वचः।
इष्टोऽसि मे दृढम् इति ततो वक्ष्यामि ते हितम्॥
mad-manas, √bhū, mad-bhakta, mad-yājin, asmad, namas-√kṛ; asmad, eva, √i, satyam, yuṣmad, prati-√jñā, priya, √as, asmad.
मन्-मना भव मद्-भक्तो मद्-याजी मां नमस्-कुरु।
माम् एवैष्यसि सत्यं ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोऽसि मे॥
sarva-dharma, parityajya, asmad, eka, śaraṇa, √vraj; asmad, yuṣmad, sarva-pāpa, √mokṣ, mā, √śuc.
सर्व-धर्मान् परित्यज्य माम् एकं शरणं व्रज।
अहं त्वा सर्व-पापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः॥
idam, yuṣmad, na, a-tapaska, na, a-bhakta, kadā-cana; na, ca, a-śṛśrūṣu, vācya, na, ca, asmad, yad, abhi-√asūya.
इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन।
न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति॥
yad, idam, parama, guhya, mad-bhakta, abhi-√dhā; bhakti, asmad, parā, kṛtvā, asmad, eva, √i, a-saṃśaya.
य इमं परमं गुह्यं मद्-भक्तेष्व् अभिधास्यति।
भक्तिं मयि परां कृत्वा माम् एवैष्यत्य् असंशयः॥
na, ca, tad, manuṣya, ka-cid, asmad, priya-kṛttama; √bhū, na, ca, asmad, tad, anya, priyatara, bhū.
न च तस्मान् मनुष्येषु कश्चिन् मे प्रिय-कृत्तमः।
भविता न च मे तस्माद् अन्यः प्रियतरो भुवि॥
adhi-√i, ca, yad, idam, dharmya, saṃvāda, asmad; jñāna-yajña, tad, asmad, iṣṭa, √as, iti, asmad, mati.
अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्यं संवादम् आवयोः।
ज्ञान-यज्ञेन तेनाहम् इष्टः स्याम् इति मे मतिः॥
śrad-dhāvat, an-asūya, ca, √śru, api, yad, nara; tad, api, mukta, śubha, loka, pra-√āp, puṇya-karman.
श्रद्-धावान् अनसूयश् च शृणुयाद् अपि यो नरः।
सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाल्ँ लोकान् प्राप्नुयात् पुण्य-कर्मणाम्॥
kad-cid, etad, śruta, pārtha, yuṣmad, eka-agra, cetas; kad-cid, a-jñāna-sammoha, pranaṣṭa, yuṣmad, dhanam-jaya.
कच्चिद् एतच् छ्रुतं पार्थ त्वयैकाग्रेण चेतसा।
कच्चिद् अज्ञान-सम्मोहः प्रनष्टस् ते धनङ्-जय॥
arjuna, √vac:
naṣṭa, moha, smṛti, labdhā, tvad-prasāda, asmad, a-cyuta; sthita, √as, gata-sandeha, √kṛ, vacana, yuṣmad.

अर्जुन उवाच।
नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर् लब्धा त्वत्-प्रसादान् मयाच्युत।
स्थितोऽस्मि गत-सन्देहः करिष्ये वचनं तव॥
sañjaya, √vac:
iti, asmad, vāsu-deva, pārtha, ca, mahā-ātman; saṃvāda, idam, √śru, adbhuta, roma-harṣaṇa.

सञ्जय उवाच।
इत्य् अहं वासु-देवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः।
संवादम् इमम् अश्रौषम् अद्भुतं रोम-हर्षणम्॥
vyāsa-prasāda, śrutavat, etad, guhya, asmad, para; yoga, yoga-īśvara, kṛṣṇa, sākṣāt, kathayat, svayam.
व्यास-प्रसादाच् छ्रुतवान् एतद् गुह्यम् अहं परम्।
योगं योगेश्वरात् कृष्णात् साक्षात् कथयतः स्वयम्॥
rājan, saṃsmṛtya, saṃsmṛtya, saṃvāda, idam, adbhuta; keśava-arjuna, puṇya, √hṛṣ, ca, muhus, muhus.
राजन् संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादम् इमम् अद्भुतम्।
केशवार्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर् मुहुः॥
tad, ca, saṃsmṛtya, saṃsmṛtya, rūpa, atyadbhuta, hari; vismaya, asmad, mahat, rājan, √hṛṣ, ca, punar, punar.
तच् च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपम् अत्यद्भुतं हरेः।
विस्मयो मे महान् राजन् हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः॥
yatra, yoga-īśvara, kṛṣṇa, yatra, pārtha, dhanus-dhara; tatra, śrī, vijaya, bhūti, dhruvā, nīti, mati, asmad.
यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्-धरः।
तत्र श्रीर् विजयो भूतिर् ध्रुवा नीतिर् मतिर् मम॥
om, tad, sat, iti, śrīmat-bhagavat-gītā, upaniṣad, brahma-vidyā, yoga-śāstra, śrī-kṛṣṇa-arjuna-saṃvāda, mokṣa-sannyāsa-yoga, nāma, aṣṭā-daśa, adhyāya.
ओं तत् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे मोक्ष-सन्न्यास-योगो नामाष्टा-दशोऽध्यायः॥

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ओं, पूर्ण॒म् अदः॒ पूर्ण॒म् इदं॒ पूर्णा॒त् पूर्ण॒म् उद॒च्यते।
पूर्ण॒स्य पूर्ण॒म् आदा॒य पूर्ण॒म् एवावशि॒ष्यते।
ओं शा॒न्तिः शा॒न्तिः शा॒न्तिः॥

Om; pūrṇa, adas, pūrṇa, idam, pūrna, pūrṇa, ud-√añc.
pūrṇa, pūrṇa, ādāya, pūrṇa, eva, ava-√śiṣ.
Om, śānti, śānti, śānti.

॥इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीता समाप्ता॥