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The Aruna Coursebook
Learning Sanskrit through the Bhagavad Gita
(Work-in-Process)

Contents Introduction
Alphabet
L1–2
Sandhi
L3-10
Declension
L11–25
Pronouns
L26–33
Verbs
L34–46
Words
L47–58
Syntax
L59–63

Appendixes

Lessons on:
The Alphabet

L.1 Reading Devanāgarī Script L.2 Reading the Bhagavad Gītā

Rules of Sandhi

L.3 Sandhi – Guṇa and Vṛddhi L.4 General vs Internal Sandhi L.5 Vowel Sandhi L.6 Special General Vowel Sandhi L.7 Permitted Final Consonans of a Word L.8 General and Special Visarga Sandhi L.9 General Consonant Sandhi L.10 Internal Vowel and Consonant Sandhi

Declension

L.11 Declension of Nouns L.12 Normal Case Terminations L.13 Unchangeable Stems − Dental ॰त् L.14 Consonant-ending Unchangeable Stems L.15 Changeable Stems L.16 Two-Form Stems − अत्, मत्, वत् L.17 Two-Form Stems − (ई)यस्, (म्/व्)इन् L.18 Three-Form Stems − वस्, अन् L.19 Three-Form Stems − मन्, वन्, अच् L.20 Vowel-ending Stems − अ L.21 Vowel-ending Stems − आ L.22 Vowel-ending Stems − इ L.23 Vowel-ending Stems − उ L.24 Vowel-ending Stems − ई, ऊ L.25 Vowel-ending Stems − ऋ, Diphthongs

Pronouns and Numerals

L.26 Personal Pronouns − अहम्, त्वम् L.27 Pronouns − तद्, एतद् L.28 Pronouns − इदम्, अदस्, एनद् L.29 Pronouns − यद्म् किम्, Reflexive, Possessive L.30 Pronouns − Pronominal Adjectives L.31 Pronouns − Compound Pronouns L.32 Cardinals L.33 Ordinals

Conjugation of Verbs

L.34 Conjugation of Verbs L.35 Verbal Roots L.36 Verbal Bases of the Ten Classes L.37 Four Verbal Base Tenses and Moods L.38 Reduplication L.39 Irregular 1st Conjugational Verbal Bases L.40 Irregular 2nd Conjugational Verbal Bases L.41 Root Tenses and Moods − Perfect Tense L.42 Aorist Tense L.43 Benedictive, Two Futures & Conditional L.44 Passive Formations L.45 Derivative Formations − Causative L.46 Desiderative, Intensive & Denominative

Formation of Words

L.47 Formation of Words − Active Participles L.48 Middle, Past and Past Active Participles L.49 Potential Passive Participle L.50 Indeclinable Participles L.51 Verbal Compounds and Prepositions L.52 Adverbs, Particles and Interjections L.53 Nominal Stem Formations L.54 Primary Suffixes L.55 Secondary Suffixes L.56 Nominal Compounds L.57 Tatpuruṣa Compounds L.58 Buhuvrīhi, Dvandva and Avyayibhāva Cmpds.

Syntax

L.59 Syntax L.60 Nominative – Ablative Cases L.61 Genitive and Locative Cases L.62 Participles L.63 Tenses, Moods, Passive, and Derivatives

Appendixes

Index of Gita Verses to Lessons Index of Grammar Rules to Lessons Appendix: Script Reading Lesson Abbreviations Glossary

Format by A.K. Aruna, 2021 ver.1.0: UpasanaYoga. The contents here is taken from the author's book The Aruna Coursebook: Learning Sanskrit through the Bhagavad Gita the second of a five book series available online in pdf format. If downloaded, requires installed Devanāgarī Siddhanta1.ttf font, downloadable from UpasanaYoga. If run from UpasanaYoga website, it alternatively can use online Web Font.

by A.K. Aruna
First Print 2009 (ISBN 978-0-9818640-1-3)
First Update to HTML Sep 2021 with Creative Commons International License:
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नारायणं नमस्कृत्य नरं चैव नरोत्तमम्।
देवीं सरस्वतीं चैव ततो जयमुदीरयेत्॥

Nārāyaṇaṃ namaskṛtya naram caiva narottamam.
Devīṃ sarasvatīṃ caiva tato jayam udīrayet.

Bowing to Lord Nārāyaṇa (Kṛṣṇa), and to Nara, the best of men (Arjuna), and to the Goddess (of knowledge) Sarasvatī, may one now commence the (epic) Jaya (‘Victory’).

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Reading Assignment: Sanskrit Grammar: Chap. 1 – The Alphabet (1.1–25:)

Exer

Fluency in Saṃskṛta requires fluency in reading the script in which it is written. This does not quickly come of its own, except by continued, regular practice.

As a transition to learning the script for those familiar with the English language script, Saṃskṛta transliteration is used. It represents the sounds of the Saṃskṛta language using a subset of the English alphabet. Not that the English pronunciation of these characters is the same as the pronunciation they represent in Saṃskṛta, but rather they come close to the same sound.

A few of these characters employ diacritical marks for distinguishing alternate sounds with the same alphabetic character. Those characters can be found in 1.5: (this format “1.5:” − small bold print ending in a colon − indicates the paragraph or chart number in the Sanskrit Grammar Reference) and are reproduced here: ā ī ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḥ ṃ ṅ ñ ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ ś ṣ.

Also note that some sounds are represented by a pair of characters: ai au kh gh ch jh ṭh ḍh th dh ph bh. Each of these pairs represents only one Devanāgarī character, is alphabetically ordered as one Devanāgarī character and is pronounced as a unitary sound.

As per the “Reading Assignment:” instruction at the top of this lesson, if you have not already done so, please spend a few hours or days, as needed, studying the first chapter, titled The Alphabet, in the Sanskrit Grammar Reference.

In each lesson a reading assignment will be given. When paragraphs from Sanskrit Grammar Reference are assigned, read all of the paragraph including any sub-paragraph, e.g., 2.1−3: includes 2.3.a:.

When studying these chapters, pay attention to every part of them, including the footnotes (the indented, numbered or lettered paragraphs after a main paragraph or chart), as nothing is extraneously presented in the Sanskrit Grammar Reference.

If the paragraphs or charts don’t at first make sense to you, then look at the lesson which assigned them. The lesson hopefully will clear up the doubts. Sometimes both have to be read together, instead of first the grammar reading followed by the lesson.

If doubts remain, just carry on. After a while the prior lessons will become more clear once more lessons are covered and you become familiar with the style of the lessons, the grammar rules, and their applications.

Do not hesitate if you have to redo prior lessons. This is not a race and you are not competing with anyone. That is one of the benefits of a teach-yourself course. Please take advantage of it.

Exercise 1

The printed version of this Sanskrit Coursebook included an appendix called Script Reading Exercise. Since then, a PDF format was created for the same purpose, with the additional feature of imbedded sound clips which would play the clip of the pieces of the verses and the syllables. It turned out this PDF feature kept changing, and I have stopped trying to update it.

All this has now been replaced with an HTML file as part of the online AK Aruna Vedanta Documents and Texts called “Sanskrit Reading Tutor: Read It, Click It Hear It!”. The link is to it is Here.

Take as many days, weeks or months as necessary studying the Sanskrit Reading Tutor until you can read the Devanāgarī script without requiring the Saṃskṛta transliteration. This tutor presents the entire second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita in both Devanāgarī and Saṃskṛta transliteration, with the structure of this presentation described in its introduction.

It will be useful to you to also hand write the Devanāgarī lines given in that section. This will help you pay careful attention to the individual shapes of the characters.

Naturally, we want to imprint in our mind the correct Saṃskṛta of the verses, so it is paramount that you seek help in correct pronunciation of Saṃskṛta. For that, please try to find someone in your area that can help with that – most preferably from an native who has grown up in India and has been taught there the Saṃskṛta script.

The next best, or better yet additionally, is the Sanskrit Reading Tutor. This is a unique and invaluable tool for learning the script and its pronunciation.

If for some reason you do not, or cannot, listen to a recording, or you cannot access this Sanskrit Reading Tutor, then at least obtain the help of anyone who has initially learned their Saṃskṛta in India.

Otherwise, wait to begin this course until one of these resources becomes available to you. Once incorrect pronunciation is initially learned, it is quite hard to unlearn.

For those who are already familiar with the Devanāgarī script, take this time to make sure you are also familiar with Saṃskṛta transliteration, as it will be utilized in explaining certain aspects of Saṃskṛta grammar. Once finished, move on to Lesson 2.

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Exer

Now that you can read the देवनागरी script, we need to develop familiarity with संस्कृत words and their meanings. As this course is centered around the Bhagavad Gita, this will be accomplished by continuing to read the Gita text until the meaning strikes you as you read. There are no shortcuts to this, other than just reading the text daily.

Even if you know the meanings of individual words, at first you will not see the meaning of the verses at the same speed you are reading them. However, as the following lessons progress you will be taught the phrases and sentences structures of the verses you are reading. Eventually as the course proceeds you will see that your understanding of the verses comes slowly into focus while reading. At the end of the course we hope to be able to read with understanding the entire Bhagavad Gita – Okay, at least Chapter Two.

To get to that point you have to read the Bhagavad Gita daily. This will in time imprint the संस्कृत of the verses in your mind. The meanings of the verses will then fill in this visual/oral familiarity with the verses.

Exercise 2

Read the Bhagavad Gita every day. Every day spend at least two-thirds of your available time for reading and the rest of the time on the lessons, for example, if you have two hours to study, then the first hour and twenty minutes should be spent reading the Gita. Keep on reading the Bhagavad Gita second chapter, as assigned in Exercise 1 of this book.

As part of the original printed five book set of The Aruna Sanskrit Language Series, the forth book called the Gita Reader had the parallel feature of the entire Gita in three columns. The left column was the Devanāgarī of the verses. The middle column was the prose order of the verses in Devanāgarī. The right column was the English translation.

This three-forms of each verse has since been provided by the Bhagavad Gītā w/Bhāṣyam & Grammar, where the same three forms are presented vertically.

The distinction of verse form and prose form will be explained later, once you have a background in the language. In the English translations, in parentheses or brackets, are additional words that either define or paraphrase the preceding word(s) parentheses, or provide a contextual explanation of the preceding word(s) in brackets. This daily exercise should progress in the following stages.

1. Initially read only the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita. We will concentrate on this chapter during the lessons in this book. Your reading of the verses and the written prose order should alternate, such that for every two consecutive, complete readings of the verses of the chapter, you then read once the written prose order. Clear, correct pronunciation should not be sacrificed for speed in reading. Our goal is to imprint the Bhagavad Gita in our memory, we do not want to imprint mistakes. I will let you be your own guide as to how often you read aloud and how often you read mentally. Both have their advantages. Reading aloud is a better test of your mastery over the script and clarity of pronunciation. Reading mentally allows quicker understanding, while you are reading, of the text you already know. But both practices should be employed, as well as observing courtesy to your neighbors who have to listen to you. If the later is an unavoidable problem, be kind to them by first learning how to correctly and rhythmically read the texts mentally, then bless them (as we are told in BhG.18.71, i.e., Chapter 18 verse 71 of the Bhagavad Gita) with your voice.

2. If during this process you happen to memorize the verses in the second chapter, then concentrate only on the written prose order. If then you happen to memorize the written prose order also, at that time, if you have access to all the other chapters, you may begin reading three chapters at a time starting with ch. 1-3, then ch. 4-6, ch. 7-9, etc., with the same two-to-one pattern of alternating between verse and prose of the three chapters. With fluency in reading skill, to compete the reading of a three chapter set with the two-to-one pattern (twice with the verses, and once with the prose) would take on average about an hour (ch. 1−3, is longer and will take more time than the other sets). For others who do not have this familiarity with the script and language, then stay with the second chapter until Aruna Coursebook is complete.

3. If you happen to memorize all the verses in a three chapter set, then as before concentrate only on the written prose order. If even that is mastered, then read each individual verse in its three forms: verse, prose, and translation. This is not to keep you busy. It is a practice that will be introduced for all students at the proper time, and really strengthens the connection between Sanskrit verse, its written prose order and its meaning in English. Spend half your reading time doing this and the other half reading The Bhagavad Gītā Sanskrit-Sanskrit-English Dictionary w/Grammar, maybe just the संस्कृत words that interest you. Read this to yourself, of course, as no one ever wants to listen to anyone reading a dictionary out loud.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar: Chap. 2 – Sandhi, Guṇa and Vṛddhi (SG.2.1–3.a:)

Exer

Chart 2.3: shows how vowels, starting with the simple vowels, may be successively, phonetically “strengthened” to गुण and then वृद्धि.

Except for अ which is the गुण form of अ, this is accomplished by phonetically prefixing an अ to the weaker form. Notice that the गुण vowels, ए and ओ, may be considered to be made up of the components अ + इ and अ + उ respectively. Similarly the वृद्धि. vowels, ऐ and औ, may be considered to be made up of the components अ + (अ + इ ) and अ + (अ + उ ) respectively. In this way the simple liquid vowels, इ and उ, are considered the second half components of diphthongs.

Another form of “strengthening” (which also happens in the गुण strengthening of ऋ ॠ and ऌ) is converting the simple liquid vowel, इ ई उ ऊ or ऋ ॠ, or the simple liquid vowel component of a diphthong vowel, to its matching semivowel. 2.3.a: also tells how the semivowels य् व् र् (along with a following, and sometimes preceding, अ) phonetically “weaken” to their matching simple liquid vowel, which is called Saṃprasāraṇa.

Exercise 3

If you have not already done so, please try to commit to memory the classifications given in 1.9:.* They are essential for understanding the following ‚सन्धि rules.

* Hint: For chart 1.9: and similar charts that you are asked to remember later on in this grammar, it is often helpful to work with an outline of the chart, with empty squares needing to be memorized in the chart. Use that outline to test your knowledge of the contents of the boxes in memory and on separate pieces of paper. E.g.

Class








झ्

Also pay attention to the alphabetic order of the characters, presented in 1.5: and generally incorporated in 1.9:. This is needed to make use of the The Bhagavad Gita Dictionary.

The following lessons provide vocabulary with their contextual meanings. The dictionary provides a much fuller explanation of each of these vocabulary words and should be referenced to expand your understanding of the संस्कृत words. Be sure to first read the introduction to the Bhagavad Gita Dictionary as it describes the format of the definitions.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 2.4:

Vocab Excer

Chart 2.4: distinguishes what has been called general सन्धि from internal सन्धि. This distinction is not easy for you to understand at this time, having not yet been taught how to recognize all the conditions that distinguish the two.

What is important to know at this time is that if the conditions, which we will learn over time, within 2.4: for general सन्धि are fulfilled in a particular context, then only those rules apply, not the internal सन्धि rules. Otherwise, one then turns to the internal सन्धि rules. However, if none of those internal सन्धि rules fit the particular context, then the general सन्धि rules may be applied.

In these lessons, the general सन्धि rules will be presented in total. Internal सन्धि rules deal more with composing संस्कृत words, which is not the main purpose of our grammar lessons. However, there will be a few internal सन्धि rules which we will point out as and when needed, since they are frequently employed and they help us recognize the components of certain grammatical formations of words.

Before vowel or consonant सन्धि takes place between two independent words, there is a separating gap between the two words and that gap represents a slight stoppage of sound in pronunciation to get the mouth in position for the next sound.

When the सन्धि takes place, the words are written together and the stoppage of sound is removed – assuming no vowel hiatus (Sanskrit Grammar 2.1:) remains after a vowel सन्धि rule is applied.

Like in the avoidance of gaps between words in the writing of संस्कृत, there is a natural tendency to avoid gaps between the pronunciation of words joined into a phrase.

Vocabulary 4

The numbers after the following vocabulary phrases are the “chapter.verse” reference in the Bhagavad Gita. A hyphenated word (my punctuation, not part of देवनागरी proper) is a compound word, like English words “left-handed,” etc.

The compounds are listed in the Bhagavad Gita Dictionary alphabetically under the first hyphenated word in the compound. The dictionary form of a word is shown after the expression “fr.” (meaning “from”), e.g., a noun is shown as “fr. मधु-सूदन,” while a verb is shown as “fr. अनु + √शुच्,” indicating that the verb is listed in the dictionary under the root “शुच्.”

You are not expected to know or remember at this time the grammatical descriptions after the dictionary form, e.g., “m. nom. sg.” These are abbreviations (see List of Abbreviations in this text, as well as in the Sanskrit Grammar and the Bhagavad Gita texts) of grammatical descriptions that will be learned in later lessons.

In other words, what is important to you at this level is just learning the basic words (the dictionary entry version of the word) and their English meaning, and how they each fit together as a संस्कृत sentence and an English translation. To help with this, on the left side of each word in the vocabulary, its sequential order within the English translation is given.

मधु-सूदनः तं कृपया आविष्टम् उवाच। (BhG.2.1)
कृष्ण spoke to him [अर्जुन] overwhelmed by pity.
1. मधु-सूदनः
(कृष्ण) the destroyer of the demon मधु
fr. मधु-सूदन m. sg. nom.
3. तम् [अर्जुनं]
to him [अर्जुन] [who]
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. acc.
5. कृपया
by pity
fr. कृपा f. sg. inst.
4. आविष्टम्
was overwhelmed
fr. आविष्ट pp. of आ + √विश् a. m. sg. acc. (SG.2.85:)
2. उवाच
spoke
fr. √वच् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.10.3:)

पण्डिताः गत-असून् न अनुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11)
The wise do not grieve for those whose life’s breath is gone.
1. पण्डिताः
the wise
fr. पण्डित m. pl. nom.
4. गत-असून्
[those] whose life’s breath is gone
fr. गत-असु a. m. pl. acc. (2.7:)
2. न
[do] not
fr. न in.
3. अनुशोचन्ति
grieve for
fr. अनु + शुच् 1.P. pr. 3rd pl.

न तु एव जातु अहं न आसं, न त्वं, न इमे जन-अधिपाः। (BhG.2.12)
Never [was a time that] I was not, nor you, nor these kings.
1. न तु एव जातु
never [was there a time that]
fr. न in.; तु in.; एव in.; जातु in.
2. अहं
I
fr. अहम् prn. sg. nom.
4. न
not
fr. न in.
3. आसं
was
fr. √अस् 2.P. impf. 1st sg.
5. न त्वं
nor you
fr. न in., त्वम् prn. sg. nom.
6. न इमे
nor these
fr. न in.; इदम् prn. m. pl. nom. (SG.4.8:)
7. जन-अधिपाः
kings, protectors of people
fr. जन-अधिप m. pl. nom. (SG.6.24.1:)

Exercise 4

Did you really commit to memory the classifications given in 1.9:? Keep trying.

Also remember the vocabulary phrases/sentences that are given in each lesson. They are all taken from the written prose order of the Bhagavad Gita verses (e.g. BhG.1.11). These phrases and sentences will be repeated throughout the rest of the exercises, so, instead of continually having to look up their meaning, it is easier to try to remember their meaning when they are introduced.

The vocabularies in the following lessons will add to these phrases and sentences, until they form complete verses. In this way you will learn all the Bhagavad Gita verses, and, because of that, you will in the process have learned their grammar.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 2.6–16:

Vocab Excer

General vowel सन्धि happens when, of the coalescing sounds coming together, the preceding is a vowel and the following is also a vowel.

When the preceding is a vowel and the following is a consonant, then no सन्धि rule is needed and the two sounds remain as they are.

When the preceding is a consonant and the following is a vowel or consonant, then a general consonant सन्धि rule may apply. When the preceding is a विसर्ग and the following is a vowel or consonant, then a general विसर्ग सन्धि rule may apply.

Because general vowel सन्धि occurs very often, we will take a more detailed look at this section.

It makes no difference how a vowel is written, whether as an initial or a medial (SG.1.7:), since it is the sound of their pronunciation when they are next to each other that is addressed in the सन्धि rules. The resulting phonetic combination of the sounds per the सन्धि rules is then rewritten with the appropriate characters to express this new sound combination. The reverse of this “making सन्धि” is called “breaking सन्धि.” For example.

2.7:कृपया आविष्टम्(2.1)→ कृपयाविष्टम्(॰आ + आ॰ → ॰आ॰ long simple vowel)
गत-असून्(2.11)→ गतासून्(॰अ + अ॰ → ॰आ॰)
व्यवसाय-आत्मिना(2.44)→ व्यवसायात्मिका(॰अ + आ॰ → ॰आ॰)
अस्ति इति(2.42)→ अस्तीति(॰इ + इ॰ → ॰ई॰)
Similarly: ॰कु + ऊ॰ → ॰कू, ॰तृ + ऋ॰ → ॰तॄ॰, etc.
 
2.8:न इमे(2.12)→ नेमे(॰अ + इ॰ → ॰ए॰ liquid vowel इ-’s guṇa)
2.9:न एव(2.12)→ नैव(॰अ + ए॰ → ॰ऐ॰ liquid vowel इ-’s vṛddhi)
2.10:भोग-ऐश्वर्य-प्रसक्तानां(2.44)→ भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां(॰अ + ऐ॰ → ॰ऐ॰ liquid vowel इ-’s vṛddhi)
 
2.11:तु एव(2.12)→ त्वेव(॰उ + ए॰ → ॰वे॰ corresponding semivowel)
 
2.12:अ-परिहार्ये अर्थे(2.27)→ अपरिहार्येऽर्थे(॰ए + अ॰ → ॰एऽ॰ dropped अ replaced by ऽ)
2.13:योत्स्ये इति(2.9)→ योत्स्य इति(॰ए + इ॰ → ॰अ इ॰ haitus remains)
2.14:॰यो इति→ ॰य इति(॰ओ + इ॰ → ॰अ इ॰ haitus remains)
2.15:॰यै इति→ ॰या इति(॰ऐ + इ॰ → ॰आ इ॰ haitus remains)
2.16:भूमौ असपत्नं(2.8)→ भूमावसपत्नं(॰औ+ अ॰ → ॰आव् अ॰ usually)

Notice that rules 2.7–16: cover every possible vowel combination. For example:
(अ/आ, इ/ई, उ/ऊ, ऋ/ॠ, or ऌ) + (अ /आ, इ/ई, उ/ऊ, ऋ/ॠ, or ऌ, respectively) by 2.7:,
(अ/आ) + (इ ई उ ऊ ॠ ॠ or ऌ) by 2.8:,
(अ/आ) + (ए /ओ) by 2.9:,
(अ/आ) + (ऐ/औ) by 2.10:,
(इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ॠ or ऌ) + (any different vowel अ – औ) by 2.11:, etc.
Only vowel सन्धि rules have a rule for all possible combinations.

विसर्ग सन्धि, consonant सन्धि and internal सन्धि rules do not cover all their separate possible combinations. Thus in their case, when no rules apply, then the two sounds coming together remain as they are, no change.

With vowel सन्धि there is always a change, except for special forms, which we will see in the next lesson.

Vocabulary 5

भूमौ अ-सपत्नम् ऋद्धं राज्यं, अवाप्य। (BhG.2.8)
Gaining an unrivalled and prosperous kingdom on earth.
5. भूमौ
because on earth
fr. भूमि f. sg. loc.
2. अ-सपत्नम्
un-rivalled
fr. असपत्न a. n. sg. acc.
3. ऋद्धं
[and] prosperous
fr. ऋद्ध pp. of √ऋध् a. n. sg. acc. (SG.6.6: & SG.2.76: & SG.2.78:)
4. राज्यं
kingdom
fr. राज्य n. sg. acc.
1. अवाप्य
gaining
fr. अवाप्य in. pt. of अव + √आप्

‘न योत्स्ये’ इति। (BhG.2.9)
“I will not fight.”
1. न योत्स्ये
I will not fight
fr. न in.; √युध् Ā. fut. 1st sg. (SG.2.76:)
2. इति
(quote end quote)
fr. इति in.

न च एव सर्वे वयम् अतः परं न भविष्यामः। (BhG.2.12)
Nor will any of us cease to exist hereafter.
1. न च एव
nor
fr. न in.; च in.; एव in.
3. सर्वे
all, any [of]
fr. सर्व prn. a. pl. nom. (SG.4.16.2:)
4. वयम्
us
fr. अहम् prn. pl. nom. (SG.4.2:)
5. अतः परं
hereafter
fr. अतस् in. (SG.6.19:); परम् in. (SG.6.16:)
2. न भविष्यामः
will not be, will cease to exist
fr. न in.; √भू P. fut. 1st pl.

तस्मात् अ-परिहार्ये अर्थे त्वं शोचितुं न अर्हसि। (BhG.2.27)
Then you should not grieve over a situation that cannot be avoided.
1. तस्मात्
therefore, then
fr. तस्मात् in.
5. अ-परिहार्ये
[that] cannot be avoided
fr. अपरिहार्य pot. ps. pt. of परि + √हृ a. m. sg. loc. (SG.6.8:)
4. अर्थे
over a situation
fr. अर्थ m. sg. loc.
2. त्वं
you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. nom.
3. शोचितुं न अर्हसि
should not grieve
fr. शोचितुम् inf. of √शुच्; न in.; √अर्ह् 1.P. pr. 2nd sg.

न अन्यद् अस्ति इति वादिनः। (BhG.2.42)
Arguing that there is nothing more.
4. न अन्यद्
no other, nothing more
fr. न in.; अन्य prn. a. n. sg. nom. (SG.4.16.1:)
3. अस्ति
[there] is
fr. √अस् 2.P. pr. 3rd sg.
2. इति
(quote-end quote) [that]
fr. इति in.
1. वादिनः
[those] arguing
fr. वादिन् a. m. pl. nom.

भोग-ऐश्वर्य-प्रसक्तानां व्यवसाय-आत्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते। (BhG.2.44)
For those who are attached to consumption and power, a well discerned knowledge is not formed.
2. भोग-
to consumption
3. -ऐश्वर्य-
and power
1. -प्रसक्तानां
for [those] who are attached
fr. भोग-ऐश्वर्य-प्रसक्त a. m. pl. gen. (SG.2.10:)
4. व्यवसाय-आत्मिका
a well-discerned
fr. व्यवसाय-आत्मिका a. f. sg. nom.* (SG.2.7:)
5. बुद्धिः
knowledge
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. nom.
6. न विधीयते
is not formed
fr. न in.; वि + √धा ps. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.37.1:)
* Adjectives take the same gender as their referent. In the case of adjectives ending in अ, the feminine form of the adjective is usually made by replacing the ending अ with आ.

Exercise 5

All the following Exercises will show the vocabulary phrases with सन्धि rules that you have learned applied. As part of vocabulary study, think of how the सन्धि would be applied between the individual words, since that is how you will again see the phrases in the Exercises. In this way you will quickly learn सन्धि-s. सन्धि-s are only learned by making and breaking them over and over again.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 2.17–22:

Vocab Excer

There are scattered and irregular exceptions to many grammar rules. Here, the rules for general vowel सन्धि exceptions are given in 2.17–22:. This grammar does not attempt to give all possible rules for all possible exceptions for every rule. However, when the exceptions are common and regular in the literature that the beginner is likely to encounter and they can be summarized in rule form, then rules for these will be given.

The special general vowel सन्धि chart lists the exceptions to the preceding rules, 2.7: through 2.16:. Notice that rules 2.7:2.16: do not specify any special circumstance in which each rule applies, apart from rules 2.13:2.16: which describe an additional outcome if the original two vowels were part of two different independent words (– only one of the conditions that governs when a सन्धि is general, see 2.4:).

In 2.17:2.22:, sometimes the preceding vowel is in a special circumstance, and sometimes both the preceding and following vowels are.

Vocabulary 6

कौन्तेय, मात्रा-स्पर्शाः तु शीत-उष्ण-सुख-दुःख-दाः आगम-अपायिनः अ-नित्याः। (BhG.2.14)
O अर्जुन, the contacts of the senses, giving cold/hot and pleasure/pain, have a beginning and an end and [therefore] are time bound.
1. कौन्तेय
(अर्जुन) O Son of कुन्ती
fr. कौन्तेय m. sg. voc.
3. मात्रा-
of the senses
2. -स्पर्शाः तु
[indeed] the contacts
fr. मात्रा-स्पर्श m. pl. nom.; तु in.
5. शीत-उष्ण-
cold and hot
6. -सुख-दुःख-
pleasure and pain
4. -दाः
giving
fr. शीत-उष्ण-सुख-दुःख-द a. m. pl. nom. (SG.6.24.1:)
7. आगम-अपायिनः
have a beginning and an end
fr. आगम-अपायिन् a. m. pl. nom. (SG.2.7:)
8. अ-नित्याः
[therefore] [are] time-bound
fr. अनित्य a. m. pl. nom.

सम्भावितस्य च अ-कीर्तिः मरणात् अतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34)
Dishonor for one who had been honored is worse than death.
3. सम्भावितस्य
for one who had been honored
fr. सम्भावित pp. of सम् + cs. √भू a. m. sg. gen.
1. च
[and]
fr. च in.
2. अ-कीर्तिः
dishonor
fr. अकीर्ति f. sg. nom.
5. मरणात्
than death
fr. मरण n. sg. abl.
4. अतिरिच्यते
is worse
fr. अति + √रिच् ps. pr. 3rd sg.

Exercise 6

Without looking at the translation on the right, see the meaning of the below phrases with vowel सन्धि-s applied. To help, the applicable rule numbers are listed. If having trouble, go back to the prior vocabularies, and applicable सन्धि rules, to review those sentences with which you are having trouble. Note also the sentences are sequentially ordered with देवनागरी numbers starting from 1 (१) onward, see 1.18: for these numerals.

१. मधुसूदनः तं कृपयाविष्टमुवाच। (BhG.2.1) [2.7:, 1.15:]कृष्ण spoke to him (अर्जुन) overwhelmed by pity.
 
२. भूमावसपत्नमृद्धं राज्यमवाप्य। (BhG.2.8) [2.16:]Gaining an unrivalled and prosperous kingdom on earth.
 
३. न योत्स्य इति। (BhG.2.9) [2.13:, 2.6.a:]“I will not fight.”
 
४. पण्डिताः गतासून् नानुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11) [2.7:]The wise do not grieve for those whose life’s breath is gone.
 
५. न त्वेव जात्वहं नासं, न त्वं, नेमे जनाधिपाः। (BhG.2.12) [2.11:, 2.7:, 2.8:, 2.7:]Never [was a time that] I was not, nor you, nor these kings.
 
६. न चैव सर्वे वयमतः परं न भविष्यामः। (BhG.2.12) [2.9:]Nor will any of us cease to exist hereafter.
 
७. तस्मात् अपरिहार्येऽर्थे त्वं शोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.27) [2.12:, 2.7:]Then you should not grieve over a situation that cannot be avoided.
 
८. नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः। (BhG.2.42) [2.7:]Arguing that there is nothing more.
 
९. भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः न विधीयते। (BhG.2.44) [2.10:, 2.7:]For those who are attached to consumption and power, a well discerned knowledge is not formed.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 2.23–24:

Vocab Excer

Rules 2.23: & .24: pertain mostly to the endings of whole, independent words, called शब्द-s, and, except as noted, not to the endings of the various components within a word.

These शब्द-s are the final form of declined nouns, pronouns and adjectives (3.1:, etc.), conjugated verbs (5.1:), indeclinable words (6.1:), and also certain other forms that are eligible for general सन्धि (2.24.a:) including compounded words. They are the meaningful words that can be used to form sentences.

The most common application of rules 2.23: & .24: is the resulting विसर्ग seen at the end of many words. विसर्ग itself only appears in words as a result of this rule.

It is important to understand that this rule is the final step in generating a meaningful word, capable of then being used in a sentence. Only after this final form of the word is generated can general विसर्ग or consonant सन्धि rules apply, when the words are combined into sentences. Thus its output is the input to the following general सन्धि rules.

The term “permitted” is only applicable to a word pronounced as a stand alone word, either as a single word or as a word at the end of a sentence, since a following sound may modify this permitted final into another letter.

Rules 2.23: & .24: also have yet to be applied to words taken from a dictionary like the Bhagavad Gita Dictionary. These dictionary formats are a new (and a foreign) addition to संस्कृत literature. Previous to them were lists of synonyms, etc. in verse form.

The result was that the words in those verses appeared as final, declined words in sentences, whereas the modern dictionary format gives its words in a base form (called a प्रतिपादक) as a final result of internal word formation rules, but before their declension (at least in Western printed dictionaries) or conjugation and the application of this rule. For example, in an native dictionary you may see the entry “संस्कृतम्” and another dictionary see “संस्कृत”.

Vocabulary 7

अ-सतः (=सतः अन्यस्य) भावः न विद्यते। (BhG.2.16)
A-sat [the un-real, other than the real, the time bound] has no being [of its own].
1. अ-सतः
the unreal (सतः अन्यस्य other than the real) [has]
fr. असत् pr. pt. of √अस् n. sg. gen. (SG.5.19.4:)
3. भावः
being
fr. भाव m. sg. nom.
2. न विद्यते
no
fr. न in.; √विद् ps. pr. 3rd sg. (w/gen. 7.12.1.a:)

तत्त्व-दर्शिभिः उभयोः अपि अनयोः अन्तः तु दृष्टः। (BhG.2.16)
[This] conclusion regarding both these is discerned by the seers of the truth.
8. तत्त्व-
of the truth
7. -दर्शिभिः
by the seers
fr. तत्त्व-दर्शिन् a. m. pl. inst.
5. उभयोः
regarding both
fr. उभ prn. n. du. gen. (SG.4.16.b: & SG.7.12.2.b:)
4. अपि
[indeed]
fr. अपि in.
3. अनयोः
these
fr. इदम् prn. n. du. gen. (SG.4.8:)
2. अन्तः
the conclusion
fr. अन्त m. sg. nom.
1. तु
[indeed]
fr. तु in.
6. दृष्टः
is seen, is discerned
fr. दृष्ट pp. of √दृश् pt.* m. sg. nom.
* 1. Participles (pt., pp.) in संस्कृत, unless indeclinables (in.), may be employed as adjectives, substantives, or as participles expressing a verbal action (7.15:). For example, “a. m. sg. acc.” will indicate its sense as an adjective, “m. sg. acc.” as a substantive, and “pt. m. sg. acc.” as a participle expressing a verbal action. The difference between the first and last is sometimes very slight, or is equally applicable.

अ-व्यवसायिनां [श्रेयो-मार्गे] बुद्धयः बहु-शाखाः हि अन्-अन्ताः च (BhG.2.41)
For those with no discernment [of this fact], the notions [regarding the means for The Good (श्रेयस्) ] are indeed many branched and endless.
1. अ-व्यवसायिनां
for [those] with no discernment
fr. अव्यवसायिन् a. m. pl. gen.
2. [श्रेय-मार्गे] बुद्धयः
the notions [regarding the means for श्रेयस्]
fr. बुद्धि f. pl. nom.
4. बहु-शाखाः
[are] having many branches
fr. बहु-शाखा a. f. pl. nom.
3. हि
indeed
fr. हि in.
5. अन्-अन्ताः च
and [are] endless/countless
fr. अनन्ता a. f. pl. nom.; च in.

Exercise 7

Translate and learn the following phrases with vowel सन्धि-s applied. Again, the applicable rule numbers are listed.

१. भूमावसपत्नमृद्धं राज्यमवाप्य। (BhG.2.8) [2.16:]
 
२. न योत्स्य इति। (BhG.2.9) [2.13:, 2.6.a:]
 
३. न त्वेव जात्वहं नासं, न त्वं, नेमे जनाधिपाः। न चैव सर्वे वयमतः परं न भिविष्यामः। (BhG.2.12) [2.11:, 2.7:, 2.8:, 2.7:, 2.9:]Never [was a time that] I was not, nor you, nor these kings. Nor will any of us cease to exist hereafter.
 
४. कौन्तेय, मात्रास्पर्शाः तु शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदाः आगमापायिनः अनित्याः। (BhG.2.14) [2.8:, 2.7:]O अर्जुन, the contacts of the senses, giving cold/hot and pleasure/pain, have a beginning and an end and [therefore] are time-bound.
 
५. तस्मात् अ-परिहार्येऽर्थे त्वं शोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.27) [2.12:, 2.7:]
 
६. सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिः मरणात् अतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34) [2.7:]Dishonor for one who had been honored is worse than death.
 
७. नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः। (BhG.2.42) [2.7:]
 
८. भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः न विधीयते। (BhG.2.44) [2.10:, 2.7:]

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 2.25–40:

Vocab Excer

General विसर्ग सन्धि happens, as stated in Lesson 5, when the preceding is a विसर्ग and the following is a vowel or consonant. And as stated in that lesson, when no rule applies then the two sounds coming together remain as they are, no change.

It may not be obvious, but no विसर्ग सन्धि rule applies here only when विसर्ग precedes the hard consonants क् ख् or प् फ् (cp. 1.5.b:) except as noted in 2.26:, optionally before the hard sibilants स् श् ष्, or when nothing immediately follows the विसर्ग. Hence in these cases you will still see the विसर्ग, otherwise it is completely dropped or is modified into another sound. Like vowel सन्धि, general विसर्ग सन्धि occurs very often, so we will take a rather detailed look at this section also.

Rule 2.26: applies to just certain words internal within a compound. It is important to pay attention to the stated range of conditions given in each rule. If rule 2.26: applies, then, like consonant सन्धि-s in the next lesson, another following विसर्ग सन्धि rule may then also apply in the context. But notice that once one of the विसर्ग सन्धि rules, 2.26: through 2.40::, applies, then the विसर्ग no longer exist, so it naturally cannot then trigger another विसर्ग सन्धि rule.

It should also be stated that विसर्ग is always preceded in the language by a vowel, never by a consonant. So, when it drops (2.30:, 2.31:, 2.37: or 2.38:), if any vowel hiatus (two vowels next to each other) occurs as a result, the hiatus remains and no additional vowel सन्धि takes place. This hiatus is purposeful as it indicates that some special prior circumstance occurred that allowed this hiatus, in this case a विसर्ग, which has its own meaningful significance, might have been dropped.

Below are some examples of the most common विसर्ग सन्धि rules. In the संस्कृत अन्वय from the Gita Reader or from the Bhagavad Gītā w/Bhāṣyam & Grammar, mostly all the general सन्धि-s have been split up. There, I have taken the liberty of expressing a final र् स् as विसर्ग (via 2.23: & .24:), as well as final म् (before consonants) as अनुस्वार (via 2.54:, which we will see in the next lesson). The vocabulary words shown previously with विसर्ग are shown below in their intermediate stage as a result of internal word formation rules. So, if applicable, rule 2.23: & .24: should first be applied, then the विसर्ग सन्धि rule, e.g., below 2.27: अन्-अन्तास् च → अनन्ताः च → अनन्ताश्च. Notice that if विसर्ग still remains or is dropped after general विसर्ग application, then the original separating gap between the two independent words still remains.

2.26:परस्-पर→ परस्पर(॰स् → ॰ः + प्॰ → ॰स्प्॰)
 
2.27:अन्-अन्तास् च(2.41)→ अनन्ताश्च(॰स् → ॰ः + च्॰ → ॰श्च्॰)
मात्रा-स्पर्शास् तु(2.14)→ मात्रास्पर्शास्तु(॰स् → ॰ः + त्॰ → ॰स्त्॰)
 
2.28:बुद्धिस् समाधौ(2.44)→ बुद्धिः समाधौ(॰स् → ॰ः + स्॰ → ॰ः स्॰ or ॰स्स्॰)
 
2.29:उभयोस् अपि(2.16)→ उभयोरपि(॰ओस् → ॰ओः + अ॰ → ॰ओर्॰)
बुधिस् न(2.44)→ बुधिर्न(॰इस् → ॰इः + न्॰ → ॰इर्न्॰)
 
2.30:पण्डितास् गत-असून्(2.11)→ पण्डिता गतासून्(॰आस् → ॰आः + ग्॰ → ॰आ ग्॰ विसर्ग drops)
 
2.31:यस् एनं(2.19)→ य एनं(॰अस् → ॰अः + ए॰ → ॰अ ए॰ विसर्ग drops)
2.32:-अपायिनस् अनित्याः(2.14)→ -अपायिनोऽनित्याः(॰अस् → ॰अः + अ॰ → ॰ओऽ॰ visarga disappears into ओ and following अ drops and can be indicated by ऽ 1.11:, called अवग्रह)
2.33:अ-सतस् भावः(2.16)→ असतो भावः(॰अस् → ॰अः + भ्॰ → ॰ओ भ्॰)
 
2.34:पुनर् अपि→ पुनरपि(॰अर् → ॰अः + अ॰ → ॰अर॰)
 
2.35:इन्दुस् राजति→ इन्दू राजति(॰उस् → ॰उः + र्॰ → ॰ऊ र्॰)
पुनर् रक्षति→ पुना रक्षति(॰अर् → ॰अः + र्॰ → ॰आ र्॰)
 
2.37सस् पुरुषः(2.21)→ स पुरुषः(सस् → सः + प्॰ → स प्॰ विसर्ग drops)

Like rules of vowel सन्धि-s covering all their possible combinations, notice that rules 2.29: through 2.33:, cover all possible combinations of विसर्ग preceded by a simple vowel and followed by a soft letter (i.e., by a vowel or a soft consonant). By recognizing these patterns of coverage of the different types of सधि rules, they become easier to remember.

In that vein, even accidental patterns can be helpful in remembering rules, like in rule 2.27: where the three classifications of hard consonants happen to be the three middle rows of chart 1.9:.

Situations in which rules 2.35: and 2.38: through 2.40: would apply are rarely found, so no example is manufactured here.

Vocabulary 8

यः एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] हन्तारं वेत्ति, यः च एनं हतं मन्यते, उभौ तौ न विजानीतः। (BhG.2.19)
The one who thinks this [embodied one, the real, the self-evident subject] is the agent of destruction [change, etc.], and the one who thinks this [embodied one, the real] is the object of destruction [etc.] – both do not know.
1. यः
the one who
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. nom.
3. एनं [देहिनम्/सत्]
this [the embodied one, the real]
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc.
4. हन्तारं
[to be] the agent of destruction
fr. हन्तृ m. sg. acc. (SG.3.38:)
2. वेत्ति
thinks
fr. √विद् 2.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.2.42:)
5. यः च
and the one who
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. nom.; च in.
7. एनं
this
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc.
8. हतं
is the object of destruction
fr. हत pp. of √हन् a. m. sg. acc.
6. मन्यते
thinks
fr. √मन् 4.Ā. pr. 3rd sg.
9. उभौ तौ
both these
fr. उभ prn. a. m. du. nom. (SG.4.16.b:); तद् prn. m. du. nom.
10. न विजानीतः
do not know
fr. न in.; वि + √ज्ञा 9.P. pr. 3rd du. (SG.5.23.2:)

यः एनम् [देहिनम्/सत्] अ-विनाशिनं वेद, कथं सः पुरुषः कं घातयति। (BhG.2.21)
When] one who knows this to be indestructible, [then] how does that person cause the death of whom?
1. यः
[when] the one who
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. nom.
3. एनम् [देहिनम्/सत्]
this [embodied one, the real] [to be]
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc.
4. अ-विनाशिनं
indestructible
fr. अविनाशिन् a. m. sg. acc.
2. वेद
knows
fr. √विद् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.28:)
5. कथं
[then] how? [does]
fr. कथम् in. (SG.6.19:)
6. सः
that
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. nom.
7. पुरुषः
person
fr. पुरुष m. sg. nom.
9. कं
[of] whom
fr. किम् prn. m. sg. acc.)
8. घातयति
(does) cause the death
fr. √हन् P. cs. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.40:)

तया [पुष्पितया वाचा] अपहृत-चेतसां व्यवसाय-आत्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ (=अन्तः-करणे) न विधीयते। (BhG.2.44)
For those whose minds are carried away by that [flowery talk], a well-discerned knowledge is not formed in समाधि (their minds).
3. तया [पुष्पितां वाचं ]
by that [flowery talk]
fr. तद् prn. f. sg. inst.
2. अपहृत-
are carried away
1. -चेतसां
for [those] whose minds
fr. अपहृत-चेतस् a. m. pl. gen.
4. व्यवसाय-आत्मिका
a well-discerned
fr. व्यवसाय-आत्मिका a. f. sg. nom. (SG.2.7:)
5. बुद्धिः
knowledge
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. nom.
7. समाधौ (=अन्तः-करणे)
in [their] mind(s)
fr. समाधि m. sg. loc.
6. न विधीयते
is not formed
fr. न in.; वि + √धा ps. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.37.1:)

Exercise 8

Translate and learn the following phrases with vowel and विसर्ग सन्धि-s applied. Again, help is given with the applicable rules.

१. पण्डिता गतासून् नानुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11) [2.30:, 2.7:]
 
२. कौन्तेय, मात्रास्पर्शास्तु शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदा आगमापायिनोऽनित्याः। (BhG.2.14) [2.27:, 2.8:, 2.30:, 2.7:, 2.32:]
 
३. असतः (=सतोऽन्यस्य) भावो न विद्यते। (BhG.2.16) [2.32:, 2.33:]The un-real [i.e., other than the real, the time-bound] has no being [of its own].
 
४. तत्त्वदर्शिभिरुभयोरप्यनयोरन्तस्तु दृष्टः। (BhG.2.16) [2.29:, 2.11:, 2.29:, 2.27:, 2.32:][This] conclusion regarding both these is discerned by the seers of the truth.
(Notice how dependant we are on vocabulary to be able to parse this sentence.
Here is the hint with these विसर्ग सन्धि-s: तत्त्वदर्शिभिर् उभयोर् अप्यनयोर् अन्तस् तु दृष्टः।.
And any word, big or small, that begins or ends with a vowel, like अपि inside “रप्य”, is easy to miss.
Therefore the individual words in the lesson vocabularies are as important to know as knowing the meaning of each of the phrases. You will have a similar problem when we start combining these phrases into complete verses. If you have not been paying enough attention towards the individual words to this point, then take this time to review the previous vocabularies before proceeding.)
 
५. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] हन्तारं वेत्ति, यश्चैनं हतं मन्यते, उभौ तौ न विजानीतः। (BhG.2.19) [2.31:, 2.27:, 2.9:]The one who thinks this [embodied one, the real, the self-evident subject] is the agent of destruction [change, etc.], and the one who thinks this [embodied one, the real] is the object of destruction [etc.] – both do not know.
 
६. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] अविनाशिनं वेद, कथं स पुरुषः कं घातयति। (BhG.2.21) [2.31:, 2.37:][When] one who knows this [embodied one, the real] to be indestructible, [then] how does that person cause the death of whom?
 
७. सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणात् अतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34) [2.7:, 2.29:]
 
८. अव्यवसायिनां [श्रेयोमार्गे] बुद्धयो बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च। (BhG.2.41) [2.33:, 2.30:, 2.11:, 2.27:]For those with no discernment [of this fact], the notions [regarding the means for श्रेयस्] are indeed many-branched and endless.
 
९. तया [पुष्पितया वाचा] अपहृतचेतसां भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ (=अन्तःकरणे) न विधीयते। (BhG.2.44) [2.10:, 2.7:]For those whose minds are carried away by that [flowery talk], and who are attached to consumption and power, a well-discerned knowledge is not formed in समाधि (their minds).
(The translation of this vs. 2.44 is from a combination of its vocabulary entries in Lessons 5 & 8. It can also be determined from the translation in the Bhagavad Gītā w/Bhāṣyam & Grammar under the Grammar button.)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 2.41–64:

Vocab Excer

General consonant सन्धि rules apply, as stated in Lesson 5, when the preceding is a consonant and the following is a vowel or consonant, with the one exception that a preceding vowel will affect a following (but rare word initial) छ्. The nature of the consonant सन्धि changes are generally as follows.

  1. Preceding cons. may change into a matching soft or hard cons.
    1. Preceding त् may also become a matching soft or hard palatal or cerebral, or a ल्.
  2. Preceding nasal (which has no matching hard sound) may interpose a hard cons, and/or become अनुस्वार, change to a matching class nasal, or to ल्ँ.
  3. In the peculiar cases.
    1. Following (word initial) श् becomes छ्.
    2. Following (word initial) ह् softens preceding hard cons. and itself becomes matching soft aspirate.
    3. Following (word initial) छ् doubles after certain vowels.
    4. Preceding nasal (except म्) doubles before certain vowels.

Unlike vowel सन्द्धि rules where only one rule may be applied in each situation (2.1:), general consonant सन्द्धि rules keep applying in each situation until no more rules apply. Thus we can have rule 2.45:, which when applied may create the condition for rule 2.56: to apply.

In this context it is important also to remember that when multiple rules apply in a situation, the more particular takes precedence over a more general rule. This general versus particular is here given by the order of the numbering of the rules – from general (lower numbered, higher in the chart) to particular (higher numbered, lower in the chart). Hence the more general rule 2.43: is overruled by the more particular rule 2.45:, in the situation of final त् followed by soft letter ज्, where the preceding त् changes to ज् (2.45:) instead of द् (2.43:

The general consonant सन्धि rules may also apply in an internal सन्धि situation (2.4:), when no more specific internal सन्धि rule applies. However, many of these rules in this chart (from 2.42–64:) only apply in external situations, where the following letter must be an “initial” (abbreviated as “init.”) of a word, and naturally the preceding letter would be a “final.” Thus, the only general consonant सन्धि rules that could finally apply in an internal सन्धि situation are 2.42:, 46:, .52:, .55:, and of course .61:, .63:, and .64: (see 2.41.a:).

Here are a few examples of common general consonant सन्धि-s found in the गीता.

2.43:विद्-ति(2.19)→ वेत्ति(√विद् 2nd class 5.3: वेद् + ति → वेत्ति)
मरणात् अतिरिच्यते(2.34)→ मरणादतिरिच्यते(॰त् + अ॰ → ॰द॰)
भयात् रणात्(2.35)→ भयाद्रणात्(॰त् + र्॰ → ॰द्र्॰)
 
2.44:यद् मनः(2.67)→ यन्मनः(॰द् → ॰त् + म्॰ → ॰न्म्॰)
 
2.45:कद्-चिद्(6.38)→ कच्चिद्(॰द् → ॰त् + च्॰ → ॰च्च्॰)
 
2.50अ-गत-असून् च(2.11)→ अगतासूंश्च(॰ऊन् + च्॰ → ॰ऊंश्च्॰)
अर्थ-कामान् तु(2.5)→ अर्थकामांस्तु(॰आन् + त्॰ → ॰आंस्त्॰)
 
2.51:श्रद्धावान् लभते(4.39)→ श्रद्धावाल्ँलभते(॰न् + ल्॰ → ॰ल्ँल्॰)
 
2.52:पश्यन् शृण्वन्(5.8)→ पश्यञ्शृण्वन्(॰न् + श्॰ → ॰ञ्श्॰)
 
2.54:सम्-याति(2.22)→ संयाति(॰अम् + य्॰ → ॰अंय्॰)
 
2.55:तम् कृपया(2.1)→ तं कृपया(॰अम् + क्॰ → ॰अं क्॰ or ॰अङ्क्॰)
 
2.60:अ-छेद्य(2.24)→ अच्छेद्य(॰अ + छ्॰ → ॰अच्छ्॰)
 
2.61:सन् अव्ययात्मा(4.6)→ सन्नव्ययात्मा(॰अन् + अ॰ → ॰अन्न॰)
 

Vocabulary 9

अर्थ-कामान् तु गुरून् हत्वा। (BhG.2.5)
Than kill [these] गुरs seeking [their own] ends.
5. अर्थ-
[their own] ends
4. -कामान्
seeking
fr. अर्थ-काम a. m. pl. acc.
1. तु
than
fr. तु in.
3. गुरून्
[these] गुरु-s
fr. गुरु m. pl. acc.
2. हत्वा
kill(ing)
fr. गहत्वा in. pt. of √हन्

अ-गत-असून् च न अनुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11)
And they do not grieve for those whose life’s breaths are not [yet] gone.
4. अ-गत-
is not [yet] gone
3. -असून्
[those] whose life’s breath
fr. अगत-असु a. m. pl. acc. (2.7:)
1. च
(and/) or
fr. च in.
2. न अनुशोचन्ति
(they) do not grieve for
fr. न; अनु + शुच् 1.P. pr. 3rd pl.

महा-रथाः त्वां भयात् रणात् उपरतं मंस्यन्ते। (BhG.2.35)
The great warriors will think you withdrew from battle out of fear.
1. महा-रथाः
the great warriors
fr. महा-रथ a. m. pl. nom.
3. त्वां
you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. acc.
6. भयात्
out of fear
fr. भय n. sg. abl.
5. रणात्
from battle
fr. रण m. sg. abl.
4. उपरतं
withdrew
fr. उपरत pp. of उप + √रम् pt. m. sg. acc. (SG.7.17.1:)
2. मंस्यन्ते
will think
fr. √मन् Ā. fut. 3rd pl. (SG.2.93:)

धनञ्-जय, [कर्म-फले] सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा, कर्माणि कुरु। (BhG.2.48)
O अर्जुन, being free from attachment [toward the result of actions], [then] perform action.
1. धनञ्-जय
(अर्जुन) O Winner of Laurels
fr. धन-म्-जय m. sg. voc. (SG.2.55:)
3. [कर्म-फले] सङ्गं
attachment [toward the result of actions]
fr. सङ्ग m. sg. acc.
2. त्यक्त्वा
being free from
fr. त्यक्त्वा in. pt. of √त्यज्
5. कर्माणि
action(s)
fr. कर्मन् n. pl. acc.
4. कुरु
[then] (you) perform
fr. √कृ 8.P. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.22.1:)

यद् मनः हि (=यस्मात्) चरताम् इन्द्रियाणाम् अनुविधीयते। (BhG.2.67)
– Because, the very mind, which follows after the roaming senses.
3. यद्
which
fr. यद् prn. n. sg. nom.
2. मनः
[very same] mind
fr. मनस् n. sg. nom.
1. हि (=यस्मात्)
because
fr. हि in.
5. चरताम्
[of] the roaming
fr. चरत् pr. pt. of √चर् 1.P. a. n. pl. gen.
6. इन्द्रियाणाम्
senses
fr. इन्द्रिय n. pl. gen.
4. अनुविधीयते
does the following, follows after
fr. अनु + वि + √धा ps. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.37.1:)

Exercise 9

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied. Again, help is given with the applicable rules.

१. अर्थकामांस्तु गुरून्हत्वा। (BhG.2.5) [2.50:]Than kill [these] गुरु-s seeking (their own) ends.
 
२. पण्डिता गतासूनगतासूंम्श्च नानुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11) [2.30:, 2.7:, 2.50:, 2.7:]The wise do not grieve for those whose life’s breath are gone or not [yet] gone.
 
३. तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे त्वं शोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.27) [2.42:, 2.12:, 2.7:]
 
४. सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34) [2.7:, 2.29:, 2.42:]
 
५. महारथास्त्वां भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते। (BhG.2.35) [2.27:, 2.42:]The great warriors will think you withdrew from battle out of fear.
 
६. नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः। (BhG.2.42) [2.7:]
 
७. धनञ्जय, [कर्मफले] सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा, कर्माणि कुरु। (BhG.2.48) [2.55:]O अर्जुन, being free from attachment [toward the result of actions], [then] perform action.
 
८. यन्मनो हि (=यस्मात्) चरतामिन्द्रियाणामनुविधीयते। (BhG.2.67) [2.55:]– Because, that very mind, which follows after the roaming senses.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 2.65–112:

Vocab Excer

Internal vowel and consonant सन्धि rules will be dealt with as and when we come across their individual application in forming verbal and nominal forms in much later lessons (34 through 55). With the exception of a few of these rules being involved in nominal declension (see Lesson 15), all these internal सन्धि rules are of little use until verb and nominal formations need to be explained. They are assembled here as a quick reference. As a group, they make an odd assortment of explanations to why certain forms of words are seen in the language. The list here is an abbreviated list to cover the largest number of forms. Some are very peculiar to only one or a few forms, but those forms are commonly found in the literature.

In this Aruna Coursebook overview, unless told otherwise, just look the rules over, understand how the rules/charts are to be interpreted, and remember that such rules exist in the grammar. You are not expected in general to memorize them at this stage – just gain a familiarity with them.

Vocabulary 10

इह लोके भैक्ष्यम् अपि भोक्तुं श्रेयः [स्यात्]। (BhG.2.5)
[It would be] better to beg alms here in the world [i.e., become a renunciate].
5. इह
here
fr. इह in.
6. लोके
in the world
fr. लोक m. sg. loc.
4. भैक्ष्यम् भोक्तुं
beg alms
fr. भैक्ष्य n. sg. acc.; भोक्तुम् inf. of √भुज् in. (SG.7.20:)
3. अपि
[and even]
fr. अपि in.
2. श्रेयः
better
fr. श्रेयस् cpv. a. n. sg. nom. (SG.6.25: & SG.3.14:)
1. [स्यात्]
[it would be]
fr. √अस् 2.P. pot. 3rd sg.

धर्म-सम्मूढ-चेताः त्वां पृच्छामि – यद् निश्चितं श्रेयः स्यात्, तद् मे ब्रूहि। (BhG.2.7)
[Being] confused about धर्म, I ask You – what is definitely श्रेयस्? That, please tell me.
3. धर्म-
about duty, what supports [the world]
2. -सम्मूढ-
[that is] confused
1. -चेताः
having a mind
fr. धर्म-सम्मूढ-चेतस् a. m. sg. nom. (SG.3.6.i:)
5. त्वां
you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. acc.
4. पृच्छामि
I ask
fr. √प्रछ् 6.P. pr. 1st sg.
6. यद्
what
fr. यद् prn. n. sg. nom.
8. निश्चितं
definitely
fr. विनिश्चितम् in.
9. श्रेयः
the ultimate good
fr. श्रेयस् cpv. n. sg. nom. (SG.6.25: & SG.3.14:)
7. स्यात्
would be
fr. √अस् 2.P. pot. 3rd sg.
10. तद्
that
fr. तद् prn. n. sg. acc.
12. मे
me
fr. अहम् prn. sg. dat. (SG.4.2: & SG.7.10.A.1:)
11. ब्रूहि
please tell
fr. √ब्रू 2.P. impv. 2nd sg.

सञ्जयः उवाच। भारत, हृषीक-ईशः प्रहसन् इव तम् उभयोः सेनयोः मध्ये विषीदन्तम् इदं वचः उवाच। (BhG.2.10)
सञ्जय said: O धृतराष्ट्र, with a smile, कृष्ण said these words to him [अर्जुन] who was sad in the midst of both armies.
1. सञ्जयः
सञ्जय [the narraror of the Gītā]
fr. सञ्जय m. sg. nom.
2. उवाच
said
fr. √वच् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.10.3:)
3. भारत
(धृतराष्ट्र) O Descendant of Emperor भरत
fr. भारत m. sg. voc.
5. हृषीक-ईशः
(कृष्ण) lord of the senses
fr. हृषीक-ईश m. sg. nom. (SG.2.8: & SG.2.3:)
4. प्रहसन् इव
as though laughing, with a smile
fr. प्रहसत् pr. pt. of प्र + √हस् pt. m. sg. nom.; इव in.
9. तम्
to him [अर्जुन]
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. acc.
12. उभयोः
of both
fr. उभा prn. a. f. du. gen. (SG.4.16.b:)
13. सेनयोः
of the two armies
fr. सेना f. du. gen.
11. मध्ये
in the midst
fr. मध्य n. sg. loc.
10. विषीदन्तम्
[who] was sad
fr. विषीदत् pr. pt. of वि + √सद् 1.P. a. m. sg. acc.
7. इदं
this (these)
fr. इदम् prn. n. sg. acc.
8. वचः
words
fr. वचस् n. sg. acc. (SG.7.4.1:)
6. उवाच
said
fr. √वच् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.10.3:)

सतः अ-भावः न विद्यते। (BhG.2.16)
The real has no non-being.
1. सतः
the real [has]
fr. सत् pr. pt. of √अस् n. sg. gen. (SG.5.19.4:)
3. अ-भावः
non-being
fr. अभाव m. sg. nom.
2. न विद्यते
no
fr. न in.; √विद् ps. pr. 3rd sg.

अथ चेद् त्वम् इमं धर्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि। (BhG.2.33)
Now if you will not undertake this battle on the side of धर्म.
1. अथ
now
fr. अथ in.
2. चेद्
if
fr. चेद् in.
3. त्वम्
you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. nom.
5. इमं
this
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. acc.
7. धर्म्यं
on the side of धर्म
fr. धर्म्य a. m. sg. acc.
6. सङ्ग्रामं
battle
fr. सङ्ग्राम m. sg. acc.
4. न करिष्यसि
will not undertake
fr. न in.; √कृ P. fut. 2nd sg.

Exercise 10

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied. One last time, help is given with the applicable rules.

१. सञ्जय उवाच। भारत, हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव तमुभयोः सेनयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वच उवाच। (BhG.2.10) [2.31:, 2.8:, 2.62:, 2.29:, 2.31:]सञ्जय said: O धृतराष्ट्र, with a smile, कृष्ण said these words to him [अर्जुन] who was sad in the midst of both armies.
 
२. न त्वेव जात्वहं नासं, न त्वं, नेमे जनाधिपाः। न चैव सर्वे वयमतः परं न भिविष्यामः। (BhG.2.12) [2.11:, 2.7:, 2.8:, 2.7:, 2.9:]
 
३. कौन्तेय, मात्रास्पर्शास्तु शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदा आगमापायिनोऽनित्याः। (BhG.2.14) [2.27:, 2.8:, 2.30:, 2.7:, 2.32:]
 
४. असतः (=सतोऽन्यस्य) भावो न विद्यते| तत्त्वदर्शिभिरुभयोरप्यनयोरन्तस्तु दृष्टः। (BhG.2.16) [2.32:, 2.33:, 2.32:, 2.33:, 2.29:, 2.11:, 2.29:, 2.27:, 2.32:]असत् (unreal, the time-bound) has no being [of its own], and सत् (the real) has no non-being. [This] conclusion regarding both these is discerned by the seers of the truth.
 
५. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] हन्तारं वेत्ति, यश्चैनं हतं मन्यते, उभौ तौ न विजानीतः। (BhG.2.19) [2.31:, 2.27:, 2.9:]]The one who thinks this [embodied one, the real, the self-evident subject] is the agent of destruction [change, etc.], and the one who thinks this [embodied one, the real] is the object of destruction [etc.] – both do not know.
 
६. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] अविनाशिनं वेद, कथं स पुरुषः कं घातयति। (BhG.2.21) [2.31:, 2.37:][When] one who knows this [embodied one, the real] to be indestructible, [then] how does that person cause the death of whom?
 
७. सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34) [2.7:, 2.29:, 2.42:]
 
८. अव्यवसायिनां [श्रेयोमार्गे] बुद्धयो बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च। (BhG.2.41) [2.33:, 2.30:, 2.11:, 2.27:]
 
९. तया [पुष्पितया वाचा] अपहृतचेतसां भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ (=अन्तःकरणे) न विधीयते। (BhG.2.44) [2.10:, 2.7:]For those whose minds are carried away by that [flowery talk], and who are attached to consumption and power, a well-discerned knowledge is not formed in समाधि (their minds).

As additional practice with सन्धि rules, you may look at the exercise in Lesson 44. This has the complete second chapter verses with their words in original verse order, their सन्धि-s split up and the compound words hyphenated. You may practice making and breaking these सन्धि-s by comparing that section with the original verses in the Bhagavad Gita Second Chapter section that you have been reading daily.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.1:; 7.4–5:; Sanskrit Grammar 7.7–8:

Vocab Excer

Declension terminations are appended to the end of the stems of nouns (substantives and adjectives), pronouns and numerals, to make them into words (शब्द-s) that can be used in sentence formations. The termination chosen helps determine the word’s meaning within the sentence by indicating its relationship to the verb, to another noun (substantive or adjective) or verbal participle, or to a preposition in the sentence. The termination also indicates the quantity of the entity denoted.

In the English language, these are indicated mostly by a combination of auxiliary prepositions, a small assortment of terminations, and by the position of the word in the sentence. In the sentence “the tourists were approached by the lionesses,” we know that more than one lioness performed the action of approaching because of the termination “-es” and the preceding preposition “by.” If the sentence was “the lionesses were approached by the tourists,” then the lionesses became the object of the action of approaching.

This same information can be supplied in संस्कृत by appending a single declension termination to the word and without regard for the word’s position in the sentence. In this way the single word can indicate that more than one lion is the agent of the action of the verb – this without need of an auxiliary preposition or a specific position of the word in the sentence.

These terminations are called case terminations, and each of the cases are divided into three numbers – singular, dual and plural.

Terminations are also distinguished by a grammatical gender – masculine, neuter and feminine – although the gender is usually already indicated in the grammatical gender of the stem or by addition of a gender suffix at the end of the stem. The grammatical gender of a nominal stem in संस्कृत often has no relationship to the sex of the entity, like in English we may call a ship a “she” and an animal an “it.”

Adjectives are related to a substantive in a sentence by being put in the same gender, number and case as the substantive.

Vocabulary 11

यथा नरः जीर्णानि वासांसि विहाय अपराणि नवानि गृह्णाति, तथा देही जीर्णानि शरीराणि विहाय अन्यानि नवानि संयाति। (BhG.2.22)
Just as a person discarding worn-out clothes takes on other new ones, similarly the embodied one discarding worn-out bodies takes on other new ones.
1. यथा
just as
fr. यथा in.
2. नरः
a person
fr. नर m. sg. nom.
4. जीर्णानि
worn-out
fr. जीर्ण a. n. pl. acc.
5. वासांसि
clothes
fr. वासस् n. pl. acc. (SG.3.6.i:)
3. विहाय
discarding
fr. विहाय in. pt. of वि + √हा
7. अपराणि
other (ones)
fr. अपर prn. a. n. pl. acc. (SG.4.16.3:)
8. नवानि
new
fr. नव a. n. pl. acc.
6. गृह्णाति
takes
fr. √ग्रह् 9.P. pr. 3rd sg.
9. तथा
similarly
fr. तथा in.
10. देही
the embodied one
fr. देहिन् m. sg. nom.
12. जीर्णानि
worn-out
fr. जीर्ण a. n. pl. acc.
13. शरीराणि
bodies
fr. शरीर n. pl. acc.
11. विहाय
discarding
fr. विहाय in. pt. of वि + √हा
15. अन्यानि
other (ones)
fr. अन्य prn. a. n. pl. acc. (SG.4.16.1:)
16. नवानि
new
fr. नव a. n. pl. acc.
14. संयाति
takes on
fr. सम् + √या 2.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.2.54:)

आपः एनं न क्लेदयन्ति, मारुतः न च शोषयति। (BhG.2.23)
[The element] water does not soak, nor [does the element] wind wither it.
1. आपः
[the element] water
fr. अप् f. pl. nom. (SG.3.16:)
5. एनं
it
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
2. न क्लेदयन्ति
does not soak
fr. न in.; √क्लिद् P. cs. pr. 3rd pl. (SG.5.40:)
3. मारुतः
[the element] wind
fr. मारुत m. sg. nom.
4. न च शोषयति
does not wither [it]
fr. न in.; च in.; √शुष् P. cs. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.40:)

अ-विपश्चितः वेद-वाद-रताः काम-आत्मानः पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)
The unwise, who remain engrossed in [the bulk of] the words of the वेद-s [which deal with heaven-going and gaining power, wealth, and progeny] and who are full of desires, spout flowery discourse.
1. अ-विपश्चितः
the unwise
fr. अविपश्चित् a. m. pl. nom.
4. वेद-
of [sacred] knowledge, the four वेद-s
3. -वाद-
in the words
2. -रताः
[who remain] engrossed
fr. वेद-वाद-रत a. m. pl. nom.
6. काम-
desires
5. -आत्मानः
[who are] full of
fr. काम-आत्मन् a. m. pl. nom. (SG.2.7:)
8. पुष्पितां वाचं
flowery discourse
fr. पुष्पिता pp. of √पुष्प् a. f. sg. acc.; वाच् f. sg. acc.
7. प्रवदन्ति
(they) proclaim, spout
fr. प्र + √वद् 1.P. pr. 3rd pl.

Exercise 11

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. इह लोके भैक्ष्यमपि भोक्तुं श्रेयः [स्यात्], अर्थकामांस्तु गुरून्हत्वा। (BhG.2.5)[It would be] better to beg alms here in the world [i.e., become a renunciate], than kill [these] गुरु-s seeking [their own] ends.
 
२. धर्मसम्मूढचेतास्त्वां पृच्छामि – यन्निश्चितं श्रेयः स्यात्, तन्मे ब्रूहि। (BhG.2.7)[Being] confused about धर्म, I ask You – What is definitely श्रेयस्? That, please tell me.
 
३. सञ्जय उवाच। भारत, हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव तमुभयोः सेनयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वच उवाच। (BhG.2.10)सञ्जय said: O दृतराष्ट्र, with a smile, कृष्ण said these words to him [अर्जुन] who was sad in the midst of both armies.
 
४. पण्डिता गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11)
 
५. असतः (=सतोऽन्यस्य) भावो न विद्यते| तत्त्वदर्शिभिरुभयोरप्यनयोरन्तस्तु दृष्टः। (BhG.2.16)असत् (unreal, the time-bound) has no being [of its own], and सत् (the real) has no non-being. [This] conclusion regarding both these is discerned by the seers of the truth.
 
६. तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे त्वं शोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.27)
 
७. अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि। (BhG.2.33)Now if you will not undertake this battle on the side of धर्म.
 
८. सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34)
 
९. अविपश्चितो वेदवादरता नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः कामात्मानः पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)The unwise, who remain engrossed in [the bulk of] the words of the वेद-s [which deal with heaven-going and gaining power, wealth, and progeny], arguing that [there] is nothing more, and who are full of desires, [they] spout flowery discourse.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.2–4:; 7.9–11:

Vocab Excer

Chart 3.2: The Normal Case Terminations also should be put to memory. The rest of the declension charts look much like this one. These terminations, with slight modifications, are added to consonant-ending (and with greater modifications to vowel-ending) stems (called प्रतिपादिक-s) to form declined words (शब्द-s).

Across the top of the chart are labeled the number columns: singular, dual and plural. On the left side are labeled the case rows: nominative, vocative, etc. Notice that some rows for the same number have the same termination. This is indicated by a larger block within the chart including the rows (i.e., the cases) which have that termination in common. For example, the neuter singular termination is the same for nom., voc. and acc. cases, and that termination happens to be “–”, which means “nothing,” i.e., nothing is added to the stem. The context of the word in composition will then determine which case is appropriate.

In drawing these charts, I have more or less followed a Western format (the nom., voc., acc. order) with some innovation, in that they show just the ending of the stem joined with the terminations. This format emphasizes the similarity of nom. and voc. cases; clearly shows what happens to the end of the stem when in contact with the termination; and further it facilitates remembering the terminations from top down in each of the columns, i.e., sg. nom., sg. voc., sg. acc., etc.

The traditional Indian format de-emphasizes the voc. case (which after all is not as common, and does not express a relationship with other words within sentences 3.1.c:). The traditional format also is a completely filled out chart for each row, with an example stem used before each of the terminations. The student then reads those words across each row, on down each of the rows, i.e., nom. sg., nom. du., nom. pl, acc. sg., acc. du., etc. There is a sing-song rhythm to this method of reciting with a pause at the end of each row, and is useful for those with good verbal memorization capabilities, which traditional Indian schooling drills into its students from a young age.

If you have been taught the traditional method and you feel it will work for you again, then carefully re-write the charts in that format. My half-way suggestion is that you only write the stem less its stem-ending once at the top of the chart (as in the top left box in bold in the second row of the following chart) and write out each the stem-endings plus terminations by themselves in each cell, for the above given reason. With this method you should only write one gender per chart (if there is a difference), with one example word. Chart 3.5: would then look like the following, with a separate chart for neuter word जगत्.

3.5: Unchangeable Stem – Dental ॰त्मरुत् (maru̍-t) m. “wind”
मरु॰ए॰ Singularद्वि॰ Dualब॰ Plural
प्र॰ N.॰त् (स्)॰तौ (औ)॰तः(अस्)
द्वि॰ A.॰तम् (अम्)॰तौ (औ)॰तः (अस्)
तृ॰ I.॰ता (आ)॰द्भ्याम् (भ्याम्)॰द्भिः (भिस्)
च॰ D.॰ते (ए)॰द्भ्याम् (भ्याम्)॰द्भ्यः (भ्यस्)
प॰ Ab.॰तः (अस्)॰द्भ्याम् (भ्याम्)॰द्भ्यः (भ्यस्)
ष॰ G.॰तः (अस्)॰तोः (ओस्)॰ताम् (आम्)
स॰ L.॰ति (इ)॰तोः (ओस्)॰त्सु (सु)
सं॰ V.॰त् (–)॰तौ (औ)॰तः (अस्)

This chart would be recited: मरुत्, मरुतौ, मरुतः, मरुतम्, मरुतौ, etc. Notice how the stem and termination come together, i.e., मरु॰ and ॰त् become मरुत्. The normal case terminations may be repeated in parenthesis as above in these charts to reinforce your remembrance, and/or to contrast if and when there is a difference from the normal case termination. With this method of charting, then 3.6: would add another 23 charts! There are books, such as Sabda Manjari, which present these separate traditional declension charts.

Vocabulary 12

दुःखेषु अन्-उद्विग्न-मनाः सुखेषु विगत-स्पृहः। (BhG.2.56)
The one whose mind is not afflicted in adversities and who has no longing in pleasures.
3. दुःखेषु
in adversities
fr. दुःख n. pl. loc.
2. अन्-उद्विग्न-
is not afflicted
1. -मनाः
whose mind
fr. अनुद्विग्न-मनस् a. m. sg. nom.
6. सुखेषु
in pleasures
fr. सुख n. pl. loc.
4. विगत-
who has no
5. -स्पृहः
longing
fr. विगत-स्पृह a. m. sg. nom. (SG.3.6.i:)

प्रसन्न-चेतसः हि (=यस्मात्) बुद्धिः आशु पर्यवतिष्ठते। (BhG.2.65)
Because, for one whose mind is clear, [self-]knowledge [which destroys the sorrow] quickly becomes firm.
3. प्रसन्न-
is clear
2. -चेतसः
for the one whose mind
fr. प्रसन्न-चेतस् a. m. sg. gen.
1. हि (=यस्मात्)
because
fr. हि in.
4. बुद्धिः
[self-]knowledge
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. nom.
5. आशु
quickly
fr. आशु in.
6. पर्यवतिष्ठते
becomes firm
fr. परि + अव + √स्था 1.Ā. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.15.4:)

तद् [मनः] अस्य प्रज्ञां हरति, वायुः अम्भसि नावम् इव [हरति]। (BhG.2.67)
That [mind] takes away one’s wisdom, like the wind [takes away] a small boat on the water.
1. तद् [मनः]
that [mind]
fr. तद् prn. n. sg. nom.
3. अस्य
one’s
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. gen. (SG.4.8:)
4. प्रज्ञां
wisdom
fr. प्रज्ञा f. sg. acc.
2. हरति
takes away
fr. √हृ 1.P. pr. 3rd sg.
6. वायुः [हरति]
the wind [takes away]
fr. वायु m. sg. nom.
8. अम्भसि
on the water
fr. अम्भस् n. sg. loc.
7. नावम्
a small boat
fr. नौ f. sg. acc.
5. इव
like, similar to
fr. इव in.

ओं तद् सत्। इति श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीतासु उपनिषत्सु साङ्ख्य-योगः नाम द्वितीयः अध्यायः। (BhG.2.End)
ओं (ब्रह्मन्, the witness of all,) is that [only] reality. Thus ends the second chapter, called “The Topic of Knowledge,” of the [eighteen chapters of] Songs of the Glorious Lord, which is [looked upon as] उपनिषद्.
1. ओं
ओम् (ब्रह्मन्, the witness of all,)
fr. ओम् in.
2. तद् सत्
[is] that [only] reality
fr. तद् prn. n. sg. nom.; सत् n. sg. nom.
3. इति
(quote-end quote), thus ends
fr. इति in.
10. श्रीमद्-
of the venerable, the glorious
11. -भगवद्-
one having [limitless] glories, Lord
9. -गीतासु
in [i.e., of] songs
fr. श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीता f. pl. loc. (SG.2.43:)
12. उपनिषत्सु
[which are/is looked upon as] उपनिषद्, sacred scripture
fr. उपनिषद् f. pl. loc. (SG.6.24:)
8. साङ्ख्य-
of knowledge
7. -योगः
the topic
fr. साङ्ख्य-योग a. m. sg. nom.
6. नाम
by the name, called
fr. नाम in.
4. द्वितीयः
the second
fr. द्वितीय ordinal a. m. sg. nom.
5. अध्यायः
chapter
fr. अध्याय m. sg. nom.

Exercise 12

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. मधुसूदनस्तं कृपयाविष्टमुवाच। (BhG.2.1)
 
२. इह लोके भैक्ष्यमपि भोक्तुं श्रेयः [स्यात्], अर्थकामांस्तु गुरून्हत्वा। (BhG.2.5)
 
३. धर्मसम्मूढचेतास्त्वां पृच्छामि – यन्निश्चितं श्रेयः स्यात्, तन्मे ब्रूहि। (BhG.2.7)
 
४. सञ्जय उवाच। भारत, हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव तमुभयोः सेनयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वच उवाच। (BhG.2.10)
 
५. असतः (=सतोऽन्यस्य) भावो न विद्यते, सतोऽभावो न विद्यते| तत्त्वदर्शिभिरुभयोरप्यनयोरन्तस्तु दृष्टः। (BhG.2.16)असत् (the unreal, the time-bound form) has no being of its own, and सत् (the real, existence) has no nonbeing. This conclusion, regarding both these, is discerned by the seers of the truth.
 
६. यथा नरो जीर्णानि वासांसि विहायापराणि नवानि गृह्णाति, तथा देही जीर्णानि शरीराणि विहायान्यानि नवानि संयाति। (BhG.2.22)Just as a person discarding worn-out clothes takes on other new ones, similarly the embodied one discarding worn-out bodies takes on other new ones.
 
७. आप एनं न क्लेदयन्ति, मारुतो न च शोषयति। (BhG.2.23)[The element] water does not soak, nor [does the element] wind wither it.
 
८. अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि। (BhG.2.33)
 
९. प्रसन्नचेतसो हि (=यस्मात्) बुद्धिराशु पर्यवतिष्ठते। (BhG.2.65)Because, for one whose mind is clear, [self-]knowledge [which destroys the sorrow] quickly becomes firm.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.5:; 7.12–13:

Vocab Excer

What is meant by “unchangeable stem” is that the end of the stem does not undergo any change, apart from सन्धि rules changes, which are explained in the footnotes to the charts. A stem is unchangeable because it is not a changeable stem. This is not meant to be a tautology. What is meant is that there are a limited set of fairly recognizable changeable stems, given in 3.7–26:, and those consonant-ending stems in the language that are not one of the changeable will follow the unchangeable stem paradigms given in 3.5–6:.

It is best to think of declension (as well as verbal conjugation 5.1:) as an exercise in word math. This math for declension looks like this: stem-base + (stem-ending + termination). In the case of unchangeable stems it is simple math, since generally only simple general सन्धि rules come into play, e.g., du. inst. मरुद्भाम् maru-d-bhām. The charts show how to identify the stem-ending component from the rest of the stem by inserting a hyphen between the two in the transliteration of the paradigm word, e.g., मरुत् maru-t. What is before the hyphen never changes; what is after the hyphen may change by सन्धि.

The only unchangeable stem ending in dental त् in chapter 2 is the negative word अविपश्चित् avipaści-t (“unwise”) in verse 46 declined in sg. gen. अविपश्चितः avipaści-taḥ, and its positive विपश्चित् vipaści-t (“wise”) in verse 60 declined in sg. gen. विपश्चितः.

Pay attention to how chart SG.3.5: groups masculine and feminine together as having the same terminations. The same goes for the rest of the consonant-ending unchangeable stems (3.6:). But they are unique in that hardly any other category of stems has the same terminations for both masculine and feminine (only ॰ई ॰ऊ vowel-ending stems 3.36:, as adjectives, also have this identity), although this is mostly because the masculine and feminine stems themselves are different from each other, as will be explained in those lessons.

Vocabulary 13

तव च अ-हिताः तव सामर्थ्यं निन्दन्तः बहून् अ-वाच्य-वादान् वदिष्यन्ति। (BhG.2.36)
Moreover, your enemies, belittling your prowess, will speak many, unutterable words [about you].
1. तव च
moreover your
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. gen. (SG.4.2:); च in.
2. अ-हिताः
enemies
fr. अहित m. pl. nom.
4. तव सामर्थ्यं
your prowess
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. gen.; सामर्थ्य n. sg. acc.
3. निन्दन्तः
belittling
fr. निन्दत् pr. pt. of √निन्द्1.P. pt. m. pl. nom.
6. बहून्
many
fr. बहु a. m. pl. acc.
7. अ-वाच्य-
unutterable
8. -वादान्
words [about you]
fr. अवाच्य-वाद m. pl. acc.
5. वदिष्यन्ति
will speak
fr. √वद् P. fut. 3rd pl.

महतः भयात् त्रायते। (BhG.2.40)
Protects from great fear.
2. महतः
from great
fr. महत् a. n. sg. abl.
3. भयात्
fear
fr. भय n. sg. abl.
1. त्रायते
protects
fr. √त्रै 1.Ā. pr. 3rd sg.

आत्मवान् भव। (BhG.2.45)
Be attentive.
2. आत्मवान्
[and] attentive
fr. आत्मवत् a. m. sg. nom.
1. भव
(you) be
fr. √भू 1.P. impv. 2nd sg.

यावान् सर्वतः सम्प्लुत-उदके उद-पाने अर्थः (=प्रयोजनं), तावान् [सद्-वस्तु] विजानतः ब्राह्मणस्य सर्वेषु वेदेषु [अर्थः]। (BhG.2.46)
For a ब्राह्मण (contemplative person) who knows [सत्, the all pervading reality], there is as much usefulness in all the वेद-s as [there is] in a small watering hole [in a once-dry river bed], when water is in a flood everywhere [i.e., seeing the truth everywhere, one is no longer dependent on the वेद-s].
5. यावान्
as [much]
fr. यावत् prn. a. m. sg. nom.
10. सर्वतः
everywhere
fr. सर्वतस् in.
9. सम्प्लुत-
is flooded
8. -उदके
when water
fr. सम्प्लुत-उदक n. sg. loc. (SG.2.8: & SG.2.3:)
7. उद-पाने
in a small watering hole
fr. उद-पान m. sg. loc.
6. अर्थः (=प्रयोजनं)
usefulness
fr. अर्थ m. sg. nom.
3. तावान्
[there is] that much, as much
fr. तावत् prn. a. m. sg. nom.
2. विजानतः
who knows [the all pervading reality]
fr. विजानत् pr. pt. of वि + √ज्ञा a. m. sg. gen. (SG.5.23.2:)
1. ब्राह्मणस्य
for a ब्राह्मण (contemplative person)
fr. ब्राह्मण m. sg. gen.
4. सर्वेषु वेदेषु [अर्थः]
[usefulness] in all the वेद [rituals]
fr. सर्व prn. a. m. pl. loc. (SG.4.16.2:); वेद m. pl. loc.

Exercise 13

Review all the vocabularies from Lessons 4 – 13. In the review, just pay attention to how the cases of the words given in the last column are rendered in the English translation in the second column, and how these fit with the syntax rules of the seven cases given in the 7.7–13:, and how they relate to the English meaning of the verb and with other words and their cases in each of the phrases. Here we are only looking at the English rendering, not the form of the declined words in संस्कृत, which we have just started learning. These words that are declined can be identified by the abbreviations, “nom.”, “acc.”, etc. at the end of the grammar description, ignore the rest of the words for now. Some of these declined words are adjectives (abbreviated “a.”) that then take the same gender, etc. as their denoted (or understood) substantive. Continue this practice in the subsequent vocabularies. In this way, you will easily gain an understanding of the cases.

Close your eyes and decline the word मरुत्. Some of you will decline it down each of the columns (Western method), others will decline it across the rows (Indian method), and the global language geniuses among you will be able to do both.

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. अविपश्चितो वेदवादरता नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः कामात्मानः पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)The unwise, who remain engrossed in [the bulk of] the words of the वेद-s [which deal with heaven-going and gaining power, wealth, and progeny], arguing that [there] is nothing more, and who are full of desires, [they] spout flowery discourse.
 
२. दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः। (BhG.2.56)The one whose mind is not afflicted in adversities and who has no longing in pleasures.
 
३. यन्मनो हि (=यस्मात्) चरतामिन्द्रियाणामनुविधीयते, तद् [मनः] अस्य प्रज्ञां हरति, वायुरम्भसि नावमिव [हरति]। (BhG.2.67)– Because, that very mind, which follows after the roaming senses, takes away one’s wisdom, like the wind [takes away] a small boat on the water.
 
४. ओं तत्सत्। इति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु साङ्ख्ययोगो नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः। (BhG.2.End)ओं (ब्रह्मन्, the witness of all,) is that [only] reality. Thus ends the second chapter, called “The Topic of Knowledge,” of the [eighteen chapters of] Songs of the Glorious Lord, which is [looked upon as] उपनिषद्.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.6:; 7.1–3:

Vocab Excer

Chart 3.6: gives a list of consonant stem-endings with an unchangeable stem that occur in the language. These are not the only stems (words) that are unchangeable; these are only representatives of the stems (words) that have these different stem-endings.

Only four of the possible 24 forms (8 cases  3 numbers) are given, since unchangeable stems only undergo simple सन्धि modifications with their terminations.

Nominative singular is given as सन्धि reduces the final of the word to one permitted final consonant. Nominative plural is given as it adds a vowel initial termination demonstrating that no general सन्धि occurs in internal combining of consonant stem-endings before vowel initial terminations, and also because it has a special form in neuter (3.2.b:). Instrumental plural is given as it demonstrates what happens to the stem-ending when in contact with an initial भ्, and locative plural when in contact with an initial स्.

You will find it helpful to work your way down each of these columns to see how the different stem-endings interact with the same type of termination. All other case and number combinations are the same as one of these type. Take one of the paradigms given and write out the full chart, see below. You will find that only the four forms given are enough to help you figure the rest.

Chart 3.6: also brings our first encounter with instances of internal सन्धि, in rule 2.101: and .94:, and the uncommonly employed rule 2.77:. Notice how in 3.6.c:, .g: and .m: a general सन्धि rule application can trigger the application of internal सन्धि rules. After joining terminations to stems, one needs to then review the word as a whole, in which case two internal सन्धि rules in particular may commonly be triggered, namely 2.101: and .92:. Please look closely at both these rules and their footnotes in the Grammar Reference, since these commonly occur in the process of making declined and conjugated words.

We need not try to memorize all these forms during this first pass through the grammar. Just understand that such forms exist, that सन्धि rules affect the declined form, and that there may be special forms in declension, such as lengthening of the vowel, which the charts or footnotes to the charts clearly explain.

Let’s see how we can work with these charts that only give four forms of each of the examples. To see a full chart of any one of these examples, then we need to discern which declension endings belong to which of the four forms given. The following, based on 3.2:, shows how this is done.

3.2: Normal Case Terminations
1. With a Consonant as Final (e.g., Nom. Sg.).
2. With a Vowel Termination (e.g., Nom. Pl.).
3. With a Soft Pada Termination (e.g., Inst. Pl.).
4. With a Hard Pada Termination (e.g., Loc. Pl.).
ए॰ Singularद्वि॰ Dualब॰ Plural
पुं॰ m. स्त्री॰ f.नपुं॰ n.पुं॰ m. स्त्री॰ f.नपुं॰ n.पुं॰ m. स्त्री॰ f.नपुं॰ n.
प्र॰ N.स्अस्
सं॰ V.
द्वि॰ A.अम्
तृ॰ I.भ्याम् aभिस्
च॰ D.भ्यस्
प॰ Ab.अस्
ष॰ G.ओस्आम्
स॰ L.सु

Now let’s replace the first example for the aspirated थ् from chart 3.6:. We simply replace the indicatory numbers with the full entry (the complete example stem) for that column as follows.

3.6: Unchangeable Stem – Dental ॰थ्॰मथ् (math) a. “-destroying”, e.g., मधुमथ् m. “Lord Viṣṇu, destroyer of Madhu”
ए॰ Singularद्वि॰ Dualब॰ Plural
पुं॰ m. स्त्री॰ f.नपुं॰ n.पुं॰ m. स्त्री॰ f.नपुं॰ n.पुं॰ m. स्त्री॰ f.नपुं॰ n.
प्र॰ N.॰मत्॰मत्॰मथौ॰मथी॰मथः॰मन्थि
सं॰ V.॰मत्
द्वि॰ A.॰मथम्
तृ॰ I.॰मथा॰मद्भ्याम्॰मद्भिः
च॰ D.॰मथे॰मद्भ्यः
प॰ Ab.॰मथः
ष॰ G.॰मथोः॰मथाम्
स॰ L.॰मथि॰मत्सु

See how each of these are derived from one of the appropriate four columns in 3.6:. In this way, you can see how the rest of the examples can be applied to each of the remaining types of unchangeable stems.

The unchangeable stems ending in a consonant other than dental त् in chapter 2 are.

Dental उपनिषद् f. pl. loc. उपनिषत्सु (2.End) upaniṣa-t-su “in the Upaniṣad-s”
Palatal वाच् f. sg. acc. वाचम् (2.42) vā-c-am “talk”
f. sg. inst. (वाचा) (2.44) (vā-c-ā) “by talk”
Stems
in स्
अम्भस् n. sg. loc. अम्भसि (2.67) ambh-as-i “on the water”
अपहृत-चेतस् m. pl. gen. -चेतसाम् (2.44) -cet-as-ām “for those whose minds are carried away”
धर्म-सम्मूढ-चेतस् m. sg. nom. -चेताः (2.7) -cet-āḥ “with a mind confused about धर्म”
प्रसन्न-चेतस् m. sg. gen. -चेतसः (2.65) -cet-as-aḥ “for one whose mind is clear”
मनस् n. sg. nom. मनः (2.67) man-aḥ “the mind”
अन्-उद्विग्न-मनस् m. sg. nom. -मनाः (2.56) -man-āḥ “the one whose mind is not afflicted”
वचस् n. sg. acc. वचः (2.10) vac-aḥ “the statement”
वासस् n. pl. acc. वासांसि (2.22) vās-āṃs-i “clothes”

Vocabulary 14

नित्यस्य (=अ-कालस्य) अ-नाशिनः अ-प्रमेयस्य (=मनो-विषयत्वम् अयोग्यस्य) शरीरिणः इमे देहाः अन्तवन्तः उक्ताः। (BhG.2.18)
These bodies of the timeless, indestructible, non-objectifiable [as the self-evident subject] embodied one [who obtains as the being/reality of these body-mind complexes] are said to be subject to [unavoidable] death.
3. नित्यस्य (=अ-कालस्य)
of the timeless
fr. नित्य a. m. sg. gen.
4. अ-नाशिनः
indestructible
fr. अनाशिन् a. m. sg. gen.
5. अ-प्रमेयस्य (=मनस्-विषयत्वम् अ-योग्यस्य)
non-objectifiable
fr. अप्रमेय a. m. sg. gen.
6. शरीरिणः
the embodied [one]
fr. शरीरिन् a. m. sg. gen.
1. इमे
these
fr. इदम् prn. m. pl. nom. (SG.4.8:)
2. देहाः
bodies
fr. देह m. pl. nom.
8. अन्तवन्तः
subject to death
fr. अन्तवत् a. m. pl. nom. (SG.7.7.1:)
7. उक्ताः
are said [to be]
fr. उक्त pp. of √वच् pt. m. pl. nom. (SG.6.6:)

कौन्तेय, विपश्चितः हि (=यस्मात्) पुरुषस्य यततः अपि। (BhG.2.60)
– Because, O अर्जुन, even though a discerning person puts forth effort.
2. कौन्तेय
(अर्जुन) O Son of कुन्ती
fr. कौन्तेय m. sg. voc.
4. विपश्चितः
a discerning
fr. विपश्चित् a. m. sg. gen.
1. हि (=यस्मात्)
because
fr. हि in.
5. पुरुषस्य
person
fr. पुरुष m. sg. gen.
6. यततः
[is] putting forth effort
fr. यतत् pr. pt. of √यत् 1.U. pt. m. sg. gen. (SG.7.14.2:)
3. अपि
even though
fr. अपि in.

विषयान् ध्यायतः पुंसः तेषु सङ्गः उपजायते। (BhG.2.62)
For a person who mentally dwells on objects, attachment to them arises.
3. विषयान्
on objects
fr. विषय m. pl. acc.
2. ध्यायतः
[who is] mentally dwelling
fr. ध्यायत् pr. pt. of √ध्यै 1.P. pt. m. sg. gen.
1. पुंसः
for a person
fr. पुमंस् m. sg. gen. (SG.3.26:)
5. तेषु
towards them
fr. तद् prn. m. pl. loc. (SG.7.13.2.c:)
4. सङ्गः
attachment
fr. सङ्ग m. sg. nom.
6. उपजायते
arises
fr. उप + √जन् 4.Ā. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.16.4:)

राग-द्वेष-वियुक्तैः तु आत्म-वश्यैः इन्द्रियैः विषयान् चरन्। (BhG.2.64)
Whereas, moving among the objects with the senses under authority of the intellect and freed from [being overpowered by] राग-द्वेष (attraction and repulsion).
7. राग-
attraction
8. -द्वेष-
and repulsion
6. -वियुक्तैः
freed from [being overpowered by]
fr. राग-द्वेष-वियुक्त a. n. pl. inst.
1. तु
whereas
fr. तु in.
5. आत्म-वश्यैः
under authority of the intellect
fr. आत्म-वश्य a. n. pl. inst.
4. इन्द्रियैः
with the senses
fr. इन्द्रिय n. pl. inst.
3. विषयान्
among the objects
fr. विषय m. pl. acc.
2. चरन्
moving
fr. चरत् pr. pt. of √चर् 1.P. pt. m. sg. nom.

Exercise 14

Now that you have been introduced to संस्कृत अन्वय, you can also pay attention to the word order given in the vocabularies in these lessons

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. धर्मसम्मूढचेतास्त्वां पृच्छामि – यन्निश्चितं श्रेयः स्यात्, तन्मे ब्रूहि। (BhG.2.7)
 
२. सञ्जय उवाच। भारत, हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव तमुभयोः सेनयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वच उवाच। (BhG.2.10)
 
३. यथा नरो जीर्णानि वासांसि विहायापराणि नवानि गृह्णाति, तथा देही जीर्णानि शरीराणि विहायान्यानि नवानि संयाति। (BhG.2.22)
 
४. अविपश्चितो वेदवादरता नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः कामात्मानः पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42)
 
५. तया [पुष्पितया वाचा] अपहृतचेतसां भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ (=अन्तःकरणे) न विधीयते। (BhG.2.44)
 
६. दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः। (BhG.2.56)
 
७. प्रसन्नचेतसो हि (=यस्मात्) बुद्धिराशु पर्यवतिष्ठते। (BhG.2.65)Because, for one whose mind is clear, [self-]knowledge [which destroys the sorrow] quickly becomes firm.
 
८. यन्मनो हि (=यस्मात्) चरतामिन्द्रियाणामनुविधीयते, तद् [मनः] अस्य प्रज्ञां हरति, वायुरम्भसि नावमिव [हरति]। (BhG.2.67)
 
९. ओं तत्सत्। इति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु साङ्ख्ययोगो नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः। (BhG.2.End)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.7–9:

Vocab Excer

The changeable stems will be either masculine or neuter, since rule 3.9: is applied to all the changeable stems to make them feminine and as a result the feminine stem changes into a vowel-ending stem and declines like नदी (3.36:). Hence only masc. and neut. are given in the charts here.

Since masc. and neut. only differ in the three cases – nom, voc. and acc., then at least these cases will show in all the charts. Like the previous declensions, special attention will also be show to pl. inst. and loc. to show सन्धि effects with ॰भ् and ॰स्. Then, for the various types of stems, certain other cases and numbers will be shown if they exhibit a special or an optional form.

If a number/case cell in this arrangement is shown blank in a chart, this only means that its form is obviously formed by application of the normal case terminations and by following the pattern of the other forms shown – not that there is no form or there is no termination in that number and case.

Vocabulary 15

श्री-भगवान् उवाच। (BhG.2.11)
The Lord said.
1. श्री-भगवान्
the Lord
fr. श्री-भगवत् m. sg. nom.
2. उवाच
said
fr. √वच् P. perf. 3rd sg. (5.10.3:)

देहिनः, यथा अस्मिन् देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा [च], तथा देह-अन्तर-प्राप्तिः। (BhG.2.13)
For the देहिन् (one with a body, the आत्मन् self), like [passing through] childhood, maturity and old age in this body, so too [for the देहिन् who remains the same] there is the gain of another body.
1. देहिनः
for the देहिन् (one with a body)
fr. देहिन् m. sg. gen.
2. यथा
like
fr. यथा in.
6. अस्मिन् देहे
in this body
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. loc. (SG.4.8:); देह m. sg. loc.
3. कौमारं
[passing through] childhood
fr. कौमार n. sg. nom.
4. यौवनं
maturity
fr. यौवन n. sg. nom.
5. जरा [च]
[and] old age
fr. जरा f. sg. nom.
7. तथा
so too
fr. तथा in.
9. देह-अन्तर-
of another body
8. -प्राप्तिः
[there is] the gain
fr. देह-अन्तर-प्राप्ति f. sg. nom. (SG.2.7:)

न च अ-भावयतः शान्तिः। (BhG.2.66)
For the non-contemplative, there is no clarity.
2 न च
nor, there is no
fr. न in.; च in.
1. अ-भावयतः
for the non-contemplative
fr. अभावयत् pr. pt. of cs. √भू 1.P. m. sg. gen. (SG.5.40:)
3. शान्तिः
clarity
fr. शान्ति f. sg. nom.

यस्यां भूतानि जाग्रति, सा [सद्-वस्तु] पश्यतः मुनेः निशा [इव]। (BhG.2.69)
In what beings are awake, that is [like] night for the wise one who sees clearly [the real].
1. यस्यां
in what [the untruth, अविद्या]
fr. यद् prn. f. sg. loc.
2. भूतानि
beings
fr. भूत pp. of √भू n. pl. nom.
3. जाग्रति
are awake
fr. √जागृ 2.P. pr. 3rd pl. (SG.5.19.10:)
4. सा
that
fr. तद् prn. f. sg. nom. (SG.4.6:)
7. [सद्-वस्तु] पश्यतः
who sees clearly [the real]
fr. पश्यत् pr. pt. of √दृश् 1.P. a. m. sg. gen. (SG.5.15.6:)
6. मुनेः
for the wise one
fr. मुनि m. sg. gen.
5. निशा [इव]
[is] [like] night
fr. निशा f. sg. nom.

Exercise 15

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. इह लोके भैक्ष्यमपि भोक्तुं श्रेयः [स्यात्], अर्थकामांस्तु गुरून्हत्वा। (BhG.2.5)
 
२. नित्यस्य (=अकालस्य) अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य (=मनोविषयत्वमयोग्यस्य) शरीरिण इमे देहा अन्तवन्त उक्ताः। (BhG.2.18)These bodies of the timeless, indestructible, non-objectifiable [as the self-evident subject] embodied one [who obtains as the being/reality of these body-mind complexes] are said to be subject to [unavoidable] death.
 
३. आप एनं न क्लेदयन्ति, मारुतो न च शोषयति। (BhG.2.23)
 
४. अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि। (BhG.2.33)
 
५. महारथास्त्वां भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते। (BhG.2.35)The great warriors will think you withdrew from battle out of fear.
 
६. तव चाहितास्तव सामर्थ्यं निन्दन्तो बहूनवाच्यवादान्वदिष्यन्ति। (BhG.2.36)Moreover, your enemies, belittling your prowess, will speak many, unutterable words [about you].
 
७. आत्मवान्भव। (BhG.2.45)Be attentive.
 
८. धनञ्जय, [कर्मफले] सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा, कर्माणि कुरु। (BhG.2.48)O अर्जुन, being free from attachment [toward the result of actions], [then] perform action.
 
९. प्रसन्नचेतसो हि (=यस्मात्) बुद्धिराशु पर्यवतिष्ठते। (BhG.2.65)Because, for one whose mind is clear, [self-]knowledge [which destroys the sorrow] quickly becomes firm.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.10–13:

Vocab Excer

The two-form stems are only distinguished in that their stem ending has two forms – a strong and a weak. They otherwise simply take the same normal case terminations like other consonant ending stems. Among the strong stem forms, only the masc. sg. nom. and voc. vary due to rules 3.8.1–3:, and rule 2.24:. In chart 3.13:, “– the rest like (म्॰/व्॰) अत् (3.12:) –” means the stems in ॰मत् and ॰वत् in all the cases other than masc. sg. nom. are declined like stems in ॰अत् (3.12:) with a म् or व् respectively preceding the ॰अत्, e.g., neut. sg. nom. ॰मत् or ॰वत्, masc. du. nom. ॰मन्तौ or ॰वन्तौ, etc.

The words in chapter 2 with these stem endings are the following, with the strong stems shown in bold.

॰अत्अ-भावयत्m. sg. gen.अभावयतः(2.66)abhāvaya-at-aḥfor the non-contemplative
अ-सत्n. sg. gen.असतः(2.16)as-at-aḥthe unreal
चरात्m. sg. nom.चरन्(2.64)car-anmoving
n. pl. gen.चरताम्(2.67)car-at-āmof the roaming
ध्यायत्m. sg. gen.ध्यायतः(2.62)dhyāy-at-aḥfor (the one who) mentally dwells
निन्दत्m. pl. nom.निन्दन्तः(2.36)nind-ant-aḥbelittling
पश्यत्m. sg. gen.पश्यतः(2.69)paśy-at-aḥfor (the one who) sees
प्रहसत्m. sg. nom.प्रहसन् इव(2.10)prahas-ansmiling
यतत्m. sg. gen.यततः(2.60)yat-at-aḥof (one who) puts forth effort
विजानत्m. sg. gen.विजानतः(2.46)vijān-at-aḥfor (one who) knows
विषीदत्m. sg. acc.विषीदन्तम्(2.10)viṣīd-ant-amto [him] (who was) sad
सत्n. sg. nom.सत्(2.End)s-atreality
n. sg. gen.सतः(2.16)s-at-aḥthe real has
 
महत्n. sg. abl.महतः(2.40)mah-at-aḥfrom great
 
॰वत्अन्तवत्m. pl. nom.अन्तवन्तः(2.18)anta-vant-aḥsubject to death
आत्मवत्m. sg. nom.आत्मवान्(2.45)ātma-vānattentive
श्री-भगवत्m. sg. nom.श्री-भगवान्(2.11)śrī-bhaga-vānthe Lord

These stems may look difficult to identify from their declined forms, but with the grammar, vocabulary and syntax training you will be given in these lessons the task will become much easier. The Bhagavad Gita Dictionary, which you should be consulting when looking at the vocabularies, clearly identifies the stem ending, so it should now become an integral part of your vocabulary study to start identifying the stem endings for declension purposes.

Vocabulary 16

येन तु इदं सर्वं ततं, तद् [सत्] अ-विनाशि विद्धि। (BhG.2.17)
By which [सत्, existence/reality] all this [the असत्, the ‘this and that’ time-bound world, including this body-mind complex], is pervaded, know that [i.e., the timeless and real] to be indestructible.
1. येन तु
by which [existence/reality] (indeed)
fr. यद् prn. n. sg. inst.; तु in.
2. इदं सर्वं
all this [the time-bound world]
fr. इदम् prn. n. sg. nom.; सर्व prn. a. n. sg. nom. (SG.4.16.2:)
3. ततं
is pervaded
fr. तत pp. of √तन् pt. n. sg. nom.
5. तद् [सत्]
that [i.e., the timeless and real]
fr. तद् prn. n. sg. acc.
6. अ-विनाशि
[to be] indestructible
fr. अविनाशिन् a. n. sg. acc.
4. विद्धि
(you) please know
fr. √विद् 2.P. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.6.a:)

भारत, सर्वस्य देहे अयं देही नित्यम् अ-वध्यः। (BhG.2.30)
O अर्जुन, this embodied one in every body is ever indestructible.
1. भारत
(अर्जुन) O Descendant of Emperor भरत, (Brilliant) Son of India
fr. भारत m. sg. voc.
4. सर्वस्य
of everyone
fr. सर्व prn. a. m. sg. gen. (SG.4.16.2:)
3. देहे
in the body
fr. देह m. sg. loc. (SG.5.19.10:)
2. अयं देही
this embodied one
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:); देहिन् m. sg. nom.
5. नित्यम्
is ever
fr. नित्यम् in.
6. अ-वध्यः
indestructible
fr. अवध्य pot. ps. pt. of √वध् a. m. sg. nom.

पार्थ, सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः ईदृशं युद्धं लभन्ते। (BhG.2.32)
O अर्जुन, happy are warriors who get such a battle.
1. पार्थ
(अर्जुन) O Son of पृथा
fr. पार्थ m. sg. voc.
2. सुखिनः
happy [are]
fr. सुखिन् a. m. pl. nom.
3. क्षत्रियाः
warriors
fr. क्षत्रिय m. pl. nom.
5. ईदृशं
such
fr. ईदृश a. n. sg. acc.
6. युद्धं
a battle
fr. युद्ध n. sg. acc.
4. लभन्ते
[who] get
fr. √लभ् 1.Ā. pr. 3rd pl.

कर्मसु कौशलं (=यथा-अर्थता) योगः। (BhG.2.50)
Propriety in actions [i.e., acting within धर्म, where the means are as important as the end] is [called] योग.
2. कर्मसु
in actions
fr. कर्मन् n. pl. loc.
1. कौशलं (=यथा-अर्थता)
propriety
fr. कौशल n. sg. nom.
3. योगः
[is] [called] योग
fr. योग m. sg. nom.

बुद्धि-युक्ताः हि (=यस्मात्) कर्म-जं फलं त्यक्त्वा, मनीषिणः [भूत्वा] जन्म-बन्ध-विनिर्मुक्ताः [सन्तः], [ते] अन्-आमयं पदं गच्छन्ति। (BhG.2.51)
Because the wise, endowed with this attitude – after discarding the pressure for result born of action, appreciating धर्म as ‘to be done,’ accepting the results gracefully, freed by knowledge from the bondage that is birth – they reach the attainment that is free from affliction.
3. बुद्धि-युक्ताः
endowed with [this] attitude
fr. बुद्धि-युक्त a. m. pl. nom.
1. हि (=यस्मात्)
because
fr. हि in.
6. कर्म-जं
born of action
fr. कर्म-ज a. n. sg. acc.
5. फलं
[the pressure for] the result
fr. फल n. sg. acc.
4. त्यक्त्वा
after discarding
fr. त्यक्त्वा in. pt. of √त्यज् (SG.2.81:)
2. मनीषिणः [भूत्वा]
the wise [people]
fr. मनीषिन् m. pl. nom.
8. जन्म-बन्ध-
from the bondage that is birth
7. -विनिर्मुक्ताः [सन्तः]
[once] freed [by knowledge]
fr. जन्म-बन्ध-विनिर्मुक्त a. m. pl. nom.
11. अन्-आमयं
[that is] free from affliction
fr. अनामय a. n. sg. acc.
10. पदं
the attainment
fr. पद n. sg. acc.
9. गच्छन्ति
go to, reach
fr. √गम् 1.P. pr. 3rd pl. (SG.5.15.6:)

Exercise 16

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. श्रीभगवानुवाच। पण्डिता गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11)The Lord said: The wise do not grieve for those whose life’s breath is gone or not [yet] gone.
 
२. नित्यस्य (=अकालस्य) अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य (=मनोविषयत्वमयोग्यस्य) शरीरिण इमे देहा अन्तवन्त उक्ताः। (BhG.2.18)
 
३. महतो भयात्त्रायते। (BhG.2.40)Protects from great fear.
 
४. यावान्सर्वतः सम्प्लुतोदके उदपानेऽर्थः (=प्रयोजनं), तावान् [सद्वस्तु] विजानतो ब्राह्मणस्य सर्वेषु वेदेषु [अर्थः]। (BhG.2.46)For a ब्राह्मण (contemplative person) who knows [सत्, the all pervading reality], there is as much usefulness in all the वेद-s as [there is] in a small watering hole [in a once-dry river bed], when water is in a flood everywhere [i.e., seeing the truth everywhere, one is no longer dependent on the वेद-s].
 
५. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितो हि (=यस्मात्) पुरुषस्य यततोऽपि। (BhG.2.60)– Because, O अर्जुन, even though a discerning person puts forth effort.
 
६. विषयान्ध्यायतः पुंसस्तेषु सङ्ग उपजायते। (BhG.2.62)For a person who mentally dwells on objects, attachment to them arises.
 
७. रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्त्वात्मवश्यैरिन्द्रियैर्विषयांश्चरन्। (BhG.2.64)Whereas, moving among the objects with the senses under authority of the intellect and freed from [being overpowered by] राग-द्वेष (attraction and repulsion).
 
८. न चाभावयतः शान्तिः। (BhG.2.66)For the non-contemplative, there is no clarity.
 
९. यस्यां भूतानि जाग्रति, सा [सद्वस्तु] पश्यतो मुनेर्निशा [इव]। (BhG.2.69)In what beings are awake, that is [like] night for the wise one who sees clearly [the real].

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.14–16:

Vocab Excer

In chart 3.15: where three different stems are exemplified, only ॰इन् is declined; one need only insert before the इन् a म् or व् to see the declensions for ॰मिन् or ॰विन् respectively. A similar method of combining multiple stems in one chart is employed in some of the other consonant-ending charts.

The rest of the words in chapter 2 with two-form stems are the following, with the strong stems shown in bold.

॰(ई)यस्श्रेयस् (3.14.a:)n. sg. nom.श्रेयः(2.5,.7)śre-yaḥbetter, the ultimate good
 
॰इन्अ-नाशिन्m. sg. gen.अनाशिनः(2.18)anāś-in-aḥof the indestructible
अ-विनाशिन्n. sg. acc.अविनाशि(2.17)avināś-iindestructible
m. sg. acc.अविनाशिनम्(2.21)avināś-in-amindestructible
अ-व्यवसायिन्m. pl. gen.अव्यवसायिनाम्(2.21)avyavasāy-in-āmfor those with no discernment
आगम-अपायिन्m. pl. nom.-अपायिनः(2.14)apāy-in-aḥhave a beginning and an end
काम-कामिन्m. sg. nom.-कामी(2.70)kām-īone who requires/anticipates objects
तत्त्व-दर्शिन्m. pl. inst.-दर्शिभिः(2.16)darś-i-bhiḥby the seers of the truth
देहिन्m. sg. gen.देहिनः(2.13)deh-in-aḥfor the one with a body
m. sg. nom.देही(2.30)deh-īembodied one
प्रमाथिन्n. pl. nom.प्रमाथीनि (3.15.c:)(2.60)pramāth-īn-idisturbing, distracting
मनीषिन्m. pl. nom.मनीषिणः (2.92:)(2.51)manīṣ-iṇ-aḥwise [people]
वादिन्m. pl. nom.वादिनः(2.42)vād-in-aḥ[those] arguing
शरीरिन्m. sg. gen.शरीरिणः (2.92:)(2.18)śarīr-iṇ-aḥof the embodied [one]
सुखिन्m. pl. nom.सुखिनः(2.32)sukh-in-aḥhappy
 
अप् (3.16:)f. pl. nom.आपः(2.23)āp-aḥwater(s)

Seeing how each of these forms are declined based on the charts in the Grammar Reference will guide you through understanding how to use these charts. Notice that there are many strong forms of ॰इन्, because of the exceptional nature of this stem, as well as of ॰मिन् ॰विन्, the weak forms are only with the pada terminations and the neuter sg. nom. voc. acc. (voc. optionally) (3.10.a:). Also note again that cerebralization of the nasal (2.92:) in the stem-ending may occur with the vowel-initial terminations, since then all the conditions immediately around the nasal permit it (i.e., intervening vowel, म् or व् and a following vowel after the nasal).

That’s it for the two-form stems, now on to the three-form stems in the next lesson.

Vocabulary 17

जातस्य हि (=यस्मात्) मृत्युः ध्रुवः, मृतस्य च जन्म ध्रुवम्। (BhG.2.27)
Because, for what is born, death is certain, and for what is dead, birth [in another form] is certain.
2. जातस्य
for what is born
fr. जात pp. of √जन् m. sg. gen.(SG.6.6: irreg. & SG.7.17.1)
1. हि (=यस्मात्)
because
fr. हि in.
3. मृत्युः
death
fr. मृत्यु m. sg. nom.
4. ध्रुवः
[is] certain
fr. ध्रुव a. m. sg. nom.
6. मृतस्य
for what is dead
fr. मृत pp. of √मृ m. sg. gen. (SG.7.17.1:)
5. च
and
fr. च in.
7. जन्म
birth [in another form]
fr. जन्मन् n. sg. nom.
8. ध्रुवं
[is] certain
fr. ध्रुव a. n. sg. nom.

कर्मणि एव ते (=तव) अधिकारः (=प्रभुत्वं), फलेषु मा कदा-चन। (BhG.2.47)
You have control only in doing action, never in its results.
4. कर्मणि
in doing action
fr. कर्मन् n. pl. loc.
3. एव
only
fr. एव in.
1. ते (=तव)
you have
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. gen. (SG.4.2:) (SG.7.12.1.a:)
2. अधिकारः (=प्रभुत्वं)
control
fr. अधिकार m. sg. nom.
6. फलेषु
in [its] results
fr. फल n. pl. loc.
5. मा कदा-चन
not ever, never
fr. मा in.; कदा-चन in.

कर्म-फल-हेतुः मा भूः [मा मन्यस्व इत्यर्थः]। अ-कर्मणि ते (=तव) सङ्गः मा अस्तु। (BhG.2.47)
Do not [think yourself to] be the cause of the results of action [that cause being but the Lord as embodied in the universal laws of कर्मन्]. Nor should you have attachment to inaction.
3. कर्म-फल-
of the results of action
2. -हेतुः
the cause
fr. कर्म-फल-हेतु m. sg. nom.
1. मा भूः
do not [think yourself to] be
fr. मा in.; √भू P. Root Aorist 2nd sg. (अभूः) (SG.7.22.4:)
7. अ-कर्मणि
to inaction
fr. अकर्मन् n. sg. loc.
5. ते (=तव)
you have
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. gen. (SG.4.2:) (SG.7.12.1.a:)
6. सङ्गः
attachment
fr. सङ्ग m. sg. nom.
4. मा अस्तु
nor may, nor should
fr. मा in.; √अस् 2.P. impv. 3rd sg. (SG.7.24.5:)

पार्थ, यदा सर्वान् कामान् मनो-गतान् प्रजहाति, आत्मनि एव आत्मना (=बुद्ध्या) तुष्टः। (BhG.2.55)
O अर्जुन, when one abandons all desires [i.e., notional requirements in order to become happy] as they arise in the mind, and is happy by oneself [i.e., by an informed intellect] in one’s self alone.
1. पार्थ
(अर्जुन) O Son of पृथा
fr. पार्थ m. sg. voc.
2 यदा
when
fr. यदा in.
4. सर्वान् कामान्
all desires [requirements]
fr. सर्व prn. a. m. pl. acc. (SG.4.16.2:); काम m. pl. acc.
5. मनो-गतान्
[as they] arise in the mind
fr. मनस्-गत a. m. pl. acc. (SG.2.4: & SG.2.24: & SG.2.33:)
3. प्रजहाति
[one] abandons
fr. प्र + √हा 3.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.8.3:)
8. आत्मनि एव
in one’s self alone
fr. आत्मन् m. sg. loc.; एव in.
7. आत्मना (=बुद्ध्या)
by oneself [by an informed intellect]
fr. आत्मन् m. sg. inst.
6. तुष्टः
[and] is happy, is satisfied
fr. तुष्ट pp. of √तुष् pt. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.88:)

प्रमाथीनि इन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति। (BhG.2.60)
The distracting senses forcefully take away the mind.
1. प्रमाथीनि
[the five] distracting
fr. प्रमाथीन् a. n. pl. nom.
2. इन्द्रियाणि
senses
fr. इन्द्रिय n. pl. nom.
5. मनः
the mind
fr. मनस् n. sg. acc.
3. प्रसभं
forcefully
fr. प्रसभम् in.
4. हरन्ति
take away
fr. √हृ 1.P. pr. 3rd pl.

सः शान्तिम् आप्नोति, न काम-कामी। (BhG.2.70)
That one gains peace. Not [so] the one who requires/anticipates objects [like a small pond requires its streams].
1. सः
that one
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. nom.
3. शान्तिम्
peace
fr. शान्ति f. sg. acc.
2. आप्नोति
attains
fr. √आप् 5.P. pr. 3rd sg.
4. न
not
fr. न in.
6. काम-
objects [of desire]
5. -कामी
the one who requires/anticipates
fr. काम-कामिन् a. m. sg. nom.

Exercise 17

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. देहिनः, यथास्मिन्देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा [च], तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिः। (BhG.2.13)For the देहिन् (one with a body, the आत्मन् self), like [passing through] childhood, maturity and old age in this body, so too [for the देहिन् who remains the same] there is the gain of another body.
 
२. नित्यस्य (=अकालस्य) अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य (=मनोविषयत्वमयोग्यस्य) शरीरिण इमे देहा अन्तवन्त उक्ताः। (BhG.2.18)
 
३. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] अविनाशिनं वेद, कथं स पुरुषः कं घातयति। (BhG.2.21)
 
४. भारत, सर्वस्य देहेऽयं देही नित्यमवध्यः। (BhG.2.30)O अर्जुन, this embodied one in every body is ever indestructible.
 
५. पार्थ, सुखिनः क्षत्रिया ईदृशं युद्धं लभन्ते। (BhG.2.32)O अर्जुन, happy are warriors who get such a battle.
 
६. अव्यवसायिनां [श्रेयोमार्गे] बुद्धयो बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च। (BhG.2.41)
 
७. अविपश्चितो वेदवादरता नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः कामात्मानः पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)
 
८. बुद्धियुक्ताः हि (=यस्मात्) कर्मजं फलं त्यक्त्वा, मनीषिणः [भूत्वा] जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः [सन्तः], [ते] अनामयं पदं गच्छन्ति। (BhG.2.51)Because, after the wise endowed with this attitude discard [the pressure for] result born of action [appreciating धर्म as ‘to be done,’ accepting the results gracefully], [once] freed [by knowledge] from the bondage that is birth, they gain the attainment that is free from affliction.
 
९. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितो हि (=यस्मात्) पुरुषस्य यततोऽपि, प्रमाथीनीन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति (BhG.2.60)– Because, O अर्जुन, even though a discerning person puts forth effort, the distracting senses forcefully take away the mind.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.17–21:

Vocab Excer

The three-form stems are like the two-form, except that there is, in addition, a middle form before the pada terminations and in neuter sg. nom., voc. and acc. cases.

There are not a large number of consonant-ending words with a three-form stem. For example, there are 26 such words in all of the Bhagavad Gita, of which 19 are in ॰मन्, covered in the next lesson. However, a few words in ॰मन् are very commonly used throughout in this work as they form the subject matter of the Bhagavad Gita, namely ब्रह्मन्, आत्मन् and कर्मन् (“reality,” “oneself” and “action”).

There are no examples of stems in ॰वस् or ॰अन् in chapter 2.

Vocabulary 18

यदा श्रुति-विप्रतिपन्ना ते बुद्धिः निश्-चला स्थास्यति, समाधौ (=आत्मनि) अ-चला, तदा योगम् अवाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.53)
When your intellect – [previously] distracted by the श्रुति [i.e., the bulk of the वेद-s concerned with providing means for gaining heaven, power, wealth, and progeny] – becomes steady and centered on समाधि (your self), then you will attain योग.
1. यदा
when
fr. यदा in.
4. श्रुति-विप्रतिपन्ना
[previously] distracted by the श्रुति/scripture
fr. श्रुति-विप्रतिपन्ना a. f. sg. nom.
2. तेः
your
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. gen.
3. बुद्धिः
your intellect
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. nom.
6. निश्-चला
steady
fr. निस्-चला a. f. sg. nom. (SG.2.24: & SG.2.27:)
5. स्थास्यति
becomes
fr. √स्था P. fut. 3rd sg. (SG.7.23.2:)
8. समाधौ (=आत्मनि)
on your self
fr. समाधि f. sg. loc.
7. अ-चला
[and] [becomes] firm, centered
fr. अचला a. f. sg. nom.
9. तदा
then
fr. तदा in.
11. योगम्
योग
fr. योग m. sg. acc.
10. अवाप्स्यसि
you will attain
fr. अव + √आप् P. fut. 2nd sg.

विधेय-आत्मा (=वश्य-अन्तः-करणः) प्रसादम् (=शान्तिम्) अधिगच्छति। (BhG.2.64)
The one whose mind is disciplined attains clarity.
2. विधेय-
is disciplined
1. -आत्मा
the one whose mind
fr. विधेय-आत्मन् a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.7:)
4. प्रसादम् (=शान्तिम्)
clarity
fr. प्रसाद m. sg. acc.
3. अधिगच्छति
attains
fr. अधि + √गम् 1.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.15.6:)

सर्वान् कामान् विहाय, यः पुमान् निः-स्पृहः निर्-ममः निर्-अहङ्कारः चरति। (BhG.2.71)
Giving up all [binding] desires [i.e., requirements/anticipations], the person who moves about free from longing, free from [the judgment] “this is mine” and free from [the judgment] “I [am only this much].”
2. सर्वान् कामान्
all [binding] desires
fr. सर्व prn. a. m. pl. acc. (SG.4.16.2:); काम m. pl. acc.
1. विहाय
giving up
fr. विहाय in. pt. of वि + √हा
4. यः
who
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. nom.
3. पुमान्
the person
fr. पुमंस् m. sg. nom. (SG.3.26:)
6. निः-स्पृहः
free from longing
fr. निस्-स्पृह a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.24: & SG.2.28:)
7. निर्-ममः
free from [the judgment] “this is mine”
fr. निस्-मम a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.29:)
8. निर्-अहङ्कारः
free from [the judgment] “I [am only this much]”
fr. निस्-अहङ्कार a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.29:)
5. चरति
moves about
fr. √चर् 1.P. pr. 3rd sg.

एषा ब्राह्मी (=ब्रह्मणि अधिष्ठिता) स्थितिः, पार्थ। (BhG.2.72)
This is being firm in ब्रह्मन् (reality,सत्), O अर्जुन.
1. एषा
this
fr. एतद् prn. f. sg. nom. (SG.4.7:)
3. ब्राह्मी (=ब्रह्मणि अधिष्ठिता)
in/as ब्रह्मन् (reality, सत्)
fr. ब्राह्मी a. f. sg. nom.
2. स्थितिः
[is] being firm
fr. स्थिति f. sg. nom.
4. पार्थ
(अर्जुन) O Son of पृथा
fr. पार्थ m. sg. voc.

Exercise 18

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. न त्वेव जात्वहं नासं, न त्वं, नेमे जनाधिपाः। न चैव सर्वे वयमतः परं न भिविष्यामः। (BhG.2.12)
 
२. देहिनः, यथास्मिन्देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा [च], तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिः। (BhG.2.13)
 
३. येन तु इदं सर्वं ततं, तद् [सत्] अ-विनाशि विद्धि। (BhG.2.17)By which [सत्, existence/reality] all this [the असत्, the ‘this and that’ time-bound world, including this body-mind complex], is pervaded, know that [i.e., the timeless and real] to be indestructible.
 
४. आप एनं न क्लेदयन्ति, मारुतो न च शोषयति। (BhG.2.23)
 
५. कर्मण्येव ते (=तव) अधिकारः (=प्रभुत्वं), फलेषु मा कदाचन। कर्मफलहेतुर्मा भूः [मा मन्यस्व इत्यर्थः]। अकर्मणि ते (=तव) सङ्गो मास्तु। (BhG.2.47)You have control only in doing action, never in its results. Do not [think yourself to] be the cause of the results of action [that cause being but the Lord as embodied in the universal laws of कर्मन्]. Nor should you have attachment to inaction.
 
६. बुद्धियुक्ताः हि (=यस्मात्) कर्मजं फलं त्यक्त्वा, मनीषिणः [भूत्वा] जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः [सन्तः], [ते] अनामयं पदं गच्छन्ति। (BhG.2.51)
 
७. कौन्तेय, विपश्चितो हि (=यस्मात्) पुरुषस्य यततोऽपि, प्रमाथीनीन्द्रियाणि मनः प्रसभं हरन्ति। (BhG.2.60)– Because, O अर्जुन, even though a discerning person puts forth effort, the distracting senses forcefully take away the mind.
 
८. रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्त्वात्मवश्यैरिन्द्रियैर्विषयांश्चरन्, विधेयात्मा (=वश्यान्तःकरणः) प्रसादम् (=शान्तिम्) अधिगच्छति। (BhG.2.64)Whereas, moving among the objects with the senses under authority of the intellect and freed from [being overpowered by] राग-द्वेष (attraction and repulsion), the one whose mind is disciplined attains clarity.
 
९. स शान्तिमाप्नोति, न कामकामी। (BhG.2.70)That one gains peace. Not [so] the one who requires/anticipates objects [like a small pond requires its streams].

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.22–26:

Vocab Excer

The rest of the words in chapter 2 with three-form stems are the following, with the strong stems shown in bold.

॰मन्आत्मन्m. sg. inst.आत्मना(2.55)āt-man-āby oneself [i.e., by the mind]
m. sg. loc.आत्मनि(2.55)āt-man-iin oneself
कर्मन्m. sg. loc.कर्मणि (2.92:)(2.47)kar-maṇ-iin doing action
n. pl. loc.कर्मसु(2.50)kar-ma-suin actions
काम-आत्मन्m. pl. nom.-आत्मानः(2.42)-āt-mān-aḥwho are full of desires
जन्मन्n. sg. nom.जन्म(2.27)jan-mabirth
ब्रह्मन्n. sg. loc.(ब्रह्मणि) (2.92:)(2.72)(brah-maṇ-i)in reality
विधेय-आत्मन्m. sg. nom.-आत्मना(2.64)-āt-man-āone whose mind is disciplined
 
पुमंस्m. sg. nom.पुमान् (3.26.a:)(2.71)pu-mānperson
m. sg. gen.पुंसः(2.62)pu-ṃs-aḥfor a person

That’s it for the consonant-ending stems of nouns, now on to the vowel-ending stems in the next few lessons. After that we will see the declensions of pronouns and numerals to complete all declensions in the संस्कृत language.

Vocabulary 19

यद्-ऋच्छया च अपावृतं स्वर्ग-द्वारम् उपपन्नम्। (BhG.2.53)
By happenstance an open door to heaven has come.
1. यद्-ऋच्छया च
[and] by happenstance
fr. यद्-ऋच्छा f. sg. inst. (SG.2.24: & SG.2.43:); च in.
2. अपावृतं
an open
fr. अपावृत pp. of अप + आ + √वृ a. n. sg. nom.
4. स्वर्ग-
to heaven
3. -द्वारम्
door
fr. स्वर्ग-द्वार n. sg. nom.
5. उपपन्नम्
has come
fr. उपपन्न pp. of उप + √पद् pt. n. sg. nom. (SG.6.6:)

भूतानि च अपि ते (=तव) अ-व्ययाम् अ-कीर्तिं कथयिष्यन्ति। (BhG.2.34)
[These] creatures [i.e., even yesterday’s recruits] will also recount your unfading infamy.
1. भूतानि च
[and] creatures
fr. भूत pp. of √भू n. pl. nom.; च in.
2. अपि
also
fr. अपि in.
4. ते (=तव)
your
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. gen. (SG.4.2:)
5. अ-व्ययाम्
unfading
fr. अव्यया a. f. sg. acc.
6. अ-कीर्तिं
infamy
fr. अकीर्ति f. sg. acc.
3. कथयिष्यन्ति
will tell, will recount
fr. √कथ् 10.P. fut. 3rd pl.

इह व्यवसाय-आत्मिका बुद्धिः एका, कुरु-नन्दन। (BhG.2.41)
Regarding this, the means for श्रेयस्, the well-discerned knowledge is but one, O अर्जुन.
1. इह
regarding this [the means for श्रेयस्]
fr. इह in.
2. व्यवसाय-आत्मिका
the well-discerned
fr. व्यवसाय-आत्मिका a. f. sg. nom. (SG.2.7:)
3. बुद्धिः
knowledge
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. nom.
4. एका
[is but] one
fr. एका num. a. f. sg. nom.
5. कुरु-नन्दन
(अर्जुन) O Joy of the कुरु People
fr. कुरु-नन्दन m. sg. voc.

पार्थ, अ-विपश्चितः स्वर्ग-पराः याम् इमां भोग-ऐश्वर्य-गतिं प्रति क्रिया-विशेष-बहुलां जन्म-कर्म-फल-प्रदां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)
O अर्जुन, the unwise, who hold heaven as primary, they spout this flowery discourse full of special rituals [directed] toward gaining power and objects of consumption, [but] yield [further] birth as a result of their actions.
1. पार्थ
(अर्जुन) O Son of पृथा
fr. पार्थ m. sg. voc.
2. अ-विपश्चितः
the unwise
fr. अविपश्चित् a. m. pl. nom.
3. स्वर्ग-पराः
who hold heaven as primary
fr. स्वर्ग-पर a. m. pl. nom.
5. याम् इमां
this [very]
fr. यद् prn. f. sg. acc.; इदम् prn. f. sg. acc. (SG.7.6.B.2.f:)
12. भोग-
and objects of consumption
11. -ऐश्वर्य-
of power
10. -गतिं
attainment, gaining
fr. भोग-ऐश्वर्य-गति f. sg. acc. (SG.2.10:)
9. प्रति
[directed] towards
fr. प्रति in.
8. क्रिया-विशेष-
of special ritual
7. -बहुलां
full
fr. क्रिया-विशेष-बहुला a. f. sg. acc.
14. जन्म-
[further] birth
15. -कर्म-फल-
[as] a result of [their] actions
13. -प्रदां
[but] yield
fr. जन्म-कर्म-फल-प्रदा a. f. sg. acc. (SG.6.24.1:)
6. पुष्पितां वाचं
flowery discourse
fr. पुष्पिता pp. of √पुष्प् a. f. sg. acc.; वाच् f. sg. acc.
4. प्रवदन्ति
(they) proclaim, spout
fr. प्र + √वद् 1.P. pr. 3rd pl.

ब्रह्म-विद्यायां योग-शास्त्रे श्री-कृष्णार्जुन-संवादे। (BhG.2.End)
In [the form of] a dialogue between श्री कृष्ण and अर्जुन, [the subject matter being] a knowledge of ब्रह्मन् and योग.
5. ब्रह्म-
of ब्रह्मन् (reality/सत्)
4. -विद्यायां
[and] a knowledge
fr. ब्रह्म-विद्या f. sg. loc.
6. योग-शास्त्रे
[and instruction of] योग (means, discipline, etc.)
fr. योग-शास्त्र n. sg. loc.
2. श्री-कृष्ण-
between Lord कृष्ण
3. -अर्जुन-
and अर्जुन
1. -संवादे
in [the form of] a dialogue
fr. श्री-कृष्ण-अर्जुन-संवाद n. sg. loc. (SG.2.7:)

Exercise 19

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. जातस्य हि (=यस्मात्) मृत्युर्ध्रुवः, मृतस्य च जन्म ध्रुवं, तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे त्वं शोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.27)Because, for what is born, death is certain, and for what is dead, birth [in another form] is certain, then you should not grieve over a situation that cannot be avoided.
 
२. कर्मण्येव ते (=तव) अधिकारः (=प्रभुत्वं), फलेषु मा कदाचन। कर्मफलहेतुर्मा भूः [मा मन्यस्व इत्यर्थः]। अकर्मणि ते (=तव) सङ्गो मास्तु। (BhG.2.47)You have control only in doing action, never in its results. Do not [think yourself to] be the cause of the results of action [that cause being but the Lord as embodied in the universal laws of कर्मन्]. Nor should you have attachment to inaction.
 
३. कर्मसु कौशलं (=यथार्थता) योगः। (BhG.2.50)Propriety in actions [i.e., acting within धर्म, where the means are as important as the end] is [called] योग.
 
४. यदा श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते बुद्धिर्निश्चला स्थास्यति, समाधौ (=आत्मनि) अचला, तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.53)When your intellect – [previously] distracted by the श्रुति [i.e., the bulk of the वेद-s concerned with providing means for gaining heaven, power, wealth, and progeny] – becomes steady and centered on समाधि (your self), then you will attain योग.
 
५. पार्थ, यदा सर्वान्कामान्मनोगतान्प्रजहाति, आत्मन्येवात्मना (=बुद्ध्या) तुष्टः। (BhG.2.55)O अर्जुन, when one abandons all desires [i.e., notional requirements in order to become happy] as they arise in the mind, and is happy by oneself [i.e., by an informed intellect] in one’s self alone.
 
६. विषयान्ध्यायतः पुंसस्तेषु सङ्ग उपजायते। (BhG.2.62)
 
७. रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्त्वात्मवश्यैरिन्द्रियैर्विषयांश्चरन्, विधेयात्मा (=वश्यान्तःकरणः) प्रसादम् (=शान्तिम्) अधिगच्छति। (BhG.2.64)Whereas, moving among the objects with the senses under authority of the intellect and freed from [being overpowered by] राग-द्वेष (attraction and repulsion), the one whose mind is disciplined attains clarity.
 
८. सर्वान्कामान्विहाय, यः पुमान्निःस्पृहो निर्ममो निरहङ्कारश्चरति। (BhG.2.71)Giving up all [binding] desires [i.e., requirements/ anticipations], the person who moves about free from longing, free from [the judgment] ‘this is mine’ and free from [the judgment] ‘I [am only this much].’
 
९. एषा ब्राह्मी (=ब्रह्मण्यधिष्ठिता) स्थितिः, पार्थ। (BhG.2.72)This is being firm in ब्रह्मन् (reality,सत्), O अर्जुन.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.27–28:

Vocab Excer

The terminations of the ॰अ and ॰आ stems are best learned by comparing these terminations with other groups of standard terminations.

We have already seen the normal case termination (3.2:) and we will later see the common pronominal terminations (4.4:). By merging these sets of terminations here in chart 3.28: we can easily see the basis for most of the terminations. The exceptions to the normal case (3.2:) and the common pronominal (4.4:) terminations are shown as bold in the chart below.

This process can also be applied to the rest of the vowel-ending noun stems. This is one way of easily learning the various declension charts – by comparing and contrasting them.

We will take feminine stems ending in ॰आ in the next lesson. Now we are just concerned with masculine and neuter stems ending in ॰अ. Like for the consonant ending stems, the ॰अ ending neuter stems differ from the masculine only in the nom., voc. and acc. cases, however, in the singular some forms are the same, as it was for many of the masc. and neut. sg. voc. in consonant ending stems.

The following chart shows which of the final forms of the masculine and neuter terminations for ॰अ stems come from the normal case terminations (indicated by an “N.”) and which from the common pronominal terminations (indicated by a “P.”). The sg. acc. termination for this and most other vowel-ending stems is म् instead of the normal case termination अम्. The sg. loc. is accounted for by sandhi between the stem final ॰अ + इ (2.8:), pl. gen. inserts आन् in place of the ॰अ stem and before the termination. Notice that only five of the forms do not easily come from either of these two sources. In this way the seeming irregularity of the terminations is reduced significantly.

3.28: Nominal Vowel Stems – ॰अराम (rām-a) m. “Lord Rāma”
फल (pha̍l-a) n. “fruit”
राम्॰ /
फल्॰
ए॰ Singularद्वि॰ Dualब॰ Plural
पुं॰ m.नपुं॰ n.पुं॰ m.नपुं॰ n.पुं॰ m.नपुं॰ n.
प्र॰ nom.॰अः (स् N.)॰अम्॰औ
(औ N.)
॰ए
(ए P.)
॰आः
(अ + अस् N.)
॰आनि
(आनि P.)
सं॰ voc.॰अ (– N.)
द्वि॰ acc.॰अम् ((अ)म् N.)॰आन् (आन् P.)
तृ॰ inst.॰एन (एन P.)॰आभ्याम्
(आभ्याम् P.)
॰ऐः (fr. तैः “by those” P.)
च॰ dat.॰आय॰एभ्यः
(एभ्यस् P.)
प॰ abl.॰आत्
ष॰ gen.॰अस्य (स्य P.)॰अयोः
(योस् P.)
॰आनाम् (आन् + आम् N.)
स॰ loc.॰ए (इ N.)॰एषु (एषु P.)

Certain words can be declined in both masculine and neuter. They may be substantives that optionally take one or the other gender, or, much more commonly, they are adjectives that take the gender, case and number of the stated (or assumed) substantive which they refer to in the context of a sentence. Some adjectives are contextually used as substantives, and some adjectives have, by their historical usage, gained an alternative substantive meaning. Additionally, substantives can be used in a sentence to, like an adjective, modify (i.e., delimit the meaning of) another substantive, in which case they don’t take the same gender, case and number of the referent, but rather they only have to be in the same case as their referent.

One of the tasks in understanding sentences is discovering what words modify, or refer to, other words in a sentence. This is assisted by seeing what gender, case and number is each declined word in a sentence.

As we complete the rest of the declensions of nouns, and then of pronouns, numerals and cardinals, please pay special attention to their word order, English meanings, and the grammatical descriptions in the vocabularies (e.g., “a. m. sg. nom.” for an adjective in masculine, and, in the same sentence, “m. sg. nom.” for its referent substantive or adjective used as a substantive in masculine gender).

Generally, per 7.2:, the words which modify each other are grouped together in the written prose order of the vocabularies and the exercises, and, per 7.2:, the modifying words are generally put before their referent, except a predicate adjective is placed after and sometimes, for emphasis, a regular adjective is placed after its referent.

When an adjective’s gender changes to match the gender of its referent, the stem may change or may not change. In the case of stems ending in ॰अ, the stem remains the same for either masculine or neuter. In the case of an adjective ending in ॰अ taking the feminine gender, the stem usually changes to ॰आ, although some adjectives change to ॰ई instead. A similar change in stem was seen for changeable stems, where they add an ई to the end (3.9:), and then naturally decline as a stem ending in ॰ई (3.36:).

There are too many words whose stems end in ॰अ in chapter 2 to list them all separately here, since almost every sentence has one or more such words.

Vocabulary 20

तत्र का परिदेवना। (BhG.2.28)
Regarding that, why grieve?
1. तत्र
in that, regarding that
fr. तत्र in.
2. का परिदेवना
why the grieving, why grieve?
fr. किम् prn. f. sg. nom. (SG.4.12:); परिदेवना f. sg. nom.

साङ्ख्ये (=सद्-वस्तु-विवेक-विषये श्रेयो-विषये) एषा बुद्धिः ते (=तुभ्यम्) अभिहिता, योगे तु इमां [बुद्धिं] शृणु। (BhG.2.39)
This wisdom regarding साङ्ख्य (the knowledge of reality, which is श्रेयस्) has been told to you. On the other hand, listen to this wisdom regarding योग (the means for preparing for this knowledge).
3. साङ्ख्ये
regarding knowledge [of reality which is श्रेयस्]
fr. साङ्ख्य m. sg. loc.
1. एषाः
this
fr. एतद् prn. f. sg. nom. (SG.4.7:)
2. बुद्धिः
wisdom
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. nom.
5. ते (=तुभ्यम्)
to you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. dat. (SG.4.2:)
4. अभिहिता
has been told
fr. अभिहिता pp. of अभि + √धा pt. f. sg. nom. (SG.6.6:)
9. योगे
regarding योग
fr. योग m. sg. loc.
6. तु
on the other hand
fr. तु in.
8. इमां [बुद्धिं]
to this [wisdom]
fr. इदम् prn. f. sg. acc. (SG.4.8:)
7. शृणु
listen
fr. √श्रु 5.P. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.21.3:)

अर्जुनः उवाच। स्थित-प्रज्ञस्य समाधि-स्थस्य का भाषा, केशव। (BhG.2.54)
अर्जुन said: What is the description of the स्थित-प्रज्ञ (one whose wisdom is firm), who is established within समाधि (the self), O कृष्ण?
1. अर्जुनः उवाच
अर्जुन said:
fr. अर्जुन m. sg. nom.; √वच् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.10.3:)
5. स्थित-
is firm
4. -प्रज्ञस्य
of the one whose wisdom
fr. स्थित-प्रज्ञ a. m. sg. gen.
7. समाधि-
within समाधि (the self)
6. -स्थस्य
who is established
fr. समाधि-स्थ a. m. sg. gen.
2. का
what?
fr. किम् prn. f. sg. nom. (SG.4.12:
3. भाषा
[is] the description?
fr. भाषा f. sg. nom.
8. केशव
(कृष्ण) O Destroyer of the Demon केशिन्
fr. केशव m. sg. voc.

तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.57)
That one’s wisdom is firm.
1. तस्य
that one’s
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. gen.
2. प्रज्ञा
wisdom
fr. प्रज्ञा f. sg. nom.
3. प्रतिष्ठिता
is firm
fr. प्रतिष्ठिता pp. of प्रति + √स्था pt. f. sg. nom. (SG.6.6: & SG.2.101: & SG.7.17.1:)

अ-युक्तस्य बुद्धिः न अस्ति, न च अ-युक्तस्य भावना (=धारणम्)। (BhG.2.66)
For the one who is not disciplined, knowledge is not there, nor contemplation.
1. अ-युक्तस्य
for the one who is not disciplined
fr. अयुक्त pp. of √युज् a. m. sg. gen. (SG.2.81:)
2. बुद्धिः
knowledge
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. nom.
3. न अस्ति
is not [there]
fr. न in.; √अस् 2.P. pr. 3rd sg.
4. न च
nor
fr. न in.; च in.
5. अ-युक्तस्य
[for the one who is not disciplined]
fr. अयुक्त pp. of √युज् a. m. sg. gen. (SG.2.81:)
6. भावना (=धारणम्)
contemplation
fr. भावना f. sg. nom.

Exercise 20

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. यदृच्छया चापावृतं स्वर्गद्वारमुपपन्नम्। पार्थ, सुखिनः क्षत्रिया ईदृशं युद्धं लभन्ते। (BhG.2.32)By happenstance an open door to heaven has come. O अर्जुन, happy are warriors who get such a battle.
 
२. भूतानि चापि ते (=तव) अव्ययामकीर्तिं कथयिष्यन्ति। सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34)[These] creatures [i.e., even yesterday’s recruits] will also recount your unfading infamy. Dishonor for one who had been honored is worse than death.
 
३. इह व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिरेका, कुरुनन्दन। अव्यवसायिनां [श्रेयोमार्गे] बुद्धयो बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च। (BhG.2.41)Regarding this [the means for श्रेयस्], the well-discerned knowledge is but one, O अर्जुन. [However,] for those with no discernment [of this fact] the notions [regarding the means for श्रेयस्] are indeed many-branched and endless.
 
४. पार्थ, अविपश्चितो वेदवादरता नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा यामिमां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति क्रियाविशेषबहुलां जन्मकर्मफलप्रदां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)O अर्जुन, the unwise, who remain engrossed in [the bulk of] the words of the वेद-s [which deal with heaven-going, gaining power, wealth and progeny], arguing that there is nothing more, who are full of desires [i.e., requirements/anticipations] and who hold heaven as primary, they spout this flowery discourse full of special rituals [directed] towards gaining power and objects of consumption, [but] yield [further] birth as a result of their action.
 
५. यदा श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते बुद्धिर्निश्चला स्थास्यति, समाधौ (=आत्मनि) अचला, तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.53)
 
६. पार्थ, यदा सर्वान्कामान्मनोगतान्प्रजहाति, आत्मन्येवात्मना (=बुद्ध्या) तुष्टः। (BhG.2.55)
 
७. रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्त्वात्मवश्यैरिन्द्रियैर्विषयांश्चरन्, विधेयात्मा (=वश्यान्तःकरणः) प्रसादम् (=शान्तिम्) अधिगच्छति। (BhG.2.64)
 
८. सर्वान्कामान्विहाय, यः पुमान्निःस्पृहो निर्ममो निरहङ्कारश्चरति। (BhG.2.71)
 
९. ओं तत्सत्। इति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे साङ्ख्ययोगो नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः। (BhG.2.End)ओं (ब्रह्मन्, the witness of all) is that [only] reality. Thus ends the second chapter, called “The Topic of Knowledge,” of the [eighteen chapters of] Songs of the Glorious Lord, which is [looked upon as] उपनिषद् [and whose teaching is] in [the form of] a dialogue between श्री कृष्ण and अर्जुन, [the subject matter being] a knowledge of ब्रह्मन् and योग.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.28:

Vocab Excer

Now we will look at feminine stems ending in ॰आ. These stems belong to feminine substantives and to ॰अ ending adjectives in their feminine form, which then become ॰आ.

The following chart shows which of the final forms of the feminine terminations for ॰आ stems come from the normal case terminations (indicated by an “N.”), which from the common pronominal terminations (indicated by a “P.”), and which from the common feminine terminations (indicated by an “F.”). The sg. inst. and du. gen. loc. insert अय् in place of the ॰आ stem and before the termination, pl. gen. inserts आन् in place of the ॰आ stem and before the termination, and the common feminine terminations insert आय् in place of the ॰आ stem and before the termination. The two exceptions to the normal case (3.2:) and the common pronominal (4.4:), and the common feminine terminations are shown as bold in the chart below. In this way the seeming irregularity of the terminations is reduced significantly.

3.28: Nominal Vowel Stems – ॰आसीता (Sīt-ā) f.Sītā, wife of Rāma
सीत्॰ए॰ Singularद्वि॰ Dualब॰ Plural
प्र॰ nom.॰आ॰ए
(ए P.)
॰आः
((अ)स् N.)
सं॰ voc.॰ए
द्वि॰ acc.॰आम् ((अ)म् N.)
तृ॰ inst.॰अया (अय् + आ N.)॰आभ्याम्
(भ्याम् P.)
॰आभिः (भिस् N.)
च॰ dat.॰आयै (आय् + ऐ F.)॰आभ्यः
(भ्यस् N.)
प॰ abl.॰आयाः
(आय् + आस् F.)
ष॰ gen.॰अयोः
(अय् + ओस् N.)
॰आनाम् (आन् + आम् N.)
स॰ loc.॰आयाम् (आय् + आम् F.)॰आसु (सु N.)

The following are the words in chapter 2 with stems ending in ॰आ.

॰आअ-चलa. f. sg. nomअचला(2.53)acal-āfirm, centered
अधिष्ठितa. f. sg. nom.(अधिष्ठिता)(2.72)(adhiṣṭhit-ā)has been told
अन्-अन्तa. f. pl. nom.अनन्ताः(2.41)anant-āḥendless
अभिहितa. f. sg. nom.अभिहिता(2.39)abhihit-āhas been told
अ-व्ययa. f. sg. acc.अव्ययाम्(2.34)avyay-āmunfading
कृपाf. sg. inst.कृपया(2.1)kṛp-ayāby pity
क्रिया-विशेष-बहुलa. f. sg. acc.-बहुलाम्(2.43)-bahul-āmfull of special rituals
जन्म-कर्म-फल-प्रदa. f. sg. acc.-प्रदाम्(2.43)-prad-āmyielding [further] birth [as] a result of [their] action
निशाf. sg. nom.निशा(2.69)niś-ānight
विश्-चलa. f. sg. nom.निश्चला(2.53)niścal-āsteady
परिदेवनाf. sg. nom.परिदेवना(2.28)paridevan-āgrieving
पुष्पितa. f. sg. acc.पुष्पिताम्(2.42)puṣpit-āmflowery
प्रज्ञाf. sg. nom.प्रज्ञा(2.57)prajñ-āwisdom
बहु-शाखa. f. pl. nom.-शाखाः(2.41)-śākh-āḥhaving many branches
ब्रह्म-विद्याf. sg. loc.-विद्यायाम्(2.End)vidy-āyāmin knowledge of reality
भावनाf. sg. nom.भावना(2.66)bhāvan-ācontemplation
भाषाf. sg. nom.भाषा(2.54)bhāṣ-ādescription
यद्-ऋच्छाf. sg. inst.यदृच्छया(2.32)yadṛcch-ayāby happenstance
व्यमसाय-आत्मिकाa. f. sg. nom.-आत्मिका(2.41)ātmik-āwell-discerned
श्रीमद्-भगवद्-गीताf. pl. loc.-गीतासु(2.End)gīt-āsuin songs of the Lord
श्रुति-विप्रतिपन्नa. f. sg. nom.-विप्रतिपन्ना(2.53)vipratipann-ādistracted by the scripture
सेनाf. du. gen.सेनयोः(2.10)sen-ayoḥof (both) armies

Vocabulary 21

मधु-सूदन अरि-सूदन, कथम् अहं सङ्ख्ये पूजा-अर्हौ भीष्मं द्रोणं च [उभौ] इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि। (BhG.2.4)
O कृष्ण (Destroyer of Demons and Foes), how will I fight in battle with arrows against भीष्म and द्रोण, who are worthy of my worship [thus becoming a destroyer of my गुरु-s]?
1. मधु-सूदन
(कृष्ण) O Destroyer of the Demon मधु
fr. मधु-सूदन m. sg. voc.
2. अरि-सूदन
(कृष्ण) O Destroyer of Foes
fr. अरि-सूदन m. sg. voc.
3. कथम्
how?
fr. कथम् in.
4. अहं
I
fr. अहम् prn. sg. nom.
6. सङ्ख्ये
in battle
fr. सङ्ख्य n. sg. loc.
10. पूजा-
of [my] worship
9. -अर्हौ
who are worthy
fr. पूजा-अर्ह a. m. du. acc. (SG.2.7:)
8. भीष्मं द्रोणं च [उभौ]
against भीष्म and द्रोण
fr. भीष्म m. sg. acc.; द्रोण m. sg. acc.; च in.
7. इषुभिः
with arrows
fr. इषु f. pl. inst.
5. प्रतियोत्स्यामि
will fight
fr. प्रति + √युध् P. fut. 1st sg. (SG.2.76:)

महा-बाहो, अथ च एनं नित्य-जातं नित्यं मृतं वा मन्यसे। (BhG.2.26)
O अर्जुन, now if you consider this [the self, as the body or as an individual soul,] to continually be born and die.
1. महा-बाहो
(अर्जुन) O Mighty Armed One
fr. महा-बाहु m. sg. voc.
2. अथ च
[and] now if
fr. अथ in.; च in.
4. एनं
this [self] [as the body]
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
5. नित्य-
[to] continually
6. -जातं
be born
fr. नित्य-जात pp. of √जन् a. m. sg. acc. (SG.6.6: & SG.7.17.1:)
8. नित्यं
[to] continually
fr. नित्यम् in.
9. मृतं
die
fr. मृत pp. of √मृ a. m. sg. acc. (SG.7.17.1:)
7. वा
and
fr. वा in.
3. मन्यसे
you consider
fr. √मन् 4.Ā. pr. 2nd sg.

भारत, भूतानि अ-व्यक्त-आदीनि व्यक्त-मध्यानि अ-व्यक्त-निधनानि एव [च]। (BhG.2.28)
O अर्जुन, [all] beings are unseen [before] their beginning [i.e., unknown as to whom or what they were before their birth], [are] seen in between, and [are] unseen [after] their end [i.e., unknown as to their lot after death].
1. भारत
(अर्जुन) O Descendant of Emperor भरत, (Brilliant) Son of India
fr. भारत m. sg. voc.
2. भूतानि
[all] beings [are]
fr. भूत pp. of √भू n. pl. nom.
3. अ-व्यक्त-
unmanifest, unseen
4. -आदीनि
[before] their beginning
fr. अव्यक्त-आदि a. n. pl. nom. (SG.2.7:)
5. व्यक्त-
manifest, seen
6. -मध्यानि
in between
fr. व्यक्त-मध्य a. n. pl. nom.
8. अ-व्यक्त-
unmanifest, unseen
9. -निधनानि
[after] their end
fr. अव्यक्त-निधन a. n. pl. nom.
7. एव [च]
[and] indeed
fr. एव in.

पार्थ, यया बुद्ध्या युक्तः कर्म-बन्धं प्रहास्यसि। (BhG.2.39)
O अर्जुन, endowed with which wisdom, you will be free from the bondage called कर्मन्.
1. पार्थ
(अर्जुन) O Son of पृथा
fr. पार्थ m. sg. voc.
3. यया
with which
fr. यद् prn. f. sg. inst.
4. बुद्ध्या
wisdom
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. inst.
2. युक्तः
endowed
fr. युक्त pp. of √युज् pt. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.6: & SG.2.81:)
6. कर्म-बन्धं
the bondage that is कर्मन्
fr. कर्म-बन्ध m. sg. acc.
5. प्रहास्यसि
you will give up, will be free from
fr. प्र + √हा P. fut. 2nd sg.

या सर्व-भूतानां निशा [इव], तस्यां संयमी [मुनिः] जागर्ति। (BhG.2.69)
What is [like] night for all beings, in that the [wise who is] disciplined is awake.
1. या
what [the truth, विद्या]
fr. यद् prn. f. sg. nom. (SG.4.11:)
3. सर्व-भूतानां
for all beings
fr. सर्व-भूत pp. of √भू n. pl. gen.
2. निशा [इव]
is [like] night
fr. निशा f. sg. nom.
4. तस्यां
in that
fr. तद् prn. f. sg. loc.
5. संयमी [मुनिः]
the [wise one who is] disciplined
fr. संयमिन् a. m. sg. nom.
6. जागर्ति
is awake
fr. √जागृ 2.P. pr. 3rd sg.

Exercise 21

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. भारत, भूतान्यव्यक्तादीनि व्यक्तमध्यान्यव्यक्तनिधनान्येव [च]। तत्र का परिदेवना। (BhG.2.28)O अर्जुन, [all] beings are unseen [before] their beginning [i.e., unknown as to whom or what they were before their birth], [are] seen in between, and [are] unseen [after] their end [i.e., unknown as to their lot after death]. Regarding that, why grieve?
 
२. यदृच्छया चापावृतं स्वर्गद्वारमुपपन्नम्। पार्थ, सुखिनः क्षत्रिया ईदृशं युद्धं लभन्ते। (BhG.2.32)
 
३. भूतानि चापि ते (=तव) अव्ययामकीर्तिं कथयिष्यन्ति। सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34)
 
४. साङ्ख्ये (=सद्वस्तुविवेकविषये श्रेयोविषये) एषा बुद्धिस्ते (=तुभ्यम्) अभिहिता। पार्थ, योगे त्विमां [बुद्धिं] शृणु, यया बुद्ध्या युक्तः कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि। (BhG.2.39)This wisdom regarding साङ्ख्य (the knowledge of reality, which is श्रेयस्) has been told to you. On the other hand, O अर्जुन, listen to this wisdom regarding योग (the means for preparing for this knowledge), endowed with which, you will be free from the bondage that is कर्मन्.
 
५. इह व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिरेका, कुरुनन्दन। अव्यवसायिनां [श्रेयोमार्गे] बुद्धयो बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च। (BhG.2.41)
 
६. पार्थ, अविपश्चितो वेदवादरता नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा यामिमां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति क्रियाविशेषबहुलां जन्मकर्मफलप्रदां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)
 
७. अर्जुन उवाच। स्थितप्रज्ञस्य समाधिस्थस्य का भाषा, केशव। (BhG.2.54)अर्जुन said: What is the description of the स्थितप्रज्ञ (one whose wisdom is firm), who is established within समाधि (the self), O कृष्ण?
 
८. तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.57)That one’s wisdom is firm.
 
९. अयुक्तस्य बुद्धिर्नास्ति, न चायुक्तस्य भावना (=धारणम्)। न चाभावयतः शान्तिः। (BhG.2.66)For the one who is not disciplined, knowledge is not there, nor contemplation. For the non-contemplative, there is no clarity.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.29:

Vocab Excer

Footnote 3.29.a: states that neuter adjectives in inst. through loc. cases may optionally take the masculine terminations. This may seem odd, but once you think through all the rest of the declension, it is what you would expect. Notice that this only effects four of the forms in the chart (which have an added न् and then take the normal case terminations like consonant ending stems) as all the rest in those cases are already the same as masculine.

Although only the stems ॰इ ॰उ ॰ऋ (– stems in ॰ऋ will be taken up in a later lesson) are mentioned in the rule, for neuter stems in ॰अ also the same thing has happened, it is just that there were no distinct neuter terminations in those cases in which to have to invoke this optional rule.

Moreover, remember that all the consonant-ending stems also had only one set of terminations in these cases for both masculine and neuter. The rule could just as well have been reversed, so that the four unique neut. terms. in inst. through loc. of इ ॰उ ॰ऋ were optional for adjectives, but mandatory for substantives.

This is one way of learning the various declension charts – by comparing and contrasting them. I have provided many notes within and after the charts to help in this process (such as 3.29.c:), including the inclusion of the different genders and even similar formed stems, as in ॰अ and ॰आ (3.28:), in the same chart.

To make sure you understand this abbreviated formatting of the charts, it would be prudent to take each the genders, adjectives, substantives, etc. and write out their full declension with terminations applied to the stems. The physical act of writing it down helps the mind remember what you want it to remember.

The same applies also to the sentences in the exercises. An essential ingredient to this practice is to write it from memory, in whatever size chunks you can handle, instead of mechanically copying letters – the later being of no use, except of time and paper.

Keep in mind that in these lessons we are just seeing how the language is organized and how the grammar presents that order. However, you should be working on getting the vocabulary as we proceed, reinforced by my repeating the vocabulary in later exercises. A second pass through these lessons can be done, where one can especially to try to commit the grammar to memory.

The following charts shows which of the final forms of the terminations for ॰इ stems come from the normal case terminations (indicated by an “N.”), which from the common pronominal terminations (indicated by a “P.”), and which from the common feminine terminations (indicated by an “F.”).

3.29: Nominal Vowel Stems – ॰इ Masculineहरि (Har-i) m. “Lord Hari (Viṣṇu)”
हर्॰ए॰ Singularद्वि॰ Dualब॰ Plural
प्र॰ nom.॰इः (स् N.)॰ई॰अयः
(अय् + अस् N.)
सं॰ voc.॰ए
द्वि॰ acc.॰इम् ((अ)म् N.)॰ईन् ((आ)न् P.)
तृ॰ inst.॰इना (इन् + आ N.)॰इभ्याम्
(भ्याम् N.)
॰इभिः (भिस् N.)
च॰ dat.॰अये (अय् + ए N.)॰इभ्यः
(भ्यस् N.)
प॰ abl.॰एः
ष॰ gen.॰योः
(य् + ओस् N.)
॰ईनाम् ((आ)न् + आम् N.)
स॰ loc.॰औ॰इषु (सु N.)

3.29: Nominal Vowel Stems – ॰इ Neuterवारि (vār-i) n. “water”
वार्॰ए॰ Singularद्वि॰ Dualब॰ Plural
प्र॰ nom.॰इ
(– N.)
॰इनी
(इन् + ई N.)
॰ईनि
((आ)न् + इ N.)
सं॰ voc.
द्वि॰ acc.
तृ॰ inst.॰इना (इन् + आ N.)॰इभ्याम्
(भ्याम् N.)
॰इभिः (भिस् N.)
च॰ dat.॰इने (इन् + ए N.)॰इभ्यः
(भ्यस् N.)
प॰ abl.॰इनः
(इन् + अस् N.)
ष॰ gen.॰इनोः
(इन् + ओस् N.)
॰ईनाम् ((आ)न् + आम् N.)
स॰ loc.॰इनि (इन् + इ N.)॰इषु (सु N.)

3.29: Nominal Vowel Stems – ॰इ Feminineमति (Mat-i) f. “thought”
मत्॰ए॰ Singularद्वि॰ Dualब॰ Plural
प्र॰ nom.॰इः (स् N.)॰ई॰अयः
(अय् + अस् N.)
सं॰ voc.॰ए
द्वि॰ acc.॰इम् ((अ)म् N.)॰ईः
तृ॰ inst.॰या (य् + आ N.)॰इभ्याम्
(भ्याम् N.)
॰इभिः (भिस् N.)
च॰ dat.॰यै (य् + ऐ F.)
or ॰अये (अय् + ए N.)
॰इभ्यः
(भ्यस् N.)
प॰ abl.॰याः (य् + आस् F.)
or ॰एः
ष॰ gen.॰योः
(य् + ओस् N.)
॰ईनाम् ((आ)न् + आम् N.)
स॰ loc.॰याम् (य् + आम् F.)
or ॰औ
॰इषु (सु N.)

Vocabulary 22

हतः वा स्वर्गं प्राप्स्यसि। जित्वा वा महीं भोक्ष्यसे। (BhG.2.37)
Killed, you will gain heaven; conquer and you will enjoy the world.
1. हतः वा
[either] killed
fr. हत pp. of √हन् pt. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.6:); वा in.
3. स्वर्गं
heaven
fr. स्वर्ग m. sg. acc. (SG.6.24.3:)
2. प्राप्स्यसि
you will gain
fr. प्र + √आप् P. fut. 2nd sg.
4. जित्वा वा
[or] conquer
fr. जित्वा in. pt. of √जि; वा in.
6. महीं
the world
fr. मही f. sg. acc.
5. भोक्ष्यसे
you will enjoy
fr. √भुज् Ā. fut. 2nd sg. (SG.2.81: & SG.2.101:)

सिद्धि-अ-सिद्ध्योः समः भूत्वा, [एवं] योग-स्थः [सन्], कर्माणि कुरु। (BhG.2.48)
Being सम (the same) towards success or failure, established in योग [this attitude], [then] perform action.
3. सिद्धि-अ-सिद्ध्योः
towards success or failure
fr. सिद्धि-असिद्धि f. du. loc. (SG.2.11: & SG.2.3:)
2. समः
सम (the same)
fr. सम a. m. sg. nom.
1. भूत्वा
being
fr. भूत्वा in. pt. of √भू
4. [एवं] योग-स्थः [सन्]
[being thus] established in योग
fr. योग-स्थ a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.24.1:)
6. कर्माणि
action(s)
fr. कर्मन् n. pl. acc.
5. कुरु
[then] (you) perform
fr. √कृ 8.P. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.22.1:)

[कर्मणि कर्म-फले च बुद्धेः] समत्वं योगः उच्यते। (BhG.2.48)
Sameness [of attitude, बुद्धि, towards action and result] is called योग.
1. [कर्मणि कर्म-फले च बुद्धेः] समत्वं
sameness [of attitude towards action and result]
fr. समत्व n. sg. nom.
3. योगः
योग
fr. योग m. sg. nom.
2. उच्यते
is called
fr. √वच् ps. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.37.6: & SG.2.3.a:)

कर्म बुद्धि-योगात् दूरेण हि अवरम्, धनञ्-जय। (BhG.2.49)
Action [or ritual] [by itself] is indeed far inferior to this बुद्धि-योग (the means which is this attitude), O अर्जुन.
1. कर्म
action, ritual
fr. कर्मन् n. sg. nom.
4. बुद्धि-योगात्
to [this] बुद्धि-योग
fr. बुद्धि-योग m. sg. abl. (SG.7.11.2.a:)
2. दूरेण हि
[is] far indeed
fr. दूरेण in.; हि in.
3. अवरम्
inferior
fr. अवर a. n. sg. nom.
5. धनञ्-जय
(अर्जुन) O Winner of Laurels
fr. धन-म्-जय m. sg. voc. (SG.2.55:)

बुद्धौ शरणम् अन्विच्छ। कृपणाः फल-हेतवः। (BhG.2.49)
Seek refuge in this attitude. Those whose motives are [only for] the results [of action] are misers [i.e., are yet to spend their intellect in motivation for श्रेयस्].
3. बुद्धौ
in [this] attitude
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. loc.
2. शरणम्
refuge
fr. शरण n. sg. acc.
1. अन्विच्छ
seek
fr. अनु + √इष् 6.P. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.17.3:)
6. कृपणाः
[are] misers
fr. कृपण m. pl. nom.
5. फल-
are the results [of action]
4. -हेतवः
those whose motives
fr. फल-हेतु a. m. pl. nom.

अर्जुनः उवाच। स्थित-धीः किं प्रभाषेत। किम् आसीत। किं व्रजेत। (BhG.2.54)
अर्जुन said: What would the स्थित-धी (one whose knowledge is firm) speak? How would that one sit? How would that one wander about?
1. अर्जुनः उवाच
अर्जुन said:
fr. अर्जुन m. sg. nom.; √वच् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.10.3:)
4. स्थित-
is firm
3. -धीः
the one whose wisdom
fr. स्थित-धी a. m. sg. nom.
2. किं
what/how?
fr. किम् prn. n. sg. acc.
5. प्रभाषेत
would [that one] speak
fr. प्र + √भाष् 1.Ā. pot. 3rd sg.
6. किम्
how?
fr. किम् pcl. (SG.6.20:)
7. आसीत
would [that one] sit?
fr. √आस् 2.Ā. pot. 3rd sg.
8. किं
how?
fr. किम् pcl..
9. व्रजेत
would [that one] wander about
fr. किम् pcl.; √व्रज् 1.P. (Ā. for meter) pot. 3rd sg.

यस्य हि इन्द्रियाणि [संस्कृत-बुद्धेः see BhG.2.42–43] वशे, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.61)
For the one whose senses are indeed under authority [of an informed intellect], wisdom is firm.
2. यस्य हि
indeed whose
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. gen. (SG.4.11:); हि in.
3. इन्द्रियाणि
[five] senses
fr. इन्द्रिय n. pl. nom.
4. [संस्कृत-बुद्धेः] वशे
[are] under authority [of an informed intellect]
fr. वश m. sg. loc.
1. तस्य
for the one
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. gen. (SG.4.6:)
5. प्रज्ञा
wisdom
fr. प्रज्ञा f. sg. nom.
6. प्रतिष्ठिता
is firm
fr. प्रतिष्ठिता pp. of प्रति + √स्था a. f. sg. nom. (SG.6.6: & SG.2.101:)

Exercise 22

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. भूमावसपत्नमृद्धं राज्यमवाप्य। (BhG.2.8)
 
२. भारत, भूतान्यव्यक्तादीनि व्यक्तमध्यान्यव्यक्तनिधनान्येव [च]। तत्र का परिदेवना। (BhG.2.28)O अर्जुन, [all] beings are unseen [before] their beginning [i.e., unknown as to whom or what they were before their birth], [are] seen in between, and [are] unseen [after] their end [i.e., unknown as to their lot after death]. Regarding that, why grieve?
 
३. साङ्ख्ये (=सद्वस्तुविवेकविषये श्रेयोविषये) एषा बुद्धिस्ते (=तुभ्यम्) अभिहिता। पार्थ, योगे त्विमां [बुद्धिं] शृणु, यया बुद्ध्या युक्तः कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि। (BhG.2.39)This wisdom regarding साङ्ख्य (the knowledge of reality, which is श्रेयस्) has been told to you. On the other hand, O अर्जुन, listen to this wisdom regarding योग (the means for preparing for this knowledge), endowed with which, you will be free from the bondage that is कर्मन्.
 
४. धनञ्जय, [कर्मफले] सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा, सिद्ध्यासिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा, [एवं] योगस्थः [सन्], कर्माणि कुरु। [कर्मणि कर्मफले च बुद्धेः] समत्वं योग उच्यते। (BhG.2.48)O अर्जुन, being free from attachment [toward anticipated results], [i.e.,] being सम (the same) towards success or failure, established in योग [this attitude], [then] perform action. Sameness [of attitude, बुद्धि, toward results – whatever they are] is called योग.
 
५. कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्दूरेण ह्यवरम्, धनञ्जय। बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ। कृपणाः फलहेतवः। (BhG.2.49)Action [or ritual] [by itself] is indeed far inferior to this बुद्धि-योग (the means which is this attitude), O अर्जुन. Seek refuge in this attitude. Those whose motives are [only for] the results [of action] are misers [i.e., are yet to spend their intellect in motivation for श्रेयस्].
 
६. यदा श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते बुद्धिर्निश्चला स्थास्यति, समाधौ (=आत्मनि) अचला, तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.53)
 
७. पार्थ, यदा सर्वान्कामान्मनोगतान्प्रजहाति, आत्मन्येवात्मना (=बुद्ध्या) तुष्टः। (BhG.2.55)
 
८. यस्य हीन्द्रियाणि [संस्कृतबुद्धेः] वशे, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.61)For the one whose senses are indeed under authority [of an informed intellect], wisdom is firm.
 
९. या सर्वभूतानां निशा [इव], तस्यां संयमी [मुनिः] जागर्ति। यस्यां भूतानि जाग्रति, सा [सद्वस्तु] पश्यतो मुनेर्निशा [इव]। (BhG.2.66)What is night for all beings, in that the [wise who is] disciplined is awake. In what beings are awake, that is [like] night for the wise one who sees clearly [i.e., the wise are awake to सत्, which is reality, and others are only awake to what they believe is reality, but is असत्/unreal].

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.30–35:

Vocab Excer

Stems in ॰उ decline just like those in ॰इ. In the endings shown in chart 3.29:, replace the इ with उ, the ई with ऊ, the य् with व्, and the vṛddhi of इ with the vṛddhi of उ, then you will see their identity. If you know one declension you know the other. Even the rules dealing with neuter adjectives, and with feminine adjectives and substantives are the same.

The only “distinction” between them is the masc. sg. loc., which happens to be identical, instead of the expected vṛddhi complement in ॰इ stems that ought to have been ऐ, and also the additional rule of feminine adjectives denoting a quality taking the feminine suffix (॰ई) optionally (3.30.c:) for stems in ॰उ, becoming ॰वी, then declining like नदी.

Like with English, only much less so, there are always exceptions. For the ॰इ and ॰उ declensions, they are presented in 3.32: through 3.35:.

The following are all of the words in chapter 2 with stems ending in ॰उ.

॰उअ-गत-असुa. m. pl. acc.-असून्(2.11)-as-ūnwhose life’s breath is not [yet] gone
इषुf. pl. inst.इषुभिः(2.4)iṣ-ubhiḥwith arrows
कर्म-फल-हेतुm. sg. nom.-हेतुः(2.47)-het-uḥthe cause of the results of action
गत-असुa. m. pl. acc.-असून्(2.11)-as-ūnwhose life’s breath is gone
गुरुm. pl. acc.गुरून्(2.5)gur-ūnteachers, parents
फल-हेतुa. m. pl. nom.-हेतवः(2.49)-het-avaḥthose whose motives are the results [of actions]
बहुa. m. pl. acc.बहून्(2.36)bah-ūnmany
महा-बाहुm. sg. voc.-बाहो(2.26)-bāh-0O Mighty Armed One
मृत्युm. sg. nom.मृत्युः(2.27)mṛty-uḥdeath
वायुm. sg. nom.वायुः(2.67)vāy-uḥthe wind
(सद्-वस्तु)m. sg. acc.(-वस्तु)(2.46)(-vast-u)reality
स्थाणुa. m. sg. nom.स्थाणुः(2.24)sthāṇ-uḥstable

Vocabulary 23

विषमे इदम् कश्मलं कुतः त्वा समुपस्थितम्, अर्जुन। (BhG.2.2)
In [such] a crisis [i.e., at the outset of this war] from where came to you this despair, O अर्जुन?
1. विषमे
in [such] a crisis
fr. विषम m. sg. loc.
5. इदम्
this
fr. इदम् prn. n. sg. nom.
6. कश्मलं
despair
fr. कश्मल n. sg. nom.
2. कुतः
from where
fr. कुतस् in. (SG.6.19:)
4. त्वा
to you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. acc.
3. समुपस्थितम्
came
fr. समुपस्थित pp. of सम् + उप + √स्था pt. n. sg. nom. (SG.6.6:)
7. अर्जुन
O अर्जुन
fr. अर्जुन m. sg. voc.

अयं न कदा-चिद् जायते, म्रियते वा। न [अस्ति] – भूत्वा भूयः अ-भविता, न वा [–अभूत्वा भूयः भविता इत्यर्थः]। (BhG.2.20)
This [the embodied one, the real] is never born, nor dies. It is not that coming to be, it again comes not to be, nor the opposite [becoming nonexistent, it again comes to be].
1. अयं
this [embodied one, the real]
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:)
2. न कदा-चिद्
never
fr. न in.; कदा-चिद् in.
3. जायते
is born
fr. √जन् 4.Ā. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.16.4:)
4. म्रियते वा
nor dies
fr. √मृ ps. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.37.3: with active sense); वा in.
5. न [अस्ति]
it is not that
fr. न in.
6. भूत्वा
being, coming to be
fr. भूत्वा in. pt. of √भू
7. भूयः
again
fr. भूयस् in.
8. अ-भविता
[it] [is what] comes not to be
fr. अ-भवितृ a. m. sg. nom.
9. न वा
or the negative, nor the opposite
fr. न in.; वा in.
10. [न अ-भूत्वा भूयःभविता]
[i.e., it is not that becoming nonexistent, it again comes to be]
fr. भवितृ a. m. sg. nom.

अयम् अ-च्छेद्यः, अयम् अ-दाह्यः, अ-क्लेद्यः अ-शोष्यः एव च। अयं नित्यः सर्व-गतः (=अ-देशः) स्थाणुः अ-चलः सना-तनः [च]| (BhG.2.24)
This is uncuttable. This is unburnable, unwettable, and unwitherable. This is timeless, locationless, stable, unmoving, and always existing.
1. अयम्
this [is]
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:)
2. अ-च्छेद्यः
uncutable
fr. अच्छेद्य pot. ps. pt. of √छिद् a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.8: & SG.2.60:)
3. अयम्
this [is]
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:)
4. अ-दाह्यः
unburnable
fr. अदाह्य pot. ps. pt. of √दह् a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.8:)
5. अ-क्लेद्यः
unwetable
fr. अक्लेद्य pot. ps. pt. of √क्लिद् a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.8:)
6. अ-शोष्यः एव च
and unwitherable
fr. अशोष्य pot. ps. pt. of √शुष् a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.8:); एव in.; च in.
7. अयं नित्यः
this [is] timeless
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:); नित्य a. m. sg. nom.
8. सर्व-गतः (=अ-देशः)
all-pervading [i.e., locationless]
fr. सर्व-गत a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.6:)
9. स्थाणुः
stable
fr. स्थाणु a. m. sg. nom.
10. अ-चलः
unmoving
fr. अचल a. m. sg. nom.
11. सना-तनः [च]
[and] always existing
fr. सनातन a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.27:)

कौन्तेय, तस्मात् युद्धाय कृत-निश्चयः उत्तिष्ठ। (BhG.2.37)
Therefore, O अर्जुन, resolve to fight and get up!
2. कौन्तेय
(अर्जुन) O Son of कुन्ती
fr. कौन्तेय m. sg. voc.
1. तस्मात्
therefore
fr. तस्मात् in.
4. युद्धाय
to fight
fr. युद्ध pp. of √युध् n. sg. dat. (SG.2.76: & SG.2.78:)
3. कृत-निश्चयः
[being] resolved, having made a commitment
fr. कृत-निश्चय a. m. sg. nom.
5. उत्तिष्ठ
[and] get up
fr. उद् + √स्था 1.P. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.15.4: & SG.2.24:)

वीत-राग-भय-क्रोधः मुनिः स्थित-धीः उच्यते। (BhG.2.56)
The one who is free from राग (attraction), fear, and anger, [that] wise person is called स्थित-धी (one whose wisdom is firm).
1. वीत-
free from
2. -राग-भय-क्रोधः
attraction fear [and] anger
fr. वीत-राग-भय-क्रोधः a. m. sg. nom.
3 मुनिः
[that] wise person
fr. मुनि m. sg. nom.
5. स्थित-धीः
one whose wisdom is firm
fr. स्थित-धी a. m. sg. nom.
4. उच्यते
is called
fr. √वच् ps. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.37.6: & SG.2.3.a:)

Exercise 23

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. मधुसूदनारिसूदन, कथमहं सङ्ख्ये पूजार्हौ भीष्मं द्रोणं च [उभौ] इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि (BhG.2.4)O कृष्ण (Destroyer of Demons and Foes), how will I fight in battle with arrows against भीष्म and द्रोण, who are worthy of my worship [thus becoming a destroyer of my गुरु-s]?
 
२. इह लोके भैक्ष्यमपि भोक्तुं श्रेयः [स्यात्], अर्थकामांस्तु गुरून्हत्वा। (BhG.2.5)
 
३. श्रीभगवानुवाच। पण्डिता गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11)
 
४. अयमच्छेद्यः, अयमदाह्यः, अक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च। अयं नित्यः सर्वगतः (=अदेशः) स्थाणुरचलः सनातनः [च]। (BhG.2.24)This is uncutable. This is unburnable, unwetable, and unwitherable. This is timeless, locationless, stable, unmoving, and always existing.
 
५. महाबाहो, अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं मृतं वा मन्यसे। (BhG.2.26)O अर्जुन, now if you consider this [the self, as the body or as an individual soul,] to continually be born and die.
 
६. यावान्सर्वतः सम्प्लुतोदके उदपानेऽर्थः (=प्रयोजनं), तावान् [सद्वस्तु] विजानतो ब्राह्मणस्य सर्वेषु वेदेषु [अर्थः]। (BhG.2.46)
 
७. कर्मण्येव ते (=तव) अधिकारः (=प्रभुत्वं), फलेषु मा कदाचन। कर्मफलहेतुर्मा भूः [मा मन्यस्व इत्यर्थः]। अकर्मणि ते (=तव) सङ्गो मास्तु। (BhG.2.47)
 
८. कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्दूरेण ह्यवरम्, धनञ्जय। बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ। कृपणाः फलहेतवः। (BhG.2.49)Action [or ritual] [by itself] is indeed far inferior to this बुद्धि-योग (the means which is this attitude), O अर्जुन. Seek refuge in this attitude. Those whose motives are [only for] the results [of action] are misers [i.e., are yet to spend their intellect in motivation for श्रेयस्].
 
९. यन्मनो हि (=यस्मात्) चरतामिन्द्रियाणामनुविधीयते, तद् [मनः] अस्य प्रज्ञां हरति, वायुरम्भसि नावमिव [हरति]। (BhG.2.67)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.36–37:

Vocab Excer

In the संस्कृत language, there are many more stems in ॰ई and ॰ऊ that are polysyllabic than monosyllabic; and there are many more stems in ॰ई than in ॰ऊ. Chart 3.36: is very busy in that it tries to show the interrelationships between these four sets of stems. Not to stop there, one should also compare these forms with stems in ॰इ and ॰उ also. With a little bit of logic, you will see that there is an extensive set of similarities, with few discrepancies.

In order to help remember the difference between the monosyllabic and the polysyllabic set of forms, notice that the declined form of the monosyllabic in all cases, except sg. nom. and voc., results in a di-syllabic form. This is because the ॰ई and ॰ऊ are converted to ॰इय् and ॰॰उव् by application of सन्धि rule 2.67: before vowel terminations, or retain their long vowel before the pada terminations. Whereas, the polysyllabic stems apply सन्धि rule 2.11: instead, resulting in ॰य् and ॰व् before vowel terminations, and are identical to the monosyllabic in the pada terminations.

Also note how important it is to try to remember the three common feminine terminations (sg. dat., abl./gen., and loc.), since they are the majority of the unusual forms, optional or otherwise, for feminine stems ending in vowels.

In this way you should have no trouble in recognizing the declensions of words in sentences, even though you cannot quickly rattle off from memory all 24 forms for each of the stems in each of the genders.

The exceptions to the ॰ई and ॰ऊ declensions are presented in 3.36.c: and 3.37:.

The following are all of the words in chapter 2 with stems ending in ॰ई. There are no stems in ॰ऊ in chapter 2. In compounds, as per chart 3.36:, the final member alone determines whether the stem follows the monosyllabic or polysyllabic forms. Hence स्थित-धी below is monosyllabic.

॰ईब्राह्मीa. f. sg. nom.ब्राह्मी(2.72)brāhm-īin/as ब्रह्मन् (reality/सत्)
महीf. sg. acc.महीम्(2.37)mah-īmthe world
स्थित-धीa. m. sg. nom.-धीः(2.54)-dh-īḥthe one whose knowledge is firm

Vocabulary 24

क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः, पार्थ। एतद् त्वयि न उपपद्यते। (BhG.2.3)
Do not yield to impotency, O अर्जुन. It does not befit you.
2. क्लैब्यं
to impotency
fr. क्लैब्य n. sg. acc.
1. मा स्म गमः
do not go [i.e., yield]
fr. मा in.; स्म in.; [अ-]गमः fr. √गम् P. अ Aorist 2nd sg. (SG.5.5.c:)
3. पार्थ
(अर्जुन) O Son of पृथा
fr. पार्थ m. sg. voc.
4. एतद्
it
fr. एतद् prn. n. sg. nom. (SG.4.7:)
6. त्वयि
[in] you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. loc. (SG.4.2:)
5. न उपपद्यते
does not befit
fr. न in.; उप + √पद् 4.Ā. pr. 3rd sg.

क्षुद्रं हृदय-दौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वा उत्तिष्ठ, परन्-तप। (BhG.2.3)
Give up this lowly weakness of heart and get up, O अर्जुन (vexer of foes)!
2. क्षुद्रं
[this] lowly
fr. क्षुद्र a. n. sg. acc.
4. हृदय-
of heart
3. -दौर्बल्यं
weakness
fr. हृदय-दौर्बल्य n. sg. acc.
1. त्यक्त्वा
give up
fr. त्यक्त्वा in. pt. of √त्यज् (SG.2.81:)
5. उत्तिष्ठ
[and] get up
fr. उद् + √स्था 1.P. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.15.4: & SG.2.24:)
6. परन्-तप
(अर्जुन) O Vexer of Foes
fr. पर-म्-तप m. sg. voc. (SG.2.55:)

कतरद् च नः गरीयः एतद् न विद्मः – यद् वा जयेम यदि वा नः जयेयुः। (BhG.2.6)
We [I] do not know which one of the two is better for us – whether [by my fighting] we should conquer, or [by my withdrawal] they should conquer us.
3. कतरद् च
(and) (which) of the two
fr. कतर prn. a. n. sg. acc. (SG.4.16.1:); च in.
5. नः
for us
fr. अहम् prn. pl. gen. (SG.4.2:)
4. गरीयः
[is] better
fr. गरीयस् cpv. a. n. sg. acc. (SG.6.25: & SG.3.14:)
2. एतद्
[which] one
fr. एतद् prn. n. sg. acc. (SG.4.7:)
1. न विद्मः
we [I (SG.7.4.4:)] do not know
fr. न in.; √विद् 2.P. pr. 1st pl.
6. यद् वा
whether
fr. यद् in.; वा in.
7. जयेम
we should conquer
fr. √जि 1.P. pot. 1st pl.
8. यदि वा
or if
fr. यदि in.; वा in.
10. नः
us
fr. अहम् prn. pl. acc. (SG.4.2:)
9. जयेयुः
they should conquer
fr. √जि 1.P. pot. 3rd pl.

यान् एव हत्वा न जिजीविषामः, ते धार्त-राष्ट्राः प्रमुखे अवस्थिताः। (BhG.2.6)
Those allies of धृतराष्ट्र, after slaying whom we would not want to live, stand facing us.
4. यान् एव
whom [indeed]
fr. यद् prn. m. pl. acc. (SG.4.11:); एव in.
3. हत्वा
after slaying
fr. हत्वा in. pt. of √हन् (SG.6.9: & SG.6.6:)
5. न जिजीविषामः
we do not [i.e., would not] want to live
fr. न in.; √जीव् P. des. pr. 1st pl. (SG.5.41:)
1. ते
those
fr. तद् prn. m. pl. nom. (SG.4.6:)
2. धार्त-राष्ट्राः
allies of धृतराष्ट्र
fr. धारराष्ट्र m. pl. nom.
7 प्रमुखे
facing [us]
fr. प्रमुखे in.
6. अवस्थिताः
stand
fr. अवस्थित pp. of अव + √स्था pt. m. pl. nom. (SG.6.6: & SG.7.17.1:)

कार्पण्य-दोष-उपहत-स्व-भावः अहं ते शिष्यः। त्वां प्रपन्नं, मां शाधि। (BhG.2.7)
With my mind overcome by miserliness [i.e., yet to be spent on seeking श्रेयस्/the ultimate good]. I am Your student. Having surrendered to You, please teach me.
3. कार्पण्य-दोष-
by miserliness-defect
2. -उपहत-
overcome
1. -स्व-भावः
with my mind
fr. कार्पण्य-दोष-उपहत-स्व-भाव a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.8: & SG.2.3:)
4. अहं
I [am]
fr. अहम् prn. sg. nom. (SG.4.2:)
5. ते
your
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. gen. (SG.4.2:)
6. शिष्यः
student
fr. शिष्य pot. ps. pt. of √शास् m. sg. nom. (SG.6.8:)
8. त्वां
to You
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. acc. (SG.4.2: & SG.7.8.5:)
7. प्रपन्नं
having surrendered
fr. प्रपन्न pp. of √पद् pt. m. sg. acc. (SG.6.6:)
10. मां
me
fr. अहम् prn. sg. acc. (SG.4.2: & SG.7.8.A.1:)
9. शाधि
please teach
fr. √शास् 2.P. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.19.11: & SG.5.6.a: & SG.2.100:)

सुराणाम् अपि हि (=यस्मात्) आधिपत्यम् अवाप्य, यद् मम इन्द्रियाणाम् उच्छोषणं शोकम् अपनुद्यात्, [तद्] न प्रपश्यामि। (BhG.2.8)
– Because, [though] gaining lordship over the heavenly deities, I do not see [on my own] what would remove the sorrow [i.e., guilt and hurt] drying up my senses.
4. सुराणाम्
over the heavenly deities
fr. सुर m. pl. gen.
1. अपि हि
because even [though]
fr. अपि in.; हि in.
3. आधिपत्यम्
lordship
fr. आधिपत्य n. sg. acc.
2. अवाप्य
gaining
fr. अवाप्य in. pt. of अव + √आप्
6. यद्
which, what
fr. यद् prn. n. sg. nom.
10. मम
my
fr. अहम् prn. sg. gen. (SG.4.2:)
11. इन्द्रियाणाम्
(of) senses
fr. इन्द्रिय n. pl. gen.
9. उच्छोषणं
drying up
fr. उच्छोषण a. m. sg. acc.
8. शोकम्
the sorrow
fr. शोक m. sg. acc.
7. अपनुद्यात्
would remove
fr. अप + √नुद् P. bene. 3rd sg. (SG.5.32: & SG.7.26:)
5. [तद्] न प्रपश्यामि
[that] I do not see
fr. न in.; प्र + √दृश् 1.P. pr. 1st sg. (SG.5.15.6:)

Exercise 24

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. विषम इदं कश्मलं कुतस्त्वा समुपस्थितम्, अर्जुन। (BhG.2.2)In [such] a crisis [i.e., at the outset of this war] from where came to you this despair, O अर्जुन?
 
२. अयं न कदाचिज्जायते, म्रियते वा। न [अस्ति] – भूत्वा भूयोऽभविता, न वा [–अभूत्वा भूयर्भविता इत्यर्थः]। (BhG.2.20)This [the embodied one, the real] is never born, nor dies. It is not that coming to be, it again comes not to be, nor the opposite [becoming nonexistent, it again comes to be].
 
३. अयमच्छेद्यः, अयमदाह्यः, अक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च। अयं नित्यः सर्वगतः (=अदेशः) स्थाणुरचलः सनातनः [च]। (BhG.2.24)This is uncutable. This is unburnable, unwetable, and unwitherable. This is timeless, locationless, stable, unmoving, and always existing.
 
४. हतो वा स्वर्गं प्राप्स्यसि। जित्वा वा महीं भोक्ष्यसे। कौन्तेय, तस्माद्युद्धाय कृतनिश्चय उत्तिष्ठ। (BhG.2.37)Killed, you will gain heaven; conquer and you will enjoy the world. Therefore, O अर्जुन, resolve to fight and get up!
 
५. धनञ्जय, [कर्मफले] सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा, सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा, [एवं] योगस्थः [सन्], कर्माणि कुरु। [कर्मणि कर्मफले च बुद्धेः] समत्वं योग उच्यते। (BhG.2.48)O अर्जुन, being free from attachment [toward anticipated results], [i.e.,] being सम (the same) towards success or failure, established in योग [this attitude], [then] perform action. Sameness [of attitude, बुद्धि, towards action and result] is called योग.
 
६. अर्जुन उवाच। स्थितप्रज्ञस्य समाधिस्थस्य का भाषा, केशव। स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत। किमासीत। किं व्रजेत। (BhG.2.54)अर्जुन said: What is the description of the स्थितप्रज्ञ (one whose wisdom is firm), who is established within समाधि (the self), O कृष्ण? What would the स्थितधी (one whose wisdom is firm) speak? How would that one sit? How would that one wander about?
 
७. दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहो वीतरागभयक्रोधो मुनिः स्थितधीरुच्यते। (BhG.2.56)The one whose mind is not afflicted in adversities, who has no longing in pleasures and who is free from राग (attraction), fear, and anger, [that] wise person is called स्थितधी (one whose wisdom is firm).
 
८. यस्य ह्यिन्द्रियाणि [संस्कृतबुद्धेः] वशे, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.61)For the one whose senses are indeed under authority [of an informed intellect], wisdom is firm.
 
९. एषा ब्राह्मी (=ब्रह्मण्यधिष्ठिता) स्थितिः, पार्थ। (BhG.2.72)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 3.38–41:

Vocab Excer

Unlike the previous stems, for words ending in ॰ऋ their meanings determine how they are declined. The vast majority of these words are masculine nouns derived from the suffix ॰तृ added to verbal roots, in the sense of the agent of the action depicted by the verbal root. But there is a small group of words that denote family relations that also end in ॰ऋ and they are declined differently from those derived from verbal roots by the suffix ॰तृ.

These masculine nouns in ॰तृ may be employed as adjectives in composition, and, when they rarely qualify a neuter referent, then they decline in neuter as per Sanskrit Grammar 3.40:. Whereas, when they qualify a feminine referent, they change their stem form per Sanskrit Grammar 3.40: and then decline according to that new stem ending in ॰ई.

The following are the two words in chapter 2 with stems ending in ॰ऋ.

॰ऋअ-भवितृa. m. sg. nom.अभविता(2.20)abhavit-ā[what] comes not to be
हन्तृm. sg. acc.हन्तारम्(2.19)hant-āramthe agent of destruction

You should have noticed by now that it is sometimes quite difficult to recognize the original stems of words after they are declined. The task is attacked by recognizing within the context the possible vocabulary words that would decline thus. Simply knowing how stems decline is not enough.

Take for example the two above words, अभविता and हन्तारम्. The first immediately looks like a feminine stem ॰आ in sg. nom., and the second looks like an ॰आ stem in masc. sg. acc., or neut. sg. nom./acc. If you know that such words don’t exist, then these possibilities can be quickly eliminated.

Adjectives that must decline in the same gender, number and case as their referent often help here, especially if they have a different stem ending than the referent, in which case the possible options narrow very quickly. More often than not though, vocabulary leads the way to understanding sentences, with grammar playing a supporting role of confirming valid options and eliminating invalid options.

Vocabulary 25

तान् तितिक्षस्व, भारत। (BhG.2.14)
Endure them [the contacts of the senses] [i.e., accept them objectively as they are], O अर्जुन.
2. तान्
them [the contacts of the senses]
fr. तद् prn. m. pl. acc.
1. तितिक्षस्व
endure, desire to remain sharp [despite]
fr. √तिज् Ā. des. impv. 2nd sg. (SG.5.41: & SG.2.81: & SG.2.101:)
3. भारत
(अर्जुन) O (Brilliant) Son of India
fr. भारत m. sg. voc.

पुरुष-ऋषभ, यं हि पुरुषम् एते [स्पर्शाः विषयाः वा] न व्यथयन्ति, सम-दुःख-सुखं धीरं [च], सः अ-मृतत्वाय कल्पते। (BhG.2.15)
O अर्जुन, the person whom these [unavoidable contacts or the sense objects] do not afflict, who is the same in pleasure and pain and who is discerning, that one is fit for freedom.
1. पुरुष-ऋषभ
(अर्जुन) O Prominent Among Men
fr. पुरुष-ऋषभ m. sg. voc. (SG.2.8: & SG.2.3:)
3. यं हि
whom [indeed]
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.11:); हि in.
2. पुरुषम्
the person
fr. पुरुष m. sg. acc.
4. एते [स्पर्शाः विषयाः वा]
these [contacts, or sense objects]
fr. एतद् prn. m. pl. nom. (SG.4.7:)
5. न व्यथयन्ति
do not afflict
fr. न in.; √व्यथ् P. cs. pr. 3rd pl. (SG.5.40:)
6. सम-
who is the same
7. -दुःख-सुखं
in pleasure and pain
fr. सम-दुःख-सुख a. m. sg. acc.
8. धीरं [च]
[and] who is discerning
fr. धीर m. sg. acc.
9. सः
that one
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.6:)
11. अ-मृतत्वाय
for freedom
fr. अमृतत्वाय n. sg. dat.
10. कल्पते
is fit
fr. √कॢप् kḷp 1.Ā. pr. 3rd sg.

अयं न हन्ति, न हन्यते। (BhG.2.19)
This [embodied one, the real] neither destroys nor is destroyed.
1. अयं
this
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:)
2. न हन्ति
neither destroys
fr. न in.; √हन् 2.P. pr. 3rd sg.
3. न हन्यते
nor is destroyed
fr. न in.; √हन् ps. pr. 3rd sg.

[यतः तस्मात्] तानि सर्वाणि [इन्द्रियाणि] संयम्य युक्तः [सन्] मत्-परः आसीत। (BhG.2.61)
[Because of this, therefore] mastering all those [senses], the one who is disciplined should remain with Me [the Lord, reality] as the पर (highest, as the limitless).
1. [यतः तस्मात्]
[because of this, therefore]
3. तानि सर्वाणि [इन्द्रियाणि]
all those [senses]
fr. तद् prn. n. pl. acc.; सर्व prn. a. n. pl. acc. (SG.4.16.2:)
2. संयम्य
mastering
fr. संयम्य in. pt. of सम् + √यम् (SG.2.54:)
4. युक्तः
[the one] who is disciplined
fr. युक्त pp. of √युज् a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.81:)
6. मत्-
with Me [the Lord, reality]
7. -परः
as the highest [the limitless]
fr. मद्-पर a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.24:)
5. आसीत
should remain
fr. √आस् 2.Ā. pot. 3rd sg.

प्राप्य एनां, न विमुह्यति। (BhG.2.72)
Attaining this [reality], one is not [any longer] deluded.
1. प्राप्य
attaining
fr. प्राप्य in. pt. of प्र + √आप्
2. एनां
this [reality]
fr. एनद् prn. f. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
3. न विमुह्यति
one is not [any longer] deluded
fr. न in.; वि + √मुह् 4.P. pr. 3rd sg.

अन्त-काले अपि अस्यां स्थित्वा ब्रह्म-निर्वाणम् ऋच्छति। (BhG.2.72)
Being firm in this [reality], even just at the moment of death, one attains liberation in/as ब्रह्मन्.
5. अन्त-
of the end [i.e., death]
4. -काले
at the moment
fr. अन्त-काल m. sg. loc.
3. अपि
even [just]
fr. अपि in.
2. अस्यां
in this [reality]
fr. इदम् prn. f. sg. loc. (SG.4.8:)
1. स्थित्वा
being firm
fr. स्थित्वा in. pt. of √स्था (SG.6.9: & SG.6.6:)
8. ब्रह्म-
in/as ब्रह्मन् (reality)
7. -निर्वाणम्
liberation
fr. ब्रह्म-निर्वाण n. sg. acc.
6. ऋच्छति
one goes to, one attains
fr. √ऋ 6.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.17.3:)

Exercise 25

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. विषम इदं कश्मलं कुतस्त्वा समुपस्थितम्, अर्जुन। (BhG.2.2)
 
२. क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः, पार्थ। एतत्त्वयि नोपपद्यते। क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ, परन्तप। (BhG.2.3)Do not yield to impotency, O अर्जुन. It does not befit you. Give up this lowly weakness of heart and get up, O अर्जुन (vexer of foes)!
 
३. कतरच्च नो गरीय एतन्न विद्मः – यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः। यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषामः, ते धार्तराष्ट्राः प्रमुखेऽवस्थिताः। (BhG.2.6)We [I] do not know which one of the two is better for us – whether [by my fighting] we should conquer, or [by my withdrawal] they should conquer us. Those allies of धृतराष्ट्र, after slaying whom we would not want to live, stand facing us.
 
४. [अहं] कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावो धर्मसम्मूढचेताः [च] त्वां पृच्छामि – यन्निश्चितं श्रेयः स्यात्, तन्मे ब्रूहि। अहं ते शिष्यः। त्वां प्रपन्नं, मां शाधि। (BhG.2.7)With [my] mind overcome by miserliness [i.e., yet to be spent seeking श्रेयस्/the ultimate good] and confused about धर्म, I ask You – what is definitely श्रेयस्? That, please tell me. I am Your student. Having surrendered to You, please teach me.
 
५. भूमौ हि (=यस्मात्) असपत्नमृद्धं राज्यं, सुराणामपि चाधिपत्यमवाप्य, यन्ममेन्द्रियाणामुच्छोषणं शोकमपनुद्यात्, [तद्] न प्रपश्यामि। (BhG.2.08)– Because, [though] gaining an unrivalled and prosperous kingdom on earth, and even lordship over the heavenly deities, I do not see [on my own] what would remove the sorrow [i.e., guilt and hurt] drying up my senses.
 
६. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] हन्तारं वेत्ति, यश्चैनं हतं मन्यते, उभौ तौ न विजानीतः। अयं न हन्ति, न हन्यते। (BhG.2.19)The one who thinks this [embodied one, the real, the self-evident subject] is the agent of destruction [change, etc.], and the one who thinks this [embodied one, the real] is the object of destruction [etc.] – both do not know. This [embodied one, the real] neither destroys nor is destroyed.
 
७. अयं न कदाचिज्जायते, म्रियते वा। न [अस्ति] – भूत्वा भूयोऽभविता, न वा [–अभूत्वा भूयर्भविता इत्यर्थः]। (BhG.2.20)
 
८. अयमच्छेद्यः, अयमदाह्यः, अक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च। अयं नित्यः सर्वगतः (=अदेशः) स्थाणुरचलः सनातनः [च]। (BhG.2.24)
 
९. हतो वा स्वर्गं प्राप्स्यसि। जित्वा वा महीं भोक्ष्यसे। कौन्तेय, तस्माद्युद्धाय कृतनिश्चय उत्तिष्ठ। (BhG.2.37)
 
१०. साङ्ख्ये (=सद्वस्तुविवेकविषये श्रेयोविषये) एषा बुद्धिस्ते (=तुभ्यम्) अभिहिता। पार्थ, योगे त्विमां [बुद्धिं] शृणु, यया बुद्ध्या युक्तः कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि। (BhG.2.39)
 
११. कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्दूरेण ह्यवरम्, धनञ्जय। बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ। कृपणाः फलहेतवः। (BhG.2.49)
 
१२. दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहो वीतरागभयक्रोधो मुनिः स्थितधीरुच्यते। (BhG.2.56)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 4.1–3:, 7.6:

Vocab Excer

Each of the pronouns have a variety of stems, depending on the gender, number and case. The personal pronouns (first person ‘I’ and second person ‘You’) are the most varied despite the fact that they do not have a gender distinction, since their stems vary across all the numbers and cases, and also have alternate defective forms. Different grammar books may indicate the first person as either ‘अहम्’ or ‘अस्मद्’, and the second person as either ‘त्वम्’ or ‘युष्मद्’ (Sanskrit Grammar 4.2:).

The other pronouns vary mostly only in the very common sg. nom. and acc. cases depending on gender.

Then there are pronominal adjectives that wholly or partially or optionally decline like pronouns.

As a class, all of them are thus the hardest of words to remember their declensions. They occur so frequently, though, that in time you will learn them.

The following are the personal pronoun forms in chapter 2.

4.2: अहम् sg. nom. अहम् (2.7) aham I
 sg. acc. माम् (2.7) mām to me
 sg. dat. मे (2.7) me to me
 sg. gen. मम (2.8) mama my
 pl. nom. वयम् (2.12) vayam we
 pl. acc. नः (2.6) naḥ (to) us
 pl. gen. नः (2.6) naḥ for us

4.2: त्वम् sg. nom. त्वम् (2.27) tvam you
 sg. acc. त्वाम् (2.7) tvām (to) you
 sg. acc. त्वा (2.2) tvā (to) you
 sg. dat. ते (2.39) te to you
 sg. gen. तव (2.36) tava your
 sg. gen. ते (2.7) te your
 sg. loc. त्वयि (2.3) tavyi in you

The topic of enclitics (4.3:) is a side issue that arises on the occasion of the introduction of the defective forms of the personal pronouns, which belong to this class of words. These enclitics are generally unaccented words that, as a result, cannot just be placed anywhere in a sentence or a verse. The main thing to remember is that they cannot start a sentence, a subordinate clause, or a pāda of a verse (1.23:).

Vocabulary 26

कश्-चिद् एनम् [देहिनम्/सत्] आश्चर्यवत् पश्यति। (BhG.2.29)
As a wonder someone sees [i.e., knows] this [timeless, locationless embodied one—the real]!
2. कश्-चिद्
someone
fr. क-चिद् prn. cmpd. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.20: & SG.2.27:)
4. एनम् [देहिनम्/सत्]
this [embodied one, the real]
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
1. आश्चर्यवत्
as a wonder
fr. आश्चर्यवत् in.
3. पश्यति
sees
fr. √दृश् 1.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.15.6:)

तथा एव च अन्यः आश्चर्यवत् वदति, अन्यः च एनम् आश्चर्यवत् शृणोति। (BhG.2.29)
Similarly, as a wonder another [i.e., the teacher] speaks [of this], and, as a wonder, another listens about this!
1. तथा एव च
similarly [indeed] [and]
fr. तथा in.; एव in.; च in.
3. अन्यः
another [the teacher]
fr. अन्य prn. a. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.16.1:)
2 आश्चर्यवत्
as a wonder
fr. आश्चर्यवत् in.
4. वदति
speaks [of this]
fr. √वद् 1.P. pr. 3rd sg.
5. अन्यः च
and another [the student]
fr. अन्य prn. a. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.16.1:); च in.
7. एनम्
about this
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
10. आश्चर्यवत्
as a wonder
fr. आश्चर्यवत् in.
11. शृणोति
listens
fr. √श्रु 5.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.21.3:)

कश्-चिद् च श्रुत्वा अपि एनं न एव वेद। (BhG.2.29)
Even after listening, another still does not know this [which is oneself]!
3. कश्-चिद् च
another [and]
fr. क-चिद् prn. cmpd. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.20: & SG.2.27:); च in.
2. श्रुता
after listening
fr. श्रुता in. pt. of √श्रु
1. अपि
even
fr. अपि in.
5. एनं
this [which is oneself]
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
4. न एव वेद
[still] does not know
fr. न in.; एव in.; √विद् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.28:)

ततः स्व-धर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापम् अवाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.33)
Then forfeiting your धर्म (nature and duty) and honor, you will incur पाप (karmic demerit).
1. ततः
then
fr. ततस् in. (SG.6.19:)
3. स्व-धर्मं
your धर्म (nature and duty)
fr. स्व-धर्म m. sg. acc.
4. कीर्तिं च
and honor
fr. कीर्ति f. sg. acc.; च in.
2. हित्वा
forfeiting
fr. हित्वा in. pt. of √हा (SG.6.9:)
6. पापम्
पाप (karmic demerit)
fr. पाप n. sg. acc.
5. अवाप्स्यसि
you will incur
fr. अव + √आप् P. fut. 2nd sg.

येषां च बहु-मतः भूत्वा त्वं लाघवं यास्यसि। (BhG.2.35)
Among whom, having been highly honored, you will become insignificant.
1. येषां च
among whom [and]
fr. यद् prn. m. pl. gen. (SG.4.11:); च in.
3. बहु-
highly
4. -मतः
honored
fr. बहु-मत a. m. sg. nom.
2. भूत्वा
having been
fr. भूत्वा in. pt. of √भू
5. त्वं
you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. nom. (SG.4.2:)
6. लाघवं यास्यसि
will become insignificant
fr. लाघव n. sg. acc.; √या P. fut. 2nd sg. (SG.7.8.2:)

किं नु ततः दुःखतरम्। (BhG.2.36)
What is more painful than that?
1. किं नु
what indeed?
fr. किम् prn. n. sg. nom. (SG.4.12:); नु in. Or किम् नु interj.
3. ततः
than that
fr. ततस् in. (SG.6.19:)
2. दुःखतरम्
[is] more painful
fr. दुःखतर cpv. a. n. sg. nom. (SG.6.25:)

बुद्धि-युक्तः इह उभे सु-कृत-दुष्-कृते जहाति। तस्मात् योगाय युज्यस्व। (BhG.2.50)
Endowed with [this] attitude, one sheds in this world both karmic merit and demerit. Therefore, commit to this योग.
2. बुद्धि-
with [this] attitude
1. -युक्तः
endowed
fr. बुद्धि-युक्त a. m. sg. nom.
4. इह
in this [world]
fr. इह in.
5. उभे
both
fr. उभ prn. a. n. du. acc. (SG.4.16.b:)
6. सु-कृत-
karmic merit
7. -दुष्-कृते
and karmic demerit
fr. सु-कृत-दुस्-कृत n. du. acc. (दुष्॰ before क् प्)
3. जहाति
one abandons, one sheds
fr. √हा 3.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.20.3-4:)
8. तस्मात्
therefore
fr. तस्मात् in.
10. योगाय
to [this] योग
fr. योग m. sg. dat.
9. युज्यस्व
(you) commit
fr. √युज् ps. impv. 2nd sg.

Exercise 26

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. श्रीभगवानुवाच। विषम इदं कश्मलं कुतस्त्वा समुपस्थितम्, अर्जुन। (BhG.2.2)
 
२. क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः, पार्थ। एतत्त्वयि नोपपद्यते। क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ, परन्तप। (BhG.2.3)
 
३. अर्जुन उवाच। मधुसूदनारिसूदन, कथमहं सङ्ख्ये पूजार्हौ भीष्मं द्रोणं च [उभौ] इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि। (BhG.2.4)
 
४. कतरच्च नो गरीय एतन्न विद्मः – यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः। यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषामः, ते धार्तराष्ट्राः प्रमुखेऽवस्थिताः। (BhG.2.6)
 
५. [अहं] कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावो धर्मसम्मूढचेताः [च] त्वां पृच्छामि – यन्निश्चितं श्रेयः स्यात्, तन्मे ब्रूहि। अहं ते शिष्यः। त्वां प्रपन्नं, मां शाधि। (BhG.2.7)
 
६. भूमौ हि (=यस्मात्) असपत्नमृद्धं राज्यं, सुराणामपि चाधिपत्यमवाप्य, यन्ममेन्द्रियाणामुच्छोषणं शोकमपनुद्यात्, [तद्] न प्रपश्यामि। (BhG.2.8)
 
७. श्रीभगवानुवाच। न त्वेव जात्वहं नासं, न त्वं, नेमे जनाधिपाः। न चैव सर्वे वयमतः परं न भिविष्यामः। (BhG.2.12)
 
८. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] अविनाशिनं वेद, कथं स पुरुषः कं घातयति। (BhG.2.21)
 
९. जातस्य हि (=यस्मात्) मृत्युर्ध्रुवः, मृतस्य च जन्म ध्रुवं, तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे त्वं शोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.27)
 
१०. भूतानि चापि ते (=तव) अव्ययामकीर्तिं कथयिष्यन्ति। सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते। (BhG.2.34)
 
११. महारथास्त्वां भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते। येषां च बहुमतो भूत्वा त्वं लाघवं यास्यसि। (BhG.2.35)The great warriors will think you withdrew from battle out of fear. Among whom, having been highly honored, you will become insignificant.
 
१२. साङ्ख्ये (=सद्वस्तुविवेकविषये श्रेयोविषये) एषा बुद्धिस्ते (=तुभ्यम्) अभिहिता। पार्थ, योगे त्विमां [बुद्धिं] शृणु, यया बुद्ध्या युक्तः कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि। (BhG.2.39)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 4.4–7:

Vocab Excer

Chart 4.4: presents the common pronominal terminations. Like the normal case terminations in 3.2: for nouns, these terminations are common for pronouns other than the personal pronouns. Compare the two charts, 4.4: and 3.2:. Note that, like the masc./neut. nouns in ॰अ (3.38:) and the personal pronouns (4.2:) and unlike all other stems, there are distinct terminations for sg. abl. and gen. They also share many of the same terminations for nouns in अ आ (3.28.c:). Moreover, the common feminine terminations ऐ आस् आम् (3.28.d:) show up again after स्य्॰ in feminine pronouns sg. inst. through loc.

The following are the तद् and एतद् pronoun forms in chapter 2.

4.6: तद् m. sg. nom. सः (2.21) sa-ḥ that
 n. sg. nom. तद् (2.67) ta-d that
 f. sg. nom. सा (2.69) s-ā that
 m. du. nom. तौ (2.19) t-au these (two)
 m. pl. nom. ते (2.6) t-e those
 m. sg. acc. तम् (2.10) t-am to him
 n. sg. acc. तद् (2.7) ta-d that
 m. pl. acc. तान् (2.14) t-ān them
 n. pl. acc. तानि (2.61) t-āni those
 f. sg. inst. तया (2.44) ta-yā by that
 m. sg. gen. तस्य (2.57) ta-sya that one’s
 f. sg. loc. तस्याम् (2.69) ta-syām in that
 m. pl. loc. तेषु (2.101:) (2.62) t-eṣu towards them

4.7: एतद् n. sg. nom. एतद् (2.3) eta-d it
 m. sg. acc. एनम् (2.23) en-am this
 f. sg. nom. एषा (2.101:) (2.72) eṣ-ā this
 m. pl. nom. एते (2.15) et-e these

Vocabulary 27

त्वम् अ-शोच्यान् अन्वशोचः, प्रज्ञा-वादान् च भाषसे। (BhG.2.11)
You have grieved for those not to be grieved, yet proclaim words of wisdom.
1. त्वम्
you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. nom.
3. अ-शोच्यान्
those not to be greived
fr. अशोच्य pot. ps. pt. of √शुच् a. m. pl. acc.
2. अन्वशोचः
have grieved for
fr. अनु + √शुच् 1.P impf. 2nd sg.
6. प्रज्ञा-
of wisdom
5. -वादान्
words
fr. प्रज्ञा-वाद m. pl. acc.
4. च भाषसे
yet proclaim
fr. च in.; भाष् 1.Ā. pr. 2nd sg.

तत्र धीरः न मुह्यति। (BhG.2.13)
Concerning this, the wise person is not confused.
1. तत्र
concerning this
fr. तत्र in.
2. धीरः
the wise person
fr. धीर m. sg. nom.
3. न मुह्यति
is not confused
fr. न in.; √मुह् 4.P. pr. 3rd sg.

न कश्-चिद् अस्य अ-व्ययस्य विनाशं कर्तुम् अर्हति। (BhG.2.17)
Nothing is able to bring about the destruction of this that does not change.
1. न कश्-चिद्
no one, nothing
fr. न in.; क-चिद् prn. cmpd. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.20: & SG.2.27:)
5. अस्य
of this
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. gen. (SG.4.8:)
6. अ-व्ययस्य
that does not change
fr. अव्यय a. m. sg. gen.
4. विनाशं
the destruction
fr. विनाश m. sg. acc.
3. कर्तुम्
to bring about
fr. कर्तुम् inf. of √कृ in. (SG.6.10: & SG.5.34:) (SG.7.20:)
2. अर्हति
is able
fr. √अर्ह् 1.P. pr. 3rd sg.

तस्मात् युध्यस्व, भारत। (BhG.2.18)
Therefore fight, O अर्जुन.
1. तस्मात्
therefore
fr. तस्मात् in.
2. युध्यस्व
fight
fr. √युध् 4.Ā. impv. 2nd sg.
3. भारत
(अर्जुन) O (Brilliant) Son of India

[भूमिमयानि] शस्त्राणि एनं न छिन्दन्ति, पावकः एनं न दहति। (BhG.2.23)
Weapons [made from the element earth] do not cut it, nor [does the element] fire burn it.
1. [भूमिमयानि] शस्त्राणि
weapons [made from the element earth]
fr. शस्त्र n. pl. nom.
3. एनं
it
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
2. न छिन्दन्ति
do not cut
fr. न in.; √छिद् 7.P. pr. 3rd pl.
4. पावकः
[the element] fire
fr. पावक m. sg. nom.
6. एनं
it
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
5. न दहति
does not burn
fr. न in.; √दह् 1.P. pr. 3rd sg.

तस्मात् एवम् एनं विदित्वा अनुशोचितुं न अर्हसि। (BhG.2.25)
Therefore [since there is no basis for grief regarding the self], knowing this [embodied one, the real] as such, you cannot grieve.
1. तस्मात्
therefore
fr. तस्मात् in.
4. एवम्
as such
fr. एवम् in.
3. एनं
this [embodied one, the real]
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc. (SG.4.10:)
2. विदित्वा
knowing
fr. विदित्वा in. pt. of √विद् 2.P.
5. अनुशोचितुं न अर्हसि
you cannot grieve
fr. अनुशोचितुम् inf. of अनु + √शुच्; न in.; √अर्ह् 1.P. pr. 2nd sg.

निर्-आहारस्य देहिनः विषयाः रस-वर्जं विनिवर्तन्ते। (BhG.2.59)
For the embodied one who does not feed [i.e., does not indulge the senses], the objects turn back [i.e., are not pursued] [but] the longing remains.
2. निर्-आहारस्य
who does not feed [i.e., indulge the senses]
fr. निस्-आहार a. m. sg. gen. (SG.2.24: & SG.2.29:)
1. देहिनः
for the embodied one
fr. देहिन् a. m. sg. gen.
3. विषयाः
the objects
fr. विषय m. pl. nom.
5. रस-
[but] the longing
6. -वर्जं
remains
fr. रस-वर्जम् in.
4. विनिवर्तन्ते
turn back [i.e., are not pursued]
fr. वि + नि + √वृत् 1.Ā. pr. 3rd pl.

परं दृष्ट्वा अस्य रसः अपि निवर्तते। (BhG.2.59)
Knowing the पर [i.e., ब्रह्मन्/reality], even one’s longing ceases.
2. परं
the पर [i.e. ब्रह्मन्/reality]
fr. पर n. sg. acc. (SG.4.16.3:)
1. दृष्ट्वा
knowing
fr. दृष्ट्वा in. pt. of √दृश्
4. अस्य
one’s
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. gen. (SG.4.8:)
5. रसः
longing
fr. रस m. sg. nom.
3. अपि
even
fr. अपि in.
6. निवर्तते
ceases
fr. नि + √वृत् 1.Ā. pr. 3rd sg.

Exercise 27

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. श्रीभगवानुवाच। क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः, पार्थ। एतत्त्वयि नोपपद्यते। क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ, परन्तप। (BhG.2.3)
 
२. अर्जुन उवाच। कतरच्च नो गरीय एतन्न विद्मः – यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः। यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषामः, ते धार्तराष्ट्राः प्रमुखेऽवस्थिताः। (BhG.2.6)
 
३. [अहं] कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावो धर्मसम्मूढचेताः [च] त्वां पृच्छामि – यन्निश्चितं श्रेयः स्यात्, तन्मे ब्रूहि। अहं ते शिष्यः। त्वां प्रपन्नं, मां शाधि। (BhG.2.7)
 
४. श्रीभगवानुवाच। कौन्तेय, मात्रास्पर्शास्तु शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदा आगमापायिनोऽनित्याः। तांस्तितिक्षस्व, भारत। (BhG.2.14)Lord कृष्ण said: O अर्जुन, the contacts of the senses, giving cold/hot and pleasure/pain [the natural pairs of opposites], have a beginning and an end and [therefore] are time-bound. Endure them [i.e., accept them objectively as they are], O अर्जुन.
 
५. पुरुषर्षभ, यं हि पुरुषमेते [स्पर्शा विषया वा] न व्यथयन्ति, समदुःखसुखं धीरं [च], सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते। (BhG.2.15)O अर्जुन, the person whom these [unavoidable contacts or the sense objects] do not afflict, who is the same in pleasure and pain and who is discerning, that one is fit for freedom.
 
६. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] हन्तारं वेत्ति, यश्चैनं हतं मन्यते, उभौ तौ न विजानीतः। अयं न हन्ति, न हन्यते। (BhG.2.19)The one who thinks this [embodied one, the real, the self-evident subject] is the agent of destruction [change, etc.], and the one who thinks this [embodied one, the real] is the object of destruction [etc.] – both do not know. This [embodied one, the real] neither destroys nor is destroyed.
 
७. तव चाहितास्तव सामर्थ्यं निन्दन्तो बहूनवाच्यवादान्वदिष्यन्ति। किं नु ततो दुःखतरम्। (BhG.2.36)Moreover, your enemies, belittling your prowess, will speak many unutterable words [about you]. What is more painful than that?
 
८. तया [पुष्पितया वाचा] अपहृतचेतसां भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ (=अन्तःकरणे) न विधीयते। (BhG.2.44)
 
९. [यतस्तस्मात्] तानि सर्वाणि [इन्द्रियाणि] संयम्य युक्तो मत्पर आसीत। यस्य ह्यिन्द्रियाणि [संस्कृतबुद्धेः] वशे, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.61)[Because of this, therefore] mastering all those [senses], the one who is disciplined should remain with Me [the Lord, reality] as the पर (highest, as the limitless). For the one whose senses are indeed under authority [of an informed intellect], wisdom is firm.
 
१०. विषयान्ध्यायतः पुंसस्तेषु सङ्ग उपजायते। (BhG.2.62)
 
११. या सर्वभूतानां निशा [इव], तस्यां संयमी [मुनिः] जागर्ति। यस्यां भूतानि जाग्रति, सा [सद्वस्तु] पश्यतो मुनेर्निशा [इव]। (BhG.2.69)
 
१२. एषा ब्राह्मी (=ब्रह्मण्यधिष्ठिता) स्थितिः, पार्थ। प्रप्यैनां, न विमुह्यति। अन्तकालेऽप्यस्यां स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति। (BhG.2.72)This is being firm in/as ब्रह्मन् (reality, सत्), O अर्जुन. Attaining this, one is not [any longer] deluded. Being firm in this, even just at the moment of death, one attains liberation in/as ब्रह्मन्.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 4.8–10:

Vocab Excer

एनद् is a defective pronoun, meaning only that it does not decline in all cases and numbers. Like मा, त्वा, मे, ते, etc. forms for the personal pronouns (4.2:), the एनद् pronoun forms are also enclitic (4.3:). Though they both happen to be enclitic and defective, being enclitic does not necessitate that it is also defective, and vice versa.

The following are the इदम् and एनद् pronoun forms in chapter 2. अदस् does not occur.

4.8: इदम् m. sg. nom. अयम् (2.30) aya-m this
 m. pl. nom. इमे (2.12) im-e these
 m. sg. acc. इमम् (2.33) im-am this
 n. sg. acc. इदम् (2.10) id-am this
 f. sg. acc. इमाम् (2.42) im-ām this
 m. sg. gen. अस्य (2.67) a-sya one’s
 m. du. gen. अनयोः (2.16) ana-yoḥ of these (two), regarding these (two)
 m. sg. loc. अस्मिन् (2.13) a-smin in this
 f. sg. loc. अस्याम् (2.72) a-syām in this

4.10: एनद् m. sg. acc. एनम् (2.19) en-am this
 f. sg. acc. एनाम् (2.72) en-ām this

Vocabulary 28

यः सर्वत्र अन्-अभिस्नेहः तद् तद् शुभ-अ-शुभं प्राप्य न अभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि। (BhG.2.57)
The one who is unattached in all situations, who neither rejoices on getting anything pleasant, nor hates getting anything unpleasant.
1. यः
the one who
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.11:)
3. सर्वत्र
in all [situations]
fr. सर्वत्र in. (SG.6.19:)
2. अन्-अभिस्नेहः
[is] unattached
fr. अनभिस्नेह a. m. sg. nom.
7. तद् तद्
anything
fr. तद् prn. n. sg. acc. (SG.7.6.B.2.e:)
8. शुभ-अ-शुभं
pleasant or unpleasant
fr. शुभ-अशुभ a. n. sg. acc. (SG.2.7:)
6. प्राप्य
[on] getting
fr. प्राप्य in. pt. of प्र + √आप् (SG.7.19.2:)
4. न अभिनन्दति
who neither rejoices
fr. न in.; अभि + √नन्द् 1.P. pr. 3rd sg.
5. न द्वेष्टि
nor hates
fr. न in.; √द्विष् 2.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.2.88:)

यदा च अयं, कूर्मः अङ्गानि इव, इन्द्रिय-अर्थेभ्यः इन्द्रियाणि सर्वशः संहरते [संहर्तुम् अर्हति इत्यर्थः], तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.58)
When, like a turtle and its limbs, one is [at will able] to completely withdraw the senses from their sense pursuits [and again extend them out at will], that one’s wisdom is firm.
1. यदा च
[and] when
fr. यदा in.; च in.
5. अयं
one
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom.
3. कूर्मः
a turtle
fr. कूर्म m. sg. nom.
4. अङ्गानि
[can withdraw] [its] limbs
fr. अङ्ग n. pl. acc.
2. इव
like
fr. इव in.
9. इन्द्रिय-अर्थेभ्यः
from [their] sense pursuits
fr. इन्द्रिय-अर्थ m. pl. abl. (SG.2.7:)
8. इन्द्रियाणि
the senses
fr. इन्द्रिय n. pl. acc.
7. सर्वशः
completely
fr. सर्वशस् in. (SG.6.19:)
6. संहरते [संहर्तुम् अर्हति इत्यर्थः]
withdraws [i.e., is able to withdraw]
fr. सम् + √हृ 1.Ā. pr. 3rd sg.
10. तस्य प्रज्ञा
that one’s wisdom
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. gen.; प्रज्ञा f. sg. nom.
11. प्रतिष्ठिता
is firm
fr. प्रतिष्ठिता pp. of प्रति + √स्था a. f. sg. nom. (SG.6.6: & SG.2.101:)

सङ्गात् कामः सञ्जायते, कामात् क्रोधः अभिजायते, क्रोधात् सम्मोहः भवति। (BhG.2.62-63)
From attachment [allowed to flame up by one’s value structure] arises [binding] desire [i.e., requirements (in order to be happy) and anticipations (of their fruition)]; from [thwarted] anticipations arises anger; from anger is delusion [i.e., error in judgment].
1. सङ्गात्
from attachment
fr. सङ्ग m. sg. abl.
3. कामः
desire [i.e., requirements and anticipations]
fr. काम m. sg. nom.
2. सञ्जायते
arises
fr. सम् + √जन् 4.Ā. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.16.4: & SG.2.55:)
4. कामात्
from [thwarted] anticipations
fr. काम m. sg. abl.
6. क्रोधः
anger
fr. क्रोध m. sg. nom.
5. अभिजायते
arises
fr. अभि + √जन् 4.Ā. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.16.4:)
7. क्रोधात्
from anger
fr. क्रोध m. sg. abl.
9. सम्मोहः
delusion [i.e., error in judgment]
fr. सम्मोह m. sg. nom.
8. भवति
is
fr. √भू 1.P. pr. 3rd sg.

सम्मोहात् स्मृति-विभ्रमः [भवति], स्मृति-भ्रंशात् बुद्धि-नाशः [भवति], बुद्धि-नाशात् [पुमान्] प्रणश्यति। (BhG.2.62-63)
From delusion is lapse of memory [i.e., what has been taught]; from lapse of memory is lapse of intellect [i.e., wisdom]; from lapse of intellect [i.e., what distinguishes the human condition] the person is destroyed [i.e., the unique human opportunity to attain श्रेयस् is completely wasted, and the person remains in संसार/the life of becoming].
1. सम्मोहात्
from delusion
fr. सम्मोह m. sg. abl.
3. स्मृति-
of memory [i.e., what had been taught]
2. -विभ्रमः [भवति]
[is] lapse
fr. स्मृति-विभ्रम m. sg. nom.
4. स्मृति-भ्रंशात्
from lapse of memory
fr. स्मृति-भ्रंश m. sg. abl.
6. बुद्धि-
of intellect [i.e., wisdom]
5. -नाशः [भवति]
[is] lapse
fr. बुद्धि-नाश m. sg. nom.
7. बुद्धि-नाशात्
from lapse of intellect
fr. बुद्धि-नाश m. sg. abl.
8. [पुमान्] प्रणश्यति
[the person] is destroyed
fr. प्र + √नश् 4.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.2.101:)

Exercise 28

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. सञ्जय उवाच। भारत, हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव तमुभयोः सेनयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वच उवाच। (BhG.2.10)
 
२. श्रीभगवानुवाच। न त्वेव जात्वहं नासं, न त्वं, नेमे जनाधिपाः। न चैव सर्वे वयमतः परं न भिविष्यामः। (BhG.2.12)
 
३. देहिनः, यथास्मिन्देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा [च], तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिः। तत्र धीरो न मुह्यति। (BhG.2.13)For the देहिन् (one with a body), like [passing through] childhood, maturity, and old age in this body, so too [for the देहिन् who remains the same] there is the gain of another body [after this body dies]. Concerning this, the wise person is not confused.
 
४. असतः (=सतोऽन्यस्य) भावो न विद्यते, सतोऽभावो न विद्यते| तत्त्वदर्शिभिरुभयोरप्यनयोरन्तस्तु दृष्टः। (BhG.2.16)
 
५. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] हन्तारं वेत्ति, यश्चैनं हतं मन्यते, उभौ तौ न विजानीतः। अयं न हन्ति, न हन्यते। (BhG.2.19)
 
६. [भूमिमयानि] शस्त्राण्येनं न छिन्दन्ति, पावक एनं न दहति, आप एनं न क्लेदयन्ति, मारुतो न च शोषयति। (BhG.2.23)Weapons [made from the element earth] do not cut it, nor [does the element] fire burn it, nor [does the element] water soak it, nor [does the element] wind wither it.
 
७. भारत, सर्वस्य देहेऽयं देही नित्यमवध्यः। (BhG.2.30)
 
८. अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि, ततः स्वधर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापमवाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.33)Now if you will not undertake this battle on the side of धर्म, then forfeiting your धर्म (nature and duty) and honor, you will incur पाप (karmic demerit).
 
९. साङ्ख्ये (=सद्वस्तुविवेकविषये श्रेयोविषये) एषा बुद्धिस्ते (=तुभ्यम्) अभिहिता। पार्थ, योगे त्विमां [बुद्धिं] शृणु, यया बुद्ध्या युक्तः कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि। (BhG.2.39)
 
१०. पार्थ, अविपश्चितो वेदवादरता नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा यामिमां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति क्रियाविशेषबहुलां जन्मकर्मफलप्रदां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)
 
११. यन्मनो हि (=यस्मात्) चरतामिन्द्रियाणामनुविधीयते, तद् [मनः] अस्य प्रज्ञां हरति, वायुरम्भसि नावमिव [हरति]। (BhG.2.67)
 
१२. एषा ब्राह्मी (=ब्रह्मण्यधिष्ठिता) स्थितिः, पार्थ। प्रप्यैनां, न विमुह्यति। अन्तकालेऽप्यस्यां स्थित्वा ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति। (BhG.2.72)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 4.11–15:

Vocab Excer

The following are the यद् and किम् pronoun forms in chapter 2.

4.11: यद् m. sg. nom. यः (2.19) ya-ḥ the one who
 n. sg. nom. यद् (2.67) ya-d which
 f. sg. nom. या (2.69) y-ā what
 m. sg. acc. यम् (2.15) y-am whom
 f. sg. acc. याम् (2.42) y-ām which
 m. pl. acc. यान् (2.6) y-ān whom
 n. sg. inst. येन (2.17) ya- by which
 f. sg. inst. यया (2.39) ya-yā with which
 m. sg. gen. यस्य (2.61) ya-sya for the one whose
 m. pl. gen. येषाम् (2.35) y-eṣām among whom
 f. sg. loc. यस्याम् (2.69) ya-syām in what

4.12: किम् n. sg. nom. किम् (2.36) ki-m what?
 f. sg. nom. का (2.28) k-ā what? why?
 m. sg. acc. कम् (2.21) k-am whom?
 n. sg. acc. किम् (2.54) ki-m what?

The possessive adjective स्व is found in chapter 2 as the first member of two different compounds – स्व-भावः (BhG.2.7) contextually meaning “my mind,” and स्व-धर्म (BhG.2.33) meaning “your धर्म.” Notice how the meaning of this possessive adjective varies (“my” and “your”) depending on its context (i.e., who the subject is), this is a result of its reflexive nature.

Vocabulary 29

महा-अनुभावान् गुरून् अ-हत्वा हि। (BhG.2.5)
Not killing these highly honored गुरु-s.
2. महा-
[these] highly
3. -अनुभावान्
honored
fr. महा-अनुभाव a. m. pl. acc. (SG.2.7:)
4. गुरून्
गुरु-s
fr. गुरु m. pl. acc.
1. अ-हत्वा हि
[indeed] not killing, [I] not kill
fr. अहत्वा in. pt. of √हन् (SG.6.9: & SG.6.6:); हि in.

इह एव रुधिर-प्रदिग्धान् भोगान् भुञ्जीय। (BhG.2.5)
Indulge here in pleasures, drenched with [their] blood.
2. इह एव
here [indeed]
fr. इह in.; एव in.
5. रुधिर-
with [their] blood
4. -प्रदिग्धान्
drenched
fr. रुधिर-प्रदिग्ध a. m. pl. acc.
3 भोगान्
[in] pleasures
fr. भोग m. pl. acc.
1. भुञ्जीय
[and then] indulge
fr. √भुज् 7.Ā. pot. 1st sg.

तथा अपि एवं त्वं शोचितुं न अर्हसि। (BhG.2.26)
Even in that way, you should not grieve.
1. तथा अपि
even
fr. तथा in.; अपि in.
2. एवं
in that way
fr. एवम् in.
3. त्वम्
you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. nom.
5. शोचितुं
grieve
fr. शोचितुम् inf. of √शुच् in.
4. न अर्हसि
should not
fr. न in.; √अर्ह् 1.P. pr. 2nd sg.

तस्मात् त्वं सर्वाणि भूतानि शोचितुं न अर्हसि। (BhG.2.30)
Therefore, you should not grieve over all these beings.
1. तस्मात्
therefore
fr. तस्मात् in.
2. त्वं
you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. nom.
5. सर्वाणि
all
fr. सर्व prn. a. n. pl. acc. (SG.4.16.2:)
6. भूतानि
[these] beings
fr. भूत n. pl. acc. (SG.7.20:)
4. शोचितुं
grieve over
fr. शोचितुम् inf. of √शुच् in.
3. न अर्हसि
should not
fr. न in.; √अर्ह् 1.P. pr. 2nd sg.

स्व-धर्मम् अपि च अवेक्ष्य विकम्पितुं न अर्हसि, क्षत्रियस्य हि (=यस्मात्) धर्म्यात् युद्धात् अन्यद् श्रेयः न विद्यते। (BhG.2.31)
Even in regard to your own धर्म (nature and duty), you should not waver. Because, for a warrior [such as you – by nature and duty], there is no greater good than a battle on the side of धर्म [i.e., a battle for the protection of what supports people through their maturation to wisdom].
3. स्व-धर्मम्
your own धर्म (nature, duty)
fr. स्व-धर्म m. sg. acc.
1. अपि च
even
fr. अपि in.; च in.
2. अवेक्ष्य
regarding, in regard to
fr. अवेक्ष्य in. pt. of अव + √ईक्ष्
5. विकम्पितुं
waver
fr. विकम्पितुम् inf. of वि + √कम्प् in.
4. न अर्हसि
you should not
fr. न in.; √अर्ह् 1.P. pr. 2nd sg. (SG.7.20.1:)
7. क्षत्रियस्य
for a warrior
fr. क्षत्रिय m. sg. gen.
6. हि (=यस्मात्)
because
fr. हि in.
11. धर्म्यात् युद्धात्
than a battle on the side of धर्म
fr. धर्म्य a. n. sg. abl.; युद्ध n. sg. abl.
9. अन्यद्
other
fr. अन्य prn. a. n. sg. nom. (SG.4.16.1:)
10. श्रेयः
greater good
fr. श्रेयस् cpv. a. n. sg. nom. (SG.6.25: & SG.3.14:)
8. न विद्यते
[there] is no
fr. न in.; √विद् ps. pr. 3rd sg.

यद्वत् आपः आपूर्यमाणं [स्व-रूपतः] अ-चल-प्रतिष्ठं समुद्रं प्रविशन्ति, तद्वत् सर्वे कामाः यं प्रविशन्ति। (BhG.2.70)
Like the full and unmoved ocean into which the waters [their source being the ocean] enter [yet whose nature is unaffected by their variations], the one whom all objects of desire enter [yet remains the same in nature].
1. यद्वत्
like
fr. यद्वत् in.
5. आपः
the waters
fr. अप् f. pl. nom. (SG.3.16:)
2. आपूर्यमाणं
being completely filled, the full
fr. आपूर्यमाण pr. ps. pt. of आ + √पॄ a. m. sg. acc. (SG.5.37.4:)
3. अ-चल-प्रतिष्ठं
[and] unmoved
fr. अचल-प्रतिष्ठ a. m. sg. acc.
4. समुद्रं
ocean [into which]
fr. समुद्र m. sg. acc.
6. प्रविशन्ति
enter
fr. प्र + √विश् 6.P. pr. 3rd pl.
7. तद्वत्
similarly [remaining the same in nature]
fr. तद्वत् in.
9. सर्वे
all
fr. सर्व prn. a. m. pl. nom. (SG.4.16.2:)
10. कामाः
objects of desire
fr. काम m. pl. nom.
8. यं
the one [into] whom
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. acc.
11. प्रविशन्ति
enter [without disturbing]
fr. प्र + √विश् 6.P. pr. 3rd pl.

Exercise 29

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. अर्जुन उवाच। कतरच्च नो गरीय एतन्न विद्मः – यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः। यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषामः, ते धार्तराष्ट्राः प्रमुखेऽवस्थिताः। (BhG.2.6)
 
२. [अहं] कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावो धर्मसम्मूढचेताः [च] त्वां पृच्छामि – यन्निश्चितं श्रेयः स्यात्, तन्मे ब्रूहि। अहं ते शिष्यः। त्वां प्रपन्नं, मां शाधि। (BhG.2.7)
 
३. श्रीभगवानुवाच। पुरुषर्षभ, यं हि पुरुषमेते [स्पर्शा विषया वा] न व्यथयन्ति, समदुःखसुखं धीरं [च], सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते। (BhG.2.15)
 
४. येन त्विदं सर्वं ततं, तद् [सत्] अविनाशि विद्धि। न कश्चिदस्याव्ययस्य विनाशं कर्तुमर्हति। (BhG.2.17)By which [सत्, existence/reality] all this [the असत्, the ‘this and that’ time-bound world, including this body-mind complex] is pervaded, know that [i.e., the timeless and real] to be indestructible. Nothing is able to bring about the destruction of this that does not change.
 
५. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] हन्तारं वेत्ति, यश्चैनं हतं मन्यते, उभौ तौ न विजानीतः। अयं न हन्ति, न हन्यते। (BhG.2.19)
 
६. य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] अविनाशिनं वेद, कथं स पुरुषः कं घातयति। (BhG.2.21)
 
७. भारत, भूतान्यव्यक्तादीनि व्यक्तमध्यान्यव्यक्तनिधनान्येव [च]। तत्र का परिदेवना। (BhG.2.28)
 
८. अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं सङ्ग्रामं न करिष्यसि, ततः स्वधर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापमवाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.33)
 
९. महारथास्त्वां भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते। येषां च बहुमतो भूत्वा त्वं लाघवं यास्यसि। (BhG.2.35)The great warriors will think you withdrew from battle out of fear. Among whom, having been highly honored, you will become insignificant.
 
१०. पार्थ, अविपश्चितो वेदवादरता नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा यामिमां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति क्रियाविशेषबहुलां जन्मकर्मफलप्रदां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्ति। (BhG.2.42–43)
 
११. अर्जुन उवाच। स्थितप्रज्ञस्य समाधिस्थस्य का भाषा, केशव। स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत। किमासीत। किं व्रजेत। (BhG.2.54)
 
१२. श्रीभगवानुवाच। या सर्वभूतानां निशा [इव], तस्यां संयमी [मुनिः] जागर्ति। यस्यां भूतानि जाग्रति, सा [सद्वस्तु] पश्यतो मुनेर्निशा [इव]। (BhG.2.69)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 4.16:, 7.14:

Vocab Excer

The following are the pronominal adjectives in chapter 2.

4.16.1: अन्य a. m. sg. nom.अन्यः(2.29)anya-ḥanother
 a. n. sg. nom.अन्यद्(2.42)anya-dother
 a. n. pl. acc.अन्यानि(2.22)any-āniother(s)
 a. n. sg. gen.(अन्यस्य)(2.16)(anya-sya)other [has]
कतर a. n. sg. nom.कतरद्(2.6)karata-dwhich of the two
 
4.16.2: उभ a. m. du. acc.(उभौ)(2.4)ubh-auboth
 a. n. du. acc.उभे(2.50)ubh-eboth
 a. f. du. gen.उभयोः(2.10)ubha-yoḥof both
सर्व a. m. pl. nom.सर्वे(2.12)sarv-eany
 a. n. sg. acc.सर्वम्(2.17)sarv-amall
 a. m. pl. acc.सर्वान्(2.55)sarv-ānall
 a. n. pl. acc.सर्वाणि(2.30)sarv-āṇiall
 a. m. sg. gen.सर्वस्य(2.30)sarva-syaof every [body]
 
4.16.3: अपर a. n. pl. acc.अपराणि(2.22)apar-āṇiother
अवर a. n. sg. nom.अवरम्(2.49)avara-minferior
पर n. sg. acc.परम्(2.59)par-amthe पर [i.e., ब्रह्मन्/reality]
 
4.16.4: द्वितीय a. m. sg. nom.द्वितीयः(2.End)dvitīya-ḥsecond
 
4.16.5: सु-अल्प a. n. sg. nom.स्वल्पम्(2.40)svalpa-ma little
 
4.16.a: मत्-पर a. m. sg. nom.मत्परः(2.61)mat-para-ḥwith Me as the limitless
स्वर्ग-पर a. m. pl. nom.स्वर्गपराः(2.43)svarga-par-aḥhaving heaven as the ultimate

Besides the two locative absolutes (7.14.1:) noted in vocabulary of the below verses 2.20 and 2.65, in chapter 2 there is also a genitive absolute (7.14.2:) in verse 2.60 Lesson 14 vocabulary.

Vocabulary 30

अयम् अ-जः नित्यः शाश्वतः पुराणः शरीरे हन्यमाने न हन्यते। (BhG.2.20)
This, which is unborn, timeless, ever the same, and always there is not destroyed [i.e., not changed] when the body is being destroyed [i.e., changed].
1. अयम्
this
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom.
2. अ-जः
[which is] unborn
fr. अज a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.24.3:)
3. नित्यः
timeless
fr. नित्य a. m. sg. nom.
4. शाश्वतः
ever the same
fr. शाश्वत a. m. sg. nom.
5. पुराणः
[and is] always there
fr. पुराण a. m. sg. nom.
7. शरीरे
(when) the body
fr. शरीर n. sg. loc.
8. हन्यमाने
is being destroyed
fr. हन्यमान pr. ps. pt. of √हन् pt. n. sg. loc. (SG.7.14.1:)
6. न हन्यते
is not destroyed
fr. न in.; √हन् ps. pr. 3rd sg.

इह [कर्म-योगे श्रेयो-मार्गे] अभिक्रम-नाशः न अस्ति, प्रत्यवायः न विद्यते। (BhG.2.40)
In this [the means for श्रेयस्/complete freedom] there is no loss of progress, nor adverse result.
1. इह [कर्म-योगे श्रेयस्-मार्गे]
in this [the means for complete freedom]
fr. इह in.
4. अभिक्रम-
of progress
3. -नाशः
loss
fr. अभिक्रम-नाश m. sg. nom.
2. न अस्ति
there is no
fr. न in.; √अस् 2.P. pr. 3rd sg.
6. प्रत्यवायः
adverse result
fr. प्रत्यवाय m. sg. nom.
5. न विद्यते
nor is [there]
fr. न in.; √विद् ps. pr. 3rd sg.

अस्य [कर्म-योगस्य] धर्मस्य सु-अल्पम् अपि। (BhG.2.40)
Even a little of this [योग, means], which is [also] धर्म (one’s nature and duty, which will support one through the maturation process).
2. अस्य [कर्म-योगस्य]
of this [कर्म-योग]
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. gen.
3. धर्मस्य
[which is also] धर्म (one’s nature and duty)
fr. धर्म m. sg. gen.
1. सु-अल्पम् अपि
even a little
fr. स्वल्प prn. a. n. sg. nom. (SG.2.11: & SG.2.3:); अपि in.

तदा [सः] स्थित-प्रज्ञः उच्यते। (BhG.2.55)
Then that one is called a स्थितप्रज्ञ (one whose wisdom is firm).
1. तदा [सः]
then [that one]
fr. तदा in.
4. स्थित-
is firm
3. -प्रज्ञः
one whose wisdom
fr. स्थित-प्रज्ञ a. m. sg. nom.
2. उच्यते
is called
fr. √वच् ps. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.37.6: & SG.2.3.a:)

प्रसादे [सति] अस्य सर्व-दुःखानां हानिः उपजायते। (BhG.2.65)
When there is clarity, there comes the destruction of all one’s sorrows [in the form of guilt and hurt].
1. प्रसादे [सति]
when [there is] clarity
fr. प्रसाद m. sg. loc. (SG.7.14.1.a:)
4. अस्य सर्व-दुःखानां
of all one’s sorrows
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. gen.; सर्व-दुःख n. pl. gen.
3. हानिः
abandonment, destruction
fr. हानि f. sg. nom.
2. उपजायते
[there] arises, comes
fr. उप + √जन् 4.Ā. pr. 3rd sg.

सः शान्तिम् अधिगच्छति। (BhG.2.71)
That [person] attains peace.
1. सः
that [person]
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. nom.
3. शान्तिम्
peace
fr. शान्ति f. sg. acc.
2. अधिगच्छति
attains
fr. अधि + √गम् 1.P. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.15.6:)

Exercise 30

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. अर्जुन उवाच। मधुसूदनारिसूदन, कथमहं सङ्ख्ये पूजार्हौ भीष्मं द्रोणं च [उभौ] इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि। (BhG.2.4)
 
२. सञ्जय उवाच। भारत, हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव तमुभयोः सेनयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वच उवाच। (BhG.2.10)
 
३. श्रीभगवानुवाच। न त्वेव जात्वहं नासं, न त्वं, नेमे जनाधिपाः। न चैव सर्वे वयमतः परं न भिविष्यामः। (BhG.2.12)
 
४. यथा नरो जीर्णानि वासांसि विहायापराणि नवानि गृह्णाति, तथा देही जीर्णानि शरीराणि विहायान्यानि नवानि संयाति। (BhG.2.22)
 
५. भारत, सर्वस्य देहेऽयं देही नित्यमवध्यः, तस्मात्त्वं सर्वाणि भूतानि शोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.30)O अर्जुन, this embodied one in every body is ever indestructible; therefore, you should not grieve over all these beings.
 
६. महारथास्त्वां भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते। येषां च बहुमतो भूत्वा त्वं लाघवं यास्यसि। (BhG.2.35)
 
७. कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्दूरेण ह्यवरम्, धनञ्जय। बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ। कृपणाः फलहेतवः। (BhG.2.49)
 
८. बुद्धियुक्त इहोभे सुकृतदुष्कृते जहाति। तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व। कर्मसु कौशलं (=यथार्थता) योगः। (BhG.2.50)Endowed with [this] attitude, one sheds in this world both karmic merit and demerit. Therefore, commit to this योग. Propriety in actions [i.e., acting within धर्म, where the means are as important as the end] is [called] योग.
 
९. पार्थ, यदा सर्वान्कामान्मनोगतान्प्रजहाति, आत्मन्येवात्मना (=बुद्ध्या) तुष्टः, तदा [सः] स्थितप्रज्ञ उच्यते। (BhG.2.55)O अर्जुन, when one abandons all desires [i.e., notional requirements in order to become happy] as they arise in the mind, and is happy by oneself [i.e., by an informed intellect] in one’s self alone, then that one is called a स्थितप्रज्ञ (one whose wisdom is firm).
 
१०. निराहारस्य देहिनो विषया रसवर्जं विनिवर्तन्ते। परं दृष्ट्वास्य रसोऽपि निवर्तते। (BhG.2.59)For the embodied one who does not feed [i.e., does not indulge the senses], the objects turn back [i.e., are not pursued], [but] the longing remains. Knowing the पर [i.e., ब्रह्मन्/reality], even one’s longing ceases.
 
११. [यतस्तस्मात्] तानि सर्वाणि [इन्द्रियाणि] संयम्य युक्तो मत्पर आसीत। यस्य ह्यिन्द्रियाणि [संस्कृतबुद्धेः] वशे, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.61)
 
१२. ओं तत्सत्। इति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे साङ्ख्ययोगो नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः। (BhG.2.End)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 4.17–22:

Vocab Excer

The following are the compound pronouns in chapter 2.

4.17.2: ई-दृश a. n. sg. acc.ईदृशम्(2.32)īdṛś-amsuch
 
4.18: ता-वत् a. m. sg. nom.तावान्(2.46)tā-vānas much
या-वत् a. m. sg. nom.यावान्(2.46)yā-vānas
 
4.20: क-चिद् m. sg. nom.कश्चिद्(2.29)kaś-cidsomeone
कदा-चन in.कदाचन्(2.47)kadācanaever
कदा-चिद् in.कदाचिद्(2.20)kadācidever

Vocabulary 31

मधु-सूदनः तम् [अर्जुनं] तथा कृपया आविष्टम् अश्रु-पूर्ण-आकुल-ईक्षणं विषीदन्तम् [च] इदं वाक्यम् उवाच। (BhG.2.1)
कृष्ण spoke these words to him [अर्जुन] who in that way was overwhelmed by pity, with eyes stressed and full of tears, and was sad.
1. मधु-सूदनः
(कृष्ण) the destroyer of the demon मधु
fr. मधु-सूदन m. sg. nom.
4. तम् [अर्जुनं]
to him [अर्जुन] [who]
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. acc.
5. तथा
in that way
fr. तथा in.
7. कृपया
by pity
fr. कृपा f. sg. inst.
6. आविष्टम्
was overwhelmed
fr. आविष्ट pp. of आ + √विश् a. m. sg. acc. (SG.2.85:)
9. अश्रु-पूर्ण-
and full of tears
8. -आकुल-ईक्षणं
with eyes stressed
fr. अश्रु-पूर्ण-आकुल-ईक्षण a. m. sg. acc. (SG.2.7: & SG.2.7-8:)
10. विषीदन्तम् [च]
[and] was sad
fr. विषीदत् pr. pt. of वि + √सद् a. m. sg. acc. (SG.5.15.3: & SG.2.101:)
3. इदं वाक्यम्
this statement [these words]
fr. इदम् prn. n. sg. acc.; वाच्य n. sg. acc.
2. उवाच
spoke
fr. √वच् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.10.3:)

हृषीक-ईशम् एवम् उक्त्वा, परन्-तपः गुडाका-ईशः गो-विन्दं ‘न योत्स्ये’ इति उक्त्वा, तूष्णीं बभूव ह। (BhG.2.9)
Having thus spoken to कृष्ण, the vexer of foes अर्जुन told कृष्ण—“I will not fight,” and became silent.
2. हृषीक-ईशम्
(कृष्ण) the Lord of the senses
fr. हृषीक-ईश m. sg. acc. (SG.2.8: & SG.2.3:)
1. एवम् उक्त्वा
having spoken thus [to]
fr. एवम् in.; उक्त्वा in. pt. of √वच् (SG.6.9: & SG.2.80:)
4. परन्-तपः
(अर्जुन) the one who vexes foes
fr. पर-म्-तप m. sg. nom. (SG.2.55:)
or 4. परन्-तप
(धृतराष्ट्र) O Vexer of Foes
fr. पर-म्-तप m. sg. voc. [an alternate reading]
3. गुडाका-ईशः
(अर्जुन) the master over lethargy
fr. गुडाका-ईश m. sg. nom. (SG.2.8: & SG.2.3:)
6. गो-विन्दं
(कृष्ण) the one understood through scripture
fr. गो-विन्द m. sg. acc.
7. न योत्स्ये इति
“I will not fight”
fr. न in.; √युध् Ā. fut. 1st sg. (SG.2.76:); इति in.
5. उक्त्वा
told
fr. उक्त्वा in. pt. of √वच् (SG.6.9: & SG.2.80:)
8. तूष्णीं बभूव ह
[and] became silent
fr. तूष्णीम् in.; √भू P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.28: irreg.); ह pcl.

पार्थ, यः एनम् [देहिनम्/सत्] अ-विनाशिनं नित्यम् अ-जम् अ-व्ययं [च] वेद, कथं सः पुरुषः कं हन्ति। (BhG.2.21)
O अर्जुन, [when] one who knows this [देहिन् – oneself, the embodied one, the real] to be indestructible, timeless, unborn, and unchanging, [then] how does that person kill whom?
1. पार्थ
(अर्जुन) O Son of पृथा
fr. पार्थ m. sg. voc.
2. यः
[when] the one who
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. nom.
4. एनम् [देहिनम्/सत्]
this [embodied one, the real] [to be]
fr. एनद् prn. m. sg. acc.
5. अ-विनाशिनं
indestructible
fr. अविनाशिन् a. m. sg. acc.
6. नित्यम्
timeless
fr. नित्य a. m. sg. acc.
7. अ-जम्
unborn
fr. अज a. m. sg. acc. (SG.6.24.3:)
8. अ-व्ययं [च]
[and] unchanging
fr. अव्यय a. m. sg. acc.
3. वेद
knows
fr. √विद् P. perf. 3rd sg. (SG.5.28:)
9. कथं
[then] how? [does]
fr. कथम् in. (SG.6.19:)
10. सः पुरुषः
that person
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. nom.; पुरुष m. sg. nom.
12. कं
kill whom
fr. किम् prn. m. sg. acc.
11. हन्ति
killm
fr. √हन् 2.P. pr. 3rd sg.

सुख-दुःखे लाभ-अ-लाभौ जय-अ-जयौ [च] समे कृत्वा, ततः युद्धाय युज्यस्व। (BhG.2.38)
Being the same in pleasure/pain, gain/loss, or victory/defeat, thus prepare for battle [i.e., for स्व-धर्म – your duty – whatever it is, as it presents itself throughout life’s changes].
3. सुख-दुःखे
[towards/in] pleasure and pain
fr. सुख-दुःख n. du. acc. (SG.6.24.1:)
4. लाभ-अ-लाभौ
gain and loss
fr. लाभ-अलाभ m. du. acc. (SG.2.7:)
5. जय-अ-जयौ [च]
[or] victory and defeat
fr. जय-अजय m. du. acc. (SG.2.7:)
2. समे
the same
fr. सम a. n. du. acc. (SG.7.5.2.a:)
1. कृत्वा
acting [i.e., being]
fr. कृत्वा in. pt. of √कृ
6. ततः
thus
fr. ततस् in. (SG.6.19:)
8. युद्धाय
for battle
fr. युद्ध pp. of √युध् n. sg. dat. (SG.2.76: & SG.2.78:)
7. युज्यस्व
be prepared, prepare
fr. √युज् ps. impv. 2nd sg.

एवं पापं न अवाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.38)
In this way you will incur no पाप (karmic demerit).
1. एवं
in this way
fr. एवम् in.
3. पापं
पाप (karmic demerit)
fr. पाप n. sg. acc.
2. न अवाप्स्यसि
you will incur no
fr. न in.; अव + √आप् P. fut. 2nd sg.

अ-शान्तस्य कुतः सुखम्। (BhG.2.66)
For the nonclear, how can there be [the appreciation of the] सुख (fulfillment that is the nature of the limitless self, known as I)?
1. अ-शान्तस्य
for the non-clear
fr. अशान्त pp. of √शम् a. m. sg. gen. (SG.6.6: irreg. & SG.2.55:)
2. कुतः
how [can there be]?
fr. कुतस् in. (SG.6.19:)
3. सुखम्
[the appreciation of the] fulfillment
fr. सुख n. sg. nom.

Exercise 31

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. श्रीभगवानुवाच। देहिनः, यथास्मिन्देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा [च], तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिः। तत्र धीरो न मुह्यति। (BhG.2.13)
 
२. श्रीभगवानुवाच। कौन्तेय, मात्रास्पर्शास्तु शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदा आगमापायिनोऽनित्याः। तांस्तितिक्षस्व, भारत। (BhG.2.14)
 
३. येन त्विदं सर्वं ततं, तद् [सत्] अविनाशि विद्धि। न कश्चिदस्याव्ययस्य विनाशं कर्तुमर्हति। (BhG.2.17)
 
४. अयं न कदाचिज्जायते, म्रियते वा। न [अस्ति] – भूत्वा भूयोऽभविता, न वा [–अभूत्वा भूयर्भविता इत्यर्थः]। अयमजो नित्यः शाश्वतः पुराणः शरीरे हन्यमाने न हन्यते। (BhG.2.20)This [the embodied one, the real] is never born, nor dies. It is not that coming to be, it again comes not to be, nor the opposite [becoming nonexistent, it again comes to be]. This, which is unborn, timeless, ever the same, and always there is not destroyed [i.e., not changed] when the body is being destroyed [i.e., changed].
 
५. [भूमिमयानि] शस्त्राण्येनं न छिन्दन्ति, पावक एनं न दहति, आप एनं न क्लेदयन्ति, मारुतो न च शोषयति। (BhG.2.23)
 
६. कश्चिदेनम् [देहिनम्/सत्] आश्चर्यवत्पश्यति। तथैव चान्य आश्चर्यवद्वदति, अन्यश्चैनमाश्चर्यवच्छृणोति। कश्चिच्च श्रुत्वाप्येनं नैव वेद। (BhG.2.29)As a wonder, someone sees [i.e., knows] this [timeless, locationless, embodied one – the real]! Similarly, as a wonder, another [i.e., the teacher] speaks [of this] and, as a wonder, another listens about this! Even after listening, another still does not know this [which is oneself]!
 
७. यदृच्छया चापावृतं स्वर्गद्वारमुपपन्नम्। पार्थ, सुखिनः क्षत्रिया ईदृशं युद्धं लभन्ते। (BhG.2.32)
 
८. इह [कर्मयोगे श्रेयोमार्गे] अभिक्रमनाशो नास्ति, प्रत्यवावोः न विद्यते। अस्य [कर्मयोगस्य] धर्मस्य स्वल्पमपि महतो भयात्त्रायते। (BhG.2.40)In this [the means for श्रेयस्, complete freedom] there is no loss of progress, nor adverse result. Even a little of this [योग, means], which is [also] धर्म (one’s nature and duty, which will support one through the maturation process), protects from great fear.
 
९. यावान्सर्वतः सम्प्लुतोदके उदपानेऽर्थः (=प्रयोजनं), तावान् [सद्वस्तु] विजानतो ब्राह्मणस्य सर्वेषु वेदेषु [अर्थः]। (BhG.2.46)
 
१०. कर्मण्येव ते (=तव) अधिकारः (=प्रभुत्वं), फलेषु मा कदाचन। कर्मफलहेतुर्मा भूः [मा मन्यस्व इत्यर्थः]। अकर्मणि ते (=तव) सङ्गो मास्तु। (BhG.2.47)
 
११. प्रसादे [सति] अस्य सर्वदुःखानां हानिरुपजायते। प्रसन्नचेतसो हि (=यस्मात्) बुद्धिराशु पर्यवतिष्ठते। (BhG.2.65)When there is clarity, there comes the destruction of all one’s sorrows [in the form of guilt and hurt] because, for the one whose mind is clear, the [self-]knowledge [which destroys the sorrow] quickly becomes firm.
 
१२. सर्वान्कामान्विहाय, यः पुमान्निःस्पृहो निर्ममो निरहङ्कारश्चरति, स शान्तिमधिगच्छति। (BhG.2.71)Giving up all [binding] desires [i.e., requirements/anticipations], the person who moves about free from longing, free from [the judgment] ‘this is mine’ and free from [the judgment] ‘I [am only this much]’ – that [person] attains peace.

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 4.23–25:

Vocab Excer

The cardinals (एक, द्वि, etc., “one, two…”) do not occur often in ordinary literature, but their numerical signs (१, २, etc.) are in plentiful use. Much of संस्कृत literature is in verse, and you will almost always find the verses numbered. To assist with learning these numerical signs I have used them to number the exercise sentences.

The cardinal एक declines as a pronominal adjective (4.16.2:) and has the same range of meanings and applications as the word “one” in English, which can be used as a cardinal (“the lowest whole number”), an adjective (“a single”), a substantive (“a single person or thing,” or “a unit”), and as a pronoun (“someone” or “anyone”).

Vocabulary 32

विषमे इदम् अन्-आर्य-जुष्टम् अ-स्वर्ग्यम् अ-कीर्ति-करं [च] कश्मलं कुतः त्वा समुपस्थितम्, अर्जुन। (BhG.2.2)
In [such] a crisis [i.e., at the outset of this war], from where came to you this despair, unacceptable for a person of the Vedic culture, not leading to heaven, and engendering dishonor, O अर्जुन?
1. विषमे
in [such] a crisis
fr. विषम m. sg. loc.
5. इदम्
this
fr. इदम् prn. n. sg. nom.
7. अन्-आर्य-
not [for] a person of the Vedic culture
8. -जुष्टम्
acceptable
fr. अनार्य-जुष्ट a. n. sg. nom.
9. अ-स्वर्ग्यम्
not leading to heaven
fr. अ-स्वर्ग्य a. n. sg. nom.
11. अ-कीर्ति-
dishonor
10. -करं [च]
[and] engendering
fr. अकीर्ति-कर a. n. sg. nom.
6. कश्मलं
despair
fr. कश्मल n. sg. nom.
2. कुतः
from where
fr. कुतस् in. (SG.6.19:)
4. त्वा
to you
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. acc.
3. समुपस्थितम्
came
fr. समुपस्थित pp. of सम् + उप + √स्था pt. n. sg. nom. (SG.6.6:)
12. अर्जुन
O अर्जुन
fr. अर्जुन m. sg. voc.

अयम् अ-व्यक्तः, अयम् अ-चिन्त्यः (=मनो-विषयत्वम् अ-योग्यः), अयम् अ-विकार्यः उच्यते। (BhG.2.25)
This is said to be not manifest [to the senses], not an object of thought [since it is the conscious being that is aware of all thoughts], and not subject to change.
1. अयम्
this
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:)
3. अ-व्यक्तः
not manifest [to the senses]
fr. अव्यक्त pp. of वि + √अञ्ज् a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.6: & SG.2.81:)
4. अयम्
this [is]
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:)
5. अ-चिन्त्यः
not an object of thought
fr. अचिन्त्य pot. ps. pt. of √चिन्त् a. m. sg. nom.
6. अयम्
this [is]
fr. इदम् prn. m. sg. nom. (SG.4.8:)
7. अ-विकार्यः
[and] not subject to change
fr. अविकार्य pot. ps. pt. of वि + √कृ a. m. sg. nom. (SG.6.8:)
2. उच्यते
is said [to be]
fr. √वच् ps. pr. 3rd sg. (SG.5.37.6: & SG.2.3.a:)

[तेषां] वेदाः त्रै-गुण्य-विषयाः [एव]। (BhG.2.45)
[For them] The वेद-s [generally] deal [only] with त्रैगुण्य (the three-fold universe).
1. [तेषां] वेदाः
[for them,] the वेद-s (scriptures)
fr. वेद m. pl. nom.
3. त्रै-गुण्य-
त्रैगुण्य (the three-fold universe)
2. -विषयाः [एव]
[only] about, deal [only] with
fr. त्रै-गुण्य-विषय a. m. pl. nom.

अर्जुन, निस्-त्रै-गुण्यः [तु] निर्-द्वन्-द्वः नित्य-सत्त्व-स्थः निर्-योग-क्षेमः आत्मवान् भव। (BhG.2.45)
O अर्जुन, be free from त्रैगुण्य, free from the pairs of opposites, ever established in सत्त्व (contemplative disposition), free from acquiring and protecting, and [be] attentive.
1. अर्जुन
O अर्जुन
fr. अर्जुन m. sg. voc.
3. निस्-त्रै-गुण्यः
free from त्रैगुण्य
fr. निस्-त्रैगुण्य a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.24: & SG.2.27:)
4. निर्-द्वन्-द्वः
free from the pairs of opposites
fr. निर्-द्वन्द्व a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.24: & SG.2.29:)
5. नित्य-
ever
6. -सत्त्व-स्थः
established in सत्त्व (contemplative disposition)
fr. नित्य-सत्त्वस्थ a. m. sg. nom.
7. निर्-योग-क्षेमः
free from acquiring and protecting
fr. निर्-योग-क्षेम a. m. sg. nom. (SG.2.24: & SG.2.29:)
8. आत्मवान्
[and] attentive
fr. आत्मवत् a. m. sg. nom.
2. भव
(you) be
fr. √भू 1.P. impv. 2nd sg.

यदा ते बुद्धिः मोह-कलिलं व्यतितरिष्यति, तदा श्रुतस्य श्रोतव्यस्य च निस्-वेदं गन्तासि। (BhG.2.52)
When your intellect crosses over the confusion that is delusion, then you will gain a dispassion for what has been heard and is yet to be heard [from the secular and spiritual marketeers].
1. यदा
when
fr. यदा in.
2. ते
your
fr. त्वम् prn. sg. gen.
3. बुद्धिः
intellect
fr. बुद्धि f. sg. nom.
6. मोह-
that is delusion
5. -कलिलं
the confusion
fr. मोह-कलिलं m. sg. acc.
4. व्यतितरिष्यति
crosses over
fr. वि + अति + √तॄ P. fut. 3rd sg. (SG.7.23.2:)
7. तदा
then
fr. तदा in.
10. श्रुतस्य
for what has been heard
fr. श्रुत pp. of √श्रु a. n. sg. gen.
11. श्रोतव्यस्य च
and for what is yet to be heard
fr. श्रोतव्य pot. ps. pt. of √श्रु a. m. sg. gen. (SG.6.8:); च in.
9. निस्-वेदं
a dispassion
fr. निर्वेद m. sg. acc. (fr. निस् + √विद् लाभे SG.2.24: & SG.2.29:)
8. गन्तासि
(you) will gain
fr. √गम् peri. fut. 2nd sg.

महा-बाहो, तस्मात् यस्य इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रिय-अर्थेभ्यः सर्वशः निगृहीतानि [निगृहीतुम् अर्ह्यन्ते इत्यर्थः], तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.68)
Therefore, O अर्जुन, the one whose senses [under authority of the intellect] are [or rather, are capable of being] completely withdrawn from the sense pursuits – that one has wisdom that is firm.
2. महा-बाहो
(अर्जुन) O Mighty Armed One
fr. महा-बाहु m. sg. voc.
1. तस्मात्
therefore
fr. तस्मात् in.
3. यस्य
the one whose
fr. यद् prn. m. sg. gen.
4. इन्द्रियाणि
senses [are]
fr. इन्द्रिय n. pl. nom.
7. इन्द्रिय-अर्थेभ्यः
from the sense pursuits
fr. इन्द्रिय-अर्थ m. pl. abl. (SG.2.7:)
5. सर्वशः
completely
fr. सर्वशस् in.
6. निगृहीतानि [निगृहीतुम् अर्ह्यन्ते इत्यर्थः]
withdrawn [i.e., are able to be withdrawn]
fr. निगृहीता pp. of नि + √ग्रह् a. n. pl. nom. (SG.6.6:)
8. तस्य
that one has
fr. तद् prn. m. sg. gen.
9. प्रज्ञा
wisdom
fr. प्रज्ञा f. sg. nom.
10. प्रतिष्ठिता
[that] is firm
fr. प्रतिष्ठिता pp. of प्रति + √स्था a. f. sg. nom. (SG.6.6: & SG.2.101:)

Exercise 32

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. सञ्जय उवाच। मधुसूदनस्तम् [अर्जुनं] तथा कृपयाविष्टमश्रुपूर्णाकुलेक्षणं विषीदन्तम् [च] इदं वाक्यमुवाच। (BhG.2.1)सञ्जय said: कृष्ण spoke these words to him [अर्जुन] who in that way was overwhelmed by pity, with eyes stressed and full of tears, and was sad.
 
२. अर्जुन उवाच। महानुभावान्गुरूनहत्वा हीह लोके भैक्ष्यमपि भोक्तुं श्रेयः [स्यात्], अर्थकामांस्तु गुरून्हत्वेहैव रुधिरप्रदिग्धान्भोगान्भुञ्जीय। (BhG.2.5)अर्जुन said: [It would be] better I not kill these highly honored गुरु-s and even beg alms here in the world [i.e., become a renunciate] than kill [these] गुरु-s seeking [their own] ends and [then] indulge here in pleasures, drenched with [their] blood.
 
३. सञ्जय उवाच। हृषीकेशमेवमुक्त्वा, परन्तपो गुडाकेशो गोविन्दं ‘न योत्स्ये’ इत्युक्त्वा, तूष्णीं बभूव ह। (BhG.2.9)सञ्जय said: Having thus spoken to कृष्ण, the vexer of foes अर्जुन told कृष्ण – ”I will not fight,” and became silent.
 
४. श्रीभगवानुवाच। पार्थ, य एनं [देहिनम्/सत्] अविनाशिनं नित्यमजमव्ययं [च] वेद, कथं स पुरुषः कं घातयति, कं [च] हन्ति। (BhG.2.21)Lord कृष्ण said: O अर्जुन, [when] one knows this [the देहिन् – oneself, the embodied one, the real] to be indestructible, timeless, unborn, and unchanging, [then] how does that person cause the death of whom, or kill whom?
 
५. महाबाहो, अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं मृतं वा मन्यसे, तथाप्येवं त्वं शोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.26)O अर्जुन, now if you consider this [the self, as the body or as an individual soul,] to continually be born and die – even in that way, you should not grieve.
 
६. स्वधर्ममपि चावेक्ष्य विकम्पितुं नार्हसि, क्षत्रियस्य हि (=यस्मात्) धर्म्याद्युद्धादन्यच्छ्रेयो न विद्यते। (BhG.2.31)Even in regard to your own धर्म (nature and duty), you should not waver. Because, for a warrior [such as you – by nature and duty], there is no greater good than a battle on the side of धर्म [i.e., a battle for the protection of what supports people through their maturation to wisdom].
 
७. सुखदुःखे लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ [च] समे कृत्वा, ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व। एवं पापं नावाप्स्यसि। (BhG.2.38)Being the same in pleasure/pain, gain/loss, or victory/defeat, thus prepare for battle [i.e., for स्व-धर्म – your duty – whatever it is, as it presents itself throughout life’s changes]. In this way you will incur no पाप (karmic demerit).
 
८. यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तच्छुभाशुभं प्राप्य नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि, तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.57)The one who is unattached in all situations, who neither rejoices on getting anything pleasant, nor hates getting anything unpleasant – that one’s wisdom is firm.
 
९. यदा चायं, कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव, इन्द्रियार्थेभ्य इन्द्रियाणि सर्वशः संहरते [संहर्तुमर्हति इत्यर्थः], तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.58)When, like a turtle its limbs, one is [at will able] to completely withdraw the senses from their sense pursuits [and again extend them out at will], that one’s wisdom is firm.
 
१०. निराहारस्य देहिनो विषया रसवर्जं विनिवर्तन्ते। परं दृष्ट्वास्य रसोऽपि निवर्तते। (BhG.2.59)
 
११. प्रसादे [सति] अस्य सर्वदुःखानां हानिरुपजायते। प्रसन्नचेतसो हि (=यस्मात्) बुद्धिराशु पर्यवतिष्ठते। (BhG.2.65)
 
१२. सर्वान्कामान्विहाय, यः पुमान्निःस्पृहो निर्ममो निरहङ्कारश्चरति, स शान्तिमधिगच्छति। (BhG.2.71)

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Reading Assignment: Bhagavad Gita per Exercise 2;
Sanskrit Grammar 4.26–30:

Excer

We have completed the vocabulary for the second chapter of the Bhagavad Gita. But there is much that you still do not know about this vocabulary. The following exercises in Aruna Coursebook will request you to review the preceding vocabularies for their grammatical content to which you have been exposed.

The only ordinal in chapter 2 is द्वितीय (“2nd”) found in the colophon at the end of the chapter.

Exercise 33

Translate and learn the following phrases with सन्धि-s applied.

१. श्रीभगवानुवाच।
विषम इदमनार्यजुष्टमस्वर्ग्यमकीर्तिकरं [च] कश्मलं कुतस्त्वा समुपस्थितम्, अर्जुन। । (BhG.2.2)
The Lord said:
In [such] a crisis [i.e., at the outset of this war], from where came to you this despair, unacceptable for a person of the Vedic culture, not leading to heaven, and engendering dishonor, O आर्जुन?
 
२. त्वमशोच्यानन्वशोचः, प्रज्ञावादांश्च भाषसे। पण्डिता गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति। (BhG.2.11)You have grieved for those not to be grieved, yet proclaim words of wisdom. The wise do not grieve for those whose life’s breath is gone or not [yet] gone.
 
३. नित्यस्य (=अकालस्य) अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य (=मनोविषयत्वमयोग्यस्य) शरीरिण इमे देहा अन्तवन्त उक्ताः। तस्माद्युध्यस्व, भारत। (BhG.2.18)These bodies of the timeless, indestructible, non-objectifiable [as the self-evident subject] embodied one [who obtains as the being/reality of these body-mind complexes] are said to be subject to [unavoidable] death. Therefore fight, O अर्जुन.
 
४. अयमव्यक्तः, अयमचिन्त्यः (=मनोविषयत्वमयोग्यः), अयममविकार्य उच्यते। तस्मादेवमेनं विदित्वानुशोचितुं नार्हसि। (BhG.2.25)This is said to be not manifest [to the senses], not an object of thought [since it is the conscious being that is aware of all thoughts], and not subject to change. Therefore [since there is no basis for grief regarding the self], knowing this as such, you cannot grieve.
 
५. वेदास्त्रैगुण्यविषयाः। अर्जुन, निस्त्रैगुण्यो निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान्भव। (BhG.2.45)The वेद-s [generally] deal with त्रैगुण्य (the three-fold universe). O अर्जुन, be free from त्रैगुण्य, free from the pairs of opposites, ever established in सत्त्व (contemplative disposition), free from acquiring and protecting, and [be] attentive.
 
६. यदा ते बुद्धिर्मोहकलिलं व्यतितरिष्यति, तदा श्रुतस्य श्रोतव्यस्य च निर्वेदं गन्तासि। (BhG.2.52)When your intellect crosses over the confusion that is delusion, then you will gain a dispassion for what has been heard and is yet to be heard [from the secular and spiritual marketeers].
 
७. पार्थ, यदा सर्वान्कामान्मनोगतान्प्रजहाति, आत्मन्येवात्मना (=बुद्ध्या) तुष्टः, तदा [सः] स्थितप्रज्ञ उच्यते। (BhG.2.55)O अर्जुन, when one abandons all desires [i.e., notional requirements in order to become happy] as they arise in the mind, and is happy by oneself [i.e., by an informed intellect] in one’s self alone, then that one is called a स्थितप्रज्ञ (one whose wisdom is firm).
 
८. विषयान्ध्यायतः पुंसस्तेषु सङ्ग उपजायते, सङ्गात्कामः सञ्जायते, कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते, क्रोधात्सम्मोहो भवति, सम्मोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः [भवति], स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशः [भवति], बुद्धिनाशात् [पुमान्] प्रणश्यति। (BhG.2.62–63)For a person who mentally dwells on objects, attachment to them arises; from attachment [allowed to flame up by one’s value structure] arises [binding] desire [i.e., requirements (in order to be happy) and anticipations (of their fruition)]; from [thwarted] anticipations arises anger; from anger is delusion [i.e., error in judgment]; from delusion is lapse of memory [i.e., what has been taught]; from lapse of memory is lapse of intellect [i.e., wisdom]; from lapse of intellect.
 
९. अयुक्तस्य बुद्धिर्नास्ति, न चायुक्तस्य भावना (=धारणम्)। न चाभावयतः शान्तिः। अशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम्। (BhG.2.66)For the one who is not disciplined, knowledge is not there, nor contemplation. For the noncontemplative, there is no clarity. For the nonclear, how can there be [the appreciation of the] सुख (fulfillment that is the nature of the limitless self, known as I)?
 
१०. महाबाहो, तस्माद्यस्येन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यः सर्वशो निगृहीतानि [निगृहीतुमर्ह्यन्ते इत्यर्थः], तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता। (BhG.2.68)Therefore, O अर्जुन, the one whose senses [under authority of the intellect] are [or rather, are capable of being] completely withdrawn from the sense pursuits – that one has wisdom that is firm.
 
११. यद्वदाप आपूर्यमाणं [स्वरूपतः] अचलप्रतिष्ठं समुद्रं प्रविशन्ति, तद्वत्सर्वे कामा यं प्रविशन्ति – स शान्तिमाप्नोति, न कामकामी। (BhG.2.70)Like the full and unmoved ocean into which the waters [their source being the ocean] enter [yet whose nature is unaffected by their variations], similarly the one whom all objects of desire enter [yet remains the same in nature] – that one gains peace. Not [so] the one who requires/anticipates these objects [like a small pond requires its streams].
 
१२. ओं तत्सत्। इति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे साङ्ख्ययोगो नाम द्वितीयोऽध्यायः। (BhG.2.End)

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2.1  L4, V31.
E6, E12, E32, Ex
    2.2  V23, V32.
E24, E25, E26, E33, Ex
2.3  V24.
E25, E26, E27, Ex
    2.4  V21.
E26, E30, Ex
2.5  V9, V10, V29.
E9, E11, E12, E15, E32, Ex
    2.6  V24.
E25, E26, Ex
2.7  V10, V24.
E11, E12, E14, E25, E26, E27, Ex
    2.8  V5, V24.
E6, E7, E25, E26, Ex
2.9  V5, V31.
E6, E7, E32, Ex
    2.10  V10.
E10, E11, E12, E14, E28, E30, Ex
2.11  V4, V9, V15, V27.
E6, E8, E9, E11, E16, E33, Ex
    2.12  V4, V5.
E6, E7, E10, E18, E26, E28, E30, Ex
2.13  V15, V27.
E17, E18, E28, E31, Ex
    2.14  V6, V25.
E7, E8, E10, E27, E31, Ex
2.15  V25.
E27, Ex
    2.16  V7, V10.
E8, E10, E11, E12, E28, Ex
2.17  V16, V27.
E18, E29, E31, Ex
    2.18  V14, V27.
E15, E16, E17, E33, Ex
2.19  V8, V25.
E8, E10, E25, E27, E28, Ex
    2.20  V23, V30.
E24, E25, E31, Ex
2.21  V8, V31.
E8, E10, E17, E26, E32, Ex
    2.22  V11.
E12, E14, E30, Ex
2.23  V11, V27.
E12, E15, E18, E28, E31, Ex
    2.24  V23.
E23, E24, E25, Ex
2.25  V27, V32.
E33, Ex
    2.26  V21, V29.
E32, Ex
2.27  V5, V17.
E6, E9, E11, E19, E26, Ex
    2.28  V20, V21.
E21, Ex
2.29  V26.
E31, Ex
    2.30  V16, V29.
E17, E28, E30, Ex
2.31  V29.
E32, Ex
    2.32  V16, V19.
E17, E20, E21, E31, Ex
2.33  V10, V26.
E11, E12, E15, E28, Ex
    2.34  V6, V19.
E7, E8, E9, E10, E11, E20, E21, E26, Ex
2.35  V9, V26.
E9, E15, E26, E30, Ex
    2.36  V13, V26.
E15, E27, Ex
2.37  V22, V23.
E24, E25, Ex
    2.38  V31.
E32, Ex
2.39  V20, V21.
E21, E25, E26, E28, Ex
    2.40  V13, V30.
E16, E31, Ex
2.41  V7, V19.
E8, E10, E17, E20, E21, Ex
    2.42  V5, V11, V19.
E6, E7, E9, E11, E13, E17, E20, E21, E28, Ex
2.43  V11, V19.
E11, E13, E17, E20, E21, E28
    2.44  V5, V8.
E6, E7, E8, E10, E14, E27, Ex
2.45  V13, V32.
E15, E33, Ex
    2.46  V13.
E16, E31, Ex
2.47  V17.
E18, E19, E31, Ex
    2.48  V9, V22.
E9, E15, E24, Ex
2.49  V22.
E22, E23, E25, E30, Ex
    2.50  V16, V26.
E19, E30, Ex
2.51  V16.
E17, E18, Ex
    2.52  V32.
E33, Ex
2.53  V18.
E19, E20, Ex
    2.54  V20, V22.
E21, E24, Ex
2.55  V17, V30.
E19, E20, E30, E33, Ex
    2.56  V12, V23.
E13, E14, E24, E25, Ex
2.57  V20, V28.
E21, E32, Ex
    2.58  V28.
E32, Ex
2.59  V27.
E30, E32, Ex
    2.60  V14, V17.
E16, E17, E18, Ex
2.61  V22, V25.
E24, E27, E30, Ex
    2.62  V14, V28.
E16, E19, E27, E33, Ex
2.63  V28.
E33, Ex
    2.64  V14, V18.
E16, E18, E19, E20, Ex
2.65  V12, V30.
E12, E14, E15, E31, E32, Ex
    2.66  V15, V20, V31.
E16, E21, E33, Ex
2.67  V9, V12.
E9, E13, E14, E28, Ex
    2.68  V32.
E33, Ex
2.69  V15, V21.
E27, Ex
    2.70  V17, V29.
E16, E18, E33, Ex
2.71  V18, V30.
E19, E20, E31, E32, Ex
    2.72  V18, V25.
E19, E24, E27, E28, Ex
End  V12, V19.
E13, E14, E20, E30, E33, Ex

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The definitions of the following phonetic and grammar terms are generally from the prospective of the English language. Hence, expressions like “a following,” etc. refer to English prose order. They define the grammatical terms used by Western grammarians to describe the attributes of language in general, and in particular English, sometimes Latin or Greek. The variation from these attributes as pertaining to the description of the Sanskrit language is to be understood instead from the preceding grammar, as there is often not a perfect fit of these terms to this language.

Ablative – A grammatical case that denotes separation, direction away from, and sometimes manner or agency.

Absolute – Designating a sentence construction that is syntactically independent of the main clause, e.g., all things considered in All things considered, that’s the best idea yet.

Abstract noun – A noun referring to anything which you cannot perceive through your five physical senses. (cf. concrete noun)

Accusative – A grammatical case that denotes the direct or indirect object, the objective complement, or the object of certain prepositions.

Active – Designating a verb form or voice that indicates the subject of the sentence is performing or causing the action of the verb. (cf. passive)

Aorist – A verb tense denoting past action without indicating its completion or continuation. (cf. imperfect, perfect)

Appositive – A construction in which one noun or noun phrase is placed after another to explain it, both having the same syntactical relation to the rest of the sentence. For example in the sentence Sammy, the cat, sat on the mat, here Sammy and the cat are in apposition.

Aspirate – To follow a stop consonant with an audible puff of breath before the next sound begins, e.g., the first p in peep.

Benedictive – Bestowing blessing.

Cardinal number – A number such as 7, used to indicate quantity but not order. (cf. ordinal number)

Case – A syntactical relationship of a noun, pronoun or adjective to the other words in a phrase, clause or sentence, usually indicated in inflected languages by terminations and in noninflected languages by word order or prepositions.

Comparative – Expressing the intermediate degree of comparison. (see comparison)

Comparison – A modification or inflection of an adjective or adverb to denote the positive, comparative or superlative degree, e.g., big, bigger, or biggest.

Complement – The word or words used after a verb to complete a predicate construction, e.g., their president acts as the complement in the sentence They elected him their president.

Concrete noun – A noun referring to anything which you can perceive through your five physical senses, as opposed to a quality or abstract idea. (cf. abstract noun)

Conjugation – The inflection of verbs to express person, number, voice, and tense or mood.

Connective – A word, e.g., a conjunction, that connects words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

Copula – A verb, such as become, seem or any form of be, that identifies the predicate nominative or adjective of a sentence with the subject.

Correlative – A complementary word to another word, e.g., the conjunctions either and or, or the pronouns he and who in the sentence He who laughs, lasts.

Dative – A grammatical case that denotes the indirect object of a verb or the object of certain verbs and prepositions.

Declension – The inflection of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives to express case, number, and gender.

Demonstrative Pronoun – A pronoun, such as this or that, that directly points out a person or thing. (cf. interrogative, relative)

Denominative – A word, especially a verb, that is derived from a noun or adjective.

Derivative – A word derived from another usually by addition of affixes to a root, stem or a word. (cf. primitive)

Desiderative – A verb form expressing a wish to perform the action denoted by the verb.

Diminutive – Designating any of certain affixes that denote youth, smallness, contempt, and familiarity or affection, such as -ish in yellowish.

Diphthong – A speech sound beginning with one vowel sound and moving smoothly to a different vowel or semivowel sound within the same syllable, e.g., oi in the word coin.

Direct object – The word or words denoting the person or thing directly affected by the action of a transitive verb and required to complete its syntactic function. (cf. indirect object)

Distributive – Referring to each member of a set or group individually and separately rather than collectively, e.g., every in the sentence Every good boy deserves a favor.

Enclitic – Designating a word losing its independent accent in a sentence due to joining with an accented word preceding it. From the Greek enklitikos, “leaning (on the preceding word for accent).”

Final clause – An adverbial clause indicating the purpose, answering the question what for or why.

Finite – Designating a verb limited by person, number, and tense or mood.

Frequentive – Expressing repeated action.

Genitive – A grammatical case that denotes possession, partitive or source, usually expressed in English by a prepositional phrase with of.

Gerund – In English, a noun formed from a verb by affixing -ing, e.g., creating in the sentence In creating, the only hard thing is to begin.

Hiatus – The use of two consecutive vowels belonging to adjacent syllables.

Historical present – The present tense used in the narration of events in the past.

Imperfect – The verb tense that shows, usually in the past, an action or condition as on-going. (cf. perfect, aorist)

Impersonal – Designating a verb or construction used in the third person singular with an indeterminate subject, commonly, in English, with the impersonal pronoun it (as rained in It rained).

Indicative – A verb mood used to indicate that the denoted act or state is an objective fact. (cf. subjunctive)

Indirect object – A grammatical object designating the recipient or beneficiary of the action of the verb, e.g., me in Give me an answer. (cf. direct object)

Infinitive – A verb form that is not limited (hence “infinite”) by person, number, tense or mood, usually expressed in English with a preceeding to, e.g., to go in the sentence He needs to go.

Inflection – The change in the form of a word, usually by affixes, to indicate a change in grammatical or syntactical relation, such as the declension of nouns or the conjugation of verbs.

Instrumental – A grammatical case in certain languages used to express means, agency or accompaniment.

Interjection – A word, phrase or other sound that expresses an emotion, e.g., Ouch!

Interrogative – Designating a word or construction used in asking a question.

Intransitive – Designating a verb or verb construction that does not require a direct object to complete its meaning. (cf. transitive)

Locative – A grammatical case or construction in certain languages that denotes the place or time of the action or state denoted by the verb.

Main clause – A clause, also called an independent clause, in a complex sentence that syntactically can stand alone as a compete sentence. (cf. subordinate clause)

Mute – A stop in phonetics. (see stop)

Nominal – Of or relating to a noun or to word group that functions as a noun.

Nominative – A grammatical case that denotes the subject of a finite, active verb (as I in I wrote this) and the words identified with the subject, such as glad in I am glad.

Noun – A word used to denote a person, place, thing, idea, quality or act.

Oblique – Any grammatical case except the nominative or vocative.

Onomatopoeia – The formation of a word, such as buzz or thud, that imitates the sound of what it denotes. (Onomatopoeic adj.)

Ordinal number – A number indicating position in a series or order, e.g., first or 1st. (cf. cardinal number)

Participle – A non-finite form of a verb that is used with an auxiliary verb to indicate certain tenses, e.g., baked in The beans were baked, or used independently as an adjective, e.g., baked in baked beans.

Particle – Any of a class of words, such as a preposition or conjunction, that has no inflection.

Partitive – Indicating a part of a whole.

Passive – Designating a verb voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject is the recipient or effect of the action of the verb. (cf. active)

Patronymic – A name derived by suffix or prefix from the first name of one’s father or a paternal ancestor, e.g., Jackson as the descendent of Jack, or Macdonell as the descendent of Donell. Called a metronymic if derived from the name of one’s mother or a female ancestor.

Perfect – A verb tense expressing action completed prior to a fixed point of reference in time (past, present or future). In English there are three perfect tenses: present (or simple) perfect, pluperfect (or past perfect), and future perfect. (cf. imperfect, aorist)

Periphrastic – Constructed with a roundabout expression, called a periphrasis, by using an auxiliary word rather than an inflected form, e.g., it did ring instead of the inflected it rang.

Positive – Expressing the uncompared degree of comparison of adjectives or adverbs. (see comparison)

Predicate – The part of a sentence or clause that expresses something about the subject and usually consists of a verb with or without objects, compliments or adverbial modifiers.

Predicate adjective – An adjective used in the predicate that describes the grammatical subject.

Predicate nominative – A noun or a pronoun used with a copula in a predicate that is inflected in the nominative case and is identified with the grammatical subject.

Preposition – A word in a construction that indicates the relation of its object to some other part of the sentence, e.g., at, by, in, to, from, with, and with regard to or concerning.

Primitive – A root, stem or word from which another word or inflected form is derived. (cf. derivative)

Radical – A word stem or root with no affixes.

Reflexive – (1) Designating a verb, denoting action upon the subject, having an identical subject and direct object, e.g., saw in the sentence He saw himself in the mirror. (2) Designating a personal pronoun compounded with -self that can be used as the direct object of a reflexive verb.

Relative pronoun – A pronoun that introduces a relative clause and agrees in number and gender with its antecedent, a usually preceeding noun or a demonstrative pronoun or clause, while its grammatical case comes from its use in its own clause.

Relative clause – A dependent clause introduced by a relative pronoun, e.g., who laughs in the sentence He who laughs, lasts.

Root – A word stem or base from which other words are formed by prefixes and suffixes.

Sibilant – A consonant characterized by a hissing sound (like s or sh).

Stem – The part of an inflected word to which an affix has been added.

Stop – A consonant produced with a complete obstruction at some point and then sudden release of the passage of breath. In English, these are p, b, t, d, k and g.

Subject – A noun or noun phrase in a sentence that denotes the doer of the action or the receiver of the action in passive constructions, and usually is the topic that is described or identified.

Subjective complement – A noun, noun phrase, or adjective used in the predicate with an intransitive verb that qualifies the subject, e.g., sick in He had fallen sick.

Subjunctive – A verb mood used to express a contingent or possible action or state, as one that is not a fact but is feared, desired or doubted. (cf. indicative)

Subordinate clause – A clause, also called a “dependent clause,” that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence as it depends on the meaning of the main clause and that functions as a noun, adjective or adverb within the complex sentence. (cf. main clause)

Substantive – A word or group of words acting as a noun (used to denote or name a person, place, thing, quality or act).

Superlative – The extreme degree of comparison of adjectives and adverbs. (see comparison)

Transitive – Designating a verb or verb construction that carries the action from the subject to a direct object required to complete its meaning. (cf. intransitive)

Vocative – A grammatical case that denotes the person or thing being addressed.

Voice – The grammatical relation (active or passive) between the subject and the action expressed by the verb.

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Abbreviation Meanings
a. or adj.adjective(s)
abl.ablative
acc.accusative
act.active
adv.adverb
aor.aorist (tense)
॰–as first member
–॰as second member
aspir. or asp.aspiration
आ॰ or Ā.Ātmanaipada
aug.augment
b/4before
bene.benedictive
cereb.cerebral
cf.compare
ch.chapter
changes to
cj.conjunction
cmpd.compound
conj.conjugation
conj. cons.conjunct consonant(s)
cons.consonant(s)
corr.correlative
cpv.comparative
cs.causal
dat.dative
decl.declension(s)
den.denominative(s)
dent.dental
des.desiderative
difference
diph.diphthong
du.dual(s)
encl.enclitic
esp.especially
ex.except
f. or fem.feminine(s)
fin.final (vowel or consonant)
fr.from
fut.future
fut. pt.future participle (active)
gen.genitive
gram.grammar
gutt.guttural(s)
impf.imperfect
impv.imperative
in.indeclinable
in. pt.indeclinable participle
inf.infinitive
init.initial (letter)
inst.instrumental
intens.intensive(s)
interj.interjection(s)
irreg.irregular
labi.labial
loc.locative
m. or masc.masculine(s)
med.medial (vowel)
mid.middle (Ātmanaipada)
n. or neut.neuter(s)
nom.nominative
num.numeral
opt.optional(ly)
orig.originally
palat.palatal
पर॰, Par. or P.Parasmaipada
pt.participle(s)
pcl.particle(s)
ps.passive
past act. pt.past active participle
pp.past participle (passive)
perf.perfect (tense)
peri.periphrastic
pl.plural
poss.possibly
poss. prn.possessive pronoun
pot.potential (mood)
pot. ps. pt.potential passive participle
prep.preposition(s)
pr.present
pr. pt.present participle (active)
pr. mid. pt.present middle participle
pri.primary
prn.pronoun
prn. a.pronominal adjective
redup.reduplicated/reduplication
redup. perf. pt.reduplicated perfect participle (active)
reflex.reflexive
rel.relative
resp.respective(ly)
root
s.strong
s.f.stem final
sec.secondary
semiv.semivowel(s)
sibi.sibilant(s)
sg.singular
spv.superlative
suff.suffix(es)
term.termination(s)
therefore
voc.vocative
vow.vowel(s)
w.weak
w/with
w/wowith or without

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